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GARAGE ROCK (sometimes called \'60S PUNK or GARAGE PUNK) is a raw and energetic style of rock and roll that flourished in the mid-1960s, most notably in the United States and Canada . The style is characterized by basic chord structures played on electric guitars and other instruments , sometimes distorted through a fuzzbox , as well as often unsophisticated and occasionally aggressive lyrics and delivery. The term "garage rock" derives from the perception that groups were often made up of young amateurs who rehearsed in the family garage, although many were professional.

In the US and Canada, surf rock —and later the Beatles and other beat groups of the British Invasion —motivated thousands of young people to form bands between 1963 and 1968. Hundreds of acts produced regional hits, and some had national hits. Though largely associated with North America, counterparts were present elsewhere as part of the worldwide "beat boom" of the era. With the advent of psychedelia , a number of garage bands incorporated exotic elements into the genre's primitive stylistic framework, but after 1968, as more elaborate forms of rock music overtook the marketplace, garage rock records largely disappeared from national and regional charts, and the garage band movement faded.

During the 1960s the music was not recognized as a distinct genre and had no specific name, but critical hindsight in the early 1970s—and particularly the release of the 1972 compilation album _Nuggets _—did much to define and memorialize the style. Certain rock critics from 1971 to 1973 began to retroactively identify garage music as a genre and for a time used the term "punk rock ", making it the first form of music to bear this description. Since then, the genre has sometimes been referred to as "garage punk", as well as later labels such as "'60s punk" or "proto-punk ", which distinguish it from the more commonly known punk movement of the mid- to late-1970s that it influenced. The term "garage rock" came into favor in the early 1980s.

Garage rock has experienced various revivals. In the early to mid-1980s, several garage revival scenes sprung up featuring acts that consciously attempted to replicate the look and sound of 1960s garage bands. Later in the decade, a louder, more contemporary garage/fusion subgenre developed that combined garage rock with contemporary punk rock and other influences, lending an updated definition to the term "garage punk". In the 2000s, a wave of garage-influenced acts associated with the post-punk revival emerged, and a some achieved commercial success. Garage rock continues to appeal to musicians and audiences who prefer a "back to basics" or "do-it-yourself " musical approach.

CONTENTS

* 1 Social milieu and stylistic features * 2 Recognition and classification

* 3 Early 1960s: Origins

* 3.1 Direct antecedents * 3.2 Emergence of garage style

* 4 1964–68: Peak years

* 4.1 Impact of the Beatles and the British Invasion * 4.2 Success and airplay * 4.3 Female garage bands

* 4.4 Regional scenes in the United States and Canada

* 4.4.1 Pacific Northwest * 4.4.2 New England and Mid-Atlantic * 4.4.3 California * 4.4.4 Midwest * 4.4.5 Other US Regions * 4.4.6 Canada, islands, and territories

* 4.5 International scenes and counterparts

* 4.5.1 United Kingdom * 4.5.2 Continental Europe * 4.5.3 Latin America * 4.5.4 Asia * 4.5.5 Australia and New Zealand

* 4.6 Integration with psychedelia and counterculture

* 4.6.1 Historical and cultural associations * 4.6.2 Garage-based psychedelic/acid rock * 4.6.3 Primitivist avant-garde acts

* 4.7 Decline

* 5 Later developments

* 5.1 Garage-based proto-punk 1969–1974 * 5.2 Emergence of punk aesthetic and movement 1975–1978 * 5.3 Revivalist and hybrid movements 1980–present

* 6 1960s compilations * 7 List of bands * 8 See also

* 9 References

* 9.1 Notes * 9.2 Citations * 9.3 Bibliography * 9.4 Websites * 9.5 Suggested reading

* 10 External links

SOCIAL MILIEU AND STYLISTIC FEATURES

The D-Men (later the Fifth Estate ) in 1964

The term "garage rock", originally used in reference to 1960s acts, stems from the perception that its performers were young and amateurish, and often rehearsed in the family garage. While numerous bands were made up of middle-class teenagers from the suburbs, others were from rural or urban areas or were composed of professional musicians in their twenties. The term "garage band" often refers to musical acts in this genre.

Though it is impossible to determine how many garage bands were active in the 1960s, their numbers were extensive. According to Mark Nobles, it is estimated that over 180,000 bands formed in the United States, amongst which several thousand made records. Garage bands performed in a variety of venues. Less-established groups typically played at parties, school dances, and teen clubs. For acts of legal age (and in some cases younger), bars, nightclubs, and college fraternity socials also provided regular engagements. Occasionally, local groups had the opportunity to open at shows for famous touring acts. Some garage rock bands went on tour, particularly better-known acts, but also lesser-known groups receiving bookings or airplay beyond their locale. Groups often competed in "battles of the bands ", which gave musicians an opportunity to gain exposure and a chance to win a prize, such as free equipment or recording time in a local studio. Battles of the bands were held, locally, regionally and nationally, and three of the most prestigious national contests were held annually by the Tea Council of the U.S.A. , the Music Circus , and the United States Junior Chamber .

Performances often sounded amateurish, naïve, or intentionally raw, with typical themes revolving around the traumas of high school life and songs about "lying girls" being particularly common. The lyrics and delivery were frequently more aggressive than the more polished acts of the time, often with nasal, growled, or shouted vocals, sometimes punctuated by shrieks or screams at climactic moments of release. Instrumentation was characterized by basic chord structures played on electric guitars or keyboards often distorted through a fuzzbox , teamed with bass and drums. Guitarists sometimes played using aggressive-sounding bar chords , sometimes referred to as power chords . Organs such as the Farfisa were commonly used as well as harmonicas or hand-held percussion such as tambourines . Occasionally, the tempo was sped up in passages sometimes referred to as "raveups".

