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The Garuda
Garuda
is a legendary bird or bird-like creature found in Hindu, Buddhist and Jain
Jain
mythology.[1][2][3] He is variously the vehicle mount (vahana) of the Hindu god Vishnu, a dharma-protector and Astasena in Buddhism, and the Yaksha of the Jain
Jain
Tirthankara Shantinatha.[2][3][4] Garuda
Garuda
is described as the king of birds and a Kite-like figure.[5][6] He is shown either in zoomorphic form (giant bird with partially open wings) or an anthropomorphic form (man with wings and some bird features). Garuda
Garuda
is generally a protector with power to swiftly go anywhere, ever watchful and an enemy of the serpent.[1][6][7] He is also known as Tarkshya and Vynateya.[8] Garuda
Garuda
is a part of state insignia in India, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia
Cambodia
and Indonesia. The Indonesian official coat of arms is centered on the Garuda. The national emblem of Indonesia
Indonesia
is called Garuda
Garuda
Pancasila.[9]

Contents

1 Hinduism

1.1 Iconography 1.2 Mythology 1.3 Symbolism

2 Buddhism 3 Jainism 4 As a cultural and national symbol

4.1 India 4.2 Indonesia 4.3 Thailand 4.4 Japan 4.5 Mongolia 4.6 Myanmar 4.7 Nepal 4.8 Suriname

5 Gallery 6 In other media 7 See also 8 Notes 9 External links

Hinduism[edit]

Garuda
Garuda
may be shown as a kite (left) alone or carrying Vishnu.[6][7] A painting by Raja Ravi Varma
Raja Ravi Varma
(right) showing Garuda
Garuda
and Vishnu.

In Hinduism, Garuda
Garuda
is a divine eagle-like sun bird and the king of birds.[5] A Garutman is mentioned in the Rigveda
Rigveda
who is described as celestial deva with wings.[10][11] The Shatapatha Brahmana
Brahmana
embedded inside the Yajurveda
Yajurveda
text mentions Garuda
Garuda
as the personification of courage. In the Mahabharata, Garutman is stated to be same as Garuda, then described as the one who is fast, who can shapeshift into any form and enter anywhere.[10] He is a powerful creature in the epics, whose wing flapping can stop the spinning of heaven, earth and hell. He is described to be the vehicle mount of the Hindu god Vishnu, and typically they are shown together.[10] According to George Williams, Garuda
Garuda
has roots in the verb gri, or speak.[11] He is a metaphor in the Vedic literature for Rik (rhythms), Saman (sounds), Yajna (sacrifices), and the atman (Self, deepest level of consciousness). In the Puranas, states Williams, Garuda
Garuda
becomes a literal embodiment of the idea, and the Self who attached to and inseparable from the Supreme Self (Vishnu).[11][12] Though Garuda
Garuda
is an essential part of the Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
mythology, he also features prominently in Shaivism
Shaivism
mythology, Shaiva texts such as the Garuda Tantra and Kirana Tantra, and Shiva
Shiva
temples as a bird and as a metaphor of atman.[12][13][14] Iconography[edit]

Garuda
Garuda
iconography at a Radha
Radha
Krishna
Krishna
Temple in Kolkata.

The Hindu texts
Hindu texts
on Garuda
Garuda
iconography vary in their details. If in the bird form, he is eagle-like, typically with the wings slightly open as if ready and willing to fly wherever he needs to.[6] In part human-form, he may have an eagle-like nose, beak or legs, his eyes are open and big, his body is the color of emerald, his wings are golden-yellow. He may be shown with either two or four hands.[6] If he is not carrying Vishnu, he holds a jar of amrita (immortality nectar) in one hand in the rear and an umbrella in the other, while the front pair of hands are in anjali (namaste) posture. If he is carrying Vishnu, the rear hands provide the support for Vishnu's feet.[6][7] According to the text Silparatna, states Rao, Garuda
Garuda
is best depicted with only two hands and with four bands of colors: "golden yellow color from feet to knees, white from knees to navel, scarlet from navel to neck, and black above the neck". His hands, recommends the text, should be in abhaya (nothing to fear) posture.[6] In Sritatvanidhi text, the recommended iconography for Garuda
Garuda
is a kneeling figure, who wears one or more serpents, pointed bird-beak like nose, his two hands in namaste posture. This style is commonly found in Hindu temples dedicated to Vishnu.[6] In some iconography, Garuda
Garuda
carries Lord Vishnu
Vishnu
and his two consorts by his side: Lakshmi(Thirumagal) and Bhūmi (Bhuma-Devi).[8][15][better source needed] Garuda
Garuda
iconography is found in early temples of India, such as on the underside of the eave at Cave 3 entrance of the Badami cave temples (6th-century).[6][16] Mythology[edit]

