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GALLIA BELGICA ( Belgic Gaul
Gaul
) was a province of the Roman empire located in the north-eastern part of Roman Gaul
Gaul
, in which Belgium
Belgium
is situated today. In 50BC after the conquest by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
during his Gallic Wars , it became one of the three main provinces of Gaul
Gaul
(known as the Tres Galliae the other two being Gallia Aquitania and Gallia Lugdunensis ). An official Roman province
Roman province
was later created by emperor Augustus
Augustus
in 22 BC.

The province is named for the Belgae
Belgae
as the largest tribal confederation in the area, but it also included the territories of the Treveri
Treveri
, Mediomatrici , Leuci
Leuci
, Sequani
Sequani
, Helvetii
Helvetii
and others. The southern border of Belgica, formed by the Marne and Seine
Seine
rivers, was reported by Caesar as the original cultural boundary between the Belgae
Belgae
and the Gauls
Gauls
who he distinguished as Celts
Celts
.

The province was re-organised several times, first increased and later decreased in size. Diocletian brought the northeastern Civitas Tungrorum into Germania Inferior , joining the Rhineland
Rhineland
colonies, and the remaining part of Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
was divided into BELGICA PRIMA in the eastern area of the Treveri, Mediomatrici and Leuci, around Luxembourg
Luxembourg
and the Ardennes, and BELGICA SECUNDA between the English channel and the upper River Meuse .

The capital of Belgica Prima, Trier
Trier
, became an important late western Roman capital.

CONTENTS

* 1 Roman conquest * 2 Formation under Augustus
Augustus

* 3 Under the emperors

* 3.1 Reform of Domitian
Domitian
(around 90) * 3.2 Attack by the Chauci
Chauci
(173) * 3.3 Crisis of the 3rd century and Gallic Empire * 3.4 Reform of Diocletian (around 300) * 3.5 Prosperous fourth century

* 4 Germanic conquests (after 406) * 5 Legacy * 6 See also * 7 References

ROMAN CONQUEST

Further information: Belgae
Belgae
, Gallia Comata , and Gallic Wars

In 57 BC, Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
led the conquest of northern Gaul, and already specified that the part to the north of the Seine
Seine
and Marne rivers was inhabited by a people or alliance known as the Belgae
Belgae
. This definition became the basis of the later Roman province
Roman province
of Belgica. Caesar said that the Belgae
Belgae
were separated from the Celtic Gauls
Gauls
to their south by "language, custom and laws" (lingua, institutis, legibus) but he did not go into detail, except to mention that he learnt from his contacts that the Belgae
Belgae
had some ancestry from east of the Rhine, which he referred to as Germania. Indeed, the Belgian tribes closest to the Rhine he distinguished as the Germani cisrhenani . ( Strabo
Strabo
stated that the differences between the Celts
Celts
and Belgae, in language, politics and way of life was a small one. ) Modern historians interpret Caesar and the archaeological evidence as indicating that the core of the Belgian alliance was in the present-day northernmost corner of France; the Suessiones
Suessiones
, Viromandui and Ambiani
Ambiani
as well perhaps as some of their neighbours who lived in the area, Caesar identified as Belgium
Belgium
or Belgica. These were the leaders of the initial military alliance he confronted, and they were also more economically advanced (and therefore less "Germanic" according to Caesar's way of seeing things) than many of their more northerly allies such as the Nervii and Germani Cisrhenani.

Apart from the southern Remi, all the Belgic tribes allied against the Romans, angry at the Roman decision to garrison legions in their territory during the winter. At the beginning of the conflict, Caesar reported the allies' combined strength at 288,000, led by the Suessione king, Galba . Due to the Belgic coalition's size and reputation for uncommon bravery, Caesar avoided meeting the combined forces of the tribes in battle. Instead, he used cavalry to skirmish with smaller contingents of tribesmen. Only when Caesar managed to isolate one of the tribes did he risk conventional battle. The tribes fell in a piecemeal fashion and Caesar claimed to offer lenient terms to the defeated, including Roman protection from the threat of surrounding tribes. Most tribes agreed to the conditions. A series of uprisings followed the 57 BC conquest. The largest revolt was led by the Bellovaci in 52 BC, after the defeat of Vercingetorix . During this rebellion, it was the Belgae
Belgae
who avoided direct conflict. They harassed the Roman legions, led personally by Caesar, with cavalry detachments and archers. The rebellion was put down after a Bellovaci ambush of the Romans failed. The revolting party was slaughtered.