Garage rock acts were diverse in both musical ability and in style, ranging from crude and amateurish to near-studio level musicianship. There were also regional variations in flourishing scenes, such as in California and Texas. The north-western states of Idaho, Washington and Oregon had a distinctly recognizable regional sound with bands such as the Sonics and Paul Revere "> The Music Machine , featuring Sean Bonniwell , in 1966

In the 1960s, garage rock had no name and was not thought of as a genre, but as typical primitive rock of the period. "Garage rock" was not the first name applied to the style. In the early 1970s certain rock critics began to speak nostalgically of mid-1960s garage bands (and artists perceived to be in their tradition) as a loosely defined genre and used the term "punk rock " to characterize it, making it the first rock genre to bear the description. Conjuring up the mid-1960s, Lester Bangs in 1971 wrote: "... then punk bands started cropping up who were writing their own songs but taking the Yardbirds' sound and reducing it to this kind of goony fuzztone clatter ... oh, it was beautiful, it was pure folklore, Old America, and sometimes I think those were the best days ever".

Though the coinage of the phrase "punk rock" is unknown, Dave Marsh was the first music critic to use it in print, when in the May 1971 issue of _ Creem _ he described ? and the Mysterians as a "landmark exposition of punk rock". Much of the revival of interest in 1960s garage rock can be traced to the release of the 1972 album _ Nuggets _ compiled by rock journalist and future Patti Smith guitarist Lenny Kaye . In the liner notes, Kaye used the term "punk rock" to describe 1960s garage bands, and also "classic garage-punk" in reference to a song recorded in 1966 by the Shadows of Knight. In the January 1973 _ Rolling Stone _ review of _Nuggets_, Greg Shaw commented " Punk rock is a fascinating genre... Punk rock at its best is the closest we came in the 1960s to the original rockabilly spirit of rock ">"'60s punk", or "proto-punk ".

EARLY 1960S: ORIGINS

DIRECT ANTECEDENTS

See also: Rock and roll , Rhythm and blues , and Surf rock

In the late 1950s, the initial impact of rock and roll on mainstream American culture waned as major record companies took a controlling influence and sought to market more conventionally acceptable recordings. Electric musical instruments (particularly guitars) and amplification were becoming more affordable, allowing young musicians to form small groups to perform in front of local audiences of their peers; and in some areas there was a breakdown, especially among radio audiences, of traditional black and white markets, with more white teenagers listening to and purchasing R codecs="vorbis"" data-title="Original Ogg file (125 kbps)" data-shorttitle="Ogg source" data-width="0" data-height="0" data-bandwidth="124632" /> The 1962 hit "Let\'s Dance " by Chris Montez , with its use of "cheesy"-sounding Farfisa organ riffs and banging drums, featured stylistic elements that anticipate the garage sound. -------------------------

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Many young people were inspired by musicians such as Chuck Berry , Little Richard , Bo Diddley , Jerry Lee Lewis , Buddy Holly , and Eddie Cochran , whose recordings of relatively unsophisticated and hard-driving songs from a few years earlier proclaimed personal independence and freedom from parental controls and conservative norms. Ritchie Valens ' 1958 hit "La Bamba " helped jump-start the Chicano rock scene in Southern California and provided a three-chord template for the songs of numerous 1960s garage bands. By the end of the 1950s regional scenes were abundant around the country and helped set the stage for garage rock the 1960s.

Guitarist Link Wray was an early influence on garage rock and used innovative guitar techniques and effects such as power chords and distortion. He is best known for his 1959 instrumental "Rumble ", which featured the sound of distorted, "clanging" guitar chords, which anticipated much of what was to come. The combined influences of early-1960s instrumental rock and surf rock also played significant roles in helping shape the sound garage rock.

EMERGENCE OF GARAGE STYLE

"Frat rock" redirects here. For the album with a similar name, see Frat Rock! The Greatest Rock \'n\' Roll Party Tunes of All-Time .

According to Lester Bangs , "the origins of garage rock as a genre can be traced to California and the Pacific Northwest in the early Sixties". The Pacific Northwest , which encompasses Washington , Oregon , and Idaho , played a critical role in the inception of garage rock, hosting the first scene to produce a sizable number of acts, and pre-dated the British Invasion by several years. The signature garage sound of the Pacific Northwest is sometimes referred to as "the Northwest Sound" and had its origins in the late 1950s, when a handful of R&B and rock codecs="vorbis"" data-title="Original Ogg file (114 kbps)" data-shorttitle="Ogg source" data-width="0" data-height="0" data-bandwidth="114488" /> " Louie, Louie " was written by Richard Berry and provided a major hit for the Kingsmen . -------------------------

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There and elsewhere, groups of teenagers were inspired directly by touring R&B performers such as Johnny Otis and Richard Berry , and began to play cover versions of R&B songs. During the late 1950s and early 1960s other instrumental groups playing in the region, such as the Ventures , formed in 1958 in Tacoma, Washington , who came to specialize in a surf rock sound, and the Frantics from Seattle. The Blue Notes from Tacoma, Washington, fronted by "Rockin\' Robin" Roberts , were one of the city's first teenage rock & roll bands. The Wailers (often referred to as the Fabulous Wailers) had national chart hit in 1959, the instrumental "Tall Cool One". After the demise of Blue Notes, "Rockin' Robin" did a brief stint with the Wailers, and with him on vocals in 1962, they recorded a version of Richard Berry's 1957 song " Louie Louie ", which became a standard for practically every band in the region. It was Portland group the Kingsmen 's 1963 off-the-cuff version of "Louie Louie", largely based on the Wailers' arrangement, that had the greatest impact, first as a regional hit in Seattle, then rising to No. 1 on the national charts and eventually becoming a hit overseas, making it the de facto "big bang" for three-chord rock. The group unwittingly became the target of an FBI investigation in response to complaints about the song's alleged use of profanity in its nearly undecipherable lyrics.

Elsewhere, regional scenes of teenage bands playing R"> The Standells in 1965 For more details on this topic, see Cultural impact of the Beatles and British Invasion .

