HinduismIn Hinduism, is a divine eagle-like sun bird and the king of birds., Quote: "His vehicle was Garuda, the sun bird" (p. 21); "(...) Garuda, the great sun eagle, (...)" (p. 74) A ''Garutman'' is mentioned in the ''Rigveda'' who is described as celestial Deva (Hinduism), deva with wings. The ''Shatapatha Brahmana'' embedded inside the ''Yajurveda'' text mentions Garuda as the personification of courage. In the ''Mahabharata'', Garutman is stated to be same as Garuda, then described as the one who is fast, who can shapeshift into any form and enter anywhere. He is a powerful creature in the epics, whose wing flapping can stop the spinning of heaven, earth and hell. He is described to be the vehicle mount of the Hindu god According to George Williams, Garuda has roots in the verb ''gri'', or speak. He is a metaphor in the Vedic literature for ''Rik'' (rhythms), ''Saman'' (sounds), ''Yajna'' (sacrifices), and the ''atman'' (Self, deepest level of consciousness). In the Puranas, states Williams, Garuda becomes a literal embodiment of the idea, and the Self who attached to and inseparable from the Supreme Self (Vishnu). Though Garuda is an essential part of the Vaishnavism mythology, he also features prominently in Shaivism mythology, Shaiva texts such as the ''Garuda Tantra'' and ''Kirana Tantra'', and Shiva temples as a bird and as a metaphor of ''atman''.
IconographyThe Hindu texts on Garuda iconography vary in their details. If in the bird form, he is eagle-like, typically with the wings slightly open as if ready and willing to fly wherever he needs to. In part human-form, he may have an eagle-like nose, beak or legs, his eyes are open and big, his body is the color of emerald, and his wings are golden-yellow. He may be shown with either two or four hands. If he is not carrying Vishnu, he holds a jar of ''amrita'' (immortality nectar) in one hand in the rear and an umbrella in the other, while the front pair of hands are in ''anjali'' (namaste) posture. If he is carrying Vishnu, the rear hands provide the support for Vishnu's feet. According to the text ''Silparatna'', states Rao, Garuda is best depicted with only two hands and with four bands of colours: "golden yellow colour from feet to knees, white from knees to the navel, scarlet from navel to neck, and black above the neck". His hands, recommends the text, should be in ''abhaya'' (nothing to fear) posture. In ''Sritatvanidhi'' text, the recommended iconography for Garuda is a kneeling figure, who wears one or more serpents, pointed bird-beak like nose, his two hands in ''namaste'' posture. This style is commonly found in Hindu temples dedicated to Vishnu. In some iconography, Garuda carries Lord Vishnu and his two consorts by his side: Lakshmi(Thirumagal) and Bhūmi (Bhuma-Devi). Garuda iconography is found in early temples of India, such as on the underside of the eave at Cave 3 entrance of the Badami cave temples (6th-century).
MythologyGaruda's mythology is linked to that of Aruṇa, Aruna – the charioteer of Surya (The Hindu Sun god). However, these Indian mythologies are inconsistent across texts. Both Aruna and Garuda developed from an egg. According to one version related by George Williams, Kashyapa Prajapati's two wives Vinata and Kadru wanted to have children, and Kashyapa granted each of them a boon. Kadru asked for one thousand Nāga sons, while Vinata asked for just two, but each an equal to all of Kadru's thousand sons. Kashyapa blessed them, and then retreated to a forest to meditate. Later, Kadru gave birth to one thousand eggs, while Vinata gave birth to two eggs. After incubating them for five hundred years, Kadru's eggs hatched and out came her 1,000 sons. Vinata, eager for her own sons, impatiently broke one of her eggs. From this egg emerged the partially formed Aruna, looking radiant and reddish as the morning sun - but not as bright as the midday sun as he was promised to be. Aruna chided his mother, Vinata for her impatience, and warned her to not break open the second egg, cursing her to be a slave until his brother rescued her. Aruna then left to become the charioteer of Surya, the sun god. Vinata waited, and after many years the second egg hatched, and Garuda was born. After losing a bet to Kadru through trickery, Vinata was forced to become her slave. Garuda later on asked his brothers to free his mother from her slavery, to which they demanded Amrita from heaven. Garuda waged a war against gods with his extraordinary might and abilities beyond thinking, and defeated all of them, including Indra. He then took Indra's nectar vessel and flew back to earth. Vishnu then came to Garuda, and