FORMATION UNDER AUGUSTUS

Following a census of the region in 27 BC, Augustus
Augustus
ordered a restructuring of the provinces in Gaul. Therefore, in 22 BC, Marcus Agrippa split Gaul
Gaul
(or Gallia Comata) into three regions (Gallia Aquitania , Gallia Lugdunensis and Gallia Belgica.) Agrippa made the divisions on what he perceived to be distinctions in language, race and community - Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
was meant to be a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. The capital of this territory was Reims
Reims
, according to the geographer Strabo, though later the capital moved to modern day Trier
Trier
. The date of this move is uncertain.

Modern historians however view the term 'Gaul' and its subdivisions as a "product of faulty ethnography" and see the split of Gallia Comata into three provinces as an attempt to construct a more efficient government, as opposed to a cultural division. Successive Roman emperors struck a balance between Romanizing the people of Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and allowing pre-existing culture to survive.

The Romans divided the province into four "civitates " corresponding generally to ancient tribal boundaries: the civitas Menapiorum, Nerviorum, Tungrorum and Treverorum with capitals at modern Tournai
Tournai
, Bavay , Tongeren and Triers respectively. These civitates were in turn were divided into smaller units, pagi, a term that became the French word "pays".

Roman government was run by Concilia in Reims
Reims
or Trier
Trier
. Additionally, local notables from Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
were required to participate in a festival in Lugdunum (modern Lyon
Lyon
) which typically celebrated or worshiped the emperor’s genius. The gradual adoption of Romanized names by local elites and the Romanization of laws under local authority demonstrate the effectiveness of this concilium Galliarum . With that said, the concept and community of Gallia Belgica did not predate the Roman province, but developed from it.

UNDER THE EMPERORS

Roman roads in Belgium
Belgium

REFORM OF DOMITIAN (AROUND 90)

During the 1st century AD (estimated date 90 AD), the provinces of Gaul
Gaul
were restructured. Emperor Domitian
Domitian
reorganized the provinces in order to separate the militarized zones of the Rhine from the civilian populations of the region. The northeastern part of Gallia Belgica was split off and renamed Germania Inferior , later to be reorganized and renamed as Germania Secunda . This included the eastern part of modern Belgium
Belgium
, the southernmost part of the modern Netherlands
Netherlands
, and a part of modern Germany. The eastern part was split off to become Germania Superior (parts of western Germany
Germany
and eastern France) and the southern border of Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
was extended to the south. The newer Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
included the cities of Camaracum ( Cambrai
Cambrai
), Nemetacum ( Arras
Arras
), Samarobriva ( Amiens
Amiens
), Durocortorum ( Reims
Reims
), Dividorum ( Metz
Metz
) and Augusta Treverorum ( Trier
Trier
).

ATTACK BY THE CHAUCI (173)

In 173 the later emperor Didius Julianus
Didius Julianus
, then governor of Gallia Belgica, had to repel a serious invasion of the Chauci
Chauci
, a Germanic tribe that lived along the shores of the Wadden Sea
Wadden Sea
at the respective northern and northwestern coast of present-day Netherlands
Netherlands
and Germany , in the drainage basin of the river Scheldt
Scheldt
(present day Flanders
Flanders
and Hainaut ). Archaeologists have found evidence that large farms near Tournai
Tournai
and the village Velzeke (near Ghent
Ghent
) had to be abandoned. Further the capitals in the areas of the former tribes of the Atrebates
Atrebates
, Morini
Morini
and the Nervians were either burnt down (Nemetacum ( Arras
Arras
)) or had to be rebuilt in the last quarter of the second century, Colonia Morinorum ( Thérouanne ) and Bagacum Nerviorum (Bavay ).

