1.1 Iconography 1.2 Mythology 1.3 Symbolism
2 Buddhism 3 Jainism 4 As a cultural and national symbol
4.1 India 4.2 Cambodia 4.3 Indonesia 4.4 Japan 4.5 Mongolia 4.6 Myanmar 4.7 Nepal 4.8 Suriname 4.9 Thailand
5 Gallery 6 In other media 7 See also 8 Notes 9 External links
Garuda is a divine eagle-like sun bird and the king of birds. A Garutman is mentioned in the Rigveda
Rigveda who is described as celestial deva with wings. The Shatapatha Brahmana
Brahmana embedded inside the Yajurveda
Yajurveda text mentions Garuda
Garuda as the personification of courage. In the Mahabharata, Garutman is stated to be same as Garuda, then described as the one who is fast, who can shapeshift into any form and enter anywhere. He is a powerful creature in the epics, whose wing flapping can stop the spinning of heaven, earth and hell. He is described to be the vehicle mount of the Hindu god Vishnu, and typically they are shown together. According to George Williams, Garuda
Garuda has roots in the verb gri, or speak. He is a metaphor in the Vedic literature for Rik (rhythms), Saman (sounds), Yajna (sacrifices), and the atman (Self, deepest level of consciousness). In the Puranas, states Williams, Garuda
Garuda becomes a literal embodiment of the idea, and the Self who attached to and inseparable from the Supreme Self (Vishnu). Though Garuda
Garuda is an essential part of the Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism mythology, he also features prominently in Shaivism
Shaivism mythology, Shaiva texts such as the Garuda Tantra and Kirana Tantra, and Shiva
Shiva temples as a bird and as a metaphor of atman. Iconography
Relief depicting a portable
Garuda pillar, one of the oldest images of Garuda, Bharhut, 100 BCE.
Hindu texts on Garuda
Garuda iconography vary in their details. If in the bird form, he is eagle-like, typically with the wings slightly open as if ready and willing to fly wherever he needs to. In part human-form, he may have an eagle-like nose, beak or legs, his eyes are open and big, his body is the color of emerald, his wings are golden-yellow. He may be shown with either two or four hands. If he is not carrying Vishnu, he holds a jar of amrita (immortality nectar) in one hand in the rear and an umbrella in the other, while the front pair of hands are in anjali (namaste) posture. If he is carrying Vishnu, the rear hands provide the support for Vishnu's feet. According to the text Silparatna, states Rao, Garuda
Garuda is best depicted with only two hands and with four bands of colors: "golden yellow color from feet to knees, white from knees to navel, scarlet from navel to neck, and black above the neck". His hands, recommends the text, should be in abhaya (nothing to fear) posture. In Sritatvanidhi text, the recommended iconography for Garuda
Garuda is a kneeling figure, who wears one or more serpents, pointed bird-beak like nose, his two hands in namaste posture. This style is commonly found in Hindu temples dedicated to Vishnu. In some iconography, Garuda
Garuda carries Lord Vishnu
Vishnu and his two consorts by his side: Lakshmi(Thirumagal) and Bhūmi (Bhuma-Devi).[better source needed] Garuda
Garuda iconography is found in early temples of India, such as on the underside of the eave at Cave 3 entrance of the Badami cave temples (6th-century). Mythology
Garuda mythology is linked to that of Aruna – the charioteer of Surya
Surya ( Sun
Sun god). However, these Indian mythologies are different, inconsistent across the texts. Both, Aruna and Garuda, developed from egg. According to one version, states George Williams, Kashyapa Prajapati's two wives Vinata and Kadru wanted to have children. Kashyapa granted them a boon. Kadru asked for one thousand Nāga sons, while Vinata wanted two, each equal to Kadru's thousand naga sons. Kashyapa blessed them, and then went away to a forest to meditate. Later, Kadru gave birth to one thousand eggs, while Vinata gave birth to two eggs. These incubated for five hundred years, upon which Kadru's eggs broke open and out came her 1,000 sons. Vinata eager for her sons, impatiently broke one of the eggs from which emerged the partially formed Aruna, who looked radiant and reddish as the morning sun but not as bright as the midday sun. Aruna chided his mother, Vinata for her impatience since he was born without legs and warned her to not break open the second egg but wait. Aruna then left to became the charioteer of Surya, the sun god.
