GARAGE ROCK (sometimes called \'60S PUNK or GARAGE PUNK) is a raw and
energetic style of rock and roll that flourished in the mid-1960s,
most notably in the
United States and
Canada . The style is
characterized by basic chord structures played on electric guitars and
other instruments , sometimes distorted through a fuzzbox , as well as
often unsophisticated and occasionally aggressive lyrics and delivery.
The term "garage rock" derives from the perception that groups were
often made up of young amateurs who rehearsed in the family garage,
although many were professional.
In the US and Canada, surf rock —and later the Beatles and other
beat groups of the
British Invasion —motivated thousands of young
people to form bands between 1963 and 1968. Hundreds of acts produced
regional hits, and some had national hits. Though largely associated
with North America, counterparts were present elsewhere as part of the
worldwide "beat boom" of the era. With the advent of psychedelia , a
number of garage bands incorporated exotic elements into the genre's
primitive stylistic framework, but after 1968, as more elaborate forms
of rock music overtook the marketplace, garage rock records largely
disappeared from national and regional charts, and the garage band
During the 1960s the music was not recognized as a distinct genre and
had no specific name, but critical hindsight in the early 1970s—and
particularly the release of the 1972 compilation album
much to define and memorialize the style. Certain rock critics from
1971 to 1973 began to retroactively identify garage music as a genre
and for a time used the term "punk rock ", making it the first form of
music to bear this description. Since then, the genre has sometimes
been referred to as "garage punk", as well as later labels such as
"'60s punk" or "proto-punk ", which distinguish it from the more
commonly known punk movement of the mid- to late-1970s that it
influenced. The term "garage rock" came into favor in the early 1980s.
Garage rock has experienced various revivals. In the early to
mid-1980s, several garage revival scenes sprung up featuring acts that
consciously attempted to replicate the look and sound of 1960s garage
bands. Later in the decade, a louder, more contemporary garage/fusion
subgenre developed that combined garage rock with contemporary punk
rock and other influences, lending an updated definition to the term
"garage punk". In the 2000s, a wave of garage-influenced acts
associated with the post-punk revival emerged, and a some achieved
Garage rock continues to appeal to musicians and
audiences who prefer a "back to basics" or "do-it-yourself " musical
* 1 Social milieu and stylistic features
* 2 Recognition and classification
* 3 Early 1960s: Origins
* 3.1 Direct antecedents
* 3.2 Emergence of garage style
* 4 1964–68: Peak years
* 4.1 Impact of the Beatles and the
* 4.2 Success and airplay
* 4.3 Female garage bands
* 4.4 Regional scenes in the
United States and
* 4.4.2 New England and Mid-Atlantic
* 4.4.5 Other US Regions
* 4.4.6 Canada, islands, and territories
* 4.5 International scenes and counterparts
* 4.5.1 United Kingdom
* 4.5.2 Continental Europe
* 4.5.4 Asia
* 4.6 Integration with psychedelia and counterculture
* 4.6.1 Historical and cultural associations
* 4.6.2 Garage-based psychedelic/acid rock
* 4.6.3 Primitivist avant-garde acts
* 4.7 Decline
* 5 Later developments
* 5.1 Garage-based proto-punk 1969–1974
* 5.2 Emergence of punk aesthetic and movement 1975–1978
* 5.3 Revivalist and hybrid movements 1980–present
* 6 1960s compilations
* 7 List of bands
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 9.1 Notes
* 9.2 Citations
* 9.3 Bibliography
* 9.4 Websites
* 9.5 Suggested reading
* 10 External links
SOCIAL MILIEU AND STYLISTIC FEATURES
The D-Men (later the Fifth Estate ) in 1964
The term "garage rock", originally used in reference to 1960s acts,
stems from the perception that its performers were young and
amateurish, and often rehearsed in the family garage. While numerous
bands were made up of middle-class teenagers from the suburbs, others
were from rural or urban areas or were composed of professional
musicians in their twenties. The term "garage band" often refers to
musical acts in this genre.
Though it is impossible to determine how many garage bands were
active in the 1960s, their numbers were extensive. According to Mark
Nobles, it is estimated that over 180,000 bands formed in the United
States, amongst which several thousand made records. Garage bands
performed in a variety of venues. Less-established groups typically
played at parties, school dances, and teen clubs. For acts of legal
age (and in some cases younger), bars, nightclubs, and college
fraternity socials also provided regular engagements. Occasionally,
local groups had the opportunity to open at shows for famous touring
acts. Some garage rock bands went on tour, particularly better-known
acts, but also lesser-known groups receiving bookings or airplay
beyond their locale. Groups often competed in "battles of the bands
", which gave musicians an opportunity to gain exposure and a chance
to win a prize, such as free equipment or recording time in a local
studio. Battles of the bands were held, locally, regionally and
nationally, and three of the most prestigious national contests were
held annually by the Tea Council of the U.S.A. , the
Music Circus ,
United States Junior Chamber .
Performances often sounded amateurish, naïve, or intentionally raw,
with typical themes revolving around the traumas of high school life
and songs about "lying girls" being particularly common. The lyrics
and delivery were frequently more aggressive than the more polished
acts of the time, often with nasal, growled, or shouted vocals,
sometimes punctuated by shrieks or screams at climactic moments of
release. Instrumentation was characterized by basic chord structures
played on electric guitars or keyboards often distorted through a
fuzzbox , teamed with bass and drums. Guitarists sometimes played
using aggressive-sounding bar chords , sometimes referred to as power
chords . Organs such as the
Farfisa were commonly used as well as
harmonicas or hand-held percussion such as tambourines .
Occasionally, the tempo was sped up in passages sometimes referred to
Garage rock acts were diverse in both musical ability and in style,
ranging from crude and amateurish to near-studio level musicianship.