CRISIS OF THE 3RD CENTURY AND GALLIC EMPIRE

With the crisis of the third century and the partition of the Empire , Roman control over Gaul
Gaul
deteriorated in the 3rd century. In 260 Postumus
Postumus
became emperor of a breakaway Gallic empire . He proved able to stop the incursions from the Franks. Only in 274 was Roman control restored by the new emperor Aurelian
Aurelian
in the Battle of Châlons . The cost of this defeat in the long run proved very high indeed. With the Gallic army defeated and not returning to the Rhine border , the Franks
Franks
overran the neighbouring province of Germania Inferior . The Rhineland
Rhineland
(to the Ripuarian Franks ) and the area between the Rhine and the main road between Boulogne and Cologne, present day South Holland, Zeeland, Flanders, Brabant and Limburg, the last three in both the present day Netherlands
Netherlands
and Belgium
Belgium
(to the Salic Franks ) were de facto lost forever for the Roman empire. This gave the Salic Franks
Franks
a base from which they could expand some 130 years later, beginning after the disastrous Rhine crossing in 406, to conquer the whole area of the former province of Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and start the Merovingian
Merovingian
kingdom , the first immediate forerunner state of Western civilization.

REFORM OF DIOCLETIAN (AROUND 300)

Emperor Diocletian restructured the provinces around 300, and split Belgica into two provinces: BELGICA PRIMA and BELGICA SECUNDA. Belgica Prima had Treveri
Treveri
(Trier) as its main city, and consisted of the eastern part. The border between Belgica Prima and Belgica Secunda was approximately along the River Meuse .

PROSPEROUS FOURTH CENTURY

The eastern part of Gallia Belgica, especially the valley of the Moselle
Moselle
became very prosperous in the fourth century, particularly in the decades that Augusta Treverorum (Trier) was the capital of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. The Roman poet Ausonius wrote a famous poem over the Mosella .

GERMANIC CONQUESTS (AFTER 406)

The Provinces of Gaul, circa 400 AD The Porta Nigra
Porta Nigra
of Trier
Trier
, capital of Gallia Belgica, constructed between 186 and 200 AD

Franks
Franks
held de facto control over the major part of Germania
Germania
Inferior since 275. Around 350 this was partly formalized when the Romans gave official control over Toxandria to the Salian Franks. Toxandria was most likely for a large part overlapping with the area now known as the Kempen .

Eventually, in 406, a large alliance among them Vandals
Vandals
, Alans and Suebi , under great pressure from the Huns
Huns
, after first having been defeated by the Ripuarian Franks in the neighborhood of Cologne in Germania
Germania
Inferior, successfully crossed the Rhine in the neighborhood of present-day Koblenz
Koblenz
and entered Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
by way of the Moselle
Moselle
valley. They subsequently destroyed large parts of Gallia Belgica, before eventually moving on to Hispania
Hispania
(present day Spain
Spain
). This invasion and the accompanying widespread destruction broke the backbone of Roman power in at least the northern part of Gallia Belgica. After this invasion the Franks
Franks
were able to conquer valuable agricultural land south of the Via Belgica , the very important main road between Cologne and Boulogne, that had been the backbone of Roman defense strategy between 260 and 406.

In 452 a major battle was fought at the Catalaunian fields (between the Seine
Seine
and the Moselle). A coalition of Romans, Visigoths and Franks
Franks
fought an army led by the legendary Hunnic leader Attila
Attila
. The outcome of this battle itself was inconclusive, but as a consequence of this battle the Huns
Huns
and their allies left the area of Gallia Belgica where they had plundered nearly all major cities, except Paris.