asked him to be his ride, to which he agreed. Indra requested that Garuda not give the Amrita to the Nagas though, as it would bring great trouble later, so they forged a plan. Upon reaching his brothers Garuda placed the vessel before them, and asked them to first purify themselves before drinking. Meanwhile, Jayanta (the son of Indra) stole the vessel back. On returning, the nagas were all devoured by Garuda. Some myths present Garuda as so massive that he can block out the sun. The text ''Garuda Purana'' is named after him. Garuda is presented in the Mahabharata mythology as one who eats snake meat, such as the story about him planning to kill and eat Sumukha snake, where Indra intervenes. Garuda in anger, vaunt about his feats and compares himself to Indra's equal. Vishnu teaches lesson to Garuda and cured his pride on might. Garudas are also a race of birds who devour snakes in the epic. The ''Suparṇākhyāna'', a late Vedic period poem considered to be among the "earliest traces of epic poetry in India," relates the legend of Garuda, and provides the basis for a later, expanded version which appears within the ''Mahabharata, Mahābhārata''.
SymbolismGaruda's links to Vishnu – the Hindu god who fights injustice and destroys evil in his various avatars to preserve dharma, has made him an iconic symbol of king's duty and power, an insignia of royalty or dharma. His eagle-like form is shown either alone or with Vishnu, signifying divine approval of the power of the state. He is found on the faces of many early Hindu kingdom coins with this symbolism, either as a single-headed bird or a three-headed bird that watches all sides. Throughout the Mahabharata, Garuda is invoked as a symbol of impetuous violent force, speed, and martial prowess. Powerful warriors advancing rapidly on doomed foes are likened to Garuda swooping down on a serpent. Defeated warriors are like snakes beaten down by Garuda. The Mahabharata character Drona uses a military formation named after Garuda. Krishna even carries the image of Garuda on his banner.
BuddhismGaruda, also referred to as ''Garula'', are golden-winged birds in Buddhist texts. Under the Saṃsāra (Buddhism), Buddhist concept of ''saṃsāra'', they are one of the Eight Legions, Aṣṭagatyaḥ, the eight classes of inhuman beings. In Buddhist art, they are shown as sitting and listening to the sermons of the Buddha. They are enemies of the Nāgas (snakes) and are sometimes depicted with a serpent held between their claws. Like the Hindu art, both zoomorphic (giant eagle-like bird) and partially anthropomorphic (part bird, part human) iconography is common across Buddhist traditions. In Buddhist mythology, Buddhism, the Garuda (Sanskrit; Pāli: ) are enormous predatory birds with a wingspan of 330 yojanas. They are described as beings with intelligence and social organization. They are also sometimes known as (Sanskrit; Pāli: ), meaning "well-winged, having good wings". Like the Nāgas, they combine the characteristics of animals and divine beings, and may be considered to be among the lowest of the Deva (Buddhism), devas. The Garudas have kings and cities, and at least some of them have the magical power of changing into human form when they wish to have dealings with people. On some occasions Garuda kings have had romances with human women in this form. Their dwellings are in groves of the ''simbalī'', or Bombax ceiba, silk-cotton tree. Jataka stories describe them to be residents of Nagadipa or Seruma. The Garuda are enemies to the Naga (mythology), nāga, a race of intelligent serpent- or dragon-like beings, whom they hunt. The Garudas at one time caught the nāgas by seizing them by their heads; but the nāgas learned that by swallowing large stones, they could make themselves too heavy to be carried by the Garudas, wearing them out and killing them from exhaustion. This secret was divulged to one of the Garudas by the ascetic Karambiya, who taught him how to seize a nāga by the tail and force him to vomit up his stone (Pandara Jātaka, J.518). The Garudas were among the beings appointed by Śakra (Buddhism), Śakra to guard Mount Sumeru and the Trayastrimsa, heaven from the attacks of the Asura (Buddhism), asuras. In the Maha-samaya Sutta (Digha Nikaya 20), the Gautama Buddha, Buddha is shown making temporary peace between the Nagas and the Garudas. In the Qing Dynasty fiction ''Yue Fei#The Story of Yue Fei, The Story of Yue Fei'' (1684), Garuda sits at the head of the Buddha's throne. But when a celestial bat (an embodiment of the Aquarius (constellation), Aquarius constellation) flatulates during the Buddha's expounding of the Lotus Sutra, Garuda