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Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
(Galician: galego-portugués or galaico-portugués, Portuguese: galego-português or galaico-português), also known as Old Portuguese or Medieval Galician, was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula. Alternatively, it can be considered a historical period of the Galician and Portuguese languages. Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
was first spoken in the area bounded in the north and west by the Atlantic Ocean, and by the Douro River
Douro River
in the south, comprising Galicia and northern Portugal, but it was later extended south of the Douro by the Reconquista. It is the common ancestor of modern Portuguese, Galician, Eonavian
Eonavian
and Fala varieties, all of which maintain a very high level of mutual intelligibility. The term "Galician-Portuguese" also designates the subdivision of the modern West Iberian group of Romance languages.

Contents

1 Language

1.1 Origins and history 1.2 Literature 1.3 Divergence

2 Phonology

2.1 A stanza of Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
lyric

3 Oral traditions 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External links

Language[edit] Origins and history[edit] See also: History of Portuguese

Map showing the historical retreat and expansion of Galician (Galician-Portuguese) within the context of its linguistic neighbours between the year 1000 and 2000.

Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
developed in the region of the former Roman province of Gallaecia, from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
(common Latin) that had been introduced by Roman soldiers, colonists and magistrates during the time of the Roman Empire. Although the process may have been slower than in other regions, the centuries of contact with Vulgar Latin, after a period of bilingualism, completely extinguished the native languages, leading to the evolution of a new variety of Latin with a few Gallaecian features.[2][3] Gallaecian and Lusitanian influences were absorbed into the local Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
dialect, which can be detected in some Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
words as well as in placenames of Celtic and Iberian origin like Bolso.[4] In general, the more cultivated variety of Latin spoken by the Hispano-Roman elites in Roman Hispania
Hispania
had a peculiar regional accent, referred to as Hispano ore and agrestius pronuntians.[5] The more cultivated variety of Latin coexisted with the popular variety. It is assumed that the Pre-Roman languages spoken by the native people, each used in a different region of Roman Hispania, contributed to the development of several different dialects of Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
and that these diverged increasingly over time, eventually evolving into the early Romance Languages of Iberia. It is believed that by 600, Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
was no longer spoken in the Iberian Peninsula.[6] An early form of Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
was already spoken in the Kingdom of the Suebi
Kingdom of the Suebi
and by the year 800 Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
had already become the vernacular of northwestern Iberia.[6] The first known phonetic changes in Vulgar Latin, which began the evolution to Galician-Portuguese, took place during the rule of the Germanic groups, the Suebi
Suebi
(411–585) and Visigoths (585–711).[6] And the Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
"inflected infinitive" (or "personal infinitive")[7] and the nasal vowels may have evolved under the influence of local Celtic languages[8][9] (as in Old French). The nasal vowels would thus be a phonologic characteristic of the Vulgar Latin spoken in Roman Gallaecia, but they are not attested in writing until after the 6th and 7th centuries.[10] The oldest known document to contain Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
words, found in northern Portugal, is called the Doação à Igreja de Sozello and dated to 870 but otherwise composed in Late/Medieval Latin.[11] Another document, from 882, also containing some Galician-Portuguese words is the Carta de dotação e fundação da Igreja de S. Miguel de Lardosa.[12] In fact, many Latin documents written in Portuguese territory contain Romance forms.[13] The Notícia de fiadores, written in 1175, is thought by some to be the oldest known document written in Galician-Portuguese.[14] The Pacto dos irmãos Pais, recently discovered (and possibly dating from before 1173), has been said to be even older, but despite the enthusiasm of some scholars, it has been shown that the documents are not really written in Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
but are in fact a mixture of Late Latin
Late Latin
and Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
phonology, morphology and syntax.[15] The Noticia de Torto, of uncertain date (c. 1214?), and the Testamento de D. Afonso II (27 June 1214) are most certainly Galician-Portuguese.[14] The earliest poetic texts (but not the manuscripts in which they are found) date from c. 1195 to c. 1225. Thus, by the end of the 12th century and the beginning of the 13th there are documents in prose and verse written in the local Romance vernacular. Literature[edit] Main article: Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
lyric Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
had a special cultural role in the literature of the Christian kingdoms of Crown of Castile
Crown of Castile
(Kingdoms of Castile, Leon and Galicia,part of the medieval NW Iberian Peninsula) comparable to the Catalan Language
Language
of the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
(Principality of Catalonia and Kingdoms of Aragon, Valencia and Majorca, NE medieval Iberian Peninsula), or that of Occitan in France and Italy during the same historical period. The main extant sources of Galician-Portuguese lyric poetry are these:

