Garrison (various spellings) (from the French garnison, itself from
the verb garnir, "to equip") is the collective term for a body of
troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but
now often simply using it as a home base. The garrison is usually in a
city, town, fort, castle, ship or similar. "
Garrison town" is a common
expression for any town that has a military base nearby.
2 British and Irish garrison
3 Israeli garrison
4 Ancient Rome garrison
Garrison towns" (Arabic: حصون) were used during the Arab
Islamic conquests of Middle Eastern lands by Arab-
Muslim armies to
increase their dominance over indigenous populations. In order to
occupy non-Arab, non-Islamic areas, nomadic
Arab tribesmen were taken
from the desert by the ruling
Arab elite, conscripted into Islamic
armies, and settled into garrison towns as well as given a share in
the spoils of war. The primary utility of the Arab-Islamic garrisons
was to control the indigenous non-
Arab peoples of these conquered and
occupied territories, and to serve as garrison bases to launch further
Islamic military campaigns into yet-undominated lands. A secondary
aspect of the Arab-Islamic garrisons was the uprooting of the
Arab tribesmen from their original home regions
Arabian Peninsula in order to proactively avert these tribal
peoples, and particularly their young men, from revolting against the
Islamic state established in their midst.
British and Irish garrison
In the United Kingdom, "Garrison" also specifically refers to any of
the major military stations such as Aldershot, Catterick, Colchester,
Tidworth, Bulford, and London, which have more than one barracks or
camp and their own military headquarters, usually commanded by a
colonel, brigadier or major-general, assisted by a garrison sergeant
major. In Ireland,
Association football (as distinct from Gaelic
football) has historically been termed the "garrison game" or the
"garrison sport" for its connections with British military serving in
Irish cities and towns.
In Israel, a "garrison unit" (Hebrew: חיל מצב) is a regular
unit defending a specified Israeli zone in need of protection from
attack from combatants. Israeli garrison units placed in the disputed
West Bank are recognized under
UN Resolution 242 as
occupied pending peaceful recognition by all regional combatants.
Ancient Rome garrison
Main article: Colonia (Roman)
It was an old custom in ancient Italy to send out colonies for the
purpose of securing new conquests. The Romans, having no standing
army, used to plant bodies of their own citizens in conquered towns as
a kind of garrison.
^ The Early Islamic Conquests, by Fred Donner. Princeton University
Press, 1981; forward from page 251.
^ An Fear Rua - Garrison, Gallic and Gaelic
Nouveau petit Larousse illustré, 1952 (French encycl