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GAMESTOP CORP., or simply referred to as GAMESTOP, is an American video game , consumer electronics, and wireless services retailer. The company is headquartered in Grapevine , Texas , United States, and operates 7,117 retail stores throughout the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Europe. The company's retail stores primarily operate under the GameStop, EB Games, ThinkGeek , and Micromania brands.

In addition to retail stores, GameStop also owns Kongregate , a site for browser-based video games; and _ Game Informer _, a video game magazine ; Simply Mac , an Apple products reseller; and Spring Mobile, an AT&T wireless reseller. It also operates Cricket Wireless branded retail stores as an authorized agent. Cricket is an AT&T brand pre-paid wireless retailer. J. Paul Raines is GameStop's chief executive officer , and Daniel DeMatteo serves as executive chairman.

CONTENTS

* 1 Operations

* 2 History

* 2.1 Babbage\'s (1984–1994) * 2.2 NeoStar Retail Group (1994–1996) * 2.3 Babbage’s Etc. (1996–1999) * 2.4 Barnes Kongregate , a digital video game distribution site; and buymytronics.com, a consumer electronics marketplace. Pre-owned and value video games accounted for 47% of GameStop's gross revenue for the fiscal year ending February 2014.

HISTORY

Logo of retailer Software, Etc. on a 5.25" floppy disk branded by the company

BABBAGE\'S (1984–1994)

GameStop traces its roots to Babbage's, a Dallas, Texas -based software retailer founded in 1984 by former Harvard Business School classmates James McCurry and Gary M. Kusin. The company was named after Charles Babbage and opened its first store in Dallas's North Park Center with the help of Ross Perot , an early investor in the company. The company quickly began to focus on video game sales for the then-dominant Atari 2600 . Babbage's began selling Nintendo games in 1987. The company went public in 1988. By 1991, video games accounted for two-thirds of Babbage's sales.

NEOSTAR RETAIL GROUP (1994–1996)

Babbage's merged with Software Etc., an Edina, Minnesota -based retailer that specialized in personal computing software, to create NeoStar Retail Group in 1994. The merger was structured as a stock swap , where shareholders of Babbage's and Software Etc. received shares of NeoStar, a newly formed holding company . Babbage's and Software Etc. continued to operate as independent subsidiaries of NeoStar and retained their respective senior management teams. Babbage's founder and chairman James McCurry became chairman of NeoStar, while Babbage's president Gary Kusin and Software Etc. president Daniel DeMatteo retained their respective titles. Software Etc. chairman Leonard Riggio became chairman of NeoStar's executive committee.

Gary Kusin resigned as president of Babbage's in February 1995 to start a cosmetics company. Daniel DeMatto, formerly president of Software Etc., assumed Kusin's duties and was promoted to president and chief operating officer of NeoStar. NeoStar chairman James McCurry was also appointed to the newly created position of NeoStar CEO. The company relocated from its headquarters in Dallas to Grapevine later that year.

NeoStar merged its Babbage's and Software Etc. units into a single organization in May 1996 amid declining sales. Company president Daniel DeMatteo also resigned, and NeoStar chairman and CEO James McCurry assumed the title of president. In September of that year, after NeoStar was unable to secure the credit necessary to purchase inventory necessary for the holiday season, the company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. With the filing, NeoStar board member Thomas G. Plaskett became chairman and James McCurry remained company chief executive and president.

The leadership changes were not enough and in November 1996 the assets of NeoStar were purchased for $58.5 million by Leonard Riggio , a founder of Software Etc. and chairman and principal stockholder of Barnes & Noble . Electronics Boutique had also bid to purchase NeoStar, but the judge presiding over NeoStar's bankruptcy accepted Riggio's bid because it kept open 108 stores more than Electronics Boutique's bid would have. Approximately 200 retail stores were not included in the transaction and were subsequently closed.

BABBAGE’S ETC. (1996–1999)

Following his purchase of NeoStar's assets, Leonard Riggio dissolved the holding company and created a new holding company named Babbage's Etc. He appointed Richard "Dick" Fontaine, previously Software Etc.'s chief executive during its expansion in the late 1980s and early 1990s, as Babbage Etc.'s chief executive. Daniel DeMatteo, previously the president of both Software Etc. and NeoStar, became company president and COO. Three years later, in 1999, Babbage's Etc. launched its GameStop brand with 30 stores located in strip malls . The company also launched gamestop.com, a website that allowed consumers to purchase video games online. GameStop.com was promoted in Babbage's and Software Etc. stores.