The four extant manuscripts of the Cantigas de Santa Maria
Cantigas de Santa Maria
(written by Alfonso X the Wise, king of Castile, Leon and Galicia from 1252–1284) Cancioneiro da Ajuda Cancioneiro da Vaticana Cancioneiro Colocci-Brancuti, also known as Cancioneiro da Biblioteca Nacional (Lisbon) Cancioneiro dun Grande de Espanha Pergaminho Vindel Pergaminho Sharrer Os 5 lais de Bretanha Tenzón entre Afonso Sánchez e Vasco Martíns de Resende

The language was used for literary purposes from the final years of the 12th century to roughly the middle of the 14th century in what are now Spain and Portugal and was, almost without exception, the only language used for the composition of lyric poetry. Over 160 poets are recorded, among them Bernal de Bonaval, Pero da Ponte, Johan Garcia de Guilhade, Johan Airas de Santiago, and Pedr' Amigo de Sevilha. The main secular poetic genres were the cantigas d'amor (male-voiced love lyric), the cantigas d'amigo (female-voiced love lyric) and the cantigas d'escarnho e de mal dizer (including a variety of genres from personal invective to social satire, poetic parody and literary debate).[16] All told, nearly 1,700 poems survive in these three genres, and there is a corpus of over 400 cantigas de Santa Maria (narrative poems about miracles and hymns in honor of the Holy Virgin). The Castilian king Alfonso X composed his cantigas de Santa Maria and his cantigas de escárnio e maldizer in Galician-Portuguese, even though he used Castilian for prose. King Dinis of Portugal, who also contributed (with 137 extant texts, more than any other author) to the secular poetic genres, made the language official in Portugal in 1290. Until then, Latin had been the official (written) language for royal documents; the spoken language did not have a name and was simply known as lingua vulgar ("ordinary language", that is Vulgar Latin) until it was named "Portuguese" in King Dinis' reign. "Galician-Portuguese" and português arcaico ("Old Portuguese") are modern terms for the common ancestor of modern Portuguese and modern Galician. Compared to the differences in Ancient Greek dialects, the alleged differences between 13th-century Portuguese and Galician are trivial. Divergence[edit] As a result of political division, Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
lost its unity when the County of Portugal
County of Portugal
separated from the Kingdom of Galicia
Kingdom of Galicia
in 1128 (a dependent kingdom of Leon) to establish the Kingdom of Portugal. The Galician and Portuguese versions of the language then diverged over time as they followed independent evolutionary paths. As Portugal's territory was extended southward during the Reconquista, the increasingly distinctive Portuguese language
Portuguese language
was adopted by the people in those regions, supplanting the earlier Arabic
Arabic
and other Romance/Latin languages that were spoken in these conquered areas during the Moorish era. Meanwhile, Galician was influenced by the neighboring Leonese language, especially during the time of kingdoms of Leon and Leon-Castile, and in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries it has been influenced by Castilian. Two cities at the time of separation, Braga
Braga
and Porto, were within the County of Portugal
County of Portugal
and have remained within Portugal. Further north, the cities of Lugo, A Coruña and the great medieval centre of Santiago de Compostela remained within Galicia. Galician was preserved in Galicia in the modern era because those who spoke it were the majority rural or "uneducated" population living in the villages and towns, and Castilian was taught as the "correct" language to the bilingual educated elite in the cities. Because until comparatively recently most Galicians lived in many small towns and villages in a remote and mountainous land, the language changed very slowly and was only very slightly influenced from outside the region. That situation made Galician remain the vernacular of Galicia until the late nineteenth/early twentieth centuries and is still widely spoken; most Galicians today are bilingual. Modern Galician was only officially recognized by the Second Spanish Republic in the 1930s as a co-official language with Castilian within Galicia. The recognition was revoked by the regime of Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
but was restored after his death. The linguistic classification of Galician and Portuguese is still discussed today. There are those among Galician independence groups who demand their reunification as well as Portuguese and Galician philologists who argue that both are dialects of a common language rather than two separate ones. The Fala language, spoken in a small region of the Spanish autonomous community of Extremadura, underwent a similar development as Galician. Galician is the regional language of Galicia (sharing co-officiality with Spanish), and it is spoken by the majority of its population. Portuguese continues to grow and, today, is the sixth most spoken language in the world. Phonology[edit]

Consonant phonemes of Galician-Portuguese

Bilabial Labio- dental Dental/ Alveolar Post- alveolar Palatal Velar

Nasal m

n

ɲ

Plosive p b

t d

k ɡ

Fricative β1 f s z ʃ ʒ2

Affricates

ts dz tʃ dʒ2

Lateral

l

ʎ

Trill

r

Flap

ɾ

1 /β/ eventually shifted to /v/ in central and southern Portugal (and hence in Brazil) and merged with /b/ in northern Portugal and Galicia. 2 [ʒ] and [dʒ] probably occurred in complementary distribution.