As the mid-1960s arrived, garage rock entered a new period reflecting a different set of influences and circumstances. On February 9, 1964, during their first visit to the United States, the Beatles made a historic appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show watched by a record-breaking viewing audience of a nation mourning the recent death of President John F. Kennedy . For many, particularly the young, the Beatles' visit re-ignited the sense of excitement and possibility that had momentarily faded in the wake of the assassination. Much of this new excitement was expressed in rock music, sometimes much to the chagrin of parents and elders.

Following the Beatles' first visit, a subsequent string of successful and increasingly bold British Invasion acts emerged between 1964 and 1966. These had a profound impact, leading many (often surf or hot rod groups) to respond by altering their style, and countless new bands to form, as teenagers around the country picked up guitars and started bands by the thousands. In many cases, garage bands were particularly influenced by the British "beat groups " with a harder, blues-based attack, such as the Kinks , the Who , the Animals , the Yardbirds , Small Faces , Pretty Things , Them , and the Rolling Stones often resulting in a raw and primitive sound. Numerous acts sometimes characterized as garage formed in countries outside North America, such as England's the Troggs . Their 1966 worldwide hit Wild Thing " became a staple in countess American garage bands' repertoires. By 1965, the influence of the British Invasion prompted folk musicians such as Bob Dylan and members of the Byrds to adopt the use of electric guitars and amplifiers, resulting in folk rock . The emergence of folk rock and the resulting success of Dylan, the Byrds, and others influenced the approach of numerous garage bands.

SUCCESS AND AIRPLAY

The Count Five in 1966

In the wake of the British Invasion garage rock experienced its most widespread period of success, as part of the rock boom of the era. Thousands of garage bands were active in the US and Canada and hundreds produced regional hits during this period, often receiving airplay on local AM radio stations. Several acts gained wider exposure just long enough to have one or occasionally more national hits in an era rife with one-hit wonders . In 1965 the Beau Brummels broke into the national charts with " Laugh, Laugh ", followed by "Just a Little ". According to Richie Unterberger, they were perhaps the first American group to pose a successful response to the British Invasion. That year, Sam the Sham ">'s Hot 100 and was later memorialized by Lester Bangs in his 1971 piece "Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung".

_ Question Mark and the Mysterians – "96 Tears" (1966) Musicologist Pete Dale notes "96 Tears" as a typical example of 1960s punk, containing a "basic beat, repetitive structure, and a hypnotically simple keyboard part". -------------------------

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" 96 Tears " (1966) by Question Mark and the Mysterians , from Saginaw, Michigan, became a No. 1 hit in the US. The song's organ riffs and theme of teenage heartbreak have been mentioned as a landmark recording of the garage rock era and recognized for influencing the works of acts as diverse as the B-52\'s , the Cramps , and Bruce Springsteen . Two months later, the Music Machine , who reached the top 20 with fuzz guitar-driven " Talk Talk ", had a sound and image that helped pave the way for later acts such as the Ramones . The Syndicate of Sound 's "Little Girl ", which featured a cocksure half-spoken lead vocal set over chiming 12-string guitar chords, reached No. 8 on the _Billboard_ charts and was later covered by acts such as the Dead Boys , the Banned , and the Chesterfield Kings . Discovered by a Pittsburgh disc jockey in 1965, the resulting success of "Hanky Panky " by a defunct group, the Shondells, whose membership included Tommy James , revived James' career, where he assembled a new group under the name Tommy James and the Shondells. They followed with twelve more top 40 singles. In 1967, Strawberry Alarm Clock emerged from the garage outfit Thee Sixpence and had a No. 1 hit in 1967 with psychedelic " Incense and Peppermints ".

FEMALE GARAGE BANDS

The Pleasure Seekers ( Suzi Quatro far right) in 1966

Garage rock was not an exclusively male phenomenon—it fostered the emergence of all-female bands whose members played their own instruments. One of the first of such acts was New York's Goldie and the Gingerbreads , who appeared at New York's Peppermint Lounge in 1964 and accompanied the Rolling Stones on their American tour the following year. They had a hit in England with a version of "Can't You Hear My Heartbeat". The Continental Co-ets from Fulda, Minnesota, were active from 1963-1967 and had hit in Canada with "I Don't Love You No More". The Pleasure Seekers (later known as Cradle), from Detroit, featured Suzi Quatro and her sisters. Quatro went on to greater fame as a musical solo act and television actress in the 1970s. The Luv\'d Ones , also from Michigan, signed with Chicago's Dunwich Records and cut records with an occasionally somber sound, such as "Up Down Sue".

San Francisco's the Ace of Cups became a fixture in the Bay Area scene in the late 1960s. Other notable 1960s female groups were the Daughters of Eve from Chicago and She (previously known as the Hairem) from Sacramento, California. All-female bands were not exclusive to North America. The Liverbirds were a beat group from the Beatles' home city of Liverpool, England, but became best known in Germany, often performing in Hamburg's Star-Club . All-female groups of the 1960s anticipated later acts associated with the 1970s punk movement, such as the Runaways and the Slits .

REGIONAL SCENES IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA

Pacific Northwest

Paul Revere and the Raiders in 1967

In 1964 and 1965 the impact of the Beatles and the British Invasion shifted the musical landscape, presenting not only a challenge, but also a new impetus for teenagers in the Pacific Northwest to form bands, as many of the more experienced acts adapted to the new climate, often reaching greater levels of commercial or artistic success. After relocating to Portland, Paul Revere ">'". Prompted by the Sonics, the Wailers entered the mid-1960s with a harder-edged sound in the fuzz-driven "Hang Up" and "Out of Our Tree".

