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Gallienus
Gallienus
(/ˌɡæliˈɛnəs/; Latin: Publius Licinius
Licinius
Egnatius Gallienus
Gallienus
Augustus;[1] c. 218 – 268), also known as Gallien,[2] was Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
with his father Valerian from 253 to 260 and alone from 260 to 268. He ruled during the Crisis of the Third Century
Crisis of the Third Century
that nearly caused the collapse of the empire. While he won a number of military victories, he was unable to prevent the secession of important provinces. His 15-year reign was the longest since the 19-year rule of Caracalla.

Contents

1 Life

1.1 Rise to power 1.2 Early reign and the revolt of Ingenuus 1.3 Invasion of the Alamanni 1.4 The revolt of Regalianus 1.5 Capture of Valerian, revolt of Macrianus 1.6 The revolt of Postumus 1.7 The revolt of Aemilianus 1.8 Herulian invasions, revolt of Aureolus, conspiracy and death

2 Legacy

2.1 Military reforms 2.2 Decree of Toleration

3 In popular culture

3.1 Films 3.2 Novels

4 See also 5 Citations 6 References

6.1 Primary sources 6.2 Secondary sources

7 External links

Life[edit] Rise to power[edit] The exact birth date of Gallienus
Gallienus
is unknown. The Greek chronicler John Malalas and the Epitome de Caesaribus report that he was about 50 years old at the time of his death, meaning he was born around 218.[3] He was the son of emperor Valerian and Mariniana, who may have been of senatorial rank, possibly the daughter of Egnatius Victor Marinianus, and his brother was Valerianus Minor. Inscriptions on coins connect him with Falerii
Falerii
in Etruria, which may have been his birthplace; it has yielded many inscriptions relating to his mother's family, the Egnatii.[4] Gallienus
Gallienus
married Cornelia Salonina
Cornelia Salonina
about ten years before his accession to the throne. She was the mother of three princes: Valerian II, who died in 258; Saloninus, who was named co-emperor but was murdered in 260 by the army of general Postumus; and Marinianus, who was killed in 268, shortly after his father was assassinated.[5] When Valerian was proclaimed Emperor on 22 October 253, he asked the Senate to ratify the elevation of Gallienus
Gallienus
to Caesar and Augustus. He was also designated Consul Ordinarius for 254. As Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and his adopted brother Lucius Verus
Lucius Verus
had done a century earlier, Gallienus and his father divided the Empire. Valerian left for the East to stem the Persian threat, and Gallienus
Gallienus
remained in Italy to repel the Germanic tribes on the Rhine
Rhine
and Danube. Division of the empire had become necessary due to its sheer size and the numerous threats it faced, and it facilitated negotiations with enemies who demanded to communicate directly with the emperor. Early reign and the revolt of Ingenuus[edit] Gallienus
Gallienus
spent most of his time in the provinces of the Rhine
Rhine
area (Germania Inferior, Germania Superior, Raetia, and Noricum), though he almost certainly visited the Danube
Danube
area and Illyricum in the years from 253 to 258. According to Eutropius and Aurelius Victor, he was particularly energetic and successful in preventing invaders from attacking the German provinces and Gaul, despite the weakness caused by Valerian's march on Italy against Aemilianus
Aemilianus
in 253.[6] According to numismatic evidence, he seems to have won many victories there,[7] and a victory in Roman Dacia
Roman Dacia
might also be dated to that period. Even the hostile Latin tradition attributes success to him at this time.[8] In 255 or 257, Gallienus
Gallienus
was made Consul again, suggesting that he briefly visited Rome on those occasions, although no record survives.[9] During his Danube
Danube
sojourn (Drinkwater suggests in 255 or 256), he proclaimed his elder son Valerian II Caesar and thus official heir to himself and Valerian I; the boy probably joined Gallienus
Gallienus
on campaign at that time, and when Gallienus
Gallienus
moved west to the Rhine provinces in 257, he remained behind on the Danube
Danube
as the personification of Imperial authority.[10] Sometime between 258 and 260 (the exact date is unclear), while Valerian was distracted with the ongoing invasion of Shapur I
Shapur I
in the East, and Gallienus
Gallienus