Balinese wooden statue of
Vishnu riding Garuda, Purna Bhakti Pertiwi Museum, Jakarta, Indonesia
Vinata waited, and after many years the second egg hatched, and Garuda
Garuda later went to war with his step brothers, the Nagas. Some myths present Garuda
Garuda as so massive that he can block out the sun. The text Garuda Purana
Garuda Purana is named after him. Garuda
Garuda is presented in the Mahabharata
Mahabharata mythology as one who eats snake meat, such as the story about he planning to kill and eat Sumukha snake, where Indra
Indra attempts to intervene. Garudas are also a race of birds who devour snakes in the epic. Symbolism Garuda's links to Vishnu
Vishnu – the Hindu god who fights injustice and destroys evil in his various avatars to preserve dharma, has made him an iconic symbol of king's duty and power, an insignia of royalty or dharma. His eagle-like form is shown either alone or with Vishnu, signifying divine approval of the power of the state. He is found on the faces of many early Hindu kingdom coins with this symbolism, either as a single headed bird or a three-headed bird that watches all sides. Throughout the Mahabharata, Garuda
Garuda is invoked as a symbol of impetuous violent force, of speed, and of martial prowess. Powerful warriors advancing rapidly on doomed foes are likened to Garuda
Garuda swooping down on a serpent. Defeated warriors are like snakes beaten down by Garuda. The Mahabharata
Mahabharata character Drona
Drona uses a military formation named after Garuda. Krishna
Krishna even carries the image of Garuda
Garuda on his banner. Buddhism
Garuda, also referred to as Garula (Pali), are golden-winged birds in Buddhist texts. Under the Buddhist concept of saṃsāra, they are one of the Aṣṭagatyaḥ, the eight classes of inhuman beings. In Buddhist arts, they are shown as sitting and listening to the sermons of the Buddha. They are enemies of Nagas (snakes) and therefore sometimes depicted with a serpent held between their claws. Like the Hindu arts, both zoomorphic (giant eagle-like bird) and partially anthropomorphic (part bird, part human) iconography has been common in Buddhism.
Garuda in Preah Khan, Angkor, Cambodia.
In Buddhism, the
Garuda (Pāli: garuḷā) are enormous predatory birds with wings span of 330 yojanas. They are described as beings with intelligence and social organization. Another name for the Garuda is suparṇa (Pāli: supaṇṇa), meaning "well-winged, having good wings". Like the Naga, they combine the characteristics of animals and divine beings, and may be considered to be among the lowest devas. The Garudas have kings and cities, and at least some of them have the magical power of changing into human form when they wish to have dealings with people. On some occasions Garuda
Garuda kings have had romances with human women in this form. Their dwellings are in groves of the simbalī, or silk-cotton tree. Jataka stories describe them to be residents of Nagadipa or Seruma. The Garuda
Garuda are enemies to the nāga, a race of intelligent serpent- or dragon-like beings, whom they hunt. The Garudas at one time caught the nāgas by seizing them by their heads; but the nāgas learned that by swallowing large stones, they could make themselves too heavy to be carried by the Garudas, wearing them out and killing them from exhaustion. This secret was divulged to one of the Garudas by the ascetic Karambiya, who taught him how to seize a nāga by the tail and force him to vomit up his stone (Pandara Jātaka, J.518). The Garudas were among the beings appointed by Śakra to guard Mount Sumeru
Sumeru and the Trāyastriṃśa heaven from the attacks of the asuras.
13th century Cham sculpture depicts
Garuda devouring a nāga serpent
In the Maha-samaya Sutta (Digha Nikaya 20), the Buddha is shown making
temporary peace between the Nagas and the Garudas.