BARNES "> Gamestop shop front inside a mall

Barnes & Noble purchased Babbage's Etc. in October 1999 for $215 million. Because Babbage's Etc. was principally owned by Leonard Riggio, who was also Barnes & Noble's chairman and principal shareholder, a special committee of independent directors of Barnes & Noble evaluated and signed-off on the deal. A few months later, in May 2000, Barnes & Noble acquired Funco, an Eden Prairie, Minnesota -based video game retailer, for $160 million. Babbage's Etc., which had been previously operating as a direct subsidiary of Barnes & Noble, became a wholly owned subsidiary of Funco. With its acquisition of Funco, Barnes & Noble also acquired Game Informer , a video game magazine that was first published in 1991. Funco was renamed GameStop, Inc. in December 2000 in anticipation of holding an initial public offering for the company.

Barnes & Noble took GameStop public with a February 2002 initial public offering on the New York Stock Exchange . GameStop was listed under the ticker symbol GME. Barnes & Noble retained control over the newly public company with 67% of outstanding shares and 95% of voting shares. Barnes & Noble retained control over GameStop until October 2004, when it distributed its 59% stake in GameStop to stakeholders of Barnes "> A store in Hillsboro, Oregon

GameStop acquired EB Games (formerly Electronics Boutique) in 2005 for $1.44 billion. The acquisition expanded GameStop's operations into Europe, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Two years later, in 2007, GameStop acquired Rhino Video Games from Blockbuster for an undisclosed amount. Rhino Video Games operated 70 video game stores throughout the Southeastern United States .

GameStop purchased Free Record Shop 's Norwegian stores in April 2008. The company acquired 49 stores and converted them into video game shops. Daniel DeMatteo replaced Richard Fontaine as GameStop CEO in August 2008. DeMatteo had served as company COO since 1996. Fontaine, who had been GameStop chairman and CEO since 1996, remained the company's chairman. J. Paul Raines, formerly executive vice president of Home Depot , became company COO in September. GameStop acquired Micromania , a French video game retailer, in October 2008 for $700 million. GameStop, which had previously owned no stores in France, now had 332 French video game stores. It also acquired a majority stake in Jolt Online Gaming , an Irish browser-based game studio, in November 2009. Jolt closed in 2012.

J. Paul Raines became GameStop CEO in June 2010. He replaced Daniel DeMatteo who was named executive chairman of the company. GameStop acquired Kongregate , a San Francisco, California -based website for browser-based games; terms of the deal were not disclosed.

GameStop acquired Spawn Labs and Impulse in separate transactions during 2011. Spawn Labs was a developer of technology that allowed users to play video games that were run remotely on machines in data centers rather than their personal computer or console. Impulse was a digital distribution and multiplayer gaming platform. GameStop closed Spawn Labs in 2014.

GameStop purchased BuyMyTronics, a Denver, Colorado -based online market place for consumer electronics, in 2012. Later that year, it acquired a minority interest in Simply Mac, a Utah -based authorized Apple reseller. GameStop acquired the remaining 50.1% interest in Simply Mac in November 2013. GameStop also acquired Spring Mobile, a Salt Lake City, Utah -based retailer of AT&T -branded wireless services, in November 2013. They obtained 163 RadioShack locations as of February 26, 2015, as well. All GameStop stores have been closed down in Puerto Rico at the end of March 2016, citing increased rates of government taxes. On August 3, 2016, it acquired 507 ATborder:solid #aaa 1px">