Garuda
Garuda
is found in Vishnu
Vishnu
temples; Above: in Belur, India

Garuda
Garuda
mythology is linked to that of Aruna – the charioteer of Surya
Surya
( Sun
Sun
god). However, these Indian mythologies are different, inconsistent across the texts. Both developed from egg. According to one version, states George Williams, Kashyapa Prajapati's two wives Vinata and Kadru wanted to have children. Kashyapa granted them a boon.[17] Kadru asked for one thousand Nāga
Nāga
sons, while Vinata wanted two. Kashyapa blessed them, and then went away to a forest. Later, Kadru gave birth to one thousand eggs, while Vinata gave birth to two eggs. These incubated for five hundred years, upon which Kadru broke the eggs open and out came her 1,000 sons. Vinata eager for her sons, broke one of the eggs from which emerged the partially formed Aruna, who looked radiant and reddish as the morning sun but not as bright as the midday sun.[17][18]

Balinese wooden statue of Vishnu
Vishnu
riding Garuda, Purna Bhakti Pertiwi Museum, Jakarta, Indonesia

Vinata waited, and later the fully developed brother of Aruna namely Garuda
Garuda
was born. Garuda
Garuda
later went to war with his step brothers, the Nagas.[17][19] Some myths present Garuda
Garuda
as so massive that he can block out the sun.[20] The text Garuda Purana
Garuda Purana
is named after him.[21] Garuda
Garuda
is presented in the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
mythology as one who eats snake meat, such as the story about he planning to kill and eat Sumukha snake, where Indra
Indra
attempts to intervene.[22] Garudas are also a race of birds who devour snakes in the epic.[22] Symbolism[edit] Garuda's links to Vishnu
Vishnu
– the Hindu god who fights injustice and destroys evil in his various avatars to preserve dharma, has made him an iconic symbol of king's duty and power, an insignia of royalty or dharma. His eagle-like form is shown either alone or with Vishnu, signifying divine approval of the power of the state.[11] He is found on the faces of many early Hindu kingdom coins with this symbolism, either as a single headed bird or a three-headed bird that watches all sides.[23] Throughout the Mahabharata, Garuda
Garuda
is invoked as a symbol of impetuous violent force, of speed, and of martial prowess. Powerful warriors advancing rapidly on doomed foes are likened to Garuda
Garuda
swooping down on a serpent. Defeated warriors are like snakes beaten down by Garuda. The Mahabharata
Mahabharata
character Drona
Drona
uses a military formation named after Garuda. Krishna
Krishna
even carries the image of Garuda
Garuda
on his banner.[citation needed] Buddhism[edit]

Garuda
Garuda
vanquishing the Naga clan, a Gandhara
Gandhara
artwork, 2nd century CE.

Garuda, also referred to as Garula (Pali), are golden-winged birds in Buddhist texts. In Buddhism samsara, they are one of Astasena or eight class of nonhuman beings. In Buddhist arts, they are shown as sitting and listening to the sermons of the Buddha.[1] They are enemies of Nagas (snakes) and therefore sometimes depicted with a serpent held between their claws. Like the Hindu arts, both zoomorphic (giant eagle-like bird) and partially anthropomorphic (part bird, part human) iconography has been common in Buddhism.[1]

Garuda
Garuda
in Preah Khan, Angkor, Cambodia.