was preoccupied with his problems in the West, Ingenuus, governor of at least one of the Pannonian provinces,[11] took advantage and declared himself emperor. Valerian II had apparently died on the Danube, most likely in 258.[12] Ingenuus
Ingenuus
may have been responsible for that calamity. Alternatively, the defeat and capture of Valerian at the battle of Edessa may have been the trigger for the subsequent revolts of Ingenuus, Regalianus, and Postumus.[13] In any case, Gallienus
Gallienus
reacted with great speed. He left his son Saloninus as Caesar at Cologne, under the supervision of Albanus (or Silvanus) and the military leadership of Postumus. He then hastily crossed the Balkans, taking with him the new cavalry corps (comitatus) under the command of Aureolus[14] and defeated Ingenuus
Ingenuus
at Mursa[15] or Sirmium.[16] The victory must be attributed mainly to the cavalry and its brilliant commander. Ingenuus
Ingenuus
was killed by his own guards or committed suicide by drowning himself after the fall of his capital, Sirmium.[17] Invasion of the Alamanni[edit] A major invasion by the Alemanni
Alemanni
and other Germanic tribes occurred between 258 and 260 (it is hard to fix the precise date of these events),[18] probably due to the vacuum left by the withdrawal of troops supporting Gallienus
Gallienus
in the campaign against Ingenuus. Franks broke through the lower Rhine, invading Gaul, some reaching as far as southern Spain, sacking Tarraco (modern Tarragona).[19] The Alamanni invaded, probably through Agri Decumates
Agri Decumates
(an area between the upper Rhine
Rhine
and the upper Danube),[20] likely followed by the Juthungi.[19] After devastating Germania Superior
Germania Superior
and Raetia
Raetia
(parts of southern France
France
and Switzerland), they entered Italy, the first invasion of the Italian peninsula, aside from its most remote northern regions, since Hannibal
Hannibal
500 years before. When invaders reached the outskirts of Rome, they were repelled by an improvised army assembled by the Senate, consisting of local troops (probably praetorian guards) and the strongest of the civilian population.[21] On their retreat through northern Italy, they were intercepted and defeated in the battle of Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(near present-day Milan) by Gallienus' army, which had advanced from Gaul, or from the Balkans
Balkans
after dealing with the Franks.[21] The battle of Mediolanum
Mediolanum
was decisive, and the Alamanni did not bother the empire for the next ten years. The Juthungi
Juthungi
managed to cross the Alps with their valuables and captives from Italy.[19][22] An historian in the 19th century suggested that the initiative of the Senate gave rise to jealousy and suspicion by Gallienus, thus contributing to his exclusion of senators from military commands.[23] The revolt of Regalianus[edit] Around the same time, Regalianus, who held some command in the Balkans,[24] was proclaimed Emperor. The reasons for this are unclear, and the Historia Augusta
Historia Augusta
(almost the sole resource for these events) does not provide a credible story. It is possible the seizure can be attributed to the discontent of the civilian and military provincials, who felt the defense of the province was being neglected.[25] Regalianus
Regalianus
held power for some six months and issued coins bearing his image. After some success against the Sarmatians, his revolt ended when the Roxolani
Roxolani
invaded Pannonia
Pannonia
and killed Regalianus
Regalianus
in taking the city of Sirmium.[26] There is a suggestion that Gallienus
Gallienus
invited the Roxolani
Roxolani
to attack Regalianus, but other historians dismiss the accusation.[27] It is also suggested that the invasion was finally checked by Gallienus
Gallienus
near Verona
Verona
and that he directed the restoration of the province, probably in person.[28] Capture of Valerian, revolt of Macrianus[edit] In the East, Valerian was confronted with serious troubles. Bands of "Scythai" began a naval raid of Pontus, in the northern part of modern Turkey. After ravaging the province, they moved south into Cappadocia. A Roman army from Antioch, under Valerian, tried to intercept them but failed. According to Zosimus, this army was infected by a plague that gravely weakened it. In that condition, this army had to repel a new invasion of the province of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
