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Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
("Belgic Gaul") was a province of the Roman empire located in the north-eastern part of Roman Gaul, in what is today primarily Belgium, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
and the Netherlands. In 50 BC after the conquest by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
during his Gallic Wars, it became one of the three main provinces of Gaul
Gaul
(known as the Tres Galliae, the other two being Gallia Aquitania
Gallia Aquitania
and Gallia Lugdunensis).[1] An official Roman province
Roman province
was later created by emperor Augustus
Augustus
in 22 BC. The province was named for the Belgae, as the largest tribal confederation in the area, but also included the territories of the Treveri, Mediomatrici, Leuci, Sequani, Helvetii
Helvetii
and others. The southern border of Belgica, formed by the Marne and Seine rivers, was reported by Caesar as the original cultural boundary between the Belgae
Belgae
and the Celtic Gauls, whom he distinguished from one another.[2] The province was re-organised several times, first increased and later decreased in size. Diocletian
Diocletian
brought the northeastern Civitas Tungrorum into Germania
Germania
Inferior, joining the Rhineland
Rhineland
colonies, and the remaining part of Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
was divided into Belgica Prima
Belgica Prima
in the eastern area of the Treveri, Mediomatrici
Mediomatrici
and Leuci, around Luxembourg
Luxembourg
and the Ardennes, and Belgica Secunda
Belgica Secunda
between the English channel and the upper River Meuse. The capital of Belgica Prima, Trier, became an important late western Roman capital.[3]

Part of a series on the

History of Belgium

Prehistory

Neolithic flint mines of Spiennes 4300–2200 BC

Ancient

Belgae, Eburones
Eburones
& Treveri ~51 BC

Gallic Wars 58–50 BC

 • Ambiorix's revolt 54–53 BC

Roman rule 51 BC–c.500 AD

Early Middle Ages

Franks  

Merovingians 481–751

Carolingians 751–987

Prince-Bishopric of Liège 980–1789

Middle Ages

Franco-Flemish War 1297–1305

Burgundian rule 1384–1482

 • Wars of Liège 1465–68

Habsburg
Habsburg
rule 1482–1556

Early Modern

Northern Renaissance 15th–16th century

Spanish rule 1556–1714

 • Seventeen Provinces 1549–81

 • Dutch Revolt 1568–1648

Austrian rule 1714–93

 • Brabant Revolution 1789–90

 • Liège Revolution 1789–91

French rule 1793–1815

19th century

Dutch rule 1815–30

Belgian Revolution 1830–31

Reign of Leopold I 1831–65

 • Treaty of London 1839

Reign of Leopold II 1865–1909

 • School War 1879–84

 • Congo Free State 1885–1908

20th and 21st centuries

Belgian Congo 1908–60

Reign of Albert I 1909–34

World War I 1914–18

 • Invasion 1914

 • Atrocities 1914

 • German occupation 1914–18

Ruanda-Urundi 1922–62

Reign of Leopold III 1934–51

World War II 1940–45

 • Invasion 1940

 • German occupation 1940–44

 • Holocaust 1941–44

Royal Question 1944–50

Reign of Baudouin 1951–93

Reign of Albert II 1993–2013

Reign of Philippe 2013~

Timeline Belgium
Belgium
portal

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Part of a series on the

History of Luxembourg

Early history

Celtic Luxembourg ~51 BC

 • Treveri  

Gallic Wars 58–50 BC

Roman rule 90 AD–c.500 AD

Middle Ages

Franks  

Merovingians 481–751

 • Austrasia  

Carolingians 751–987

Duchy of Lorraine 959~

 • House of Luxembourg  

Duchy of Luxembourg 1352-1482

Habsburg
Habsburg
rule 1482–1556

Early Modern

Spanish rule 1556–1714

Louis XIV's siege 1684

Austrian rule 1714–95

Revolutionary siege 1794–95

French rule 1795–1815

 • Peasants' War 1798

19th century

Congress of Vienna 1815

 • Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 1815–

Dutch rule 1815–30

 • Reign of Guillaume I 1815-40

 • Belgian Revolution 1830–31

Personal union 1839–90

 • Treaty of London 1839

 • Reign of Guillaume II 1840–49

 • Reign of Guillaume III 1849-90

 • Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Crisis 1867

Full independence 1890-

20th and 21st centuries

Reign of Adolphe 1890-1905

Reign of Guillaume IV 1905-12

Reign of Marie-Adélaïde 1912-19

World War I:  

