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Galerius
Galerius
(/ɡəˈlɛəriəs/; Latin: Gaius Galerius
Galerius
Valerius Maximianus Augustus;[12] c. 250 – April or May 311) was Roman Emperor from 305 to 311.[13] During his reign he campaigned, aided by Diocletian, against the Sassanid Empire, sacking their capital Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
in 299. He also campaigned across the Danube
Danube
against the Carpi, defeating them in 297 and 300. Although he was a staunch opponent of Christianity, Galerius
Galerius
ended the Diocletianic Persecution when he issued an edict of toleration in 311.

Contents

1 Early life 2 War with Persia

2.1 Invasion, counterinvasion 2.2 Peace negotiations

3 Rule as Augustus 4 Persecution of Christians 5 Death 6 Anti-Roman accusations 7 See also 8 References

8.1 Ancient sources 8.2 Modern sources

9 Notes 10 Citations 11 External links

Early life[edit] Galerius
Galerius
was born in Serdica,[14] though some modern scholars consider the strategic site where he later built his palace named after his mother – Felix Romuliana
Felix Romuliana
(Gamzigrad) – his birth and funeral place.[11] His father was a Thracian and his mother Romula was a Dacian woman, who left Dacia
Dacia
because of the Carpians' attacks.[15][16]:19 He originally followed his father's occupation, that of a herdsman, where he got his surname of Armentarius (Latin: armentum, herd). He served with distinction as a soldier under Emperors Aurelian
Aurelian
and Probus, and in 293 at the establishment of the Tetrarchy, was designated Caesar along with Constantius Chlorus, receiving in marriage Diocletian's daughter Valeria (later known as Galeria Valeria), and at the same time being entrusted with the care of the Illyrian provinces. After a few years campaigning against Sarmatians and Goths
Goths
on the Danube, he received command of the legions on the eastern Imperial limits. Soon after his appointment, Galerius
Galerius
would be dispatched to Egypt to fight the rebellious cities Busiris and Coptos.[17] War with Persia[edit] See also: Roman relations with the Parthians and Sassanids
Roman relations with the Parthians and Sassanids
and Roman–Persian Wars Invasion, counterinvasion[edit] In 294, Narseh, a son of Shapur I
Shapur I
who had been passed over for the Sassanid succession, came into power in Persia. Narseh
Narseh
probably moved to eliminate Bahram III, a young man installed by a noble named Vahunam in the wake of Bahram II's death in 293.[3]:292[5]:69 In early 294, Narseh
Narseh
sent Diocletian
Diocletian
the customary package of gifts, but within Persia he was destroying every trace of his immediate predecessors, erasing their names from public monuments. He sought to identify himself with the warlike reigns of Ardashir (r. 226–41) and Shapur (r. 241–72), who had sacked Roman Antioch and captured Emperor Valerian.[5]:69–70 In 295 or 296, Narseh
Narseh
declared war on Rome. He appears to have first invaded western Armenia, retaking the lands delivered to Tiridates in the peace of 287. He would occupy the lands there until the following year.[3][4]:149[18]:292[19] The late historian Ammianus Marcellinus is the only source detailing the initial invasion of Armenia.[20] Southern (1999, 149) dates the invasion to 295; Barnes (1982, 17, 293) mentions an earlier, unsuccessful invasion by Narseh
Narseh
based on the fact that the title Persici Maximi was given to all four emperors; Odahl (2004, 59) concurs with Barnes and suggests that Saracen princes in the Syrian desert collaborated with Narseh's invasion. Narseh
Narseh
then moved south into Roman Mesopotamia, where he inflicted a severe defeat on Galerius, then commander of the Eastern forces, in the region between Carrhae (Harran, Turkey) and Callinicum (Raqqa, Syria).[18] Diocletian
Diocletian
may or may not have been present at the battle,[3]:652 but would present himself soon afterwards at Antioch, where the official version of events was made clear: Galerius
Galerius
was to take all the blame for the affair. In Antioch, Diocletian
Diocletian
forced Galerius
Galerius
to walk a mile in advance of his imperial cart while still clad in the purple robes of an emperor.[3][18]:292–3 The message conveyed was clear: the loss at Carrhae was not due to the failings of the empire's soldiers, but due to the failings of their commander, and Galerius' failures would not be accepted.[21] It is also possible that Galerius' position at the head of the caravan was merely the conventional organization of an imperial progression, designed to show a Caesar's deference to his Augustus.[22]

Detail of Galerius
Galerius
attacking Narseh
Narseh
on the Arch of Galerius
Galerius
at Thessaloniki, Greece, the city where Galerius
Galerius
carried out most of his administrative actions.[4]:151