kills her and is exiled from paradise. He is later reborn as Song Dynasty General Yue Fei. The bat is reborn as Lady Wang, wife of the Hanjian, traitor Prime Minister Qin Hui (Song Dynasty), Qin Hui, and is instrumental in formulating the "Eastern Window" plot that leads to Yue's eventual political execution. ''The Story of Yue Fei'' plays on the legendary animosity between Garuda and the Nagas when the celestial bird-born Yue Fei defeats a magic serpent who transforms into the unearthly spear he uses throughout his military career. Literary critic C. T. Hsia explains the reason why Qian Cai, the book's author, linked Yue with Garuda is because of the homology in their Chinese names. Yue Fei's courtesy name is Pengju ().Hsia, ''C.T. C. T. Hsia on Chinese Literature'', pp. 149 and 488, n. 30 A Peng (mythology), Peng () is a giant mythological bird likened to the Middle Eastern Roc (mythology), Roc. Garuda's Chinese name is Great Peng, the Golden-Winged Illumination King ().
JainismThe Garuda is a yaksha or guardian for in Jain iconography and mythology. Jain iconography shows Garuda as a human figure with wings and a strand-circle.
As a cultural and national symbolIn India, and the rest of Southeast Asia the eagle symbolism is represented by Garuda, a large bird with eagle-like features that appears in both Hindu and Buddhist epic as the vahana (vehicle) of the god . Garuda became the national emblem of Thailand and Garuda Pancasila, Indonesia; Thailand's Garuda is rendered in a more traditional anthropomorphic style, while that of is rendered in heraldic style with traits similar to the real Javan hawk-eagle.
IndiaIndia primarily uses Garuda as a martial motif: * Garud Commando Force is a Special Forces unit of the Indian Air Force, specializing in operations deep behind enemy lines. * Brigade of the Guards of the Indian Army uses Garuda as their symbol * Elite bodyguards of the medieval Hoysala kings were called Garudas * Kerala and Andhra pradesh state road transport corporations use Garuda as the name for a/c moffusil buses * Garuda rock, a rocky cliff in Tirumala in Andhra pradesh * The insignia of the 13th century Aragalur chief, Magadesan, included Rishabha (Hinduism), Rishabha the sacred bull and the Garuda
CambodiaThe word Garuda ( km, គ្រុឌ – " ''Krud'' ") is literally derived from Sanskrit. * In Cambodia, Khmer architects have used the Garuda sculptures as the exquisite ornate to equip on temples, Viharas of wat and many elite houses since ancient time, especially from Khmer empire era until nowadays. * Garuda is also mentioned in many legendary tales as the vehicle of and its main rival is Nāga, Naga.
IndonesiaImage:Coat of Arms of Indonesia Garuda Pancasila.svg, The coat of arms of Indonesia, which utilizes a Garuda. uses the Garuda in a form called the '' Garuda Pancasila'' as its Coat of arms of Indonesia, national symbol. It is somewhat intertwined with the concept of the Phoenix (mythology), Phoenix. The Garuda Pancasila is coloured black or Gilding, gilded, symbolizing both the greatness of the nation and the ''elang Jawa'' (Javan hawk-eagle ''Nisaetus bartelsi''). The black color represents nature. There are 17 feathers on each wing, 8 on the lower tail, 19 on the upper tail and 45 on the neck, which together make up the date 17 August 1945, when Proclamation of Indonesian Independence, Indonesia proclaimed its independence. The shield it carries bears the motto ''Pancasila (politics), Panca Sila'', which symbolizes self-defense and protection in struggle. * * Garuda Indonesia - national airline of Indonesia * Garuda Contingent - UN Peacekeeping, peacekeeping force of the Indonesian National Armed Forces * Airlangga University, one of the oldest and leading university in Indonesia uses Garuda on its emblem. The emblem, containing a Garuda in a blue and yellow circle, is called "Garudamukha", and depicts Garuda as the bearer of knowledge, carrying a jug of ''Amrita'', the water of eternity, symbolizing eternal knowledge. * In Bali and Java, the Garuda has become a cultural symbol. The wooden statue and mask of Garuda is a popular feature in artworks and souvenirs. ** The tallest Garuda statue, made of copper and brass standing tall (or 122 metres tall including the pedestal), is located in Garuda Wisnu Kencana complex in Bali. * The stylized brush stroke that resembles Garuda appears in 2011 Southeast Asian Games#Logo, the logo of 2011 Southeast Asian Games, held in Palembang and Jakarta, Indonesia. * The stylized curves that took the form of Garuda Pancasila appears in the logo of Tourism in Indonesia#Branding, Wonderful Indonesia tourism campaign.