New England And Mid-Atlantic

The Remains in 1966

The Barbarians from Cape Cod , wearing sandals and long hair, and cultivating an image of "noble savages", recorded an album and several singles, such as " Are You a Boy or Are You a Girl ". In 1964 the group appeared on the _ T.A.M.I. Show _ on same bill as the Rolling Stones, James Brown . Their drummer, Victor "Moulty" Moulton, played holding one of his drumsticks with a prosthetic clamp in place of his left hand, as the result of a prior accident. In 1966, Moulton recorded "Moulty ", a spoken monologue set to music, in which he recounted the travails of his disfigurement, released under the Barbarians' name, but backed by future members of the Band .

Boston's the Remains (sometimes called Barry and the Remains), led by Barry Tashian , became one of the region's most popular bands and, in addition to issuing five singles and a self-titled album , toured with the Beatles in 1966. Also from Boston, the Rockin\' Ramrods released the distortion-driven "She Lied" in 1964, which Rob Fitzpatrick called "a truly spectacular piece of proto-punk, the sort of perfect blend of melody and aggression that the Ramones would go on to transform the planet with a dozen or more years later". The Squires from Bristol, Connecticut, issued a song now regarded as a garage rock classic, "All the Way". Garage rock flourished up and down the Atlantic coast, with acts such as the Vagrants , from Long Island, and Richard and the Young Lions from Newark, New Jersey, and the Blues Magoos from the Bronx, who got their start in New York's Greenwich Village scene and had a hit in 1966 with "(We Ain\'t Got) Nothin\' Yet ", which appeared on their debut album, _ Psychedelic Lollipop _, along with a lengthy rendition of the Nashville Teens ' " Tobacco Road ". The band followed with _ Electric Comic Book _ in 1967.

California

See also: Sunset Strip , Surf rock , and Chicano rock The Seeds in 1966

The garage craze came into full swing in California , particularly in Los Angeles . The Sunset Strip was the center of L.A. nightlife, providing bands with high-profile venues to attract a larger following and get the attention of record labels looking for "the next big thing". Exploitation films such as _Riot on Sunset Strip _, _Mondo Hollywood _, captured the musical and social milieu of life on the strip. In _Riot on Sunset Strip_, several bands make appearances at the Pandora\'s Box , with the Standells supplying the theme song and later appearances by San Jose's the Chocolate Watchband and others. The Seeds and the Leaves were favorites with the "in-crowd" and managed to achieve national hits with songs that have come to be regarded as garage classics: the Seeds with "Pushin\' Too Hard " and the Leaves with a hit version of " Hey Joe ", which became a staple in countless bands' repertoires.

Love , a racially integrated band headed by African-American musician Arthur Lee , was one of the most popular bands in the scene. Their propulsive 1966 protopunk anthem " 7 and 7 Is " became a staple in countless other bands' repertoires. The Music Machine , led by Sean Bonniwell , employed innovative musical techniques, sometimes building their own custom-made fuzzboxes. Their first album _(Turn On) The Music Machine _ featured the hit " Talk Talk". The Electric Prunes were one of the more successful garage bands to incorporate psychedelic influences into their sound, such as in the hit "I Had Too Much to Dream (Last Night) ", whose opening featured a buzzing fuzz -toned guitar, and which appeared on their self titled debut LP . Garage rock was also present in the Latino community of East L.A. The Premiers , who had a hit in 1964 with "Farmer John ", and Thee Midniters are considered prominent figures in Chicano rock , as are the San Diego -based, Cannibal "> The Shadows of Knight in 1966

Chicago , known for electric blues, continued to have a strong recording industry in the 1960s and was also a hotbed of activity for garage rock bands. Chicago blues as well as the Rolling Stones, the Pretty Things , and the Yardbirds influenced the Shadows of Knight , who recorded for Dunwich Records and were known for a tough, hard-driving sound. In 1966 they had hits with versions of Them 's Van Morrison -penned "Gloria " and Bo Diddley's "Oh Yeah", and also released the aggressive "I'm Gonna Make You Mine", which Mike Stax remarked "was recorded live in the studio with the amps cranked beyond distortion, this is 60s punk at its sexually charged, aggressive best." Also recording for Dunwich were the Del-Vetts and the Banshees , who released the cathartic "Project Blue" . Other notable Chicago acts were the Little Boy Blues and the New Colony Six .

Michigan had one of the largest scenes in the country. In early 1966, Detroit's MC5 released a version of "I Can Only Give You Everything" before they went on to greater success at the end of the decade. The Unrelated Segments recorded a string of songs beginning with local hit "You Can't Buy Love", followed by "Where You Gonna Go". In 1966, the Litter from Minneapolis released the guitar-overdriven "Action Woman —a song which Michael Hann described as "one of garage's gnarliest, snarliest, most tight-trousered pieces of hormonal aggression".

Other US Regions

The Five Americans in 1967

In Texas, The 13th Floor Elevators from Austin, featured Roky Erickson on guitar and vocals and are considered one of the prominent bands of the era. They had a regional hit with "You\'re Gonna Miss Me " and a string of albums, but the band was hampered by drug busts and related legal problems that hastened their demise. Richie Unterberger singled out The Zakary Thaks , from Corpus Christi, for their songwriting skills, and they are best known for the frantic and sped-up "Bad Girl." The Moving Sidewalks , from Houston, featured Billy Gibbons on guitar, later of ZZ Top . The Gentlemen from Dallas cut the fuzz-driven "It\'s a Cry\'n Shame ", which in Mike Markesich's _Teenbeat Mayhem_ is ranked as one of the top two garage rock songs of all time, second only to "You're Gonna Miss Me", by the 13th Floor Elevators. The Outcasts from San Antonio cut two higly regarded songs, "I'm in Pittsburgh and It's Raining", which became a local hit, and "1523 Blair", that Jason Ankeny described as " Texas psychedelia at its finest".

