Although their background is the
Lesser Antilles , since 1797, the
They speak the Garifuna language .
* 1 History
* 1.1 Three Diasporas: African, Garifuna, and Central American
* 2 Language * 3 Spirituality
* 4 Culture
* 4.1 Food * 4.2 Music
* 5 Gender relations * 6 Genetics * 7 Economics * 8 Notable Garifuna * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Bibliography * 12 External links
The Carib people migrated from the mainland to the islands circa 1200, according to carbon dating of artifacts. They largely displaced, exterminated and assimilated the Taino who were resident on the island at the time.
The French missionary
Raymond Breton arrived in the Lesser Antilles
in 1635, and lived on
According to Young's record, the first Africans arrived in 1675
following the wreck of a slave ship from the Bight of
In 1635 the Carib were overwhelmed by French forces led by the
adventurer Pierre Belain d\'Esnambuc and his nephew Jacques Dyel du
Parquet . They imposed French colonial rule on the indigenous Carib
Cardinal Richelieu of France gave the island to the Saint
Christophe Company , in which he was a shareholder. Later the company
was reorganized as the Company of the American Islands . The French
Because the Carib people resisted working as laborers to build and
maintain the sugar and cocoa plantations which the French began to
develop in the Caribbean, in 1636 King Louis XIII proclaimed La
Traité des Noirs . This authorized the capture and purchase of slaves
from sub-Saharan Africa and their transportation as labor to
In 1650, the Company liquidated, selling
When the Carib revolted against French rule in 1660, the Governor Charles Houel sieur de Petit Pré retaliated with war against them. Many were killed; those who survived were taken captive and expelled from the island. On Martinique, the French colonists signed a peace treaty with the few remaining Carib. Some Carib had fled to Dominica and St. Vincent , where the French agreed to leave them at peace. Depiction of the 1773 treaty negotiations between the British and the Black Caribs
Britain and France both made conflicting claims on Saint Vincent from
the late seventeenth century onward. French pioneers began informally
cultivating plots on the island around 1710. In 1719 the governor of
In 1763 by the Treaty of Paris , Britain gained rule over Saint Vincent following its defeat of France in the Seven Years\' War , fought in both Europe and North America. It also took over all French territory in North America east of the Mississippi River. Through the rest of the century, the Carib-African natives mounted a series of Carib Wars, which were encouraged and supported by the French. By the end of the 18th century, the indigenous population was primarily mixed race. Following the death of their leader Satuye ( Joseph Chatoyer ), the Carib on St. Vincent finally surrendered to the British in 1796 after the Second Carib War , having resisted for much longer than natives on other islands. "St. Vincent was the last of the Windward Islands to be totally subjugated."
This was also in the period of the violent slave revolts in the
French colony of
Saint-Domingue , which ultimately led to the slaves
gaining the independent republic of
The British deported the
Roatán , an island off the
Large-scale sugar production and chattel slavery were not established on Saint Vincent until the British took it over. As Great Britain abolished slavery in 1832, it operated it for roughly a generation on the island, creating a legacy different than on other Caribbean islands. Elsewhere slavery had been institutionalized for much longer.
In the 21st century, the
Garifuna population is estimated to be
around 600,000 in total, taking together its people in Central
America, Yurumein (St. Vincent and The Grenadines), and the United
States. As a result of extensive emigration from Central America, the
THREE DIASPORAS: AFRICAN, GARIFUNA, AND CENTRAL AMERICAN
The distinction between diaspora and transnational migration is that
diaspora implies the dispersal of a people from a homeland, whether
voluntarily or through exile, to multiple nation-states. Transnational
migration is generally associated with two locations. In addition, in
contrast to the more intense contact which contemporary transmigrants
have with their country of origin, diasporic populations often have a
more tenuous relationship to the "homeland" or society of origin.
Historically there was little hope of return; the relationship is more
remote, or even imagined. Thus the
Main article: Garifuna language
Garifuna language is an offshoot of the
Island Carib language ,
and it is spoken in
Although many people speak it, it is not treated as a real language by some as it has no written component to it, it is only spoken. This makes the language hard to learn unless it is learned in early childhood, along with other languages simultaneously. This occurs most often as children learn the Garifuna as a cultural language and a language such as Spanish or English spoken as the official language of where they live.
