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The Info List - Gardner–Salinas Braille Codes


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The Gardner–Salinas braille codes are a method of encoding mathematical and scientific notation linearly using braille cells for tactile reading by the visually impaired. The most common form of Gardner–Salinas braille is the 8-cell variety, commonly called GS8. There is also a corresponding 6-cell form called GS6.[1] The codes were developed as a replacement for Nemeth Braille by John A. Gardner, a physicist at Oregon State University, and Norberto Salinas, an Argentinian mathematician. The Gardner–Salinas braille codes are an example of a compact human-readable markup language. The syntax is based on the LaTeX system for scientific typesetting.[citation needed] See also: Braille
Braille
and Braille
Braille
music

Contents

1 Table of Gardner–Salinas 8-dot (GS8) braille

1.1 Digits 1.2 Upper-case letters 1.3 Greek letters 1.4 Characters differing from English Braille 1.5 ASCII symbols and mathematical operators 1.6 Text symbols 1.7 Math/Science symbols 1.8 Markup 1.9 Typeface indicators 1.10 Shape symbols 1.11 Set theory

2 References

Table of Gardner–Salinas 8-dot (GS8) braille[edit] The set of lower-case letters, the period, comma, semicolon, colon, exclamation mark, apostrophe, and opening and closing double quotes are the same as in Grade-2 English Braille.[1] Digits[edit]

Symbol 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Braille

Apart from 0, this is the same as the Antoine notation
Antoine notation
used in French and Luxembourgish Braille. Upper-case letters[edit] GS8 upper-case letters are indicated by the same cell as standard English braille (and GS8) lower-case letters, with dot #7 added.

Symbol A B C D E F G H I J K L M

Braille

Symbol N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Braille

Compare Luxembourgish Braille. Greek letters[edit] Dot 8 is added to the letter forms of International Greek Braille
Braille
to derive Greek letters:

Symbol α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ

Braille

Symbol ν ξ ο π ρ σ τ υ φ χ ψ ω

Braille

Symbol Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π Σ Υ Φ Ψ Ω

Braille

Characters differing from English Braille[edit]

Symbol Parentheses Brackets single quote  

open close open close open close ?

Braille

ASCII symbols and mathematical operators[edit]

Symbol " $ & @

^ _ `

~

Braille

Symbol # % * + / < = > × · ÷

Braille

Text symbols[edit]

Symbol • © † ‡ £

Braille

Math/Science symbols[edit]

Symbol ∼ ≈ ≡ ∝ x (abs. value) ∞ ∫ line ∫ closed ∫

Braille

Symbol 〈 〉 ∇ ∂ … → ← ○ ℵ ∈ ⇌

Braille

Markup[edit]

Symbol Superscript Subscript Left-superscript Left-subscript Begin fraction Denominator End fraction Over *

Braille

* Encodes the fraction-slash for the single adjacent digits/letters as numerator and denominator.

Symbol √ complex radicand * displayed equation ** math expressions ** hyperlink **

Open Close Open Close Open Close Open Close

Braille

* Used for any > 1 digit radicand. ** Used for markup to represent inkprint text.

Symbol Array      

Begin End End element End line vert. stack horiz. combo superposition

Braille

Symbol Misc. Symbol *     Modifiers

Begin End Quantity Markup indicator Inverted Stroke/Not Variant Large

Braille

Typeface indicators[edit]

Symbol Script Bold Italic Underline Definable font 1 Fractur Roman Underline

Braille

Shape symbols[edit]

Symbol ⊥ ∥ ∠ Open Square ⊿

Braille

Set theory[edit]

Symbol ∪ ∩ ⊂ ⊃

Braille

References[edit]

^ a b "Index of Topics in Braille
Braille
Section". Oregon State University Science Access Project Braille
Braille
topics. Archived from the original on 2012-04-20. Retrieved 2012-04-29. 

Blind physicist creates better Braille
Braille
— a CNN news item, November 9, 1995 The world of blind mathematicians — article in Notices of the AMS, November 2002

v t e

Braille
Braille
 ⠃⠗⠁⠊⠇⠇⠑

Braille
Braille
cell

1829 braille International uniformity ASCII braille Unicode braille patterns

Braille
Braille
scripts

French-ordered scripts (see for more)

Albanian Amharic Arabic Armenian Azerbaijani Belarusian Bharati

Devanagari (Hindi  / Marathi  / Nepali) Bengali Punjabi Sinhalese Tamil Urdu etc.

Bulgarian Burmese Cambodian Cantonese Catalan Chinese (Mandarin, mainland) Czech Dutch Dzongkha (Bhutanese) English (Unified English) Esperanto Estonian Faroese French Georgian German Ghanaian Greek Guarani Hawaiian Hebrew Hungarian Icelandic Inuktitut (reassigned vowels) Iñupiaq IPA Irish Italian Kazakh Kyrgyz Latvian Lithuanian Maltese Mongolian Māori Navajo Nigerian Northern Sami Persian Philippine Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Samoan Scandinavian Slovak South African Spanish Tatar Taiwanese Mandarin (largely reassigned) Thai & Lao (Japanese vowels) Tibetan Turkish Ukrainian Vietnamese Welsh Yugoslav

Reordered scripts

Algerian Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

Frequency-based scripts

American Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

Independent scripts

Japanese Korean Two-Cell Chinese

Eight-dot scripts

Luxembourgish Kanji Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8)

Symbols in braille

Braille
Braille
music Canadian currency marks Computer Braille
Braille
Code Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8/GS6) International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) Nemeth braille code

Braille
Braille
technology

Braille
Braille
e-book Braille
Braille
embosser Braille
Braille
translator Braille
Braille
watch Mountbatten Brailler Optical braille recognition Perforation Perkins Brailler Refreshable braille display Slate and stylus Braigo

Persons

Louis Braille Charles Barbier Valentin Haüy Thakur Vishva Narain Singh Sabriye Tenberken William Bell Wait

Organisations

Braille
Braille
Institute of America Braille
Braille
Without Borders Japan Braille
Braille
Library National Braille
Braille
Association Blindness organizations Schools for the blind American Printing House for the Blind

Other tactile alphabets

Decapoint Moon type New York Point Night writing Vibratese

Related topics

Accessible publishing Braille
Braille
li

.