/s/ and /z/ were apico-alveolar while /ts/ and /dz/ were lamino-alveolar. Later in the history of Portuguese, all the affricate sibilants became fricatives, with the apico-alveolar and lamino-alveolar sibilants remaining distinct for a time but eventually merging in most dialects. See History of Portuguese for more information. A stanza of Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
lyric[edit] Main article: Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
lyric

Proençaes soen mui ben trobar e dizen eles que é con amor, mays os que troban no tempo da frol e non en outro, sei eu ben que non an tan gran coita no seu coraçon qual m' eu por mha senhor vejo levar — King Dinis of Portugal
Dinis of Portugal
(1271–1325)

Provençal poets know how to compose very well and they say it is out of love, but those who compose when flowers bloom and at no other time, I know well that they don't have in their hearts so great a yearning as I must carry for my Lady in mine.

Oral traditions[edit] There has been a sharing of folklore in the Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
region going back to prehistoric times. As the Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
language spread south with the Reconquista, supplanting Mozarabic, this ancient sharing of folklore intensified. In 2005 the governments of Portugal and Spain jointly proposed that Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
oral traditions be made part of the Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. The work of documenting and transmitting that common culture involves several universities and other organizations. Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
folklore is rich in oral traditions. These include the cantigas ao desafio or regueifas, duels of improvised songs, many legends, stories, poems, romances, folk songs, sayings and riddles, and ways of speech that still retain a lexical, phonetic, morphological and syntactic similarity. Also part of the common heritage of oral traditions are the markets and festivals of patron saints and processions, religious celebrations such as the magosto, entroido or Corpus Christi, with ancient dances and tradition – like the one where Coca the dragon fights with Saint George; and also traditional clothing and adornments, crafts and skills, work-tools, carved vegetable lanterns, superstitions, traditional knowledge about plants and animals. All these are part of a common heritage considered in danger of extinction as the traditional way of living is replaced by modern life, and the jargon of fisherman, the names of tools in traditional crafts, and the oral traditions which form part of celebrations are slowly forgotten. A Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
"baixo-limiao" lect is spoken in several villages. In Galicia it is spoken in Entrimo
Entrimo
and Lobios
Lobios
and in northern Portugal in Terras de Bouro
Terras de Bouro
(lands of the Buri) and Castro Laboreiro including the mountain town (county seat) of Soajo and surrounding villages.[17] See also[edit] About the Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
languages

Cantiga de amigo Eonavian Fala language Galician language History of Portuguese Portuguese language Reintegrationism

About Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
culture

Culture of Portugal

References[edit]

^ Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
at MultiTree
MultiTree
on the Linguist List ^ Luján Martínez, Eugenio R. (3 May 2006). "The Language(s) of the Callaeci" (PDF). e-Keltoi: Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies. 6: 715–748. ISSN 1540-4889.  ^ Piel, Joseph-Maria (1989). "Origens e estruturação histórica do léxico português". Estudos de Linguística Histórica Galego-Portuguesa (PDF). Lisboa: IN-CM. pp. 9–16.  ^ A Toponímia Céltica e os vestígios de cultura material da Proto-História de Portugal. Freire, José. Revista de Guimarães, Volume Especial, I, Guimarães, 1999, pp. 265–275. (PDF) . Retrieved on 14 November 2011. ^ Adams, J. N. (2003). Bilingualism and the Latin language (PDF). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81771-4. Retrieved 14 November 2011.  ^ a b c "As origens do romance galego-português". Instituto Luis de Camões.  ^ Alinei, Mario; Benozzo, Francesco (2008). "Alguns aspectos da Teoria da Continuidade Paleolítica aplicada à região galega" (PDF). Retrieved 14 November 2011.  ^ Comparative Grammar of Latin 34 Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Ethnologic Map of Pre-Roman Iberia (circa 200 B.C.). Arkeotavira.com. Retrieved on 14 November 2011. ^ Fonética histórica Archived 22 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ The oldest document containing traces of Galician-Portuguese, a.D. 870. Novomilenio.inf.br. Retrieved on 14 November 2011. ^ Charter of the Foundation of the Church of S. Miguel de Lardosa, a.D. 882. Fcsh.unl.pt. Retrieved on 14 November 2011. ^ Norman P. Sacks, The Latinity of Dated Documents in the Portuguese Territory, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1941 ^ a b The oldest texts written in Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
Archived 17 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Ivo Castro, Introdução à História do Português. Geografia da Língua. Português Antigo. [Lisbon: Colibri, 2004], pp. 121–125, and by A. Emiliano, cited by Castro ^ Many of these texts correspond to the Greek psogoi mentioned by Aristotle
Aristotle
[Poetics 1448b27] and exemplified in the verses of iambographers such as Archilochus
Archilochus
and Hipponax. ^ Ribeira, José Manuel. "A Fala Galego-Portuguesa da Baixa Limia e Castro Laboreiro: Integrado no Projecto para a declaraçom de Património da Humanidade da Cultura Imaterial Galego-Portuguesa" (PDF). Retrieved 14 November 2011. 