Almost all Garifuna are bilingual or multilingual . They generally speak the official languages of the countries they inhabit, such as Spanish and English, most commonly as a first language . Many also speak Garifuna, mostly as a cultural language, as a part of their families heritage.
The Garinagu do not have an official religion, but a complex set of
practices for individuals and groups to show respect for their
ancestors and Bungiu or Sunti Gabafu . A shaman known as a buyei is
the head of all
Garifuna traditional practices. The spiritual
practices of the Garinagu have qualities similar to the voodoo rituals
performed by other tribes of African descent.
There are also Garifuna who practice the religion of Islam.
Garifuna parade on San Isidro Day, in Livingston (Guatemala).
There is a wide variety of Garifuna dishes, including the more commonly known ereba (cassava bread ) made from grated cassava root, yucca. The process of making "ereba" is arguably the most important tradition practiced by the Garifuna people. Cassava is so closely tied to the Garifuna culture that the very name Garifuna draws its origin from the Caribs who were originally called "Karifuna" of the cassava clan. They later adopted the name "Garifuna", which literally means cassava-eating people. Making "ereba" is a long and arduous process that involves a large group of Garifuna (mostly women and children) hiking into the jungle to dig up a large quantity of the cassava root (usually several dozen pounds) and taking it back to the village. The root is then washed peeled and grated over small sharp stones affixed to wooden boards. The grating is difficult and time consuming, and the women sing sad and slow songs to break the monotony of the work. The grated cassava is then placed into a large cylindrical woven bag called a "ruguma". The "ruguma" is hung from a tree and weighted at the bottom with heavy rocks in order to squeeze out and remove the poisonous liquid and starch from the grated pulp. The counterweight is sometimes provided by piercing the bottom of the "ruguma" with a tree branch and having one or two Garifuna women sit on the branch. Whatever the manner in which the weight is provided, the result is the same. The cassava is then ready to be made into flour. The remaining pulp is dried overnight and later sieved through flat rounded baskets (hibise) to form flour that is baked into pancakes on a large iron griddle (Comal). Ereba is eaten with fish, machuca (pounded green and ripe plantains ) or alone with gravy (lasusu) often made with a fish soup called "hudutu". Other accompanying dishes may include: bundiga (a green banana lasusu ), mazapan , and bimecacule (sticky sweet rice), as well as a coconut rice made with red beans. Nigerians also make "eba", "gari" and "fufu" from dried, grated cassava flour and similar accompanying dishes such as "ewuro" or egusi" (made with melon seeds) soup.
Garifuna music is quite different from that of the rest of Central
America. The most famous form is punta . In its associated dance
style, dancers move their hips in a circular motion. An evolved form
of traditional music, still usually played using traditional
instruments, punta has seen some modernization and electrification in
the 1970s; this is called punta rock . Traditional punta dancing is
consciously competitive. Artists like
Pen Cayetano helped innovate
modern punta rock by adding guitars to the traditional music, and
paved the way for later artists like
Andy Palacio , Children of the
Most High, and
Black Coral .
When Banda Blanca of
Belizean punta is distinctive from traditional punta in that songs
are usually in Kriol or
Garifuna and rarely in Spanish or English.
calypso and soca have had some effect on it. Like calypso and soca,
Belizean punta provides social commentary and risqué humor, though
the initial wave of punta acts eschewed the former. Calypso Rose, Lord
Rhaburn and the Cross Culture Band assisted the acceptance of punta by
Belizean Kriol people by singing calypso songs about punta - songs
such as "Gumagrugu Watah" and "
Prominent broadcasters of
Other forms of
Garifuna music and dance include: hungu-hungu,
combination, wanaragua, abaimahani, matamuerte, laremuna wadaguman,
gunjai, sambai, charikanari, eremuna egi, paranda, berusu, teremuna
ligilisi, arumahani, and Mali-amalihani. However, punta is the most
popular dance in
Garifuna culture. It is performed around holidays and
at parties and other social events.