 • German occupation 1914-18

Reign of Charlotte 1919-1964

World War II:  

 • German invasion 1940

 • German occupation 1940-45

 • Government in exile 1940-45

 • Holocaust 1941

Reign of Jean 1964-2000

Reign of Henri 2000-

Luxembourg
Luxembourg
portal

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Contents

1 Roman conquest 2 Formation under Augustus 3 Under the emperors

3.1 Reform of Domitian
Domitian
(around 90) 3.2 Attack by the Chauci
Chauci
(173) 3.3 Crisis of the 3rd century and Gallic Empire 3.4 Reform of Diocletian
Diocletian
(around 300) 3.5 Prosperous fourth century

4 Germanic conquests (after 406) 5 Legacy 6 See also 7 References

Roman conquest[edit] Further information: Belgae, Gallia Comata, and Gallic Wars In 57 BC, Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
led the conquest of northern Gaul, and already specified that the part to the north of the Seine
Seine
and Marne rivers was inhabited by a people or alliance known as the Belgae. This definition became the basis of the later Roman province
Roman province
of Belgica. Caesar said that the Belgae
Belgae
were separated from the Celtic Gauls
Gauls
to their south by "language, custom and laws" (lingua, institutis, legibus) but he did not go into detail, except to mention that he learnt from his contacts that the Belgae
Belgae
had some ancestry from east of the Rhine, which he referred to as Germania. Indeed, the Belgian tribes closest to the Rhine he distinguished as the Germani cisrhenani. ( Strabo
Strabo
stated that the differences between the Celts
Celts
and Belgae, in language, politics and way of life was a small one.[4]) Modern historians interpret Caesar and the archaeological evidence as indicating that the core of the Belgian alliance was in the present-day northernmost corner of France; the Suessiones, Viromandui and Ambiani
Ambiani
as well perhaps as some of their neighbours who lived in the area, Caesar identified as Belgium
Belgium
or Belgica. These were the leaders of the initial military alliance he confronted, and they were also more economically advanced (and therefore less "Germanic" according to Caesar's way of seeing things) than many of their more northerly allies such as the Nervii and Germani Cisrhenani.[5] Apart from the southern Remi, all the Belgic tribes allied against the Romans, angry at the Roman decision to garrison legions in their territory during the winter. At the beginning of the conflict, Caesar reported the allies' combined strength at 288,000, led by the Suessione king, Galba.[6] Due to the Belgic coalition's size and reputation for uncommon bravery, Caesar avoided meeting the combined forces of the tribes in battle. Instead, he used cavalry to skirmish with smaller contingents of tribesmen. Only when Caesar managed to isolate one of the tribes did he risk conventional battle. The tribes fell in a piecemeal fashion and Caesar claimed to offer lenient terms to the defeated, including Roman protection from the threat of surrounding tribes.[7] Most tribes agreed to the conditions. A series of uprisings followed the 57 BC conquest. The largest revolt was led by the Bellovaci
Bellovaci
in 52 BC, after the defeat of Vercingetorix. During this rebellion, it was the Belgae
Belgae
who avoided direct conflict. They harassed the Roman legions, led personally by Caesar, with cavalry detachments and archers. The rebellion was put down after a Bellovaci ambush of the Romans failed. The revolting party was slaughtered. Formation under Augustus[edit] Following a census of the region in 27 BC, Augustus
Augustus
ordered a restructuring of the provinces in Gaul. Therefore, in 22 BC, Marcus Agrippa split Gaul
Gaul
(or Gallia Comata) into three regions (Gallia Aquitania, Gallia Lugdunensis
Gallia Lugdunensis
and Gallia Belgica.) Agrippa made the divisions on what he perceived to be distinctions in language, race and community - Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
was meant to be a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples.[8] The capital of this territory was Reims, according to the geographer Strabo, though later the capital moved to modern day Trier. The date of this move is uncertain. Modern historians however view the term 'Gaul' and its subdivisions as a "product of faulty ethnography" and see the split of Gallia Comata into three provinces as an attempt to construct a more efficient government, as opposed to a cultural division.[9] Successive Roman emperors struck a balance between Romanizing the people of Gallia Belgica and allowing pre-existing culture to survive. The Romans divided the province into four "civitates" corresponding generally to ancient tribal boundaries. The capital cities of these districts included modern Cassel (replaced by Tournai
Tournai
as Menapian civitas), Bavay
Bavay
(replaced by Cambrai
Cambrai
as Nervian civitas), Thérouanne, Arras, St. Quentin, Soissons, Reims, Beauvais, Amiens, Tongeren, Triers, Toul
Toul
and Metz. These civitates were in turn were divided into smaller units, pagi, a term that became the French word "pays". Roman government was run by Concilia in Reims
Reims
or Trier. Additionally, local notables from Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
were required to participate in a festival in Lugdunum
Lugdunum
(modern Lyon) which typically celebrated or worshiped the emperor’s genius. The gradual adoption of Romanized names by local elites and the Romanization of laws under local authority demonstrate the effectiveness of this concilium Galliarum.[10] With that said, the concept and community of Gallia Belgica did not predate the Roman province, but developed from it. Under the emperors[edit]