by Shapur I, ruler of the Sassanid Empire. The invasion occurred probably in the early spring of 260.[29] The Roman army was defeated at the Battle of Edessa, and Valerian was taken prisoner. Shapur's army raided Cilicia
Cilicia
and Cappadocia
Cappadocia
(in present-day Turkey), sacking, as Shapur's inscriptions claim, 36 cities. It took a rally by an officer named Callistus (Balista), a fiscal official named Fulvius Macrianus, the remnants of the Roman army in the east, and Odenathus and his Palmyrene horsemen to turn the tide against Shapur.[30] The Sassanids were driven back, but Macrianus proclaimed his two sons Quietus
Quietus
and Macrianus (sometimes misspelled Macrinus) as emperors.[22] Coins struck for them in major cities of the East indicate acknowledgement of the usurpation. The two Macriani left Quietus, Ballista, and, presumably, Odenathus to deal with the Persians while they invaded Europe with an army of 30,000 men, according to the Historia Augusta. At first they met no opposition.[31][32] The Pannonian legions joined the invaders, being resentful of the absence of Gallienus. He sent his successful commander Aureolus against the rebels, however, and the decisive battle was fought in the spring or early summer of 261, most likely in Illyricum, although Zonaras locates it in Pannonia. In any case, the army of the usurpers was defeated and surrendered, and their two leaders were killed.[33] In the aftermath of the battle, the rebellion of Postumus
Postumus
had already started, so Gallienus
Gallienus
had no time to deal with the rest of the usurpers, namely Balista
Balista
and Quietus. He came to an agreement with Odenathus, who had just returned from his victorious Persian expedition. Odenathus received the title of dux Romanorum and besieged the usurpers, who were based at Emesa. Eventually, the people of Emesa killed Quietus, and Odenathus arrested and executed Balista
Balista
about November 261.[34] The revolt of Postumus[edit] After the defeat at Edessa, Gallienus
Gallienus
lost control over the provinces of Britain, Spain, parts of Germania, and a large part of Gaul
Gaul
when another general, Postumus, declared his own realm (usually known today as the Gallic Empire). The revolt partially coincided with that of Macrianus in the East. Gallienus
Gallienus
had installed his son Saloninus and his guardian, Silvanus, in Cologne
Cologne
in 258. Postumus, a general in command of troops on the banks of the Rhine, defeated some raiders and took possession of their spoils. Instead of returning it to the original owners, he preferred to distribute it amongst his soldiers. When news of this reached Silvanus, he demanded the spoils be sent to him. Postumus
Postumus
made a show of submission, but his soldiers mutinied and proclaimed him Emperor. Under his command, they besieged Cologne, and after some weeks the defenders of the city opened the gates and handed Saloninus and Silvanus to Postumus, who had them killed.[35] The dating of these events was long uncertain,[36] but an inscription discovered in 1992 at Augsburg
Augsburg
indicates that Postumus
Postumus
had been proclaimed Emperor by September of 260.[37] Postumus
Postumus
claimed the consulship for himself and one of his associates, Honoratianus, but according to D.S. Potter, he never tried to unseat Gallienus
Gallienus
or invade Italy.[38] Upon receiving news of the murder of his son, Gallienus
Gallienus
began gathering forces to face Postumus. The invasion of the Macriani forced him to dispatch Aureolus
Aureolus
with a large force to oppose them, however, leaving him with insufficient troops to battle Postumus. After some initial defeats, the army of Aureolus, having defeated the Macriani, rejoined him, and Postumus
Postumus
was expelled. Aureolus
Aureolus
was entrusted with the pursuit and deliberately allowed Postumus
Postumus
to escape and gather new forces.[39] Gallienus
Gallienus
returned in 263[40] or 265[41] and surrounded Postumus
Postumus
in an unnamed Gallic city. During the siege, Gallienus
Gallienus
was severely wounded by an arrow and had to leave the field. The standstill persisted until his later death,[42] and the Gallic Empire remained independent until 274.