The Five Americans were from Durant, Oklahoma, and released a string of singles, such as "Western Union", which became a top 10 US hit in 1967. From Phoenix, Arizona, the Spiders featured Vincent Furnier, later known as Alice Cooper . The group recorded two singles, most notably "Don't Blow Your Mind", which became a local hit in Phoenix. They ventured to Los Angeles in 1967 in hopes of achieving greater success, which the group found not there, but in Detroit in the early 1970s, re-christened as Alice Cooper .

From Florida, Orlando's We the People came about as the result of the merger of two previous bands and featured songwriters Tommy Talton and Wane Proctor. They went recorded a string of self-composed songs, such as primitive rockers, "You Burn Me Upside Down" and "Mirror of my Mind", as well as the esoteric "In the Past", later covered by the Chocolate Watchband. Evil from Miami, had a hard, sometimes thrashing sound and a reputation for musical mayhem, typified in songs such as "From a Curbstone" and "I'm Movin' On".

Canada, Islands, And Territories

The Paupers in 1967

Like the United States, Canada experienced a large and vigorous garage rock movement. Vancouver's the Northwest Company , who recorded "Hard to Cry", had a power chord-driven approach. The Painted Ship were known for primal songs such as the angst-ridden "Frustration" and "Little White Lies", which Stansted Montfichet called a "punk classic". The Guess Who from Winnipeg , Manitoba , began in 1958 and entered the mid-1960s with a hit, Johnny Kidd ">'" and toured with the Rolling Stones. The Haunted from Montreal specialized in a gritty blues-based sound influenced by the Rolling Stones and released the single "1–2–5". Two other bands from Toronto were the Paupers and the Mynah Birds . The Paupers released several singles and two albums. The Mynah Birds featured the combination of Rick James on lead vocals and Neil Young on guitar, who both went on to fame as solo acts, as well as Bruce Palmer who later accompanied Young to California to join Buffalo Springfield in 1966. They signed a contract with Motown Records and recorded several songs including "It's My Time".

Outside of the mainland, garage rock became a fixture in the islands and territories adjacent to the continent. The Savages from Bermuda recorded the album _Live \'n Wild _, which features "The World Ain\'t Round It\'s Square ", an angry song of youthful defiance.

INTERNATIONAL SCENES AND COUNTERPARTS

The garage phenomenon, though most often associated with North America, was not exclusive to it. The particular countries involved had grass-roots rock movements which closely mirrored what was happening in the North America, several of which are sometimes retroactively referred to as freakbeat Nederbeat , Uruguayan Invasion , or Group Sounds , as well as "beat" or "garage rock". Its attributes were present in much of the beat music played in various countries throughout the world, as bands proliferated in the wake of the British Invasion.

United Kingdom

See also: British Invasion and Freakbeat Them , featuring Van Morrison (center), in 1965

Although Britain did not develop a distinctly defined garage rock genre in the same way as the United States, certain British bands shared characteristics with the American bands who often attempted to emulate them, and some have been mentioned in relation to garage, particularly in the subgenre known retrospectively as "freakbeat ".

Beat music emerged in Britain in the early 1960s, as musicians who originally come together to play rock and roll or skiffle assimilated American rhythm and blues influences and adopted the more powerful amplification becoming available. The genre provided the model for the format of many later rock groups, based around a lead singer with guitars and drums. Many groups formed to play this music in local establishments – the Liverpool area alone had a particularly high concentration of acts and venues. The Beatles emerged from this beat music boom, and their energetic approach served as a template for the formation of countless groups. Some bands developed a distinctively British blues style. Nationally popular beat and R"> The Troggs in 1966

The Troggs had a worldwide hit in 1966 with "Wild Thing ", written by American Chip Taylor . Extolling the virtues of their seemingly unrepentant primitivism and sexually charged innuendo, the Troggs were the British band that Lester Bangs singled out as perhaps the quintessential "punk" band of the 1960s. The Equals , a racially integrated band from North London featuring guitarist Eddy Grant , specialized in an upbeat style of rock; their 1966 recording "Baby Come Back " was a hit in Europe before becoming a British number one in 1968. In keeping with the popularity of blues-based rock and the onset of psychedelic music in the mid-1960s, some of the harder-driving and more obscure bands associated with the mod scene in the UK are sometimes retroactively referred to as Freakbeat , which is sometimes viewed as the more stylish British parallel to garage rock. Several bands often mentioned as Freakbeat are the Creation , the Action , the Move , the Smoke , the Sorrows , and Wimple Winch .

Continental Europe

See also: Nederbeat and Beat-Club Q65 in 1967

The beat boom swept through continental Europe, resulting in the emergence of numerous bands who played in styles sometimes cited as European variants of garage rock. The Netherlands had one of the largest scenes, sometimes retroactively described as Nederbeat . From Amsterdam, the Outsiders , who Richie Unterberger singled out as one of the most important 1960s rock acts from a non-English Speaking country, featured Wally Tax on lead vocals and specialized in an eclectic R"> Los Mockers , from Uruguay in 1965

Latin America had a significant amount of musical activity in the worldwide beat craze. Mexico had its own equivalent of American garage. The nation's proximity to the United States was detectable in the raw sounds produced by a number of groups. Mexico often absorbed American musical influences and trends, and embraced the British Invasion. One of Mexico's most popular acts were Los Dug Dug\'s , who recorded several albums and stayed active well into the 1970s.

The beat boom flourished in Uruguay during the mid-1960s in a period sometimes referred to as the Uruguayan Invasion . Two of the best known acts were Los Shakers and Los Mockers . In Peru , los Saicos were one of the first bands to gain national prominence. Their 1965 song "¡Demolición!" with its humorously anarchistic lyrics was a huge hit in Peru. AllMusic, writing about Los Saicos, noted "These guys were a punk rock band, even if nobody outside Lima knew it at the time". Los Yorks became one of Peru's leading groups. Colombia had bands such Los Speakers from Bogata. Los Gatos Salvajes , who came from Rosario, Argentina , were one of the country's first beat groups, and two of their members went on to form Los Gatos , who became a popular act in Argentina during the late 1960s.