There were also regional variations in flourishing scenes, such as in
California and Texas. The north-western states of Idaho, Washington
Oregon had a distinctly recognizable regional sound with bands
such as the Sonics and Paul Revere ">
The Music Machine
The Music Machine , featuring
Sean Bonniwell , in 1966
In the 1960s, garage rock had no name and was not thought of as a
genre, but as typical primitive rock of the period. "Garage rock" was
not the first name applied to the style. In the early 1970s certain
rock critics began to speak nostalgically of mid-1960s garage bands
(and artists perceived to be in their tradition) as a loosely defined
genre and used the term "punk rock " to characterize it, making it the
first rock genre to bear the description. Conjuring up the mid-1960s,
Lester Bangs in 1971 wrote: "... then punk bands started cropping up
who were writing their own songs but taking the Yardbirds' sound and
reducing it to this kind of goony fuzztone clatter ... oh, it was
beautiful, it was pure folklore, Old America, and sometimes I think
those were the best days ever".
Though the coinage of the phrase "punk rock" is unknown, Dave Marsh
was the first music critic to use it in print, when in the May 1971
Creem he described
? and the Mysterians as a "landmark
exposition of punk rock". Much of the revival of interest in 1960s
garage rock can be traced to the release of the 1972 album Nuggets
compiled by rock journalist and future
Patti Smith guitarist Lenny
Kaye . In the liner notes, Kaye used the term "punk rock" to
describe 1960s garage bands, and also "classic garage-punk" in
reference to a song recorded in 1966 by the Shadows of Knight. In the
Rolling Stone review of Nuggets, Greg Shaw commented
Punk rock is a fascinating genre...
Punk rock at its best is the
closest we came in the 1960s to the original rockabilly spirit of rock
">"'60s punk", or "proto-punk ".
EARLY 1960S: ORIGINS
Rock and roll
Rock and roll ,
Rhythm and blues
Rhythm and blues , and
In the late 1950s, the initial impact of rock and roll on mainstream
American culture waned as major record companies took a controlling
influence and sought to market more conventionally acceptable
recordings. Electric musical instruments (particularly guitars) and
amplification were becoming more affordable, allowing young musicians
to form small groups to perform in front of local audiences of their
peers; and in some areas there was a breakdown, especially among radio
audiences, of traditional black and white markets, with more white
teenagers listening to and purchasing R codecs="vorbis""
data-title="Original Ogg file (125 kbps)" data-shorttitle="Ogg source"
data-width="0" data-height="0" data-bandwidth="124632" /> The 1962
hit "Let\'s Dance " by
Chris Montez , with its use of
Farfisa organ riffs and banging drums, featured
stylistic elements that anticipate the garage sound.
Problems playing this file? See media help .
Many young people were inspired by musicians such as
Chuck Berry ,
Little Richard ,
Bo Diddley ,
Jerry Lee Lewis
Jerry Lee Lewis ,
Buddy Holly , and
Eddie Cochran , whose recordings of relatively unsophisticated and
hard-driving songs from a few years earlier proclaimed personal
independence and freedom from parental controls and conservative
Ritchie Valens ' 1958 hit "La Bamba " helped jump-start the
Chicano rock scene in
Southern California and provided a three-chord
template for the songs of numerous 1960s garage bands. By the end of
the 1950s regional scenes were abundant around the country and helped
set the stage for garage rock the 1960s.
Link Wray was an early influence on garage rock and used
innovative guitar techniques and effects such as power chords and
distortion. He is best known for his 1959 instrumental "Rumble ",
which featured the sound of distorted, "clanging" guitar chords, which
anticipated much of what was to come. The combined influences of
early-1960s instrumental rock and surf rock also played significant
roles in helping shape the sound garage rock.
EMERGENCE OF GARAGE STYLE
"Frat rock" redirects here. For the album with a similar name, see
Frat Rock! The Greatest Rock \'n\' Roll Party Tunes of All-Time .
Lester Bangs , "the origins of garage rock as a genre
can be traced to
California and the
Pacific Northwest in the early
Pacific Northwest , which encompasses Washington ,
Oregon , and
Idaho , played a critical role in the inception of garage
rock, hosting the first scene to produce a sizable number of acts, and
British Invasion by several years. The signature garage
sound of the
Pacific Northwest is sometimes referred to as "the
Northwest Sound" and had its origins in the late 1950s, when a handful
R&B and rock codecs="vorbis"" data-title="Original Ogg file (114
kbps)" data-shorttitle="Ogg source" data-width="0" data-height="0"
data-bandwidth="114488" /> "
Louie, Louie " was written by Richard
Berry and provided a major hit for the Kingsmen .
Problems playing this file? See media help .
There and elsewhere, groups of teenagers were inspired directly by
R&B performers such as
Johnny Otis and Richard Berry , and
began to play cover versions of
R&B songs. During the late 1950s and
early 1960s other instrumental groups playing in the region, such as
the Ventures , formed in 1958 in
Tacoma, Washington , who came to
specialize in a surf rock sound, and the Frantics from Seattle. The
Blue Notes from Tacoma, Washington, fronted by "Rockin\' Robin"
Roberts , were one of the city's first teenage rock & roll bands. The
Wailers (often referred to as the Fabulous Wailers) had national chart
hit in 1959, the instrumental "Tall Cool One". After the demise of
Blue Notes, "Rockin' Robin" did a brief stint with the Wailers, and
with him on vocals in 1962, they recorded a version of Richard Berry's
1957 song "
Louie Louie ", which became a standard for practically
every band in the region. It was Portland group the Kingsmen 's 1963
off-the-cuff version of "Louie Louie", largely based on the Wailers'
arrangement, that had the greatest impact, first as a regional hit in
Seattle, then rising to No. 1 on the national charts and eventually
becoming a hit overseas, making it the de facto "big bang" for
three-chord rock. The group unwittingly became the target of an FBI
investigation in response to complaints about the song's alleged use
of profanity in its nearly undecipherable lyrics.