Bibliography[edit] Manuscripts containing Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
('secular') lyric (cited from Cohen 2003 [see below under critical editions]):

A = "Cancioneiro da Ajuda", Palácio Real da Ajuda (Lisbon). B = Biblioteca Nacional (Lisbon), cod. 10991. Ba = Bancroft Library (University of California, Berkeley) 2 MS DP3 F3 (MS UCB 143) N = Pierpont Morgan Library (New York), MS 979 (= PV). S = Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo (Lisbon), Capa do Cart. Not. de Lisboa, N.º 7-A, Caixa 1, Maço 1, Livro 3. V = Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, cod. lat. 4803. Va = Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, cod. lat. 7182, ff. 276rº – 278rº

Manuscripts containing the Cantigas de Santa Maria:

E = Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo (El Escorial), MS B. I. 2. F = Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale (Florence), Banco Rari 20. T = Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo (El Escorial), MS T. I. 1. To = Biblioteca Nacional (Madrid), cod. 10.069 ("El Toledano")

Critical editions of individual genres of Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
poetry (note that the cantigas d'amor are split between Michaëlis 1904 and Nunes 1932):

Cohen, Rip. (2003). 500 Cantigas d' Amigo: Edição Crítica / Critical Edition (Porto: Campo das Letras). Lapa, Manuel Rodrigues (1970). Cantigas d'escarnho e de mal dizer dos cancioneiros medievais galego-portugueses. Edição crítica pelo prof. –. 2nd ed. Vigo: Editorial Galaxia [1st. ed. Coimbra, Editorial Galaxia, 1965] with "Vocabulário"). Mettmann, Walter. (1959–1972). Afonso X, o Sabio. Cantigas de Santa Maria. 4 vols ["Glossário", in vol. 4]. Coimbra: Por ordem da Universidade (republished in 2 vols. ["Glossário" in vol. 2] Vigo: Edicións Xerais de Galicia, 1981; 2nd ed.: Alfonso X, el Sabio, Cantigas de Santa Maria, Edición, introducción y notas de –. 3 vols. Madrid: Clásicos Castália, 1986–1989). Michaëlis de Vasconcellos, Carolina. (1904). Cancioneiro da Ajuda. Edição critica e commentada por –. 2 vols. Halle a.S., Max Niemeyer (republished Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional – Casa de Moeda, 1990). Nunes, José Joaquim. (1932). Cantigas d'amor dos trovadores galego-portugueses. Edição crítica acompanhada de introdução, comentário, variantes, e glossário por –. Coimbra: Imprensa da Universidade (Biblioteca de escritores portugueses) (republished by Lisboa: Centro do Livro Brasileiro, 1972).