Drums play a very important role in Garifuna music. Primarily two types of drums are used: the primero (tenor drum) and the segunda (bass drum). These drums are typically made of hollowed-out hardwood, such as mahogany or mayflower, with the skins coming from the peccary (wild bush pig), deer, or sheep.
Also used in combination with the drums are the sisera, which are shakers made from the dried fruit of the gourd tree, filled with seeds, and then fitted with hardwood handles.
Paranda music developed soon after the Garifunas' arrival in Central America. The music is instrumental and percussion-based. The music was barely recorded until the 1990s, when Ivan Duran of Stonetree Records began the Paranda Project .
In the Garifuna culture there is another dance called "dugu", which is included as part of a ritual done following a death in the family so as to pay respect to the departed loved one.
Through traditional dance and music, musicians have come together to
raise awareness of
Gender roles within the
Garifuna communities are significantly
defined by the job opportunities available to everyone. The Garifuna
people have relied on farming for a steady income in the past, but
much of this land was taken by fruit companies in the 20th century.
These companies were welcomed at first because the production helped
bring an income to the local communities, but as business declined
these large companies sold the land and it has become inhabited by
mestizo farmers. Since this time the
Although men can be away at work for large amounts of time they still believe that there is a strong connection between men and their newborn sons. Garifunas believe that a baby boy and his father have a special bond, and they are attached spiritually. It is important for a son's father to take care of him, which means that he must give up some of his duties in order to spend time with his child. During this time women gain more responsibility and authority within the household.
According to one genetic study the ancestry of the
The Garifuna culture is greatly affected by the economic atmosphere surrounding the community. This makes the communities extremely susceptible to outside influence. Many worry that the area will become extremely commercialized since there are few economic opportunities within the area.
* Theodore Aranda * Albert Arzu * Aurelio Martinez * Nixon R. Arauz Melendez * Rosita Baltazar * Elijio Beni * Roy Cayetano * Silas Cayetano * William Cacho * Paramount Chief Joseph Chatoyer * Mirtha Colón * Sam Daniels * Austin Flores * Paul Guerrero * Luther Castillo Harry * Pablo Lambey * Daniel Lino Aka Dline * Russel Machiste Garcia * Lucia Guity * Abraham Laboriel * Abe Laboriel Jr. * Aurelio Martinez * Bernard Martínez Valerio * Sidney Mejia aka "Mej" Godsman Ellis * Paul Nabor * Bernadino Nolasco aka "Machete" Isabel Flores aka "Isabel" * Carlos Nolberto * Rakeem Nuñez-Roches * Andy Palacio * Joseph Palacio * Doctor Theodore Palacio * Thomas Vincent Ramos * Simeon M. Sampson * Salvador Suazo * Victor Virgilio López García
* Keyla Bermudez 2014 Miss
* ^ Post Rust, Susie. "Fishing villages along Central America\'s
coast pulse with the joyous rhythms of this
National Geographic. Retrieved 2007-09-21.
* ^ "2005 American Community Survey: Race and Hispanic or Latino".
U.S. Census Bureau. 2000. Retrieved 2007-10-11.
* ^ Crawford, Michael H (1981). "The Black Caribs (Garifuna) of
Livingston, Guatemala: Genetic Markers and Admixture Estimates". Human
Biology. 53.1: 87–103.
* ^ A B C D E Sweeney, James L. (2007). "Caribs, Maroons, Jacobins,
Brigands, and Sugar Barons: The Last Stand of the Black Caribs on St.
Vincent", African Diaspora Archaeology Network, March 2007, retrieved
26 April 2007
* ^ "Institutional History of Martinique",
* Anderson, Mark. When Afro Becomes (like) Indigenous:
Afro-Indigenous Politics in Honduras. Journal of Latin American and
Caribbean Anthropology 12.2 (2007): 384–413. AnthroSource. Web. 20
* Breton, Raymond (1877) . Grammaire caraibe, composée par le p.
Raymond Breton, suivie du Catéchisme caraibe. Bibliothèque
linguistique américaine, no. 3 (1635 original MS. republication ed.).