After the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
had already collapsed in Galla Belgica for some time the Gallo-Roman " Kingdom of Soissons " (457-486) managed to maintain control over the area around Soissons
Soissons
. The Franks
Franks
however emerged victorious and Belgica Secunda in the 5th century became the center of Clovis ' Merovingian
Merovingian
kingdom. During the 8th century in the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
the former area of Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
was split into Neustria (roughly Belgica Secunda, main cities Paris
Paris
, Reims
Reims
) and Austrasia (roughly Belgica Prima, main cities Trier
Trier
, Metz
Metz
). After the death of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
's son, Louis the Pious , the Carolingian Empire was divided by the Treaty of Verdun in 843. The three sons of Louis the Pious divided his territories into three kingdoms: East Francia (the forerunner of modern Germany
Germany
), West Francia
West Francia
(west of the Scheldt
Scheldt
river) a part of which (Ile de France
France
), from the middle of the 10th century became the kernel of modern France
France
, and Middle Francia which was succeeded by Lotharingia
Lotharingia
. Though often presented as the dissolution of the Frankish empire, it was in fact the continued adherence to Salic patrimony . Lotharingia
Lotharingia
was divided in 870 by the Treaty of Meerssen under West and East Francia.

LEGACY

Further information: Terminology of the Low Countries Representation of the Low Countries
Low Countries
as Leo Belgicus
Leo Belgicus
by Claes Janszoon Visscher , 1609 'Belgica Foederata' was the Latin name of the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
.

The name of Belgica continued to refer to the entire Low Countries until the modern period. The Seventeen Provinces of the Low Countries were then divided into the independent BELGICA FOEDERATA or the federal Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
and the BELGICA REGIA or the royal Southern Netherlands
Netherlands
under the Habsburgian crown . For example, several contemporary maps of the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
, which consisted of the Northern Netherlands, and therefore has almost no overlap with the country of Belgium, show the Latin title Belgium
Belgium
Foederatum.

Belgica Foederata continued to be used as the Latin name of the Dutch Federation after its secession of Belgica Regia in 1581; the United Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands
after 1815 was still known as Royaume des Belgiques, and it was only with the independence of modern Belgium
Belgium
and the modern Netherlands
Netherlands
in the 1830s that the name became reserved for Belgium
Belgium
to the exclusion of the Netherlands
Netherlands
.

SEE ALSO

* Saxon shore

REFERENCES

* ^ Gaius Julius Caesar. The Conquest of Gaul. Trans. S. A. Handford (New York: Penguin, 1982), Caes. Gal. 1.1.1 * ^ "Gallos ab Aquitanis Garumna flumen, a Belgis Matrona et Sequana diuidit.", Commentarii de Bello Gallico
Commentarii de Bello Gallico
* ^ Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
- Edith Mary Wightman - Google Boeken. Books.google.be. Retrieved on 2013-09-07. * ^ Geography 4.1 * ^ Wightman, Edith Mary (1985), Gallia Belgica, University of California Press pages 12-14. * ^ Gaius Julius Caesar. The Conquest of Gaul. Trans. S.A. Handford (New York: Penguin, 1982), pp. 59-60. * ^ Gaius Julius Caesar. The Conquest of Gaul. Trans. S. A. Handford (New York: Penguin, 1982); pp. 59, 70, 72. * ^ Matthew Bunson. Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(New York: Facts on File, 1994), p. 169. * ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, New Ed., Vol. 10 (London: Cambridge University Press, 1970), p. 469. * ^ Edith Mary Wightman, Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
(Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1985), pp. 57-62, 71-74. * ^ Mary T. Boatwright , Daniel J. Gargola and Richard J. A. Talbert. A Brief History of the Romans (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), p. 224. * ^ Jona Lendering on www.livius.org * ^ For example, the map " Belgium
Belgium
Foederatum" by Matthaeus Seutter , from 1745, which shows the current Netherlands.