A Radiate of Gallienus

The revolt of Aemilianus[edit] In 262, the mint in Alexandria
Alexandria
started to again issue coins for Gallienus, demonstrating that Egypt had returned to his control after suppressing the revolt of the Macriani. In spring of 262, the city was wrenched by civil unrest as a result of a new revolt. The rebel this time was the prefect of Egypt, Lucius Mussius Aemilianus, who had already given support to the revolt of the Macriani. The correspondence of bishop Dionysius of Alexandria
Alexandria
provides a commentary on the background of invasion, civil war, plague, and famine that characterized this age.[43] Knowing he could not afford to lose control of the vital Egyptian granaries, Gallienus
Gallienus
sent his general Theodotus against Aemilianus, probably by a naval expedition. The decisive battle probably took place near Thebes, and the result was a clear defeat of Aemilianus.[44] In the aftermath, Gallienus
Gallienus
became Consul three more times in 262, 264, and 266. Herulian invasions, revolt of Aureolus, conspiracy and death[edit] In the years 267–269, Goths
Goths
and other barbarians invaded the empire in great numbers. Sources are extremely confused on the dating of these invasions, the participants, and their targets. Modern historians are not even able to discern with certainty whether there were two or more of these invasions or a single prolonged one. It seems that, at first, a major naval expedition was led by the Heruli starting from north of the Black Sea
Black Sea
and leading in the ravaging of many cities of Greece (among them, Athens
Athens
and Sparta). Then another, even more numerous army of invaders started a second naval invasion of the empire. The Romans defeated the barbarians on sea first. Gallienus' army then won a battle in Thrace, and the Emperor pursued the invaders. According to some historians, he was the leader of the army who won the great Battle of Naissus, while the majority believes that the victory must be attributed to his successor, Claudius
Claudius
II.[45] In 268, at some time before or soon after the battle of Naissus, the authority of Gallienus
Gallienus
was challenged by Aureolus, commander of the cavalry stationed in Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(Milan), who was supposed to keep an eye on Postumus. Instead, he acted as deputy to Postumus
Postumus
until the very last days of his revolt, when he seems to have claimed the throne for himself.[46] The decisive battle took place at what is now Pontirolo Nuovo
Pontirolo Nuovo
near Milan; Aureolus
Aureolus
was clearly defeated and driven back to Milan.[47] Gallienus
Gallienus
laid siege to the city but was murdered during the siege. There are differing accounts of the murder, but the sources agree that most of Gallienus' officials wanted him dead.[48] According to the Historia Augusta, an unreliable source compiled long after the events it describes,[49] a conspiracy was led by the commander of the guard Aurelius Heraclianus and Lucius Aurelius Marcianus. Marcianus's role in the conspiracy is not confirmed by any other ancient source. Cecropius, commander of the Dalmatians, spread the word that the forces of Aureolus
Aureolus
were leaving the city, and Gallienus
Gallienus
left his tent without his bodyguard, only to be struck down by Cecropius.[50] One version has Claudius
Claudius
selected as Emperor by the conspirators, another chosen by Gallienus
Gallienus
on his death bed; the Historia Augusta
Historia Augusta
was concerned to substantiate the descent of the Constantinian dynasty from Claudius, and this may explain its accounts, which do not involve Claudius
Claudius
in the murder. The other sources ( Zosimus i.40 and Zonaras xii.25) report that the conspiracy was organized by Heraclianus, Claudius, and Aurelian. According to Aurelius Victor and Zonaras, on hearing the news that Gallienus
Gallienus
was dead, the Senate in Rome ordered the execution of his family (including his brother Valerianus and son Marinianus) and their supporters, just before receiving a message from Claudius
Claudius
to spare their lives and deify his predecessor.[51] The tomb of Gallienus
Gallienus
is thought to be located to the south of Rome, at the IXth mile of Via Appia.[52]

Arch of Gallienus
Arch of Gallienus
in Rome, 262 – dedicated to, rather than built by, Gallienus.