Qing Dynasty fiction The Story of Yue Fei
Yue Fei (1684), Garuda
Garuda sits at the head of the Buddha's throne. But when a celestial bat (an embodiment of the Aquarius constellation) flatulates during the Buddha’s expounding of the Lotus Sutra, Garuda
Garuda kills her and is exiled from paradise. He is later reborn as Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty General Yue Fei. The bat is reborn as Lady Wang, wife of the traitor Prime Minister Qin Hui, and is instrumental in formulating the "Eastern Window" plot that leads to Yue's eventual political execution. It is interesting to note The Story of Yue Fei
Yue Fei plays on the legendary animosity between Garuda
Garuda and the Nagas when the celestial bird-born Yue Fei
Yue Fei defeats a magic serpent who transforms into the unearthly spear he uses throughout his military career. Literary critic C. T. Hsia explains the reason why Qian Cai, the book's author, linked Yue with Garuda
Garuda is because of the homology in their Chinese names. Yue Fei's courtesy name is Pengju (鵬舉). A Peng (鵬) is a giant mythological bird likened to the Middle Eastern Roc. Garuda's Chinese name is Great Peng, the Golden-Winged Illumination King (大鵬金翅明王). Jainism
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2018)
The garuda is a yaksha or guardian for
Shantinatha in Jain
Jain iconography and mythology. Jain
Jain iconography shows Garuda
Garuda as a human figure with wings and a strand-circle. As a cultural and national symbol
Garuda according to Ida Made Tlaga, a 19th-century Balinese artist
Indonesia and the rest of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia the eagle symbolism is represented by Garuda, a large bird with eagle-like features that appears in both Hindu and Buddhist epic as the vahana (vehicle) of the god Vishnu. Garuda
Garuda became the national emblem of Thailand
Thailand and Indonesia; Thailand's Garuda
Garuda is rendered in a more traditional anthropomorphic style, while that of Indonesia
Indonesia is rendered in heraldic style with traits similar to the real Javan hawk-eagle. India India
India primarily uses Garuda
Garuda as a martial motif:
Garud Commando Force
Garud Commando Force is a Special Forces
Special Forces unit of the Indian Air Force, specializing in operations deep behind enemy lines. Brigade of the Guards
Brigade of the Guards of the Indian Army
Indian Army uses Garuda
Garuda as their symbol Elite bodyguards of the medieval Hoysala
Hoysala kings were called Garudas Kerala
Kerala and Andhra pradesh
Andhra pradesh state road transport corporations use Garuda as the name for a/c moffusil buses Garuda
Garuda rock, a rocky cliff in Tirumala
Tirumala in Andhra pradesh The insignia of the 13th century Aragalur
Aragalur chief, Magadesan, included Rishabha the sacred bull and the Garuda
Garuda (Khmer: គ្រុឌ - " Krud ") is literally derived from Sanskrit.
In Cambodia, Khmer architects have used the
Garuda sculptures as the exquisite ornate to equip on temples, viharas of wat and many elite houses since ancient time, especially from Khmer empire
Khmer empire era until nowadays. Garuda
Garuda is also mentioned in many legendary tales as the vehicle of Vishnu
Vishnu and its main rival is Naga.
Javan hawk-eagle and Brahminy kite
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Garuda in Indonesia.
Balinese dancers including a man dressed as
Garuda Pancasila is coloured or gilt gold, symbolizes the greatness of the nation and is a representation of the elang Jawa or Javan hawk-eagle Nisaetus bartelsi. The black color represents nature. There are 17 feathers on each wing, 8 on the lower tail, 19 on the upper tail and 45 on the neck, which represent the date Indonesia
Indonesia proclaimed its independence: 17 August 1945. The shield it carries with the Indonesian Panca Sila heraldry symbolizes self-defense and protection in struggle. Indonesian national airline is Garuda
Garuda Indonesia. Indonesian Armed Forces
Indonesian Armed Forces United Nations peacekeeping missions is known as Pasukan Garuda
Garuda or Garuda
Garuda Contingent Airlangga
Airlangga University, one of the oldest and leading university in Indonesia
Indonesia uses Garuda
Garuda on its emblem. The emblem, containing a Garuda in a blue and yellow circle, is called "Garudamukha", and depicts Garuda
Garuda as the bearer of knowledge, carrying a jug of Amrita, the water of eternity, symbolizing eternal knowledge.
A part of planned 120-metre tall
Garuda Wisnu Kencana
Garuda Wisnu Kencana statue in Bali, currently under construction.
Bali and Java
Garuda has become a cultural symbol, the wooden statue and mask of Garuda
Garuda is a popular artworks and souvenirs. In Bali, we can find the tallest Garuda
Garuda statue of 18 metres tall made from tons of copper and brass. The statue is located in Garuda
Garuda Wisnu Kencana complex. Garuda
Garuda has identified as Indonesian national football team
Indonesian national football team in international games, namely "The Garuda
Garuda Team". The stylized brush stroke that resemble Garuda
Garuda appears in the logo of 2011 Southeast Asian Games, held in Palembang
Palembang and Jakarta, Indonesia. The stylized curves that took form of Garuda Pancasila
Garuda Pancasila appears in the logo of Wonderful Indonesia
Indonesia tourism campaign. Garuda
Garuda becomes the inspiration for national costumes worn by Puteri Indonesia
Indonesia at Miss Universe 2012
Miss Universe 2012 and Miss Universe 2016
Miss Universe 2016 beauty pageant.
Karura (迦楼羅?) is a divine creature with human torso and birdlike head in Japanese Hindu-Buddhist epics. The name is a transliteration of Garuda
Garuda (Sanskrit: Garuḍa गरुड ; Pāli: Garuḷa) a race of enormously gigantic birds in Hinduism, upon which the Japanese Buddhist version is based. The same creature may go by the name of konjichō (金翅鳥?, lit. "gold-winged bird", Skr. suparṇa).