In Buddhism, the Garuda
Garuda
(Pāli: garuḷā) are enormous predatory birds with wings span of 330 yojanas.[1] They are described as beings with intelligence and social organization. Another name for the Garuda is suparṇa (Pāli: supaṇṇa), meaning "well-winged, having good wings". Like the Naga, they combine the characteristics of animals and divine beings, and may be considered to be among the lowest devas.[1] The Garudas have kings and cities, and at least some of them have the magical power of changing into human form when they wish to have dealings with people. On some occasions Garuda
Garuda
kings have had romances with human women in this form. Their dwellings are in groves of the simbalī, or silk-cotton tree. Jataka stories describe them to be residents of Nagadipa or Seruma.[1] The Garuda
Garuda
are enemies to the nāga, a race of intelligent serpent- or dragon-like beings, whom they hunt. The Garudas at one time caught the nāgas by seizing them by their heads; but the nāgas learned that by swallowing large stones, they could make themselves too heavy to be carried by the Garudas, wearing them out and killing them from exhaustion. This secret was divulged to one of the Garudas by the ascetic Karambiya, who taught him how to seize a nāga by the tail and force him to vomit up his stone (Pandara Jātaka, J.518). The Garudas were among the beings appointed by Śakra to guard Mount Sumeru
Sumeru
and the Trāyastriṃśa heaven from the attacks of the asuras.

13th century Cham sculpture depicts Garuda
Garuda
devouring a nāga serpent

In the Maha-samaya Sutta (Digha Nikaya 20), the Buddha is shown making temporary peace between the Nagas and the Garudas. In the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
fiction The Story of Yue Fei
Yue Fei
(1684), Garuda
Garuda
sits at the head of the Buddha's throne. But when a celestial bat (an embodiment of the Aquarius constellation) flatulates during the Buddha’s expounding of the Lotus Sutra, Garuda
Garuda
kills her and is exiled from paradise. He is later reborn as Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
General Yue Fei. The bat is reborn as Lady Wang, wife of the traitor Prime Minister Qin Hui, and is instrumental in formulating the "Eastern Window" plot that leads to Yue's eventual political execution.[24] It is interesting to note The Story of Yue Fei
Yue Fei
plays on the legendary animosity between Garuda
Garuda
and the Nagas when the celestial bird-born Yue Fei
Yue Fei
defeats a magic serpent who transforms into the unearthly spear he uses throughout his military career.[25] Literary critic C. T. Hsia explains the reason why Qian Cai, the book's author, linked Yue with Garuda
Garuda
is because of the homology in their Chinese names. Yue Fei's courtesy name is Pengju (鵬舉).[26] A Peng (鵬) is a giant mythological bird likened to the Middle Eastern Roc.[27] Garuda's Chinese name is Great Peng, the Golden-Winged Illumination King (大鵬金翅明王).[26] Jainism[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2018)

The garuda is a yaksha or guardian for Shantinatha
Shantinatha
in Jain
Jain
iconography and mythology.[2][3] Jain
Jain
iconography shows Garuda
Garuda
as a human figure with wings and a strand-circle.[28] As a cultural and national symbol[edit]

Garuda
Garuda
according to Ida Made Tlaga, a 19th-century Balinese artist

In India, Indonesia
Indonesia
and the rest of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
the eagle symbolism is represented by Garuda, a large bird with eagle-like features that appears in both Hindu and Buddhist epic as the vahana (vehicle) of the god Vishnu. Garuda
Garuda
became the national emblem of Thailand
Thailand
and Indonesia; Thailand's Garuda
Garuda
is rendered in a more traditional anthropomorphic style, while that of Indonesia
Indonesia
is rendered in heraldic style with traits similar to the real Javan hawk-eagle. India[edit] See also: Brahminy kite India
India
primarily uses Garuda
Garuda
as a martial motif:

Garud Commando Force
Garud Commando Force
is a Special Forces
Special Forces
unit of the Indian Air Force, specializing in operations deep behind enemy lines.[29] Brigade of the Guards
Brigade of the Guards
of the Indian Army
Indian Army
uses Garuda
Garuda
as their symbol Elite bodyguards of the medieval Hoysala
Hoysala
kings were called Garudas Kerala
Kerala
and Andhra pradesh
Andhra pradesh
state road transport corporations use Garuda as the name for a/c moffusil buses Garuda
Garuda
rock, a rocky cliff in Tirumala
Tirumala
in Andhra pradesh 13th century Aragalur
Aragalur
chief, Magadesan's, insignia was Rishabha the sacred bull and the Garuda

Indonesia[edit] See also: Javan hawk-eagle
Javan hawk-eagle
and Brahminy kite

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Garuda
Garuda
in Indonesia.