Roman roads in Belgium

Reform of Domitian
Domitian
(around 90)[edit] During the 1st century AD (estimated date 90 AD), the provinces of Gaul
Gaul
were restructured. Emperor Domitian
Domitian
reorganized the provinces in order to separate the militarized zones of the Rhine from the civilian populations of the region.[11] The northeastern part of Gallia Belgica was split off and renamed Germania
Germania
Inferior, later to be reorganized and renamed as Germania
Germania
Secunda. This included the eastern part of modern Belgium, the southernmost part of the modern Netherlands, and a part of modern Germany. The eastern part was split off to become Germania Superior
Germania Superior
(parts of western Germany
Germany
and eastern France) and the southern border of Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
was extended to the south. The newer Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
included the cities of Camaracum (Cambrai), Nemetacum (Arras), Samarobriva (Amiens), Durocortorum
Durocortorum
(Reims), Dividorum (Metz) and Augusta Treverorum
Augusta Treverorum
(Trier). Attack by the Chauci
Chauci
(173)[edit] In 173 the later emperor Didius Julianus, then governor of Gallia Belgica, had to repel a serious invasion of the Chauci, a Germanic tribe that lived along the shores of the Wadden Sea
Wadden Sea
at the respective northern and northwestern coast of present-day Netherlands
Netherlands
and Germany, in the drainage basin of the river Scheldt
Scheldt
(present day Flanders
Flanders
and Hainaut). Archaeologists have found evidence that large farms near Tournai
Tournai
and the village Velzeke
Velzeke
(near Ghent) had to be abandoned. Further the capitals in the areas of the former tribes of the Atrebates, Morini
Morini
and the Nervians
Nervians
were either burnt down (Nemetacum (Arras)) or had to be rebuilt in the last quarter of the second century, Colonia Morinorum (Thérouanne) and Bagacum Nerviorum (Bavay).[12] Crisis of the 3rd century and Gallic Empire[edit] With the Crisis of the Third Century
Crisis of the Third Century
and the partition of the Empire, Roman control over Gaul
Gaul
deteriorated in the 3rd century. In 260 Postumus
Postumus
became emperor of a breakaway Gallic Empire. He proved able to stop the incursions from the Franks. Only in 274 was Roman control restored by the new emperor Aurelian
Aurelian
in the Battle of Châlons. The cost of this defeat in the long run proved very high indeed. With the Gallic army defeated and not returning to the Rhine border, the Franks overran the neighbouring province of Germania
Germania
Inferior. The Rhineland (to the Ripuarian Franks) and the area between the Rhine and the main road between Boulogne and Cologne, present day South Holland, Zeeland, Flanders, Brabant and Limburg, the last three in both the present day Netherlands
Netherlands
and Belgium
Belgium
(to the Salian Franks) were de facto lost forever for the Roman empire. This gave the Salian Franks
Franks
a base from which they could expand some 130 years later, beginning after the disastrous Rhine crossing in 406, to conquer the whole area of the former province of Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and start the Merovingian
Merovingian
kingdom, the first immediate forerunner state of Western civilization. Reform of Diocletian
Diocletian
(around 300)[edit] Emperor Diocletian
Diocletian
restructured the provinces around 300, and split Belgica into two provinces: Belgica Prima
Belgica Prima
and Belgica Secunda. Belgica Prima had Treveri
Treveri
(Trier) as its main city, and consisted of the eastern part. The border between Belgica Prima
Belgica Prima
and Belgica Secunda
Belgica Secunda
was approximately along the River Meuse. Prosperous fourth century[edit] The eastern part of Gallia Belgica, especially the valley of the Moselle
Moselle
became very prosperous in the fourth century, particularly in the decades that Augusta Treverorum
Augusta Treverorum
(Trier) was the capital of the Western Roman Empire. The Roman poet Ausonius
Ausonius
wrote a famous poem over the Mosella. Germanic conquests (after 406)[edit]