On the biography and chronology of the poets and the courts they frequented, the relation of these matters to the internal structure of the manuscript tradition, and myriad relevant questions in the field, please see:

Oliveira, António Resende de (1987). "A cultura trovadoresca no ocidente peninsular: trovadores e jograis galegos", Biblos LXIII: 1–22.  ———  (1988). "Do Cancioneiro da Ajuda
Cancioneiro da Ajuda
ao Livro das Cantigas do Conde D. Pedro. Análise do acrescento à secção das cantigas de amigo de O", Revista de História das Ideias 10: 691–751.  ———  (1989). "A Galiza e a cultura trovadoresca peninsular", Revista de História das Ideias 11: 7–36.  ———  (1993). "A caminho de Galiza. Sobre as primeiras composições em galego-português", in O Cantar dos Trobadores. Santiago de Compostela: Xunta de Galicia, pp. 249–260 (republished in Oliveira 2001b: 65–78).  ———  (1994). Depois do Espectáculo Trovadoresco. a estrutura dos cancioneiros peninsulares e as recolhas dos séculos XIII e XIV. Lisboa: Edições Colibri (Colecção: Autores Portugueses).  ———  (1995). Trobadores e Xograres. Contexto histórico. (tr. Valentín Arias) Vigo: Edicións Xerais de Galicia (Universitaria / Historia crítica da literatura medieval).  ———  (1997a). "Arqueologia do mecenato trovadoresco em Portugal", in Actas do 2º Congresso Histórico de Guimarães, 319–327 (republished in Oliveira 2001b: 51–62).  ———  (1997b). "História de uma despossessão. A nobreza e os primeiros textos em galego-português", in Revista de História das Ideias 19: 105–136.  ———  (1998a). "Le surgissement de la culture troubadouresque dans l'occident de la Péninsule Ibérique (I). Compositeurs et cours", in (Anton Touber, ed.) Le Rayonnement des Troubadours, Amsterdam, pp. 85–95 (Internationale Forschungen zur allgemeinen und vergleichenden Literaturwissenschaft) (Port. version in Oliveira 2001b: 141–170).  ———  (1998b). "Galicia trobadoresca", in Anuario de Estudios Literarios Galegos 1998: 207–229 (Port. Version in Oliveira 2001b: 97–110).  ———  (2001a). Aventures i Desventures del Joglar Gallegoportouguès (tr. Jordi Cerdà). Barcelona: Columna (La Flor Inversa, 6).  ———  (2001b). O Trovador galego-português e o seu mundo. Lisboa: Notícias Editorial (Colecção Poliedro da História).

For Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
prose, the reader might begin with:

Cintra, Luís F. Lindley. (1951–1990). Crónica Geral de Espanha de 1344. Edição crítica do texto português pelo –. Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional-Casa de Moeda (vol. I 1951 [1952; reprint 1983]; vol II 1954 [republished 1984]; vol. III 1961 [republished 1984], vol. IV 1990) (Academia Portuguesa da História. Fontes Narrativas da História Portuguesa). Lorenzo, Ramón. (1977). La traduccion gallego de la Cronica General y de la Cronica de Castilla. Edición crítica anotada, con introduccion, índice onomástico e glosario. 2 vols. Orense: Instituto de Estudios Orensanos 'Padre Feijoo'.

There is no up-to-date historical grammar of medieval Galician-Portuguese. But see:

Huber, Joseph. (1933). Altportugiesisches Elementarbuch. Heidelberg: Carl Winter (Sammlung romanischer Elementar- und Händbucher, I, 8) (Port tr. [by Maria Manuela Gouveia Delille] Gramática do Português Antigo. Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 1986).

A recent work centered on Galician containing information on medieval Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
is:

Ferreiro, Manuel. (2001). Gramática Histórica Galega, 2 vols. [2nd ed.], Santiago de Compostela: Laiovento. An old reference work centered on Portuguese is: Williams, Edwin B. (1962). From Latin to Portuguese. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press (1st ed. Philadelphia, 1938).

Latin Lexica:

Mediae Latinitatis Lexicon Minus. Lexique Latin Médiévale-Francais/Anglais. A Medieval Latin-French/English Dictionary. composuit J. F. Niermeyer, perficiendum curavit C. van de Kieft. Abbreviationes et index fontium composuit C. van de Kieft, adiuvante G. S. M. M. Lake-Schoonebeek. Leiden – New York – Köln: E. J. Brill 1993 (1st ed. 1976). Oxford Latin Dictionary. ed. P. G. W. Glare. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1983.

Historical and Comparative Grammar of Latin:

Weiss, Michael. (2009). Outline of the Historical and Comparative Grammar of Latin. Ann Arbor, MI: Beechstave Press.

On the early documents cited from the late 12th century, please see Ivo Castro, Introdução à História do Português. Geografia da Língua. Português Antigo. (Lisbon: Colibri, 2004), pp. 121–125 (with references). External links[edit]

Latin – Portuguese document, a.D. 1008 Ponte nas ondas Pergaminhos: colecção da Casa de Sarmento Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
Intangible Heritage Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
Intangible Heritage -Videos

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