Asia

See also: Group Sounds The Spiders in 1966

The far East was not immune to the beat craze, and Japan was no exception, particularly after the Beatles' 1966 visit, when they played two shows at Tokyo's Budokan arena. The popular 1960s beat/garage movement in Japan is often referred to as Group Sounds (or _GS_). The Spiders were one of the better-known groups. Other notable bands were the Golden Cups and the Tigers .

Despite famine, economic hardship, and political instability, India experienced its own proliferation of garage bands in the 1960s, even persisting into the beginning of the next decade with the 1960s musical style intact, after it had fallen out of favor practically everywhere else. Mumbai, with its hotels, clubs, and nightlife, had a bustling music scene. The Jets, who were active from 1964 to 1966, were perhaps the first beat group to become popular there. Also popular in Mumbai were the Trojans, featuring Biddu , originally from Bangalore , who later moved to London and become a solo act. Every year the annual Simla Beat Contest was held in Bombay by the Imperial Tobacco Company. Groups from all over India, such as the Fentones and Velvet Fogg, competed in the event.

Australia And New Zealand

See also: Australian rock The Easybeats in 1966

Australia and New Zealand experienced a garage and beat explosion in the mid-1960s. Before the British Invasion hit, the land down under enjoyed a sizable surf rock scene, with popular bands such as the Atlantics , who had several instrumental hits, as well as the Aztecs and the Sunsets. In late 1963 and early 1964 British Invasion influence started permeating the music scenes there. In June 1964 the Beatles visited Australia as part of their world tour and were greeted by a crowd of an estimated 300,000 in Adelaide. In response, many prior Australian surf bands adapted by adding vocals over guitars, and a host of new bands formed. The first wave of British-inspired bands tended towards the pop-oriented sound of the Merseybeat . With rise in popularity of bands such as the Rolling Stones and the Animals, a second wave of Australian bands emerged that favored a harder, blues-influenced approach.

Sydney was the host to numerous acts during this time. Though the Atlantics had begun as an instrumental surf group, after the advent of the British Invasion, they brought in veteran singer Johnny Rebb , formerly with Johnny Rebb and His Rebels, to supply vocals on songs such as "Come On". The Easybeats became the most popular group in Australia during the mid-sixties. Most of their pre-1967 songs were written by vocalist Stevie Wright and guitarist George Young , the older brother of Angus Young and Malcolm Young , later of AC/DC . In late 1966, they re-located to London and had a worldwide hit with " Friday on My Mind ". One of Sydney's most notorious acts was the Missing Links , who throughout 1965 went through a complete and total lineup change between the release their first single in March and on the subsequent releases later that year, such as the primitivist anthems "Wild About You", as well as their self-titled LP. Also in 1966, The Throb had a hit in Australia with their version of "Fortune Teller ", and later that year released "Black", a brooding version of a traditional folk ballad noted for its expressionistic use of guitar feedback. The Black Diamonds issued "I Want, Need, Love You" in 1966, a song which featured an intense and hard-driving guitar sound that Ian D. Marks described as "speaker cone-shredding".

From Brisbane came the Pleazers and the Purple Hearts , and from Melbourne the Pink Finks , the Loved Ones , Steve and the Board, and the Moods . Like Sydney's the Missing Links, the Creatures were another notorious group of the period, who Iain McIntyre remarked "Thanks to their brightly coloured hair and bad-ass attitude, the Creatures left in their wake a legacy of multiple arrests, bloodied noses and legendary rave ups". The Masters Apprentices ' early sound was largely R&B-influenced garage and psychedelic, and their career stretched into the 1970s.

From New Zealand, the Bluestars cut the defiant "Social End Product", that with its line "I don't stand for the queen" aimed at social oppression and anticipated some of the anti-royalist sentiments of the Sex Pistols and other 1970s punk rock acts. Chants R&B were known for a raw R"> The Electric Prunes in 1966 Main articles: Psychedelic rock and Acid rock

Tapping into the psychedelic zeitgeist, musicians sonically pushed barriers and explored new horizons. Garage acts, while generally lacking the budgetary means to produce musical extravaganzas on the scale of _Sgt. Pepper\'s Lonely Hearts Club Band _ or the instrumental virtuosity of acts such as Jimi Hendrix or Cream , nonetheless managed to infuse esoteric elements into basic primitive rock. The 13th Floor Elevators from Austin, Texas, are usually thought to be first band to use the term "psychedelic"—in their promotional literature in early 1966. They also used it in the title of their debut album released in November, _ The Psychedelic Sounds of the 13th Floor Elevators _. In August 1966, the Deep traveled from New York to Philadelphia to record a set of hallucinogenic songs for the album _Psychedelic Moods: A Mind-Expanding Phenomena _, released in October 1966, one month before the 13th Floor Elevators' debut album, and whose all-night sessions produced mind-expanding stream of consciousness ramblings. Other notable bands that incorporated psychedelia into garage rock were the Electric Prunes, the Music Machine, the Blues Magoos, and the Chocolate Watchband.

Primitivist Avant-garde Acts

See also: Experimental rock

Certain acts conveyed a world view markedly removed from the implicit innocence of much psychedelia and suburban-style garage, often infusing their work with subversive political or philosophical messages, dabbling in musical forms and concepts considered at the time to be extreme. Such artists shared certain characteristics with the garage bands in their use of primitivistic instrumentation and arrangements, while displaying psychedelic rock's affinity for exploration—creating more urbanized, intellectual, and avant garde types of primitivist rock, sometimes mentioned in relation to garage rock. New York City was the home to several such groups. The Fugs , who formed in 1963, were one of rock's first experimental bands and its core members were singer, poet, and social activist Ed Sanders , along with Tuli Kupferberg and Ken Weaver . They specialized in a satirical mixture of amateurish garage rock, jug , folk , and psychedelic laced with leftist political commentary. In a 1970 interview, Ed Sanders became the first known musician to describe his music as "punk rock". The Monks 's music imbued garage rock with avant garde elements.