* v * t * e

Provinces of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
at its greatest extent (117 AD)

* Achaea * Aegyptus * Africa proconsularis * Alpes Cottiae * Alpes Maritimae * Alpes Poeninae * Arabia Petraea * Armenia * Asia * Assyria * Bithynia et Pontus
Bithynia et Pontus
* Britannia * Cappadocia * Cilicia * Corsica et Sardinia * Creta et Cyrenaica
Creta et Cyrenaica
* Cyprus * Dacia * Dalmatia * Epirus
Epirus
* Galatia * Gallia Aquitania * Gallia Belgica * Gallia Lugdunensis * Gallia Narbonensis
Gallia Narbonensis
* Germania Inferior * Germania Superior * Hispania
Hispania
Baetica * Hispania
Hispania
Tarraconensis * Italia † * Iudaea * Lusitania
Lusitania
* Lycia et Pamphylia * Macedonia * Mauretania Caesariensis
Mauretania Caesariensis
* Mauretania Tingitana * Mesopotamia * Moesia
Moesia
Inferior * Moesia
Moesia
Superior * Noricum
Noricum
* Pannonia Inferior
Pannonia Inferior
* Pannonia Superior * Raetia * Sicilia * Syria * Thracia

† Italy was never constituted as a province, instead retaining a special juridical status until Diocletian 's reforms.

* v * t * e

Late Roman provinces (4th–7th centuries AD)

HISTORY

As found in the Notitia Dignitatum
Notitia Dignitatum
. Provincial administration reformed and dioceses established by Diocletian , c. 293. Permanent praetorian prefectures established after the death of Constantine I
Constantine I
. Empire permanently partitioned after 395. Exarchates of Ravenna and Africa established after 584. After massive territorial losses in the 7th century, the remaining provinces were superseded by the theme system in c. 640–660, although in Asia Minor and parts of Greece they survived under the themes until the early 9th century.

WESTERN EMPIRE (395–476)

Praetorian Prefecture of Gaul
Gaul

DIOCESE OF GAUL

* Alpes Poeninae et Graiae * Belgica I * Belgica II * Germania
Germania
I * Germania
Germania
II * Lugdunensis I * Lugdunensis II * Lugdunensis III * Lugdunensis IV * Maxima Sequanorum

DIOCESE OF VIENNE 1

* Alpes Maritimae * Aquitanica I * Aquitanica II * Narbonensis I * Narbonensis II * Novempopulania * Viennensis

DIOCESE OF SPAIN

* Baetica * Balearica * Carthaginensis * Gallaecia * Lusitania
Lusitania
* Mauretania Tingitana * Tarraconensis

DIOCESE OF THE BRITAINS

* Britannia I * Britannia II * Flavia Caesariensis * Maxima Caesariensis
Maxima Caesariensis
* Valentia (?)

Praetorian Prefecture of Italy

DIOCESE OF SUBURBICARIAN ITALY

* Apulia et Calabria * Campania * Corsica * Lucania et Bruttii * Picenum
Picenum
Suburbicarium * Samnium * Sardinia
Sardinia
* Sicilia * Tuscia et Umbria * Valeria

DIOCESE OF ANNONARIAN ITALY

* Alpes Cottiae * Flaminia et Picenum
Picenum
Annonarium * Liguria et Aemilia * Raetia I * Raetia II * Venetia et Istria

DIOCESE OF AFRICA 2

* Africa proconsularis (Zeugitana) * Byzacena * Mauretania Caesariensis
Mauretania Caesariensis
* Mauretania Sitifensis * Numidia Cirtensis * Numidia Militiana * Tripolitania

DIOCESE OF PANNONIA 3

* Dalmatia * Noricum
Noricum
mediterraneum * Noricum
Noricum
ripense * Pannonia I * Pannonia II * Savia * Valeria ripensis

EASTERN EMPIRE (395–C. 640)

Praetorian Prefecture of Illyricum

DIOCESE OF DACIA

* Dacia Mediterranea
Dacia Mediterranea
* Dacia Ripensis
Dacia Ripensis
* Dardania * Moesia
Moesia
I * Praevalitana
Praevalitana

DIOCESE OF MACEDONIA

* Achaea * Creta * Epirus
Epirus
nova * Epirus
Epirus
vetus * Macedonia I * Macedonia II Salutaris * Thessalia