The Provinces of Gaul, circa 400 AD

The Porta Nigra
Porta Nigra
of Trier, capital of Gallia Belgica, constructed between 186 and 200 AD

Franks
Franks
held de facto control over the major part of Germania
Germania
Inferior since 275. Around 350 this was partly formalized when the Romans gave official control over Toxandria
Toxandria
to the Salian Franks. Toxandria
Toxandria
was most likely for a large part overlapping with the area now known as the Kempen. Eventually, in 406, a large alliance among them Vandals, Alans
Alans
and Suebi, under great pressure from the Huns, after first having been defeated by the Ripuarian Franks
Franks
in the neighborhood of Cologne
Cologne
in Germania
Germania
Inferior, successfully crossed the Rhine in the neighborhood of present-day Koblenz
Koblenz
and entered Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
by way of the Moselle
Moselle
valley. They subsequently destroyed large parts of Gallia Belgica, before eventually moving on to Hispania
Hispania
(present day Spain). This invasion and the accompanying widespread destruction broke the backbone of Roman power in at least the northern part of Gallia Belgica. After this invasion the Franks
Franks
were able to conquer valuable agricultural land south of the Via Belgica, the very important main road between Cologne
Cologne
and Boulogne, that had been the backbone of Roman defense strategy between 260 and 406. In 452 a major battle was fought at the Catalaunian fields (between the Seine
Seine
and the Moselle). A coalition of Romans, Visigoths and Franks
Franks
fought an army led by the legendary Hunnic leader Attila. The outcome of this battle itself was inconclusive, but as a consequence of this battle the Huns
Huns
and their allies left the area of Gallia Belgica where they had plundered nearly all major cities, except Paris. After the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
had already collapsed in Galla Belgica for some time the Gallo-Roman "Kingdom of Soissons" (457-486) managed to maintain control over the area around Soissons. The Franks
Franks
however emerged victorious and Belgica Secunda
Belgica Secunda
in the 5th century became the center of Clovis' Merovingian
Merovingian
kingdom. During the 8th century in the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
the former area of Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
was split into Neustria
Neustria
(roughly Belgica Secunda, main cities Paris, Reims) and Austrasia
Austrasia
(roughly Belgica Prima
Belgica Prima
and Germania
Germania
Inferior, main cities Trier, Metz, Cologne). After the death of Charlemagne's son, Louis the Pious, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
was divided by the Treaty of Verdun
Treaty of Verdun
in 843. The three sons of Louis the Pious
Louis the Pious
divided his territories into three kingdoms: East Francia
East Francia
(the forerunner of modern Germany), West Francia (west of the Scheldt
Scheldt
river) a part of which (Ile de France), from the middle of the 10th century became the kernel of modern France, and Middle Francia
Middle Francia
which was succeeded by Lotharingia. Though often presented as the dissolution of the Frankish empire, it was in fact the continued adherence to Salic patrimony. Lotharingia
Lotharingia
was divided in 870 by the Treaty of Meerssen
Treaty of Meerssen
under West and East Francia. Legacy[edit] Further information: Terminology of the Low Countries