The Garuda, known as Khangarid, is the symbol of the capital city of
Mongolia, Ulan Bator. According to popular Mongolian belief,
Khangarid is the mountain spirit of the
Bogd Khan Uul
Bogd Khan Uul range who became a follower of Buddhist faith. Today he is considered the guardian of that mountain range and a symbol of courage and honesty. Khangarid (Хангарьд), a football (soccer) team in the Mongolia Premier League also named after Garuda. Garuda
Garuda Ord (Гаруда Орд), a private construction and trading company based in Ulaanbaatar, also named after Garuda. State Garuda
Garuda (Улсын Гарьд) is a title given to the debut runner up in wrestling tournament during Mongolian National Festival Naadam.
In Burmese epics, which was influenced by Hindu-Buddhist beliefs,
Garuda is known as Galone, the nemesis of the Nāgas.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Garuda in Nepal.
In Suriname, there is a radio and TV station called Radio en Televisie
Garuda, which broadcasts programming from Indonesia, particularly
Java, aimed at the
Javanese Surinamese population.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Garuda in Thailand.
Garuda as the masthead of Thai royal barge.
One form of the
Garuda used in Thailand
Thailand as a sign of the royal family is called Khrut Pha, meaning "Garuda, the vehicle (of Vishnu)." Kingdom of Siam has an image of Garuda
Garuda in their coins at least since Ayutthaya era. The statue and images of Garuda
Garuda adorn many Buddhist temples in Thailand. It also has become the cultural symbol of Thailand. The figure of Garuda
Garuda also installed as the figurehead or masthead of Thai royal barges.
Garuda as national symbol of Indonesia
Garuda as national symbol of Thailand
Garuda (Khangardi) as the symbol of Ulan Bator, Mongolia
5th-century Gupta-era coin,
Garuda with snakes in his claws
6th century coin with
Garuda and Vishnu's chakra and conch on side
12th century Cham sculpture, Viet Nam, in the Thap Mam style depicts
Garuda serving as an atlas
Head of a
Garuda during the 14th century Cambodia, Honolulu Museum of Art
Garuda returning with the vase of Amrita
Garuda at Srivilliputur Temple, Tamil Nadu, India
Garuda statue at Ngurah Rai Airport, Bali, Indonesia
Garuda pillar, Nepal
Garuda at Durbar square in Kathmandu, Nepal.
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The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton University Press.
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^ a b c Roshen Dalal (2010). Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin
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^ a b c Helmuth von Glasenapp (1999). Jainism: An Indian Religion of
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^ Robert E. Buswell Jr.; Donald S. Lopez Jr. (2013). The Princeton
Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton University Press.
pp. 249–250. ISBN 978-1-4008-4805-8.
^ a b George M. Williams (2008). Handbook of Hindu Mythology. Oxford
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ISBN 978-0-19-533261-2. , Quote: "His vehicle was Garuda,
the sun bird" (p. 21); "(...) Garuda, the great sun eagle, (...)" (p.
^ a b c d e f g h i T. A. Gopinatha Rao (1993). Elements of Hindu
iconography. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 285–287.
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^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 August 2013.
Retrieved 17 March 2010. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status
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Books. pp. 144–145. ISBN 978-0-14-341421-6.
^ a b c d George M. Williams (2008). Handbook of Hindu Mythology.
Oxford University Press. pp. 138–139.
^ a b Mark S. G. Dyczkowski (1988). The Canon of the Saivagama and the
Kubjika: Tantras of the Western Kaula Tradition. State University of
New York Press. pp. 40–41. ISBN 978-0-88706-494-4.
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Spiritual Expression and Experience. New York University Press.
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India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 70. ^ Ashok, Banker K (2012). Forest of Stories. Westland. pp. 173–175. ISBN 978-93-81626-37-5. Retrieved 6 March 2013. ^ Brenda Rosen (2010). Mythical Creatures Bible. Godsfield Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-1402765360. ^ Ludo Rocher (1986). The Purāṇas. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 175–177. ISBN 978-3-447-02522-5. ^ a b Johannes Adrianus Bernardus Buitenen (1973). The Mahabharata, Volume 3 ( Book
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Garuda.
The Garuḍa Purana (Sâroddhâra), by Ernest Wood and
S.V.Subramanyam, 1918 (Online, downloadable PDF) archive.org
Garuda Purana (Wood and Subrahmanyam translation, 1911) at sacred-texts.com Garuda
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