* Companies portal * Dallas portal

* Play N Trade * GameCrazy * Kongregate

REFERENCES

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* ^ _A_ _B_ Kathryn Jones (26 August 1994). "Company News; Two Software Peers Combine Their Specialties". _The New York Times_. * ^ Tom Steinert-Threlkeld (26 August 1994). "Babbage's plans merger with Software Etc. - New firm to own 700 stores". _The Dallas Morning News_. * ^ "NeoStar Retail Group Inc.". _The Wall Street Journal_. 31 January 1995. * ^ Steve Brown (24 October 1995). "NeoStar moving to Grapevine". _The Dallas Morning News_. * ^ "NeoStar Merges Units And Ousts Executives Amid Weak Quarter". _The Wall Street Journal_. 24 May 1996. * ^ Andrea Ahles (9 July 1999). "Grapevine, Texas-Based Babbage's Offers Web Site with New Game Brand". _ Fort Worth Star-Telegram - Texas_. * ^ _A_ _B_ Maria V. Georgianis (23 September 1996). "News Analysis:NeoStar had only one choice". _Computer Retail Week_. * ^ _A_ _B_ Maria Halkias (27 November 1996). "Babbage's Software Etc. sold to one of founders - Judge chooses bid over Electronics Boutique's". _The Dallas Morning News_. * ^ Maria Halkias (8 July 1999). "Babbage's plans to expand as GameStop.com - Internet venture to work closely with mall stores, executive says". _The Dallas Morning News_. * ^ _A_ _B_ " Barnes & Noble plans to buy Babbage's for $215 mln.". _ Reuters News_. 6 October 1999. * ^ Rebecca Quick (8 May 2000). " Barnes & Noble Makes Another Play in Video Games --- Funco Purchase Wagers That Future Growth Action Will Be in That Industry". _The Wall Street Journal_. * ^ _A_ _B_ Frank Musero (10 September 2001). "New Game Plan For Barnes & Noble: Spinoff". _The IPO Reporter_. * ^ Kelly Blessing (7 August 2012). " GameStop Magazine Growth Vaults It Past Better Homes & Gardens". Bloomberg. Retrieved 30 May 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Raymond Hennessey (14 February 2002). "Deals & Deal Makers: GameStop Rises 12% on First Trading Day". _The Wall Street Journal_. * ^ Jeffrey A. Trachtenberg (5 October 2004). " Barnes & Noble Pares GameStop". _The Wall Street Journal_. * ^ Jeffrey Ball (19 April 2005). " GameStop to Buy Videogame Firm For $1.44 Billion". _The Wall Street Journal_. * ^ "In Brief". _The Wall Street Journal_. 8 January 2007. * ^ "Norway: Record shops to be converted into game shops". _Esmerk Norwegian News_. 10 April 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ " GameStop Chairman Fontaine relinquishes CEO title under reorganization, DeMatteo named CEO". _Associated Press Newswires_. 29 August 2008. * ^ Kerry E. Grace (1 October 2008). " GameStop to Buy French Videogame Retailer". _The Wall Street Journal_. * ^ "Collins sells stake in Jolt games". _Sunday Business Post_. 8 November 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ Nathan Becker (3 June 2010). " GameStop Names New CEO". _The Wall Street Journal_. * ^ Nick Wingfield (28 July 2010). " GameStop to Acquire Online Distributor". _The Wall Street Journal_. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Digital Media: Digits / Insights From WSJ.com". _The Wall Street Journal_. 1 April 2011. * ^ "'Lack of Consumer Demand' Spurred GameStop to 'Abandon' Spawn Labs". _Warren's Consumer Electronics Daily_. 4 April 2014. * ^ Danielle Abril (16 August 2013). "How DFW's new Apple retailer could help GameStop grow". _ Dallas Business Journal Online_. * ^ "About 20 New GameStop 'Simply Mac' Stores Planned This Fiscal Year". _Warren's Consumer Electronics Daily_. 23 April 2014. * ^ Ian Sherr; Michael Calia (27 March 2014). " GameStop Continues to Tweak Business Model". _Dow Jones Top News & Commentary_. * ^ Tom Hals (26 February 2015). " GameStop Nab 163 RadioShack Leases for Spring Mobile Push". _ Reuters _. Retrieved 10 October 2015.

* ^ Makuch, Eddie. "Gamestop Closing All Puerto Rico Stores Very Soon". _GameSpot_. Retrieved 11 January 2016. * ^ " GameStop Acquires 507 AT&T Stores in Diversification Plan". August 2, 2016. Retrieved December 30, 2016 – via www.bloomberg.com.

* ^ Bishop, Sam (Jan 12, 2017). "The physical gaming market declined in the UK last year". _Gamez Publishing_. Retrieved Jan 13, 2017. * ^ Calvin, Alex (January 5, 2017). "ERA: 2016 physical games revenue down 16.4% year-on-year, but digital up 12.1%". Retrieved Jan 13, 2017. * ^ Kezar, Korri (Jan 13, 2017). "No reindeer games: GameStop posts 16 percent holiday sales drop". _ Dallas Business Journal_. Retrieved Jan 13, 2017. * ^ Bary, Emily (Jan 13, 2017). "Videogame Sales Are Fading and It’s Crushing GameStop". _Baron's Next_. Retrieved Jan 13, 2017. * ^ Weinberger, Matt (Feb 28, 2017). " GameStop shares sank 8 percent on Tuesday after Microsoft unveiled a new attack on the used game business". _Business Insider_. Retrieved Mar 2, 2017. * ^ Armental, Maria (March 23, 2017). " GameStop Closing At Least 150 Stores Amid Sales Decline". _The Wall Street Journal_. Retrieved March 23, 2017. (Subscription required (help)). * ^ Molina, Brett (March 24, 2017). " GameStop closing 150 stores as it shifts business focus". _USA TODAY_. Retrieved 2017-03-24. * ^ Noonan, Keith (Apr 5, 2017). "3 Quotes That Tell GameStop\'s Changing Retail Story". _The Motley Fool_. Retrieved Apr 5, 2017. * ^ Gaudiosi, John. " GameStop Dives Into Publishing With ‘Song of the Deep’". _Fortune_. Retrieved 12 July 2017. * ^ Reisinger, Don (November 16, 2010). "Dev: Used games sales are \'destructive\' to the industry". _cnet_. Retrieved February 26, 2011.

