The
Gardner–Salinas braille codes are a method of encoding
mathematical and scientific notation linearly using braille cells for
tactile reading by the visually impaired. The most common form of
Gardner–Salinas braille is the 8cell variety, commonly called GS8.
There is also a corresponding 6cell form called GS6.[1]
The codes were developed as a replacement for
Nemeth Braille by John
A. Gardner, a physicist at Oregon State University, and Norberto
Salinas, an Argentinian mathematician.
The
Gardner–Salinas braille codes are an example of a compact
humanreadable markup language. The syntax is based on the LaTeX
system for scientific typesetting.[citation needed]
See also:
Braille
Contents 1 Table of Gardner–Salinas 8dot (GS8) braille 1.1 Digits 1.2 Uppercase letters 1.3 Greek letters 1.4 Characters differing from English Braille 1.5 ASCII symbols and mathematical operators 1.6 Text symbols 1.7 Math/Science symbols 1.8 Markup 1.9 Typeface indicators 1.10 Shape symbols 1.11 Set theory 2 References Table of Gardner–Salinas 8dot (GS8) braille[edit] The set of lowercase letters, the period, comma, semicolon, colon, exclamation mark, apostrophe, and opening and closing double quotes are the same as in Grade2 English Braille.[1] Digits[edit] Symbol 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Braille Apart from 0, this is the same as the
Antoine notation
Symbol A B C D E F G H I J K L M Braille Symbol N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Braille Compare Luxembourgish Braille.
Greek letters[edit]
Dot 8 is added to the letter forms of International Greek
Braille
Symbol α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ Braille Symbol ν ξ ο π ρ σ τ υ φ χ ψ ω Braille Symbol Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π Σ Υ Φ Ψ Ω Braille Characters differing from English Braille[edit] Symbol Parentheses Brackets single quote open close open close open close ? Braille ASCII symbols and mathematical operators[edit] Symbol " $ & @ ^ _ ` ~ Braille Symbol # % * + / < = > × · ÷ Braille Text symbols[edit] Symbol • © † ‡ £ Braille Math/Science symbols[edit] Symbol ∼ ≈ ≡ ∝ x (abs. value) ∞ ∫ line ∫ closed ∫ Braille Symbol 〈 〉 ∇ ∂ … → ← ○ ℵ ∈ ⇌ Braille Markup[edit] Symbol Superscript Subscript Leftsuperscript Leftsubscript Begin fraction Denominator End fraction Over * Braille * Encodes the fractionslash for the single adjacent digits/letters as numerator and denominator. Symbol √ complex radicand * displayed equation ** math expressions ** hyperlink ** Open Close Open Close Open Close Open Close Braille * Used for any > 1 digit radicand. ** Used for markup to represent inkprint text. Symbol Array Begin End End element End line vert. stack horiz. combo superposition Braille Symbol Misc. Symbol * Modifiers Begin End Quantity Markup indicator Inverted Stroke/Not Variant Large Braille Typeface indicators[edit] Symbol Script Bold Italic Underline Definable font 1 Fractur Roman Underline Braille Shape symbols[edit] Symbol ⊥ ∥ ∠ Open Square ⊿ Braille Set theory[edit] Symbol ∪ ∩ ⊂ ⊃ Braille References[edit] ^ a b "Index of Topics in
Braille
Blind physicist creates better
Braille
v t e
Braille
Braille
1829 braille International uniformity ASCII braille Unicode braille patterns
Braille
Frenchordered scripts (see for more) Albanian Amharic Arabic Armenian Azerbaijani Belarusian Bharati Devanagari (Hindi / Marathi / Nepali) Bengali Punjabi Sinhalese Tamil Urdu etc. Bulgarian Burmese Cambodian Cantonese Catalan Chinese (Mandarin, mainland) Czech Dutch Dzongkha (Bhutanese) English (Unified English) Esperanto Estonian Faroese French Georgian German Ghanaian Greek Guarani Hawaiian Hebrew Hungarian Icelandic Inuktitut (reassigned vowels) Iñupiaq IPA Irish Italian Kazakh Kyrgyz Latvian Lithuanian Maltese Mongolian Māori Navajo Nigerian Northern Sami Persian Philippine Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Samoan Scandinavian Slovak South African Spanish Tatar Taiwanese Mandarin (largely reassigned) Thai & Lao (Japanese vowels) Tibetan Turkish Ukrainian Vietnamese Welsh Yugoslav Reordered scripts Algerian
Braille
Frequencybased scripts American
Braille
Independent scripts Japanese Korean TwoCell Chinese Eightdot scripts Luxembourgish Kanji Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8) Symbols in braille
Braille
Braille
Braille
Persons Louis Braille Charles Barbier Valentin Haüy Thakur Vishva Narain Singh Sabriye Tenberken William Bell Wait Organisations
Braille
Other tactile alphabets Decapoint Moon type New York Point Night writing Vibratese Related topics Accessible publishing
Braille