Elsewhere, regional scenes of teenage bands playing R"> The
Standells in 1965 For more details on this topic, see Cultural
impact of the Beatles and
British Invasion .
As the mid-1960s arrived, garage rock entered a new period reflecting
a different set of influences and circumstances. On February 9, 1964,
during their first visit to the United States, the Beatles made a
historic appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show watched by a
record-breaking viewing audience of a nation mourning the recent death
President John F. Kennedy . For many, particularly the young, the
Beatles' visit re-ignited the sense of excitement and possibility that
had momentarily faded in the wake of the assassination. Much of this
new excitement was expressed in rock music, sometimes much to the
chagrin of parents and elders.
Following the Beatles' first visit, a subsequent string of successful
and increasingly bold
British Invasion acts emerged between 1964 and
1966. These had a profound impact, leading many (often surf or hot rod
groups) to respond by altering their style, and countless new bands to
form, as teenagers around the country picked up guitars and started
bands by the thousands. In many cases, garage bands were particularly
influenced by the British "beat groups " with a harder, blues-based
attack, such as the Kinks , the Who , the Animals , the Yardbirds ,
Small Faces ,
Pretty Things , Them , and the Rolling Stones often
resulting in a raw and primitive sound. Numerous acts sometimes
characterized as garage formed in countries outside North America,
such as England's the Troggs . Their 1966 worldwide hit Wild Thing "
became a staple in countess American garage bands' repertoires. By
1965, the influence of the
British Invasion prompted folk musicians
Bob Dylan and members of the Byrds to adopt the use of
electric guitars and amplifiers, resulting in folk rock . The
emergence of folk rock and the resulting success of Dylan, the Byrds,
and others influenced the approach of numerous garage bands.
SUCCESS AND AIRPLAY
The Count Five in 1966
In the wake of the
British Invasion garage rock experienced its most
widespread period of success, as part of the rock boom of the era.
Thousands of garage bands were active in the US and
hundreds produced regional hits during this period, often receiving
airplay on local AM radio stations. Several acts gained wider
exposure just long enough to have one or occasionally more national
hits in an era rife with one-hit wonders . In 1965 the Beau Brummels
broke into the national charts with "
Laugh, Laugh ", followed by "Just
a Little ". According to Richie Unterberger, they were perhaps the
first American group to pose a successful response to the British
Invasion. That year, Sam the Sham ">'s Hot 100 and was later
Lester Bangs in his 1971 piece "Psychotic Reactions
and Carburetor Dung".
Question Mark and the Mysterians – "96 Tears" (1966)
Musicologist Pete Dale notes "96 Tears" as a typical example of 1960s
punk, containing a "basic beat, repetitive structure, and a
hypnotically simple keyboard part".
Problems playing this file? See media help .
96 Tears " (1966) by
Question Mark and the Mysterians , from
Saginaw, Michigan, became a No. 1 hit in the US. The song's organ
riffs and theme of teenage heartbreak have been mentioned as a
landmark recording of the garage rock era and recognized for
influencing the works of acts as diverse as the B-52\'s , the Cramps ,
Bruce Springsteen . Two months later, the Music Machine , who
reached the top 20 with fuzz guitar-driven "
Talk ", had a sound
and image that helped pave the way for later acts such as the Ramones
The Syndicate of Sound 's "Little Girl ", which featured a cocksure
half-spoken lead vocal set over chiming 12-string guitar chords,
reached No. 8 on the Billboard charts and was later covered by acts
such as the Dead Boys , the Banned , and the Chesterfield Kings .
Discovered by a Pittsburgh disc jockey in 1965, the resulting success
of "Hanky Panky " by a defunct group, the Shondells, whose membership
Tommy James , revived James' career, where he assembled a new
group under the name
Tommy James and the Shondells. They followed
with twelve more top 40 singles. In 1967, Strawberry Alarm Clock
emerged from the garage outfit Thee Sixpence and had a No. 1 hit in
1967 with psychedelic "
Incense and Peppermints ".
FEMALE GARAGE BANDS
The Pleasure Seekers (
Suzi Quatro far right) in 1966
Garage rock was not an exclusively male phenomenon—it fostered the
emergence of all-female bands whose members played their own
instruments. One of the first of such acts was New York's Goldie and
the Gingerbreads , who appeared at New York's Peppermint Lounge in
1964 and accompanied the Rolling Stones on their American tour the
following year. They had a hit in England with a version of "Can't
You Hear My Heartbeat". The
Continental Co-ets from Fulda, Minnesota,
were active from 1963-1967 and had hit in
Canada with "I Don't Love
You No More". The Pleasure Seekers (later known as Cradle), from
Suzi Quatro and her sisters. Quatro went on to
greater fame as a musical solo act and television actress in the
1970s. The Luv\'d Ones , also from Michigan, signed with Chicago's
Dunwich Records and cut records with an occasionally somber sound,
such as "Up Down Sue".
San Francisco's the Ace of Cups became a fixture in the Bay Area
scene in the late 1960s. Other notable 1960s female groups were the
Daughters of Eve from
Chicago and She (previously known as the
Hairem) from Sacramento, California. All-female bands were not
exclusive to North America.
The Liverbirds were a beat group from the
Beatles' home city of Liverpool, England, but became best known in
Germany, often performing in Hamburg's
Star-Club . All-female groups
of the 1960s anticipated later acts associated with the 1970s punk
movement, such as the Runaways and the Slits .
REGIONAL SCENES IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA
Paul Revere and the Raiders in 1967
In 1964 and 1965 the impact of the Beatles and the British Invasion
shifted the musical landscape, presenting not only a challenge, but
also a new impetus for teenagers in the
Pacific Northwest to form
bands, as many of the more experienced acts adapted to the new
climate, often reaching greater levels of commercial or artistic
success. After relocating to Portland, Paul Revere ">'". Prompted by
the Sonics, the Wailers entered the mid-1960s with a harder-edged
sound in the fuzz-driven "Hang Up" and "Out of Our Tree".