Balinese dancers including a man dressed as Garuda
Garuda
(1935)

Indonesia
Indonesia
uses the Garuda, called the Garuda
Garuda
Pancasila, as its national symbol. It is somewhat intertwined with the concept of the phoenix.

Garuda Pancasila
Garuda Pancasila
is coloured or gilt gold, symbolizes the greatness of the nation and is a representation of the elang Jawa or Javan hawk-eagle Nisaetus bartelsi. The black color represents nature. There are 17 feathers on each wing, 8 on the lower tail, 19 on the upper tail and 45 on the neck, which represent the date Indonesia
Indonesia
proclaimed its independence: 17 August 1945. The shield it carries with the Indonesian Panca Sila heraldry symbolizes self-defense and protection in struggle.[9] Indonesian national airline is Garuda
Garuda
Indonesia. Indonesian Armed Forces
Indonesian Armed Forces
United Nations peacekeeping missions is known as Pasukan Garuda
Garuda
or Garuda
Garuda
Contingent Airlangga
Airlangga
University, one of the oldest and leading university in Indonesia
Indonesia
uses Garuda
Garuda
on its emblem. The emblem, containing a Garuda in a blue and yellow circle, is called "Garudamukha", and depicts Garuda
Garuda
as the bearer of knowledge, carrying a jug of Amrita, the water of eternity, symbolizing eternal knowledge.

A part of planned 120-metre tall Garuda Wisnu Kencana
Garuda Wisnu Kencana
statue in Bali, currently under construction.

In Bali
Bali
and Java
Java
Garuda
Garuda
has become a cultural symbol, the wooden statue and mask of Garuda
Garuda
is a popular artworks and souvenirs. In Bali, we can find the tallest Garuda
Garuda
statue of 18 metres tall made from tons of copper and brass. The statue is located in Garuda
Garuda
Wisnu Kencana complex. Garuda
Garuda
has identified as Indonesian national football team
Indonesian national football team
in international games, namely "The Garuda
Garuda
Team".[30] The stylized brush stroke that resemble Garuda
Garuda
appears in the logo of 2011 Southeast Asian Games, held in Palembang
Palembang
and Jakarta, Indonesia. The stylized curves that took form of Garuda Pancasila
Garuda Pancasila
appears in the logo of Wonderful Indonesia
Indonesia
tourism campaign. Garuda
Garuda
becomes the inspiration for national costumes worn by Puteri Indonesia
Indonesia
at Miss Universe 2012
Miss Universe 2012
and Miss Universe 2016
Miss Universe 2016
beauty pageant.

Thailand[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Garuda
Garuda
in Thailand.

Garuda
Garuda
as the masthead of Thai royal barge.

Thailand
Thailand
uses the Garuda
Garuda
(Thai: ครุฑ, khrut) as its national symbol,[31] as well as their currency.[32]

One form of the Garuda
Garuda
used in Thailand
Thailand
as a sign of the royal family is called Khrut Pha, meaning "Garuda, the vehicle (of Vishnu)." Kingdom of Siam has an image of Garuda
Garuda
in their coins at least since Ayutthaya era.[32] The statue and images of Garuda
Garuda
adorn many Buddhist temples in Thailand. It also has become the cultural symbol of Thailand. The figure of Garuda
Garuda
also installed as the figurehead or masthead of Thai royal barges.

Japan[edit]

Wingless statue of Garuda
Garuda
or Karura
Karura
in Kofukuji
Kofukuji
Temple, Nara, Japan, 8th century

The Karura
Karura
(迦楼羅?) is a divine creature with human torso and birdlike head in Japanese Hindu-Buddhist epics.[33] The name is a transliteration of Garuda
Garuda
(Sanskrit: Garuḍa गरुड ; Pāli: Garuḷa) a race of enormously gigantic birds in Hinduism, upon which the Japanese Buddhist version is based. The same creature may go by the name of konjichō (金翅鳥?, lit. "gold-winged bird", Skr. suparṇa).

Mongolia[edit]

The Garuda, known as Khangarid, is the symbol of the capital city of Mongolia, Ulan Bator.[34] According to popular Mongolian belief, Khangarid is the mountain spirit of the Bogd Khan Uul
Bogd Khan Uul
range who became a follower of Buddhist faith. Today he is considered the guardian of that mountain range and a symbol of courage and honesty. Khangarid (Хангарьд), a football (soccer) team in the Mongolia Premier League also named after Garuda. Garuda
Garuda
Ord (Гаруда Орд), a private construction and trading company based in Ulaanbaatar, also named after Garuda. State Garuda
Garuda
(Улсын Гарьд) is a title given to the debut runner up in wrestling tournament during Mongolian National Festival Naadam.