Legacy[edit] Gallienus
Gallienus
was not treated favorably by ancient historians,[53] partly due to the secession of Gaul
Gaul
and Palmyra
Palmyra
and his inability to win them back.[clarification needed] According to modern scholar Pat Southern, some historians now see him in a more positive light.[54] Gallienus produced some useful reforms. Military reforms[edit] He contributed to military history as the first to commission primarily cavalry units, the Comitatenses, that could be dispatched anywhere in the Empire in short order. This reform arguably created a precedent for the future emperors Diocletian
Diocletian
and Constantine I. The biographer Aurelius Victor reports that Gallienus
Gallienus
forbade senators from becoming military commanders.[55] This policy undermined senatorial power, as more reliable equestrian commanders rose to prominence. In Southern's view, these reforms and the decline in senatorial influence not only helped Aurelian
Aurelian
to salvage the Empire, but they also make Gallienus
Gallienus
one of the emperors most responsible for the creation of the Dominate, along with Septimius Severus, Diocletian, and Constantine I.[56]

Antoninianus
Antoninianus
issued to celebrate LEG II ITAL VII P VII F, "Legio II Italica seven times faithful and loyal."

Antoninianus
Antoninianus
issued to celebrate LEG III ITAL VI P VI F, "Legio III Italica six times faithful and loyal."

Antoninianus
Antoninianus
issued to celebrate LEG VII MAC VI P VI F, "Legio VII Macedonica six times faithful and loyal."

Antoninianus
Antoninianus
issued to celebrate LEG VII CLA VI P VI F, "Legio VII Claudia six times faithful and loyal."

Decree of Toleration[edit] The capture of Valerian in the year 259 forced Gallienus
Gallienus
to issue the first official declaration of tolerance with regard to the Christians, restoring their places of worship and cemeteries, therefore implying a recognition of the property of the Church. However, the edict did not turn Christianity into an official religion.[57] In popular culture[edit] Films[edit] Gallienus
Gallienus
was played by Franco Cobianchi in the 1964 film The Magnificent Gladiator. Novels[edit]

He appears in Harry Sidebottom's historical fiction novel series Warrior of Rome. David Drake's novel Birds of Prey takes place during Gallienus' reign.

See also[edit]

Little Peace of the Church Thirty Tyrants (Roman) Gallienus
Gallienus
usurpers

Citations[edit]