New England And Mid-Atlantic
The Remains in 1966
The Barbarians from
Cape Cod , wearing sandals and long hair, and
cultivating an image of "noble savages", recorded an album and several
singles, such as "
Are You a Boy or Are You a Girl ". In 1964 the
group appeared on the
T.A.M.I. Show on same bill as the Rolling
James Brown . Their drummer, Victor "Moulty" Moulton, played
holding one of his drumsticks with a prosthetic clamp in place of his
left hand, as the result of a prior accident. In 1966, Moulton
recorded "Moulty ", a spoken monologue set to music, in which he
recounted the travails of his disfigurement, released under the
Barbarians' name, but backed by future members of the Band .
Boston's the Remains (sometimes called Barry and the Remains), led by
Barry Tashian , became one of the region's most popular bands and, in
addition to issuing five singles and a self-titled album , toured with
the Beatles in 1966. Also from Boston, the Rockin\' Ramrods released
the distortion-driven "She Lied" in 1964, which Rob Fitzpatrick called
"a truly spectacular piece of proto-punk, the sort of perfect blend of
melody and aggression that the
Ramones would go on to transform the
planet with a dozen or more years later". The Squires from Bristol,
Connecticut, issued a song now regarded as a garage rock classic, "All
Garage rock flourished up and down the Atlantic coast, with
acts such as the Vagrants , from Long Island, and Richard and the
Young Lions from Newark, New Jersey, and the
Blues Magoos from the
Bronx, who got their start in New York's Greenwich Village scene and
had a hit in 1966 with "(We Ain\'t Got) Nothin\' Yet ", which appeared
on their debut album,
Psychedelic Lollipop , along with a lengthy
rendition of the Nashville Teens ' "
Tobacco Road ". The band followed
Electric Comic Book in 1967.
Sunset Strip ,
Surf rock , and
Chicano rock The Seeds
The garage craze came into full swing in
California , particularly in
Los Angeles . The
Sunset Strip was the center of L.A. nightlife,
providing bands with high-profile venues to attract a larger following
and get the attention of record labels looking for "the next big
thing". Exploitation films such as Riot on
Sunset Strip , Mondo
Hollywood , captured the musical and social milieu of life on the
strip. In Riot on Sunset Strip, several bands make appearances at the
Pandora\'s Box , with the Standells supplying the theme song and later
appearances by San Jose's the Chocolate Watchband and others. The
Seeds and the Leaves were favorites with the "in-crowd" and managed to
achieve national hits with songs that have come to be regarded as
garage classics: the Seeds with "Pushin\' Too Hard " and the Leaves
with a hit version of "
Hey Joe ", which became a staple in countless
Love , a racially integrated band headed by
Arthur Lee , was one of the most popular bands in the scene. Their
propulsive 1966 protopunk anthem "
7 and 7 Is
7 and 7 Is " became a staple in
countless other bands' repertoires.
The Music Machine
The Music Machine , led by Sean
Bonniwell , employed innovative musical techniques, sometimes building
their own custom-made fuzzboxes. Their first album (Turn On) The
Music Machine featured the hit "
The Electric Prunes
The Electric Prunes were
one of the more successful garage bands to incorporate psychedelic
influences into their sound, such as in the hit "I Had Too Much to
Dream (Last Night) ", whose opening featured a buzzing fuzz -toned
guitar, and which appeared on their self titled debut LP . Garage
rock was also present in the Latino community of East L.A. The
Premiers , who had a hit in 1964 with "Farmer John ", and Thee
Midniters are considered prominent figures in
Chicano rock , as are
San Diego -based, Cannibal ">
The Shadows of Knight
The Shadows of Knight in 1966
Chicago , known for electric blues, continued to have a strong
recording industry in the 1960s and was also a hotbed of activity for
garage rock bands.
Chicago blues as well as the Rolling Stones, the
Pretty Things , and the Yardbirds influenced the Shadows of Knight ,
who recorded for
Dunwich Records and were known for a tough,
hard-driving sound. In 1966 they had hits with versions of Them 's
Van Morrison -penned "Gloria " and Bo Diddley's "Oh Yeah", and also
released the aggressive "I'm Gonna Make You Mine", which Mike Stax
remarked "was recorded live in the studio with the amps cranked beyond
distortion, this is 60s punk at its sexually charged, aggressive
best." Also recording for Dunwich were the Del-Vetts and the Banshees
, who released the cathartic "Project Blue" . Other notable Chicago
acts were the Little Boy
Blues and the New Colony Six .
Michigan had one of the largest scenes in the country. In early 1966,
MC5 released a version of "I Can Only Give You Everything"
before they went on to greater success at the end of the decade. The
Unrelated Segments recorded a string of songs beginning with local hit
"You Can't Buy Love", followed by "Where You Gonna Go". In 1966, the
Litter from Minneapolis released the guitar-overdriven "Action Woman
—a song which Michael Hann described as "one of garage's gnarliest,
snarliest, most tight-trousered pieces of hormonal aggression".
Other US Regions
The Five Americans in 1967
The 13th Floor Elevators from Austin, featured Roky
Erickson on guitar and vocals and are considered one of the prominent
bands of the era. They had a regional hit with "You\'re Gonna Miss Me
" and a string of albums, but the band was hampered by drug busts and
related legal problems that hastened their demise. Richie
Unterberger singled out
The Zakary Thaks , from Corpus Christi, for
their songwriting skills, and they are best known for the frantic and
sped-up "Bad Girl."