Myanmar[edit]

In Burmese epics, which was influenced by Hindu-Buddhist beliefs, Garuda
Garuda
is known as Galone, the nemesis of the Nāgas.[35]

Nepal[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Garuda
Garuda
in Nepal.

Garuda
Garuda
is found in Nepalese traditions of Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism. Suriname[edit]

In Suriname, there is a radio and TV station called Radio en Televisie Garuda, which broadcasts programming from Indonesia, particularly Java, aimed at the Javanese Surinamese
Javanese Surinamese
population.

Gallery[edit]

Insignia

Garuda
Garuda
as national symbol of Indonesia

Garuda
Garuda
as national symbol of Thailand

Garuda
Garuda
(Khangardi) as the symbol of Ulan Bator, Mongolia

Coins

5th-century Gupta-era coin, Garuda
Garuda
with snakes in his claws

6th century coin with Garuda
Garuda
and Vishnu's chakra and conch on side

Temples

8th century Garuda
Garuda
carrying Vishnu
Vishnu
in Aihole, Karnataka, India

8th century Garuda
Garuda
pillar location at a Shiva
Shiva
temple, Masrur Temples, Himachal Pradesh India

King Airlangga
Airlangga
depicted as Vishnu
Vishnu
mounting Garuda, 11th century East Java, Indonesia

12th century Cham sculpture, Viet Nam, in the Thap Mam style depicts Garuda
Garuda
serving as an atlas

The statues of Krut battling naga serpent, a Thai Buddhist
Thai Buddhist
adaptation of Garuda
Garuda
in Wat Phra Kaeo
Wat Phra Kaeo
temple, Thailand.

Garuda
Garuda
figure, gilt bronze, Khmer Empire
Khmer Empire
Cambodia, 12th-13th century, John Young Museum, University of Hawaii at Manoa

12th century bas relief at Angkor
Angkor
Wat in Cambodia
Cambodia
showing Vishnu
Vishnu
in battle mounted on Garuda

Head of a Garuda
Garuda
during the 14th century Cambodia, Honolulu Museum of Art

Garuda
Garuda
returning with the vase of Amrita

Garuda
Garuda
at Srivilliputur Temple, Tamil Nadu, India

Balinese Garuda
Garuda
statue at Ngurah Rai Airport, Bali, Indonesia

Garuda
Garuda
pillar, Nepal

Garuda
Garuda
at Durbar square in Kathmandu, Nepal.

Garuda
Garuda
at the funeral of King Bhumibol Adulyadej
Bhumibol Adulyadej
of Thailand
Thailand
in 2017

In other media[edit] A Garuda
Garuda
voiced by Robin Williams
Robin Williams
appears in the film Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb.[36] See also[edit]

Ababil Fenghuang Garid Garuda
Garuda
in the architecture of Cambodia Garuda
Garuda
Purana Harpy Kalaviṅka Karura Krute List of avian humanoids Peng Phoenix Roc Simurgh Sirin Thunderbird Vishnu