Praetorian Prefecture of the East

DIOCESE OF THRACE 5

* Europa * Haemimontus * Moesia
Moesia
II 4 * Rhodope * Scythia 4 * Thracia

DIOCESE OF ASIA 5

* Asia * Caria 4 * Hellespontus * Insulae 4 * Lycaonia
Lycaonia
(370) * Lycia
Lycia
* Lydia
Lydia
* Pamphylia * Pisidia
Pisidia
* Phrygia Pacatiana * Phrygia Salutaris

DIOCESE OF PONTUS 5

* Armenia I 5 * Armenia II 5 * Armenia Maior 5 * Armenian Satrapies 5 * Armenia III (536) * Armenia IV (536) * Bithynia
Bithynia
* Cappadocia I 5 * Cappadocia II 5 * Galatia I 5 * Galatia II Salutaris 5 * Helenopontus 5 * Honorias 5 * Paphlagonia 5 * Pontus Polemoniacus 5

DIOCESE OF THE EAST 5

* Arabia * Cilicia I * Cilicia II * Cyprus 4 * Euphratensis * Isauria
Isauria
* Mesopotamia * Osroene * Palaestina I * Palaestina II * Palaestina III Salutaris * Phoenice I * Phoenice II Libanensis * Syria I * Syria II Salutaris * Theodorias (528)

DIOCESE OF EGYPT 5

* Aegyptus I * Aegyptus II * Arcadia * Augustamnica I * Augustamnica II * Libya Superior * Libya Inferior * Thebais Superior * Thebais Inferior

OTHER TERRITORIES

* Taurica
Taurica
* Quaestura exercitus (536) * Spania (552)

* 1 Later the Septem Provinciae * 2 Re-established after reconquest by the Eastern Empire in 534 as the separate Prefecture of Africa * 3 Later the Diocese of Illyricum * 4 Placed under the Quaestura exercitus in 536 * 5 Affected (i.e. boundaries modified, abolished or renamed) by Justinian I
Justinian I
's administrative reorganization in 534–536

* v * t * e

History of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
by modern territory

* Albania * Balkans * Belgium * Britain * France
France
* Georgia * Armenia * Azerbaijan * Germany
Germany
* Greece * Hungary * Israel * Italy * Lebanon * Libya * Luxembourg
Luxembourg
* Malta * Monaco * Montenegro * Morocco * The Netherlands
Netherlands
* North Africa * Palestine * Portugal * Romania * Scotland * Serbia * Slovakia * Slovenia * Spain
Spain
* Switzerland * Syria * Tunisia * Turkey * Wales

* v * t * e

Lorraine
Lorraine
topics

DEPARTMENTS

MEURTHE-ET-MOSELLE (NANCY )

* Arrondissement of Briey * Arrondissement of Lunéville * Arrondissement of Nancy * Arrondissement of Toul

MEUSE (BAR-LE-DUC )

* Arrondissement of Bar-le-Duc * Arrondissement of Commercy * Arrondissement of Verdun

MOSELLE (METZ )

* Arrondissement of Forbach-Boulay- Moselle
Moselle
* Arrondissement of Metz
Metz
* Arrondissement of Sarrebourg-Château-Salins * Arrondissement of Sarreguemines * Arrondissement of Thionville

VOSGES (ÉPINAL )

* Arrondissement of Épinal
Épinal
* Arrondissement of Neufchâteau * Arrondissement of Saint-Dié

CULTURE

* Coat of arms * Flag * Symbol * People * Languages (Franconian , Lorrain , Alsatian ) * Demographics * Religion

SPORTS

* FC Metz
Metz
* FC Metz
Metz
(Women) * AS Nancy
AS Nancy
* SAS Épinal
Épinal
* US Raon-l\'Étape * SLUC Nancy Basket
SLUC Nancy Basket
* Metz
Metz
Handball * ASPTT Nancy

* Dauphins d\' Épinal
Épinal
* Rallye Alsace-Vosges * Lorraine Open

HISTORY

* Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
( Mediomatrici ">

* Lorraine
Lorraine
portal

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