The Moving Sidewalks , from Houston, featured
Billy Gibbons on guitar, later of
ZZ Top . The Gentlemen from Dallas
cut the fuzz-driven "It\'s a Cry\'n Shame ", which in Mike Markesich's
Teenbeat Mayhem is ranked as one of the top two garage rock songs of
all time, second only to "You're Gonna Miss Me", by the 13th Floor
Elevators. The Outcasts from San Antonio cut two higly regarded
songs, "I'm in Pittsburgh and It's Raining", which became a local hit,
and "1523 Blair", that Jason Ankeny described as "
Texas psychedelia at
The Five Americans were from Durant, Oklahoma, and released a string
of singles, such as "Western Union", which became a top 10 US hit in
1967. From Phoenix, Arizona, the Spiders featured Vincent Furnier,
later known as
Alice Cooper . The group recorded two singles, most
notably "Don't Blow Your Mind", which became a local hit in Phoenix.
They ventured to
Los Angeles in 1967 in hopes of achieving greater
success, which the group found not there, but in Detroit in the early
1970s, re-christened as
Alice Cooper .
From Florida, Orlando's We the People came about as the result of the
merger of two previous bands and featured songwriters Tommy Talton and
Wane Proctor. They went recorded a string of self-composed songs,
such as primitive rockers, "You Burn Me Upside Down" and "Mirror of my
Mind", as well as the esoteric "In the Past", later covered by the
Chocolate Watchband. Evil from Miami, had a hard, sometimes thrashing
sound and a reputation for musical mayhem, typified in songs such as
"From a Curbstone" and "I'm Movin' On".
Canada, Islands, And Territories
The Paupers in 1967
Like the United States,
Canada experienced a large and vigorous
garage rock movement. Vancouver's the Northwest Company , who recorded
"Hard to Cry", had a power chord-driven approach. The Painted Ship
were known for primal songs such as the angst-ridden "Frustration" and
"Little White Lies", which Stansted Montfichet called a "punk
The Guess Who from
Manitoba , began in 1958 and
entered the mid-1960s with a hit, Johnny Kidd ">'" and toured with the
The Haunted from Montreal specialized in a gritty
blues-based sound influenced by the Rolling Stones and released the
single "1–2–5". Two other bands from
Toronto were the Paupers and
the Mynah Birds .
The Paupers released several singles and two albums.
The Mynah Birds featured the combination of
Rick James on lead vocals
Neil Young on guitar, who both went on to fame as solo acts, as
Bruce Palmer who later accompanied Young to
California to join
Buffalo Springfield in 1966. They signed a contract with Motown
Records and recorded several songs including "It's My Time".
Outside of the mainland, garage rock became a fixture in the islands
and territories adjacent to the continent. The Savages from Bermuda
recorded the album Live \'n Wild , which features "The World Ain\'t
Round It\'s Square ", an angry song of youthful defiance.
INTERNATIONAL SCENES AND COUNTERPARTS
The garage phenomenon, though most often associated with North
America, was not exclusive to it. The particular countries involved
had grass-roots rock movements which closely mirrored what was
happening in the North America, several of which are sometimes
retroactively referred to as freakbeat
Nederbeat , Uruguayan
Invasion , or
Group Sounds , as well as "beat" or "garage rock". Its
attributes were present in much of the beat music played in various
countries throughout the world, as bands proliferated in the wake of
the British Invasion.
British Invasion and
Freakbeat Them , featuring Van
Morrison (center), in 1965
Although Britain did not develop a distinctly defined garage rock
genre in the same way as the United States, certain British bands
shared characteristics with the American bands who often attempted to
emulate them, and some have been mentioned in relation to garage,
particularly in the subgenre known retrospectively as "freakbeat ".
Beat music emerged in Britain in the early 1960s, as musicians who
originally come together to play rock and roll or skiffle assimilated
American rhythm and blues influences and adopted the more powerful
amplification becoming available. The genre provided the model for the
format of many later rock groups, based around a lead singer with
guitars and drums. Many groups formed to play this music in local
establishments – the
Liverpool area alone had a particularly high
concentration of acts and venues.
The Beatles emerged from this beat
music boom, and their energetic approach served as a template for the
formation of countless groups. Some bands developed a distinctively
British blues style. Nationally popular beat and R">
The Troggs in
The Troggs had a worldwide hit in 1966 with "Wild Thing ", written by
Chip Taylor . Extolling the virtues of their seemingly
unrepentant primitivism and sexually charged innuendo, the Troggs were
the British band that
Lester Bangs singled out as perhaps the
quintessential "punk" band of the 1960s.
The Equals , a racially
integrated band from North London featuring guitarist
Eddy Grant ,
specialized in an upbeat style of rock; their 1966 recording "Baby
Come Back " was a hit in Europe before becoming a British number one
in 1968. In keeping with the popularity of blues-based rock and the
onset of psychedelic music in the mid-1960s, some of the
harder-driving and more obscure bands associated with the mod scene in
the UK are sometimes retroactively referred to as
Freakbeat , which is
sometimes viewed as the more stylish British parallel to garage rock.
Several bands often mentioned as
Freakbeat are the Creation , the
Action , the Move , the Smoke , the Sorrows , and
Wimple Winch .
Beat-Club Q65 in 1967
The beat boom swept through continental Europe, resulting in the
emergence of numerous bands who played in styles sometimes cited as
European variants of garage rock. The Netherlands had one of the
largest scenes, sometimes retroactively described as
From Amsterdam, the Outsiders , who
Richie Unterberger singled out as
one of the most important 1960s rock acts from a non-English Speaking
Wally Tax on lead vocals and specialized in an
Los Mockers , from
Uruguay in 1965
Latin America had a significant amount of musical activity in the
worldwide beat craze.
Mexico had its own equivalent of American
garage. The nation's proximity to the
United States was detectable in
the raw sounds produced by a number of groups.