Representation of the Low Countries
Low Countries
as Leo Belgicus
Leo Belgicus
by Claes Janszoon Visscher, 1609

'Belgica Foederata' was the Latin name of the Dutch Republic.

The name of Belgica continued to refer to the entire Low Countries until the modern period. The Seventeen Provinces
Seventeen Provinces
of the Low Countries were then divided into the independent Belgica Foederata or the federal Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
and the Belgica Regia or the royal Southern Netherlands
Netherlands
under the Habsburgian crown. For example, several contemporary maps of the Dutch Republic, which consisted of the Northern Netherlands, and therefore has almost no overlap with the country of Belgium, show the Latin title Belgium
Belgium
Foederatum.[13] Belgica Foederata continued to be used as the Latin name of the Dutch Federation after its secession of Belgica Regia in 1581; the United Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands
after 1815 was still known as Royaume des Belgiques, and it was only with the independence of modern Belgium
Belgium
and the modern Netherlands
Netherlands
in the 1830s that the name became reserved for Belgium
Belgium
to the exclusion of the Netherlands. See also[edit]

Saxon shore

References[edit]

^ Gaius Julius Caesar. The Conquest of Gaul. Trans. S. A. Handford (New York: Penguin, 1982), Caes. Gal. 1.1.1 ^ "Gallos ab Aquitanis Garumna flumen, a Belgis Matrona et Sequana diuidit.", Commentarii de Bello Gallico ^ Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
- Edith Mary Wightman - Google Boeken. Books.google.be. Retrieved on 2013-09-07. ^ Geography 4.1 ^ Wightman, Edith Mary (1985), Gallia Belgica, University of California Press  pages 12-14. ^ Gaius Julius Caesar. The Conquest of Gaul. Trans. S.A. Handford (New York: Penguin, 1982), pp. 59-60. ^ Gaius Julius Caesar. The Conquest of Gaul. Trans. S. A. Handford (New York: Penguin, 1982); pp. 59, 70, 72. ^ Matthew Bunson. Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(New York: Facts on File, 1994), p. 169. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, New Ed., Vol. 10 (London: Cambridge University Press, 1970), p. 469. ^ Edith Mary Wightman, Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
(Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1985), pp. 57-62, 71-74. ^ Mary T. Boatwright, Daniel J. Gargola and Richard J. A. Talbert. A Brief History of the Romans (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), p. 224. ^ Jona Lendering on www.livius.org ^ For example, the map " Belgium
Belgium
Foederatum" by Matthaeus Seutter, from 1745, which shows the current Netherlands.[1] Archived 2012-08-25 at the Wayback Machine.