* ^ http://www.playwiremedia.com/playwire-media-expands-partnership-gamestop/ * ^ "Draw Another Circle, LLC Adds MovieStop To Its Portfolio Of Companies To Create A Family Of Specialty Entertainment Retailers". PR Newswire. October 31, 2014. Retrieved September 8, 2015. * ^ Danny King (March 7, 2008). " GameStop gets into films with MovieStop". _archive.org_. Video Business. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved September 9, 2015. * ^ "Tully & Holland advises GameStop in the divestiture of its MovieStop division.". Tully & Holland. January 18, 2012. Retrieved September 8, 2015. * ^ Erik Gruenwedel (November 3, 2014). " MovieStop Acquired by Hastings Entertainment Owner". Home Media Magazine. Retrieved September 8, 2015. * ^ Thompson, Steven R. (2012-10-25). " GameStop to debut new GameStop Kids stores". Dallas Business Journal . Retrieved 2012-11-02.

* ^ "80 Holiday \' GameStop Kids\' Stores Coming to Mall Near You". _PC Magazine_. Retrieved 23 October 2016. * ^ Gaudiosi, John (January 28, 2016). " GameStop Dives Into Publishing With \'Song of the Deep\'". _Fortune _. Retrieved January 28, 2016. * ^ Francis, Bryant (April 18, 2016). " GameStop announces publishing division GameTrust". _ Gamasutra _. Retrieved April 18, 2016. * ^ Marum, Anna (April 9, 2015). "GameStop\'s Simply Mac buys The Mac Store in continued expansion effort". _ The Oregonian _. * ^ "GameStop-owned Simply Mac goes where Apple stores won’t". _ Dallas Morning News _. August 16, 2013. * ^ " GameStop to ramp up expansion of wireless, Apple product stores". _ Fort Worth Star-Telegram _. April 22, 2014. * ^ Dormehl, Luke (January 20, 2017). " Simply Mac will shutter multiple stores across U.S.". _ Cult of Mac _. * ^ " Simply Mac stores closing amid apparent corporate restructuring". _ AppleInsider _. January 19, 2017. * ^ " ThinkGeek To Open In College Mall". _ WBIW _. March 15, 2017. * ^ "Gamestop shenanigans sell open games as \'new\'". _Engadget_. Retrieved 2016-08-11. * ^ "Kotaku - GameStop Sells Played Games As New, Sources Say, Practice Could Be Illegal". Kotaku. Retrieved 5 June 2014. * ^ "Joystiq - GameStop\'s employee checkout policy may be illegal". AOL Inc. Retrieved 5 June 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ Hachman, Mark (2011-08-24). "Gamestop Confirms Removing OnLive Coupons from \'Deus Ex\'". Pcmag.com. Retrieved 5 June 2014. * ^ Mitchell, Richard (August 24, 2011). " GameStop intentionally removing Deus Ex OnLive coupons from retail PC copies". Joystiq.com. Archived from the original on August 24, 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2014. * ^ Kuchera, Ben (2011-08-24). " GameStop opening Deus Ex boxes, removing free game code". Arstechnica.com. Retrieved 5 June 2014. * ^ " GameStop responds to Deus Ex controversy by pulling it from shelves". Ars Technica. * ^ "Developers Respond to GameStop\'s Used Games Market Comments". Gamepolitics.com. Retrieved 2012-03-28. * ^ "Pre-owned increases cost of games, cannibalizes industry, says Dyack". Gamesindustry.biz. Retrieved 2012-03-28. * ^ Makuch, Eddie (August 1, 2014). " GameStop Now Fingerprinting People Trading in Games in Philadelphia to Help Fight Crime". _Gamespot.com_. Retrieved September 20, 2015. * ^ Fiorillo, Victor (August 4, 2014). " GameStop Fingerprinting Policy Abolished In Philly Stores". _phillymag.com_. Retrieved September 20, 2015. * ^ Jason Schreier (February 1, 2017). "New GameStop Program Leads Employees To Lie To Customers". _Kotaku.com_. Retrieved February 28, 2017. * ^ Jason Schreier (February 3, 2017). "\'We Are All Scared For Our Jobs\': GameStop Employees Share Their Circle Of Life Stories". _Kotaku.com_. Retrieved February 28, 2017. * ^ Jason Schreier (February 24, 2017). "Sources: GameStop Changes Controversial Circle of Life Program". _Kotaku.com_. Retrieved February 28, 2017.

EXTERNAL LINKS

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