Mexico often absorbed
American musical influences and trends, and embraced the British
Invasion. One of Mexico's most popular acts were Los Dug Dug\'s , who
recorded several albums and stayed active well into the 1970s.
The beat boom flourished in
Uruguay during the mid-1960s in a period
sometimes referred to as the
Uruguayan Invasion . Two of the best
known acts were
Los Shakers and
Los Mockers . In
Peru , los Saicos
were one of the first bands to gain national prominence. Their 1965
song "¡Demolición!" with its humorously anarchistic lyrics was a
huge hit in Peru. AllMusic, writing about Los Saicos, noted "These
guys were a punk rock band, even if nobody outside Lima knew it at the
Los Yorks became one of Peru's leading groups.
Los Speakers from Bogata. Los Gatos Salvajes , who came
Rosario, Argentina , were one of the country's first beat groups,
and two of their members went on to form Los Gatos , who became a
popular act in Argentina during the late 1960s.
Group Sounds The Spiders in 1966
The far East was not immune to the beat craze, and
Japan was no
exception, particularly after the Beatles' 1966 visit, when they
played two shows at Tokyo's Budokan arena. The popular 1960s
beat/garage movement in
Japan is often referred to as
Group Sounds (or
GS). The Spiders were one of the better-known groups. Other notable
bands were the Golden Cups and the Tigers .
Despite famine, economic hardship, and political instability, India
experienced its own proliferation of garage bands in the 1960s, even
persisting into the beginning of the next decade with the 1960s
musical style intact, after it had fallen out of favor practically
everywhere else. Mumbai, with its hotels, clubs, and nightlife, had
a bustling music scene. The Jets, who were active from 1964 to 1966,
were perhaps the first beat group to become popular there. Also
popular in Mumbai were the Trojans, featuring
Biddu , originally from
Bangalore , who later moved to London and become a solo act. Every
year the annual Simla Beat Contest was held in Bombay by the Imperial
Tobacco Company. Groups from all over India, such as the Fentones and
Velvet Fogg, competed in the event.
Australia And New Zealand
The Easybeats in 1966
New Zealand experienced a garage and beat explosion in
the mid-1960s. Before the
British Invasion hit, the land down under
enjoyed a sizable surf rock scene, with popular bands such as the
Atlantics , who had several instrumental hits, as well as the Aztecs
and the Sunsets. In late 1963 and early 1964 British Invasion
influence started permeating the music scenes there. In June 1964
the Beatles visited
Australia as part of their world tour and were
greeted by a crowd of an estimated 300,000 in Adelaide. In response,
many prior Australian surf bands adapted by adding vocals over
guitars, and a host of new bands formed. The first wave of
British-inspired bands tended towards the pop-oriented sound of the
Merseybeat . With rise in popularity of bands such as the Rolling
Stones and the Animals, a second wave of Australian bands emerged that
favored a harder, blues-influenced approach.
Sydney was the host to numerous acts during this time. Though the
Atlantics had begun as an instrumental surf group, after the advent of
the British Invasion, they brought in veteran singer
Johnny Rebb ,
Johnny Rebb and His Rebels, to supply vocals on songs
such as "Come On".
The Easybeats became the most popular group in
Australia during the mid-sixties. Most of their pre-1967 songs were
written by vocalist Stevie Wright and guitarist George Young , the
older brother of
Angus Young and
Malcolm Young , later of
AC/DC . In
late 1966, they re-located to London and had a worldwide hit with
Friday on My Mind ". One of Sydney's most notorious acts was the
Missing Links , who throughout 1965 went through a complete and total
lineup change between the release their first single in March and on
the subsequent releases later that year, such as the primitivist
anthems "Wild About You", as well as their self-titled LP. Also in
The Throb had a hit in
Australia with their version of "Fortune
Teller ", and later that year released "Black", a brooding version of
a traditional folk ballad noted for its expressionistic use of guitar
feedback. The Black Diamonds issued "I Want, Need, Love You" in 1966,
a song which featured an intense and hard-driving guitar sound that
Ian D. Marks described as "speaker cone-shredding".
From Brisbane came the Pleazers and the Purple Hearts , and from
Melbourne the Pink Finks , the Loved Ones , Steve and the Board, and
the Moods . Like Sydney's the Missing Links, the Creatures were
another notorious group of the period, who Iain McIntyre remarked
"Thanks to their brightly coloured hair and bad-ass attitude, the
Creatures left in their wake a legacy of multiple arrests, bloodied
noses and legendary rave ups".
The Masters Apprentices ' early sound
was largely R&B-influenced garage and psychedelic, and their career
stretched into the 1970s.
From New Zealand, the Bluestars cut the defiant "Social End Product",
that with its line "I don't stand for the queen" aimed at social
oppression and anticipated some of the anti-royalist sentiments of the
Sex Pistols and other 1970s punk rock acts. Chants
R&B were known
for a raw R">
The Electric Prunes
The Electric Prunes in 1966 Main articles:
Psychedelic rock and
Tapping into the psychedelic zeitgeist, musicians sonically pushed
barriers and explored new horizons. Garage acts, while generally
lacking the budgetary means to produce musical extravaganzas on the
scale of Sgt. Pepper\'s Lonely Hearts Club Band or the instrumental
virtuosity of acts such as
Jimi Hendrix or Cream , nonetheless managed
to infuse esoteric elements into basic primitive rock. The 13th Floor
Elevators from Austin, Texas, are usually thought to be first band to
use the term "psychedelic"—in their promotional literature in early
1966. They also used it in the title of their debut album released in
The Psychedelic Sounds of the 13th Floor Elevators . In
August 1966, the Deep traveled from New York to Philadelphia to record
a set of hallucinogenic songs for the album Psychedelic Moods: A
Mind-Expanding Phenomena , released in October 1966, one month before
the 13th Floor Elevators' debut album, and whose all-night sessions
produced mind-expanding stream of consciousness ramblings. Other
notable bands that incorporated psychedelia into garage rock were the
Electric Prunes, the Music Machine, the
Blues Magoos, and the
Primitivist Avant-garde Acts
Certain acts conveyed a world view markedly removed from the implicit
innocence of much psychedelia and suburban-style garage, often
infusing their work with subversive political or philosophical
messages, dabbling in musical forms and concepts considered at the
time to be extreme. Such artists shared certain characteristics with
the garage bands in their use of primitivistic instrumentation and
arrangements, while displaying psychedelic rock's affinity for
exploration—creating more urbanized, intellectual, and avant garde
types of primitivist rock, sometimes mentioned in relation to garage
New York City
New York City was the home to several such groups.