Notes[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h Robert E. Buswell Jr.; Donald S. Lopez Jr. (2013). The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton University Press. pp. 314–315. ISBN 978-1-4008-4805-8.  ^ a b c Roshen Dalal (2010). Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin Books. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-14-341421-6.  ^ a b c Helmuth von Glasenapp (1999). Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 532. ISBN 978-81-208-1376-2.  ^ Robert E. Buswell Jr.; Donald S. Lopez Jr. (2013). The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton University Press. pp. 249–250. ISBN 978-1-4008-4805-8.  ^ a b George M. Williams (2008). Handbook of Hindu Mythology. Oxford University Press. pp. 21, 24, 63, 138. ISBN 978-0-19-533261-2. , Quote: "His vehicle was Garuda, the sun bird" (p. 21); "(...) Garuda, the great sun eagle, (...)" (p. 74) ^ a b c d e f g h i T. A. Gopinatha Rao (1993). Elements of Hindu iconography. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 285–287. ISBN 978-81-208-0878-2.  ^ a b c Thomas E. Donaldson (2001). The iconography of Vaiṣṇava images in Orissa. DK Printworld. pp. 253–259.  ^ a b Roshen Dalal (2010). The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths. Penguin Books. p. 123. ISBN 978-0-14-341517-6.  ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 August 2013. Retrieved 17 March 2010. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ a b c Roshen Dalal (2010). Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin Books. pp. 144–145. ISBN 978-0-14-341421-6.  ^ a b c d George M. Williams (2008). Handbook of Hindu Mythology. Oxford University Press. pp. 138–139. ISBN 978-0-19-533261-2.  ^ a b Mark S. G. Dyczkowski (1988). The Canon of the Saivagama and the Kubjika: Tantras of the Western Kaula Tradition. State University of New York Press. pp. 40–41. ISBN 978-0-88706-494-4.  ^ Peter Heehs (2002). Indian Religions: A Historical Reader of Spiritual Expression and Experience. New York University Press. pp. 195–196. ISBN 978-0-8147-3650-0.  ^ Dominic Goodall (2001). Hindu Scriptures. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 341–358. ISBN 978-81-208-1770-8.  ^ Bhūmi ^ George Michell (2015). Badami, Aihole, Pattadakal. Jaico Publishing. pp. 49–52. ISBN 978-81-8495-600-9.  ^ a b c George M. Williams (2008). Handbook of Hindu Mythology. Oxford University Press. pp. 62–63. ISBN 978-0-19-533261-2.  ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India
India
through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 70.  ^ Ashok, Banker K (2012). Forest of Stories. Westland. pp. 173–175. ISBN 978-93-81626-37-5. Retrieved 6 March 2013.  ^ Brenda Rosen (2010). Mythical Creatures Bible. Godsfield Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-1402765360.  ^ Ludo Rocher (1986). The Purāṇas. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 175–177. ISBN 978-3-447-02522-5.  ^ a b Johannes Adrianus Bernardus Buitenen (1973). The Mahabharata, Volume 3 ( Book
Book
4: The Book
Book
of the Virata; Book
Book
5: The Book
Book
of the Effort). University of Chicago Press. pp. 167–168, 389–393. ISBN 978-0-226-84665-1.  ^ K. D. Bajpai (October 2004). Indian Numismatic Studies. Abhinav Publications. pp. 19–24, 84–85, 120–124. ISBN 978-81-7017-035-8.  ^ Hsia, C.T. C. T. Hsia on Chinese Literature. Columbia University Press, 2004 (ISBN 0231129904), 154 ^ Hsia, C. T. Hsia on Chinese Literature, pp. 149 ^ a b Hsia, C.T. C. T. Hsia on Chinese Literature, pp. 149 and 488, n. 30 ^ Chau, Ju-Kua, Friedrich Hirth, and W.W. Rockhill. Chau Ju-Kua: His Work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries, entitled Chu-Fan-Chi. St. Petersburg: Printing Office of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, 1911, p. 149, n. 1 ^ studies in south asian culture, Universiteit van Amsterdam. Institute of South Asian archaeology, p. 24  ^ Abhishek Saksena (4 January 2016). "Here's everything you need to know about Indian Air Force's elite Garud Commandos #Pathankotattacks". India
India
Times.  ^ Garuda
Garuda
Team, http://www.google.co.nz/search?q=tim+garuda&hl=en&prmd=ivnsfd&source=lnms&tbm=isch&ei=_T2WTaaVBY_EsAO6-om7BQ&sa=X&oi=mode_link&ct=mode&cd=2&sqi=2&ved=0CBYQ_AUoAQ&biw=1920&bih=878 ^ " Thailand
Thailand
Information". Royal Embassy of Thailand
Thailand
in Doha, Qatar.  ^ a b "Garuda: a symbol on Thai currency". emuseum.treasury.go.th.  ^ " Karura
Karura
迦楼羅, Karura-Ō 迦楼羅王 (Skt. = Garuda) Bird
Bird
of Life, Celestial Eagle, Half Bird
Bird
Half Man". Japanese Buddhist Statuary.  ^ Michael Kohn. Mongolia. Lonely Planet, 2005. p. 52. ^ Maitrii Aung-Thwin (2011). The Return of the Galon King: History, Law, and Rebellion in Colonial Burma. NUS Press. p. 122. ISBN 9789971695095.  ^ curl=https://www.britishmuseum.org/visiting/family_visits/night_at_the_museum/fact_vs_fiction.aspx

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Garuda.