China*In China, Garuda (Chinese: Jiālóuluó) is considered one of the Eight Legions, Eight Legions of Devas and Nāgas. Another Chinese name for Garuda is Great Peng, the Golden-Winged Illumination King () * In some temples in the Central Plain, Central Plains, Garuda is also considered to be a manifestation of Avalokiteśvara, Avalokitesvara, the Guanyin, Bodhisattva Guanyin.
Japan* The Karura () is a divine creature with human torso and birdlike head in Japanese Hindu-Buddhist epics. * The name is a transliteration of Garuda (Sanskrit: ; Pāli: ) a race of enormously gigantic birds in Hinduism, upon which the Japanese Buddhist version is based. The same creature may go by the name of konjichō (, lit. "gold-winged bird", Skr. ).
Mongolia* The Garuda, known as Khangarid, is the symbol of the capital city of Mongolia, Ulan Bator. According to popular Mongolian belief, Khangarid is the mountain spirit of the Bogd Khan Uul range who became a follower of Buddhist faith. Today he is considered the guardian of that mountain range and a symbol of courage and honesty. * Khangarid (Хангарьд), a football (soccer) team in the Mongolia Premier League also named after Garuda. * State Garuda (Улсын Гарьд) is a title given to the debut runner up in wrestling tournament during Mongolian National Festival Naadam.
Myanmar* In Burmese epics, which was influenced by Hindu-Buddhist beliefs, Garuda is known as Mythical creatures in Burmese folklore, Galone, the nemesis of the Nāgas.
NepalGaruda is found in Nepalese traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism.
Philippines* The Maranao people of southern Philippines believe in a race of creatures called ''garuda'' who dwell beneath the sea. These beings are winged, have big teeth, and huge talons that can carry six men. They look like eagles when flying in the sky but transform into humans when in their lairs.
Suriname* In Suriname, there is a radio and TV station called Radio en Televisie Garuda, which broadcasts programming from , particularly Java, aimed at the Javanese Surinamese population.
ThailandThailand uses the Garuda ( th, ครุฑ, khrut) as Emblem of Thailand, its national symbol, known as the ''Phra Khrut Pha'', meaning "Garuda, the vehicle (of Vishnu)," also used as the symbol of royalty. It adorns the banknote of their currency - the Baht - as well. * The Kingdom of Siam has had an image of Garuda in its coins at least since the Ayutthaya era. * Statues and images of Garuda adorn many Buddhist temples in Thailand. It also has become a cultural symbol of Thailand. * The figure of Garuda is also installed as the figurehead or masthead of Royal Barge Procession, Thai royal barges.
United StatesThe Electronic Attack Squadron 134 (VAQ-134) of the United States Navy is named after and uses the Garuda Insignia.
See also* Ababil (mythology), Ababil * Fenghuang * Garid * Architecture of Cambodia#Garuda, Garuda in the architecture of Cambodia * Garudasana * Harpy * Kalaviṅka * Krute the Mythical Beast, Krute * List of avian humanoids * Roc (mythology), Roc * Simurgh * Sirin * Tengu * Sarutahiko Ōkami * Thunderbird (mythology), Thunderbird * Garuda Purana