The Fugs ,
who formed in 1963, were one of rock's first experimental bands and
its core members were singer, poet, and social activist
Ed Sanders ,
Tuli Kupferberg and Ken Weaver . They specialized in a
satirical mixture of amateurish garage rock, jug , folk , and
psychedelic laced with leftist political commentary. In a 1970
Ed Sanders became the first known musician to describe his
music as "punk rock".
The Monks 's music imbued garage rock
with avant garde elements.
The Velvet Underground , whose roster included
Lou Reed , are now
generally considered the foremost experimental rock group of the
period. At the time of recording their first album, they were
Andy Warhol , who produced some its tracks, and his
assemblage of "scenesters" at the Factory , including
Nico . She briefly accompanied them on the
The Velvet Underground ">
Iggy Pop was a member of
the Stooges , who are considered one of the preeminent proto-punk
The garage rock boom faded at the end of the 1960s, but a handful of
maverick acts carried its impetus into the next decade, seizing on the
style's rougher edges, but brandishing them with increased volume and
aggression. Such acts, often retroactively described as "proto-punk
", worked in a variety of rock genres and came from disparate places,
Michigan . Such bands specialized in an energetic and
hard-rocking style that was heavy, but more primitive than most of the
sophisticated hard rock sounds typical of the time, which often relied
on extended instrumental soloing and jams .
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, several
Michigan bands rooted in
garage rock recorded a works that became highly influential,
particularly with the 1970s punk movement. In 1969,
MC5 issued their
live debut LP,
Kick Out the Jams , which featured a set of highly
energetic, politically-charged songs.
The Stooges , from Ann Arbor
were fronted by lead singer Iggy Pop, Describing their approach,
Stephen Thomas Erlewine commented: "Taking their cue from the
over-amplified pounding of British blues, the primal raunch of
American garage rock, and the psychedelic rock (as well as the
audience-baiting) of the Doors, the Stooges were raw, immediate, and
vulgar." The group released three albums during this period, beginning
with the self-titled
The Stooges in 1969 and culminating with Raw
Power (now billed as Iggy and the Stooges) in 1973, which featured the
cathartic opeing cut, "Search and Destroy". The
Alice Cooper band
relocated to Detroit, where they began to gain success with a new
"shock rock " image, and recorded 1971's
Love It to Death , which
featured their breakout hit "I\'m Eighteen ".
Two bands who formed in the early 1970s in the waning days of the
Detroit scene were
The Punks and Death .
The Punks had a sometimes
thrashing sound that rock journalist
Lester Bangs described as
"intense" and their song "My Time's Comin'" was featured in a 2016
episode of HBO's Vinyl . In 1974, Death , whose membership was made
up of brothers David, Bobby, and Dannis Hackney, recorded tracks for
an album that remained unreleased for over 30 years, ...For the Whole
World to See , which, along with their other subsequently-issued
tracks, finally earned them a reputation as pioneers in punk rock.
In Boston, the Modern Lovers , led by Velvet Underground devotee
Jonathan Richman , gained attention with their minimalistic style.
In 1974, an updated garage rock scene began to coalesce around the
Rathskeller club in
Kenmore Square .
The Real Kids were founded by
former Modern Lover
John Felice . Between 1969 and 1974, there were
other movements further removed from the American garage rock
tradition, such as Glam and pub rock in Great Britain, as well as
Krautrock in Germany, that nonetheless displayed hallmarks of
proto-punk and had an influence on 1970s punk.
EMERGENCE OF PUNK AESTHETIC AND MOVEMENT 1975–1978
Punk rock and
Punk subculture The Ramones
(pictured in 1977), who were influenced by garage rock, spearheaded
the mid-1970s punk movement in New York.
Identification of garage rock by certain critics in the early 1970s
(and their use of the term "punk rock" to describe it), as well as the
Nuggets compilation exerted a marked degree of influence on the
subsequent punk movement of the mid-to-late 1970s. As a result of the
Nuggets and critical attention paid to
primitive-sounding rock of the past and present, a self-conscious
musical aesthetic began to emerge around the term "punk" that, with
the eventual arrival of the New York and London punk scenes, grew into
a subculture , with its own look, iconography, identity, and values.
The mid- to late-1970s saw the arrival of the bands most often viewed
as the quintessential punk rock acts. One of the most prominent was
Ramones from New York, some of whose members had played in 1960s
garage bands, and who are usually considered the first punk band as
the term is now commonly understood. They were followed by the Sex
Pistols from London, who struck an even more defiant pose and
effectively heralded the arrival punk as a cause célèbre in the
larger public mind. Both bands spearheaded the popular punk movement
from their respective locations. Though garage rock and protopunk
influenced many of the bands from the New York and London scenes of
this period, punk rock now emerged as a distinct movement with a
subculture all of its own, and the garage band era of the 1960s came
to be viewed as a distant forerunner.
REVIVALIST AND HYBRID MOVEMENTS 1980–PRESENT
Garage rock revival" redirects here. For the late 1980s garage
rock/punk fusion genre, see
Garage punk (fusion genre)
Garage punk (fusion genre) . For the 2000s
Post-punk revival .