^ Gallienus' full title at his death was IMPERATOR CAESAR PVBLIVS LICINIVS EGNATIVS GALLIENVS PIVS FELIX INVICTVS AVGVSTVS GERMANICVS MAXIMVS PERSICVS PONTIFEX MAXIMVS TRIBUNICIAE POTESTATIS XVI IMPERATOR I CONSUL VII PATER PATRIAE, "Emperor Caesar Publius Licinus Egnatius Gallienus
Gallienus
Pious Lucky Unconquered Augustus
Augustus
Germanic Maxim Persic Tribunicial Power 16 times Emperor 1 time Consul 7 times Father of the Fatherland". ^ The Church Historians of England: pt.I. The life and defence of John Foxe, Pratt, Josiah. p216 ^ It is generally accepted that he was 35 years old when ascended to the throne in 253, see J. Bray (1997), p.16 ^ R. Syme, Historia Augusta
Historia Augusta
Papers (Oxford, 1983), p. 197. ^ J. Bray (1997), pp.49–51 ^ A. Watson (1999), p.33 ^ Andreas Alfoldi mentions five in The Numbering of the Victories of the Emperor Gallienus
Gallienus
and of the Loyalty of his Legions, Numismatic Chronicle, 1959, reprinted New York, Attic Books, 1977, ISBN 0-915018-28-4. ^ J. Bray (1997), pp.56–58 ^ J. Bray (1997), p.56 ^ J. Drinkwater, The Gallic Empire
Gallic Empire
(Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1987, ISBN 3-515-04806-5), pp. 21–22. ^ J. Bray (1997), p.57; Drinkwater (1987), p.22 suggests he also had responsibility for Moesia. ^ Drinkwater (1987), p. 22. ^ For a very thorough presentation of the contrasting views, see J. Bray (1997), p.72-73; also, A. Watson (1999), p.230, note 34 ^ J. Bray (1997), pp.74–75 ^ Aurelius Victor, 33,2, Orosius, Historiae adversus Paganos 7.10, Eutropius 9.8 ^ Zonaras, 12.24 ^ J. Bray (1997), p.76. J. Fitz, Ingenuus
Ingenuus
et Regalien, p.44. ^ J. Bray (1997), p.47 ^ a b c A. Watson (1999), p.34 ^ J. Bray (1997), p.78 ^ a b J. Bray (1997), p.79 ^ a b D.S.Potter (2004), p.256 ^ Victor Duruy, History of the Roman Empire, vol VI, part II, p.418, London, 1886 ^ J. Bray (1997), p.82 ^ J. Bray (1997), pp.82,83 ^ J. Bray (1997), p.83 ^ T. Nagy, Les moments historiques de Budapest, vol.II, 1962, for the former and J. Fitz, Ingenuus
Ingenuus
at Regalien, p.50 for the latter, as cited in J. Bray (1997), p.83 ^ J. Fitz, LA PANNONIE SOUS GALLIEN, Latomus, vol.148, Brussels, 1976, pp.5–81, as cited in J. Bray (1997), p.83 ^ D.S.Potter (2004), p. 255 ^ D.S.Potter (2004), pp.255–256 ^ J. Bray (1997), p.142 ^ Historia Augusta, The two Gallienii, II.6 ^ J. Bray (1997), pp.143–144 ^ J. Bray (1997), pp.144–145 ^ J. Bray (1997), p.133 ^ Andreas Älfoldi, "The Numbering of the Victories of the Emperor Gallienus
Gallienus
and of the Loyalty of his Legions", Numismatic Chronicle, 1959, reprinted New York, Attic Books, 1977, as cited in J. Bray (1997), p.359, note 5 ^ Lothar Bakker. "Raetien unter Postumus. Das Siegesdenkmal einer Juthungenschlacht im Jahre 260 n. Chr. aus Augsburg." Germania 71, 1993, pp. 369–386. ^ D.S.Potter (2004), p.260 ^ J. Bray (1997), pp.136–137 ^ Andreas Älfoldi, "The Numbering of the Victories of the Emperor Gallienus
Gallienus
and of the Loyalty of his Legions", Numismatic Chronicle, 1959, reprinted New York, Attic Books, 1977, as cited in J. Bray (1997), p.359, note 27 ^ D.S.Potter (2004) p.263 ^ J. Bray (1997), p.138 ^ J. Bray (1997), p.146 ^ J. Bray (1997), p.147 ^ J. Bray (1997), pp.279–288, Pat Southern 2001, p.109. Also see Alaric Watson 1999, p.215, David S. Potter 2004, p.266, Herwig Wolfram, History of the Goths
Goths
(transl. by Thomas J. Dunlap), University of California Press, 1988. ISBN 0-520-06983-8, p.54 ^ J. Bray (1997), pp.290–291 ^ J. Bray (1997), p.292 ^ D.S.Potter (2004), p.264 ^ R. Syme (1968) ^ Historia Augusta, The two Gallieni, XIV.4–11 ^ J. Bray (1997), pp.307–309. A. Watson (1999), pp.41–42 ^ Samuel N. C. Lieu, Domikic Montserat (editors). From Constantine to Julian: Pagan and Byzantine Views: A Source History, Routledge, ISBN 0-203-73029-1, note 38 on pp.54-55 ^ Southern, Pat. The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
from Severus to Constantine, Routledge, London and New York, 2001, p. 2. ^ Southern, p. 3. ^ Aurelius Victor, De Caesaribus, 33–34 ^ Southern, pp. 2-3, 83. ^ Piétri, Charles (2002-01-01). "Prosecutions". In Levillain, Philippe. The Papacy: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press. p. 1156. ISBN 9780415922302. 