The Garuḍa Purana (Sâroddhâra), by Ernest Wood and S.V.Subramanyam, 1918 (Online, downloadable PDF) archive.org The Garuda Purana
Garuda Purana
(Wood and Subrahmanyam translation, 1911) at sacred-texts.com Garuda
Garuda
Purana

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Escutcheon Chief Field (Tincture) Division Supporter Supporter Slogan (battle cry) Crest Torse Mantling Helmet/Galero Crown/Coronet Compartment Order Ordinaries Charges Motto Dexter Sinister (right) (left)

Types of coats of arms

National coat of arms Ecclesiastical heraldry Burgher arms Civic heraldry Canting arms Attributed arms

Heraldic achievement

Escutcheon (shield)

Field

Divisions Variations

Charge Chief Lines Ordinary Augmentation of honour Cadency Marshalling

Quartering Impalement

Pale Bar Bend Bordure Canton Chevron Cross Fess Flaunch Gyron Label Lozenge Orle Pall Roundel Saltire

Creatures

Beasts

Bear Boar Bull/Ox Dog/Hound Camelopard (giraffe) Hind/Stag (deer) Kangaroo Leopard Lion Wolf

Birds

Cock Dove Eagle Martlet Pelican Rook

Sea creatures

Dolphin Ged Seahorse Lucy (esox) Scallop

Legendary creatures

Allocamelus Alphyn Basilisk Biscione Chollima Cockatrice Dragon Enfield Garuda Griffin/Keythong Harpy Konrul Lampago Lindworm Manticore Mermaid Pantheon Panther Pegasus Phoenix Salamander Hippocampus Hippogriff Sea-lion Turul Tyger Unicorn Wyvern Yale

Others

Bat Bee Crapaudy (toad) Emmet (ant) Serpent

Knots

Bourchier knot Bowen knot Cavendish knot Dacre knot Harrington knot Hastings knot Heneage knot Hinckaert knot Hungerford knot Lacy knot Medici knot Morvillier knot Ormonde knot Savoy knot Shakespeare knot Stafford knot Trafford knot Tristram knot Wake knot

Tinctures Rules Tricking Hatching

Metals

     Argent
Argent
(white)      Or (gold)

Colours

     Gules (red)      Sable (black)      Azure (blue)      Vert (green)      Purpure (purple)

Furs

Ermines

Erminois Erminites Pean

Vair

Potent

Stains

     Murrey
Murrey
(mulberry)      Sanguine (blood red)      Tenné

Non-traditional1

Metals

     Copper

Colours

     Bleu-celeste      Carnation      Cendrée      Orange      Rose

External

Crowns and coronets Crest Compartment Helmet Mantling Motto Supporter Torse Mantle and pavilion

See also

List of oldest heraldry Heraldic flag
Heraldic flag
(Banner of arms) Heraldic badge Women in heraldry Socialist heraldry Vexillology

1 Non-traditional, rarely used traditions in italic (typically regional or modern, considered unheraldic by some) Heraldry
Heraldry
portal Portal:Heraldry/Web resources

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History

Timeline Hinduism-Buddhism era Spread of Islam VOC era (1603–1800) Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
(1800–1942) Japanese occupation (1942–45) National Revolution (1945–49) Liberal democracy era (1950–57) Guided Democracy (1957–65) Transitional period (1965–66) New Order (1966–98) Reformasi (since 1998)

Geography

Cities Deforestation Earthquakes Environmental issues Geology Islands Lakes Mountains National parks Natural history

Fauna Flora

Rivers Volcanoes

Politics

Administrative divisions

Provinces

Cabinet Constitution Elections Foreign relations Human rights Law

enforcement

Military

History

Pancasila People's Consultative Assembly Police Political parties President

Economy

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Culture

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Demographics

Education Ethnic groups Health Languages

Indonesian

Nusantara Religion Women

Symbols

Anthem Costume Emblem Faunal emblems

Asian arowana Javan hawk-eagle Komodo dragon

Flag Floral emblems

Common jasmine Moon orchid Giant padma

Garuda Motto Personification Songs Tree

Outline Index

Book Category Portal Gallery Atlas

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