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Provinces of the early Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(117 AD)

Achaea Aegyptus Africa proconsularis Alpes Cottiae Alpes Maritimae Alpes Poeninae Arabia Petraea Armenia Asia Assyria Bithynia
Bithynia
and Pontus Britannia Cappadocia Cilicia Corsica
Corsica
and Sardinia Crete and Cyrenaica Cyprus Dacia Dalmatia Epirus Galatia Gallia Aquitania Gallia Belgica Gallia Lugdunensis Gallia Narbonensis Germania
Germania
Inferior Germania
Germania
Superior Hispania
Hispania
Baetica Hispania
Hispania
Tarraconensis Italia † Iudaea Lusitania Lycia
Lycia
et Pamphylia Macedonia Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Tingitana Mesopotamia Moesia
Moesia
Inferior Moesia
Moesia
Superior Noricum Pannonia Inferior Pannonia Superior Raetia Sicilia Syria Thracia

† Italy was never constituted as a province, instead retaining a special juridical status until Diocletian's reforms.

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Late Roman provinces (4th–7th centuries AD)

History

As found in the Notitia Dignitatum. Provincial administration reformed and dioceses established by Diocletian, c. 293. Permanent praetorian prefectures established after the death of Constantine I. Empire permanently partitioned after 395. Exarchates of Ravenna and Africa established after 584. After massive territorial losses in the 7th century, the remaining provinces were superseded by the theme system in c. 640–660, although in Asia Minor and parts of Greece they survived under the themes until the early 9th century.

Western Empire (395–476)

Praetorian Prefecture of Gaul

Diocese of Gaul

Alpes Poeninae
Alpes Poeninae
et Graiae Belgica I Belgica II Germania
Germania
I Germania
Germania
II Lugdunensis I Lugdunensis II Lugdunensis III Lugdunensis IV Maxima Sequanorum

Diocese of Vienne1

Alpes Maritimae Aquitanica I Aquitanica II Narbonensis I Narbonensis II Novempopulania Viennensis

Diocese of Spain

Baetica Balearica Carthaginensis Gallaecia Lusitania Mauretania Tingitana Tarraconensis

Diocese of the Britains

Britannia I Britannia II Flavia Caesariensis Maxima Caesariensis Valentia (?)

Praetorian Prefecture of Italy

Diocese of Suburbicarian Italy

Apulia et Calabria Campania Corsica Lucania et Bruttii Picenum
Picenum
Suburbicarium Samnium Sardinia Sicilia Tuscia et Umbria Valeria

Diocese of Annonarian Italy

Alpes Cottiae Flaminia et Picenum
Picenum
Annonarium Liguria et Aemilia Raetia
Raetia
I Raetia
Raetia
II Venetia et Istria

Diocese of Africa2

Africa proconsularis (Zeugitana) Byzacena Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Sitifensis Numidia Cirtensis Numidia Militiana Tripolitania

Diocese of Pannonia3

Dalmatia Noricum
Noricum
mediterraneum Noricum
Noricum
ripense Pannonia I Pannonia II Savia Valeria ripensis

Eastern Empire (395–c. 640)

Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum

Diocese of Dacia

Dacia Mediterranea Dacia Ripensis Dardania Moesia
Moesia
I Praevalitana

Diocese of Macedonia

Achaea Creta Epirus
Epirus
Nova Epirus
Epirus
Vetus Macedonia Prima Macedonia II Salutaris Thessalia

Praetorian Prefecture of the East

Diocese of Thrace5

Europa Haemimontus Moesia
Moesia
II4 Rhodope Scythia4 Thracia

Diocese of Asia5

Asia Caria4 Hellespontus Insulae4 Lycaonia
Lycaonia
(370) Lycia Lydia Pamphylia Pisidia Phrygia Pacatiana Phrygia Salutaris

Diocese of Pontus5

Armenia I5 Armenia II5 Armenia Maior5 Armenian Satrapies5 Armenia III
Armenia III
(536) Armenia IV
Armenia IV
(536) Bithynia Cappadocia I5 Cappadocia II5 Galatia I5 Galatia II Salutaris5 Helenopontus5 Honorias5 Paphlagonia5 Pontus Polemoniacus5