References[edit] Primary sources[edit]

Aurelius Victor, Epitome de Caesaribus Eutropius, Breviarium ab urbe condita Historia Augusta
Historia Augusta
(Augustan History), The Two Gallieni Joannes
Joannes
Zonaras, Epitome Historiarum, extract: Zonaras: Alexander Severus to Diocletian: 222–284 Zosimus, Historia Nova

Secondary sources[edit]

Lukas de Blois. The policy of the emperor Gallienus, Brill, Leiden, 1976, ISBN 90-04-04508-2 Bray, John. Gallienus : A Study in Reformist and Sexual Politics, Wakefield Press, Kent Town, 1997, ISBN 1-86254-337-2 Drinkwater, John F. The Gallic Empire. Separatism and Continuity in the North-Western Provinces of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
A.D. 260–274. Franz Steiner Verlag, Wiesbaden, 1987. ISBN 3-515-04806-5 Isbouts, Jean-Pierre “The Biblical World: An Illustrated Atlas" copyright 2007 National Geographic Society. ISBN 978-1-4262-0138-7 Lissner, Ivar. "Power and Folly; The Story of the Caesars". Jonathan Cape Ltd., London, 1958. Potter, David S. The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
at Bay AD 180–395, Routledge, Oxon, 2004. ISBN 0-415-10058-5 Southern, Pat. The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
from Severus to Constantine, Routledge, London and New York, 2001. Syme, Ronald. Ammianus and the Historia Augusta, The Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1968. Syme, Ronald. Historia Augusta
Historia Augusta
Papers, The Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1983. ISBN 0-19-814853-4 Watson, Alaric. Aurelian
Aurelian
and the Third Century, Routledge, Oxon, 1999. ISBN 0-415-30187-4

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gallienus.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text from Encyclopædia Britannica about: Gallienus

"Valerian and Gallienus", at De Imperatoribus Romanis. Download an Excel list of all Gallienus
Gallienus
bronze and billon coins incl. hoard coins not in RIC etc.

Regnal titles

Preceded by Valerian Roman Emperor 253–268 Served alongside: Valerian (253–260) and Saloninus (260) Succeeded by Claudius
Claudius
II

Political offices

Preceded by Volusianus, Lucius Valerius Poplicola Balbinus
Balbinus
Maximus Consul of the Roman Empire 254–255 with Valerian Succeeded by Lucius Valerius Claudius
Claudius
Acilius Priscillianus Maximus, Marcus Acilius Glabrio

Preceded by Lucius Valerius Claudius
Claudius
Acilius Priscillianus Maximus, Marcus Acilius Glabrio Consul of the Roman Empire 257 with Valerian Succeeded by Marcus Nummius Tuscus, Mummius Bassus

Preceded by Publius Cornelius Saecularis, Gaius Iunius Donatus, Postumus, Honoratianus Consul of the Roman Empire 261–262 with Lucius Petronius Taurus Volusianus, Postumus, Macrianus Minor, Quietus, Lucius Mummius Faustianus Succeeded by Marcus Nummius Albinus, Dexter

Preceded by Marcus Nummius Albinus, Dexter Consul of the Roman Empire 264 with Saturninus Succeeded by Publius Licinius
Licinius
Valerianus, Lucillus

Preceded by Publius Licinius
Licinius
Valerianus, Lucillus Consul of the Roman Empire 266 with Sabinillus Succeeded by Ovinius Paternus, Arcesilaus, Postumus, Victorinus

v t e

Roman and Byzantine emperors

Principate 27 BC – 235 AD

Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero Galba Otho Vitellius Vespasian Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and Lucius Verus Commodus Pertinax Didius Julianus (Pescennius Niger) (Clodius Albinus) Septimius Severus Caracalla
Caracalla
with Geta Macrinus
Macrinus
with Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus Alexander

Crisis 235–284

Maximinus Thrax Gordian I
Gordian I
and Gordian II Pupienus
Pupienus
and Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
with Philip II Decius
Decius
with Herennius Etruscus Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus
Trebonianus Gallus
with Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus
Gallienus
with Saloninus and Valerian II Claudius
Claudius
Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus
Carinus
and Numerian