Garage rock has experienced various revivals in the ensuing years and
continues to influence numerous modern acts who prefer a "back to
basics" and "do it yourself" musical approach. The earliest group to
attempt to revive the sound of 1960s garage was the Droogs , from Los
Angeles, who formed in 1972 and pre-dated many of the revival acts of
the 1980s. In the early 1980s, revival scenes linked to the
underground music movements of the period sprang up in Los Angeles,
New York, Boston, and elsewhere, with acts such as the Chesterfield
Kings , the Fuzztones , the Pandoras , and the Lyres earnestly
attempting to replicate the sound and look of the 1960s garage bands.
This trend fed in into the alternative rock movement and future grunge
explosion, which embraced influenceces by 1960s garage bands such as
the Sonics and the Wailers.
The Black Keys performing in 2011
Out of the garage revival, a more aggressive form of garage rock
known as garage punk emerged in the late 1980s. It differed from the
"retro" revival in that its acts did not attempt to replicate the
exact look and sound of 1960s groups, and their approach tended to be
louder, often infusing garage rock with elements of Stooges-era
protopunk, 1970s punk rock , and other influences, creating a new
hybrid. Several notable garage punk bands were the Gories , thee
Mighty Caesars , the Mummies and thee Headcoats . Garage punk and
revival acts persisted into the 1990s and the new millennium, with
independent record labels releasing records by bands playing
fast-paced, lo-fi music . Some of the more prolific independent
labels include Estrus , Get Hip , Bomp! , and Sympathy for the
Record Industry .
In the early 2000s, a garage rock or post-punk revival achieved the
airplay and commercial success that had eluded garage rock bands of
the past. This was led by four bands: the Strokes of
New York City
New York City ,
the Hives of
Fagersta, Sweden , the Vines of
Sydney , and the White
Stripes from Detroit,
Michigan . Other products of the Detroit rock
scene included the Von Bondies ,
Electric 6 , the Dirtbombs , the
Detroit Cobras , and Rock 455. Elsewhere, acts such as Billy Childish
and the Buff Medways from Chatham, England, the (International) Noise
Conspiracy from Umeå, Sweden, and
Jay Reatard and the
Memphis, enjoyed moderate underground success and appeal. Out of
Guitar Wolf from Nagasaki and the 126.96.36.199's from Tokyo. A
second wave of bands that gained international recognition as a result
of the movement included the Black Keys , Black Rebel Motorcycle Club
Death from Above 1979 , the
Yeah Yeah Yeahs
Yeah Yeah Yeahs , the Killers , Interpol
Kings of Leon
Kings of Leon from the US, the Libertines ,
Arctic Monkeys ,
Bloc Party , Editors , and Franz Ferdinand from the UK, Jet from
Australia, and the Datsuns and the D4 from New Zealand.
The mid-2000s saw several underground bands achieve mainstream
prominence. Acts such as
Ty Segall ,
Thee Oh Sees ,
Black Lips and
Jay Reatard, that initially released records on smaller garage punk
labels such as
In the Red Records , began signing to larger,
better-known independent labels. Several bands followed them in
signing to larger labels such as Rough Trade and Drag City .
List of garage rock compilation albums
According to Peter Aaron, there over a thousand 1960s garage rock
compilations featuring work by various artists. The first major
garage rock compilation, Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First
Psychedelic Era, 1965–1968 , was released by
Elektra Records in
Nuggets grew into a multi-volume series, when
Rhino Records in
the 1980s released fifteen installments that consisted of songs from
the original album plus additional tracks. In 1998, Rhino released a
four-CD box set version of Nuggets, containing the original album and
three additional discs of material, that included extensive liner
notes by some of garage rock's most influential writers.
The Pebbles series was begun by Greg Shaw and originally appeared on
his Bomp label in 1978 and has been issued in successive installments
on LP and CD. Back from the Grave is a series issued by Crypt Records
that focuses on hard-driving and primitive examples of the genre.
Big Beat Records ' Uptight Tonight: The Ultimate 1960s Garage Punk
Primer also features harder material. There are several notable
anthologies devoted to female garage bands from the 1960s. Girls in
the Garage was the first female garage rock series, and Ace Records\'
issued the more recent Girls with Guitars compilations.
There are numerous collections featuring garage/beat music from
outside of North America. Rhino's
Nuggets II: Original Artyfacts from
the British Empire and Beyond, 1964–1969 4-CD box set includes music
from the Untied Kingdom and other countries in the British
commonwealth . It is of particular interest to fans of freakbeat .
Ugly Things was the first compilation series to highlight Australian
garage bands from the 1960s. Down Under Nuggets: Original Australian
Artyfacts 1965–1967 also covers Australian acts. The Trans World
Punk Rave-Up series focuses on garage and
Nederbeat music from
Los Nuggetz Volume Uno is devoted primarily to Latin American groups
and is available in a single-CD edition, as well as an expanded 4-CD
box set. GS I Love You: Japanese Garage Bands of the 1960s and its
GS I Love You Too: Japanese Garage Bands of the 1960s
Both sets feature GS acts from Japan. The Simla Beat 70/71
compilation consists of recordings by garage rock acts from
competed in the 1970 and 1971 Simla Beat contests. Though its tracks
were recorded at the turn of 1970s, most of them bear a striking
resemblance to music made in the West several years earlier.
LIST OF BANDS
List of garage rock bands
* 1960s portal
Rock music portal
* Music portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to GARAGE ROCK .
Library resources about
* Resources in your library
* Resources in other libraries
* Pub rock
* List of 1960s one-hit wonders in the
List of garage rock bands
* ^ On p. 49, Markesich mentions that the number of bands/acts
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* ^ Letters in title were not capitalized.
* ^ Not to be confused with Alice Cooper's American band of the
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Miserlou " (1962),
Dick Dale used a Phrygian scale.
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