Diocese of the East5

Arabia Cilicia I Cilicia II Cyprus4 Euphratensis Isauria Mesopotamia Osroene Palaestina I Palaestina II Palaestina III Salutaris Phoenice I Phoenice II Libanensis Syria I Syria II Salutaris Theodorias (528)

Diocese of Egypt5

Aegyptus I Aegyptus II Arcadia Augustamnica I Augustamnica II Libya Superior Libya Inferior Thebais Superior Thebais Inferior

Other territories

Taurica Quaestura exercitus (536) Spania
Spania
(552)

1 Later the Septem Provinciae 2 Re-established after reconquest by the Eastern Empire in 534 as the separate Prefecture of Africa 3 Later the Diocese of Illyricum 4 Placed under the Quaestura exercitus in 536 5 Affected (i.e. boundaries modified, abolished or renamed) by Justinian I's administrative reorganization in 534–536

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History of the Roman- Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
by modern territory of nations and regions

Albania(Classical - Medieval) Algeria Armenia(Classical - Early Medieval) Azerbaijan Austria Balkans Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria(Classical - High Medieval) Britain(England) Crimea(Classical - Medieval) Croatia Cyprus(Classical - Medieval) Egypt(Classical ~ Early Medieval) France
France
(Corsica(Classical - Early Medieval)) Georgia Germany Greece(Classical - Medieval) (Crete(Classical - Medieval)) Hungary Israel(Classical ~ Early Medieval) Italy (Classical - Medieval) (Sicily (Classical - Medieval), Sardinia (Classical - Early Medieval)) Lebanon(Classical ~ Early Medieval) Libya Liechtenstein Luxembourg Malta Monaco Montenegro Morocco The Netherlands North Africa Palestine(Classical ~ Early Medieval) Portugal Romania Scotland Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain(Classical - Early Medieval) Switzerland Syria(Classical ~ Early Medieval) Tunisia (Roman Carthage) Turkey(Classical - Medieval) (Thrace(Classical - Medieval)) Wales

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  Lorraine
Lorraine
topics

Departments

Meurthe-et- Moselle
Moselle
(Nancy)

Arrondissement of Briey Arrondissement of Lunéville Arrondissement of Nancy Arrondissement of Toul

Meuse (Bar-le-Duc)

Arrondissement of Bar-le-Duc Arrondissement of Commercy Arrondissement of Verdun

Moselle
Moselle
(Metz)

Arrondissement of Forbach-Boulay-Moselle Arrondissement of Metz Arrondissement of Sarrebourg-Château-Salins Arrondissement of Sarreguemines Arrondissement of Thionville

Vosges (Épinal)

Arrondissement of Épinal Arrondissement of Neufchâteau Arrondissement of Saint-Dié

Culture

Coat of arms Flag Symbol People Languages (Franconian, Lorrain, Alsatian) Demographics Religion

Sports

FC Metz FC Metz
Metz
(women) AS Nancy SAS Épinal US Raon-l'Étape SLUC Nancy Basket Metz
Metz
Handball ASPTT Nancy Dauphins d'Épinal Rallye Alsace-Vosges Lorraine
Lorraine
Open

History

Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
( Mediomatrici
Mediomatrici
& Leuci) (22 BC–5th-century) Alemanni/Ripuarian Franks
Franks
(5th-century–511) Austrasia
Austrasia
(511–751) Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
(751–843) Middle Francia
Middle Francia
(843–855) Lotharingia
Lotharingia
(855–959) Duchy of Lorraine
Duchy of Lorraine
(959–1766) Duchy of Bar
Duchy of Bar
(circa 950-1766) Three Bishoprics
Three Bishoprics
(1552-1790) Bezirk Lothringen
Bezirk Lothringen
(1871–1918) CdZ-Gebiet Lothringen
CdZ-Gebiet Lothringen
(1940–1945) Lorraine
Lorraine
(1945–2016) Grand Est
Grand Est
(2016–)

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