The Velvet Underground , whose roster included Lou Reed , are now generally considered the foremost experimental rock group of the period. At the time of recording their first album, they were involved with Andy Warhol , who produced some its tracks, and his assemblage of "scenesters" at the Factory , including model-turned-singer Nico . She briefly accompanied them on the resulting album, _ The Velvet Underground "> Iggy Pop was a member of the Stooges , who are considered one of the preeminent proto-punk acts.

The garage rock boom faded at the end of the 1960s, but a handful of maverick acts carried its impetus into the next decade, seizing on the style's rougher edges, but brandishing them with increased volume and aggression. Such acts, often retroactively described as "proto-punk ", worked in a variety of rock genres and came from disparate places, notably Michigan . Such bands specialized in an energetic and hard-rocking style that was heavy, but more primitive than most of the sophisticated hard rock sounds typical of the time, which often relied on extended instrumental soloing and jams .

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, several Michigan bands rooted in garage rock recorded a works that became highly influential, particularly with the 1970s punk movement. In 1969, MC5 issued their live debut LP, _ Kick Out the Jams _, which featured a set of highly energetic, politically-charged songs. The Stooges , from Ann Arbor were fronted by lead singer Iggy Pop, Describing their approach, Stephen Thomas Erlewine commented: "Taking their cue from the over-amplified pounding of British blues, the primal raunch of American garage rock, and the psychedelic rock (as well as the audience-baiting) of the Doors, the Stooges were raw, immediate, and vulgar." The group released three albums during this period, beginning with the self-titled _ The Stooges _ in 1969 and culminating with _ Raw Power _ (now billed as Iggy and the Stooges) in 1973, which featured the cathartic opeing cut, "Search and Destroy". The Alice Cooper band relocated to Detroit, where they began to gain success with a new "shock rock " image, and recorded 1971's _Love It to Death _, which featured their breakout hit "I\'m Eighteen ".

Two bands who formed in the early 1970s in the waning days of the Detroit scene were The Punks and Death . The Punks had a sometimes thrashing sound that rock journalist Lester Bangs described as "intense" and their song "My Time's Comin'" was featured in a 2016 episode of HBO's _Vinyl _. In 1974, Death , whose membership was made up of brothers David, Bobby, and Dannis Hackney, recorded tracks for an album that remained unreleased for over 30 years, _...For the Whole World to See _, which, along with their other subsequently-issued tracks, finally earned them a reputation as pioneers in punk rock.

In Boston, the Modern Lovers , led by Velvet Underground devotee Jonathan Richman , gained attention with their minimalistic style. In 1974, an updated garage rock scene began to coalesce around the Rathskeller club in Kenmore Square . The Real Kids were founded by former Modern Lover John Felice . Between 1969 and 1974, there were other movements further removed from the American garage rock tradition, such as Glam and pub rock in Great Britain, as well as Krautrock in Germany, that nonetheless displayed hallmarks of proto-punk and had an influence on 1970s punk.

EMERGENCE OF PUNK AESTHETIC AND MOVEMENT 1975–1978

Main articles: Punk rock and Punk subculture The Ramones (pictured in 1977), who were influenced by garage rock, spearheaded the mid-1970s punk movement in New York.

Identification of garage rock by certain critics in the early 1970s (and their use of the term "punk rock" to describe it), as well as the 1972 _Nuggets_ compilation exerted a marked degree of influence on the subsequent punk movement of the mid-to-late 1970s. As a result of the popularity of _Nuggets_ and critical attention paid to primitive-sounding rock of the past and present, a self-conscious musical aesthetic began to emerge around the term "punk" that, with the eventual arrival of the New York and London punk scenes, grew into a subculture , with its own look, iconography, identity, and values.

The mid- to late-1970s saw the arrival of the bands most often viewed as the quintessential punk rock acts. One of the most prominent was the Ramones from New York, some of whose members had played in 1960s garage bands, and who are usually considered the first punk band as the term is now commonly understood. They were followed by the Sex Pistols from London, who struck an even more defiant pose and effectively heralded the arrival punk as a _cause célèbre _ in the larger public mind. Both bands spearheaded the popular punk movement from their respective locations. Though garage rock and protopunk influenced many of the bands from the New York and London scenes of this period, punk rock now emerged as a distinct movement with a subculture all of its own, and the garage band era of the 1960s came to be viewed as a distant forerunner.

REVIVALIST AND HYBRID MOVEMENTS 1980–PRESENT

" Garage rock revival" redirects here. For the late 1980s garage rock/punk fusion genre, see Garage punk . For the 2000s revival, see Post-punk revival .

Garage rock has experienced various revivals in the ensuing years and continues to influence numerous modern acts who prefer a "back to basics" and "do it yourself" musical approach. The earliest group to attempt to revive the sound of 1960s garage was the Droogs , from Los Angeles, who formed in 1972 and pre-dated many of the revival acts of the 1980s. In the early 1980s, revival scenes linked to the underground music movements of the period sprang up in Los Angeles, New York, Boston, and elsewhere, with acts such as the Chesterfield Kings , the Fuzztones , the Pandoras , and the Lyres earnestly attempting to replicate the sound and look of the 1960s garage bands. This trend fed in into the alternative rock movement and future grunge explosion, which embraced influenceces by 1960s garage bands such as the Sonics and the Wailers. The Black Keys performing in 2011

Out of the garage revival, a more aggressive form of garage rock known as garage punk emerged in the late 1980s. It differed from the "retro" revival in that its acts did not attempt to replicate the exact look and sound of 1960s groups, and their approach tended to be louder, often infusing garage rock with elements of Stooges-era protopunk, 1970s punk rock , and other influences, creating a new hybrid. Several notable garage punk bands were the Gories , thee Mighty Caesars , the Mummies and thee Headcoats . Garage punk and revival acts persisted into the 1990s and the new millennium, with independent record labels releasing records by bands playing fast-paced, lo-fi music . Some of the more prolific independent labels include Estrus , Get Hip , Bomp! , and Sympathy for the Record Industry .