Gallic Emperors: Postumus (Laelianus) Marius Victorinus (Domitianus II) Tetricus I
Tetricus I
with Tetricus II
Tetricus II
as Caesar

Dominate 284–395

Diocletian
Diocletian
(whole empire) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) with Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) with Severus (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Severus (West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Maxentius
Maxentius
(West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Licinius
Licinius
I (West) with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Maxentius
Maxentius
(alone) Licinius
Licinius
I (West) and Maximinus II (East) with Constantine the Great (Self-proclaimed Augustus) and Valerius Valens Licinius
Licinius
I (East) and Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) with Licinius
Licinius
II, Constantine II, and Crispus
Crispus
as Caesares (Martinian) Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(whole empire) with son Crispus
Crispus
as Caesar Constantine II Constans
Constans
I Magnentius
Magnentius
with Decentius as Caesar Constantius II
Constantius II
with Vetranio Julian Jovian Valentinian the Great Valens Gratian Valentinian II Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
with Victor Theodosius the Great (Eugenius)

Western Empire 395–480

Honorius Constantine III with son Constans
Constans
II) Constantius III Joannes Valentinian III Petronius Maximus
Petronius Maximus
with Palladius Avitus Majorian Libius Severus Anthemius Olybrius Glycerius Julius Nepos Romulus Augustulus

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204

Arcadius Theodosius II Pulcheria Marcian Leo I the Thracian Leo II Zeno (first reign) Basiliscus
Basiliscus
with son Marcus as co-emperor Zeno (second reign) Anastasius I Dicorus Justin I Justinian the Great Justin II Tiberius
Tiberius
II Constantine Maurice with son Theodosius as co-emperor Phocas Heraclius Constantine III Heraklonas Constans
Constans
II Constantine IV
Constantine IV
with brothers Heraclius
Heraclius
and Tiberius
Tiberius
and then Justinian II as co-emperors Justinian II
Justinian II
(first reign) Leontios Tiberios III Justinian II
Justinian II
(second reign) with son Tiberius
Tiberius
as co-emperor Philippikos Anastasios II Theodosius III Leo III the Isaurian Constantine V Artabasdos Leo IV the Khazar Constantine VI Irene Nikephoros I Staurakios Michael I Rangabe
Michael I Rangabe
with son Theophylact as co-emperor Leo V the Armenian
Leo V the Armenian
with Symbatios-Constantine as junior emperor Michael II
Michael II
the Amorian Theophilos Michael III Basil I
Basil I
the Macedonian Leo VI the Wise Alexander Constantine VII
Constantine VII
Porphyrogennetos Romanos I Lekapenos
Romanos I Lekapenos
with sons Christopher, Stephen and Constantine as junior co-emperors Romanos II Nikephoros II Phokas John I Tzimiskes Basil II Constantine VIII Zoë (first reign) and Romanos III Argyros Zoë (first reign) and Michael IV the Paphlagonian Michael V Kalaphates Zoë (second reign) with Theodora Zoë (second reign) and Constantine IX Monomachos Constantine IX Monomachos
Constantine IX Monomachos
(sole emperor) Theodora Michael VI Bringas Isaac I Komnenos Constantine X Doukas Romanos IV Diogenes Michael VII Doukas
Michael VII Doukas
with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine Nikephoros III Botaneiates Alexios I Komnenos John II Komnenos
John II Komnenos
with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor Manuel I Komnenos Alexios II Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Alexios IV Angelos Nicholas Kanabos (chosen by the Senate) Alexios V Doukas

Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261

Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV Laskaris

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453

Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos
Andronikos II Palaiologos
with Michael IX Palaiologos
Michael IX Palaiologos
as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
with John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors John V Palaiologos Andronikos IV Palaiologos John VII Palaiologos Andronikos V Palaiologos Manuel II Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI Palaiologos

Italics indicates a co-emperor, while underlining indicates an usurper.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 10637212 LCCN: n80123081 ISNI: 0000 0000 8090 3664 GND: 118537334 SUDOC: 027381331 BNF: cb131627817

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