In the early 2000s, a garage rock or post-punk revival achieved the airplay and commercial success that had eluded garage rock bands of the past. This was led by four bands: the Strokes of New York City , the Hives of Fagersta, Sweden , the Vines of Sydney , and the White Stripes from Detroit, Michigan . Other products of the Detroit rock scene included the Von Bondies , Electric 6 , the Dirtbombs , the Detroit Cobras , and Rock 455. Elsewhere, acts such as Billy Childish and the Buff Medways from Chatham, England, the (International) Noise Conspiracy from Umeå, Sweden, and Jay Reatard and the Oblivians from Memphis, enjoyed moderate underground success and appeal. Out of Japan came Guitar Wolf from Nagasaki and the 5.6.7.8's from Tokyo. A second wave of bands that gained international recognition as a result of the movement included the Black Keys , Black Rebel Motorcycle Club , Death from Above 1979 , the Yeah Yeah Yeahs , the Killers , Interpol , and Kings of Leon from the US, the Libertines , Arctic Monkeys , Bloc Party , Editors , and Franz Ferdinand from the UK, Jet from Australia, and the Datsuns and the D4 from New Zealand.

The mid-2000s saw several underground bands achieve mainstream prominence. Acts such as Ty Segall , Thee Oh Sees , Black Lips and Jay Reatard, that initially released records on smaller garage punk labels such as In the Red Records , began signing to larger, better-known independent labels. Several bands followed them in signing to larger labels such as Rough Trade and Drag City .

1960S COMPILATIONS

See also: List of garage rock compilation albums

According to Peter Aaron, there over a thousand 1960s garage rock compilations featuring work by various artists. The first major garage rock compilation, _Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era, 1965–1968 _, was released by Elektra Records in 1972. _Nuggets_ grew into a multi-volume series, when Rhino Records in the 1980s released fifteen installments that consisted of songs from the original album plus additional tracks. In 1998, Rhino released a four-CD box set version of _Nuggets_, containing the original album and three additional discs of material, that included extensive liner notes by some of garage rock's most influential writers.

The _Pebbles _ series was begun by Greg Shaw and originally appeared on his Bomp label in 1978 and has been issued in successive installments on LP and CD. _Back from the Grave _ is a series issued by Crypt Records that focuses on hard-driving and primitive examples of the genre. Big Beat Records ' _Uptight Tonight: The Ultimate 1960s Garage Punk Primer _ also features harder material. There are several notable anthologies devoted to female garage bands from the 1960s. _Girls in the Garage _ was the first female garage rock series, and Ace Records\' issued the more recent _Girls with Guitars _ compilations.

There are numerous collections featuring garage/beat music from outside of North America. Rhino's _ Nuggets II: Original Artyfacts from the British Empire and Beyond, 1964–1969 _ 4-CD box set includes music from the Untied Kingdom and other countries in the British commonwealth . It is of particular interest to fans of freakbeat . _Ugly Things _ was the first compilation series to highlight Australian garage bands from the 1960s. _Down Under Nuggets: Original Australian Artyfacts 1965–1967 _ also covers Australian acts. The _Trans World Punk Rave-Up _ series focuses on garage and Nederbeat music from Continental Europe.

_Los Nuggetz Volume Uno _ is devoted primarily to Latin American groups and is available in a single-CD edition, as well as an expanded 4-CD box set. _GS I Love You: Japanese Garage Bands of the 1960s _ and its companion piece _ GS I Love You Too: Japanese Garage Bands of the 1960s _ Both sets feature GS acts from Japan. The _ Simla Beat 70/71 _ compilation consists of recordings by garage rock acts from India that competed in the 1970 and 1971 Simla Beat contests. Though its tracks were recorded at the turn of 1970s, most of them bear a striking resemblance to music made in the West several years earlier.

LIST OF BANDS

Main article: List of garage rock bands

SEE ALSO

* _ 1960s portal * Rock music portal * Music portal

Wikimedia Commons has media related to GARAGE ROCK _.

Library resources about GARAGE ROCK -------------------------

* Resources in your library * Resources in other libraries

* Acid rock * Pub rock * American rock * Freakbeat * Group Sounds * List of 1960s one-hit wonders in the United States * List of garage rock bands * Nederbeat and Nederpop * Rock music * Uruguayan Invasion

REFERENCES

NOTES

* ^ On p. 49, Markesich mentions that the number of bands/acts included in the book's discography amounts to over 4,500. His discography on pages 53–281 is devoted strictly to US acts and does not include Canadian acts or any from other countries. * ^ Letters in title were not capitalized. * ^ Not to be confused with Alice Cooper's American band of the same name. * ^ On pages 10 and 51 the author indicates that the term often used for many the Indian bands of the 1960s is "garage bands". * ^ The title of the Gamblers\' 1960 instrumental "LSD-25" mentions LSD, and in " Miserlou " (1962), Dick Dale used a Phrygian scale. The first musical act to use the term "psychedelic was the New York-based folk group the Holy Modal Rounders on their version of Lead Belly 's "Hesitation Blues " (there pronounced as "psycho-delic") in 1964.

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SUGGESTED READING

* Unterberger, Richie (2000). _Urban Spacemen and Wayfaring Strangers: Overlooked Innovators and Eccentric Visionaries of '60s Rock_. Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN 978-0-87930-616-8 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

* \'60s Garage Bands – histories of local and regional bands of the 1960s * Beyond the Beat Generation – interviews with former members of 1960s garage bands * Everett True\'s Australian Garage Rock Primer – covers Australian garage rock bands of the 1960s and later

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