Galerius
Galerius
had been reinforced, probably in the spring of 298, by a new contingent collected from the empire's Danubian holdings.[23] Narseh did not advance from Armenia and Mesopotamia, leaving Galerius
Galerius
to lead the offensive in 298 with an attack on northern Mesopotamia via Armenia.[21] Diocletian
Diocletian
may or may not have been present to assist the campaign.[24] Narseh
Narseh
retreated to Armenia to fight Galerius' force, to Narseh's disadvantage: the rugged Armenian terrain was favorable to Roman infantry, but not to Sassanid cavalry. Local aid gave Galerius the advantage of surprise over the Persian forces, and, in two successive battles, Galerius
Galerius
secured victories over Narseh.[21][23] During the second encounter, the Battle of Satala in 298, Roman forces seized Narseh's camp, his treasury, his harem, and his wife.[21][23] Narseh's wife would live out the remainder of the war in Daphne, a suburb of Antioch, serving as a constant reminder to the Persians of the Roman victory.[21] Galerius
Galerius
advanced into Media and Adiabene, winning continuous victories, most prominently near Theodosiopolis (Erzurum),[4]:151 and securing Nisibis (Nusaybin) before 1 October 298. He moved down the Tigris, taking Ctesiphon, and gazing onwards to the ruins of Babylon
Babylon
before returning to Roman territory via the Euphrates.[23] No source ever specifically claims that Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
was sacked, but it is assumed to have been, primarily due to the seizure of Narseh's wife and harem.[4]:150 Peace negotiations[edit] Narseh
Narseh
had previously sent an ambassador to Galerius
Galerius
to plead for the return of his wife and children, but Galerius
Galerius
had dismissed this ambassador, reminding him of how Shapur had treated Valerian.[23] The Romans, in any case, treated Narseh's captured family with tact, perhaps seeking to evoke comparisons to Alexander and his beneficent conduct towards the family of Darius III.[21] Peace negotiations began in the spring of 299, with both Diocletian
Diocletian
and Galerius
Galerius
presiding. Their magister memoriae (secretary) Sicorius Probus was sent to Narseh to present terms.[23] The conditions of the Peace of Nisibis were heavy:[21] Persia would give up territory to Rome, making the Tigris
Tigris
the boundary between the two empires. Further terms specified that Armenia was returned to Roman domination, with the fort of Ziatha as its border; Caucasian Iberia would pay allegiance to Rome under a Roman appointee; Nisibis, now under Roman rule, would become the sole conduit for trade between Persia and Rome; and Rome would exercise control over the five satrapies between the Tigris
Tigris
and Armenia: Ingilene, Sophanene (Sophene), Arzanene (Aghdznik), Corduene, and Zabdicene (near modern Hakkâri, Turkey). These regions included the passage of the Tigris through the Anti-Taurus range; the Bitlis
Bitlis
pass, the quickest southerly route into Persian Armenia; and access to the Tur Abdin
Tur Abdin
plateau. With these territories, Rome would have an advance station north of Ctesiphon, and would be able to slow any future advance of Persian forces through the region.[25] Under the terms of the peace Tiridates would regain both his throne and the entirety of his ancestral claim, and Rome would secure a wide zone of cultural influence in the region.[23] The fact that the empire was able to sustain such constant warfare on so many fronts has been taken as a sign of the essential efficacy of the Diocletianic system and the goodwill of the army towards the tetrarchic enterprise.[4]:150 Rule as Augustus[edit]

Follis of Galerius

After the elevation of Constantius I
Constantius I
and Galerius
Galerius
to the rank of Augusti, two new Caesars were required to supply their place, and to complete the system of the Imperial government. The two persons whom Galerius
Galerius
promoted to the rank of Caesar were very much Galerius' creatures, and he hoped to enhance his authority throughout the empire with their elevation.[26] First was Maximinus Daia, whose mother was Galerius' sister. An inexperienced youth with little formal education, he was invested with the purple, exalted to the dignity of Caesar, and assigned the command of Egypt and Syria. Second was Severus, Galerius' comrade in arms; he was sent to Milan
Milan
to receive the possession of Italy and Africa. According to the forms of the constitution, Severus acknowledged the supremacy of the western emperor; but he was absolutely devoted to the commands of his benefactor Galerius, who, reserving to himself the intermediate countries from the confines of Italy to those of Syria, firmly established his power over three quarters of the empire.[26] His hopes were dashed when his colleague Constantius died at York
York
in 306 and the legions elevated his son Constantine to the position of Augustus. Galerius
Galerius
only discovered this when he received a letter from Constantine, who informed him of his father's death, modestly asserted his natural claim to the succession, and respectfully lamented that the enthusiastic violence of his troops had not allowed him to obtain the Imperial purple in the regular and constitutional manner. The first emotions of Galerius
Galerius
were those of surprise, disappointment, and rage; and, as he could seldom restrain his passions, he threatened to burn both the letter and the messenger.[27][28][29][30] But when he had time to reconsider his position, he inevitably saw that his chances of winning a war against Constantine were doubtful at best. Galerius
Galerius
was well aware of Constantine’s strengths – Constantine had been his guest for some time at Nicomedia
Nicomedia
– and knew that Constantius' legions were wildly devoted to his son.[26] Therefore, without either condemning or ratifying the choice of the Roman army, Galerius
Galerius
accepted the son of his deceased colleague as the ruler of the provinces beyond the Alps; but he gave him only the title of Caesar, and the fourth rank among the Roman princes, whilst he conferred the vacant place of Augustus
Augustus
on his favourite Severus. The ambitious spirit of Galerius
Galerius
was only just over this disappointment when he beheld the unexpected loss of Italy to Maxentius, who was married to his daughter Valeria Maximilla.[31] Galerius’ need for additional revenue had persuaded him to make a very strict and rigorous examination of the property of his subjects for the purpose of a general taxation. A very minute survey was taken of their real estates and, wherever there was the slightest suspicion of concealment, torture was used to obtain a sincere declaration of their personal wealth. Italy had traditionally been exempt from any form of taxation, but Galerius
Galerius
ignored this precedent, and the officers of the revenue already began to number the Roman people, and to settle the proportion of the new taxes. Italy began to murmur against this indignity and Maxentius
Maxentius
used this sentiment to declare himself emperor in Italy, to the fury of Galerius. Therefore, Galerius ordered his colleague Severus to immediately march to Rome, in the full confidence that, by his unexpected arrival, he would easily suppress the rebellion.[26] Severus was captured after his troops deserted to their old commander Maximian, who had once again been elevated to the rank of co-emperor, this time by his son Maxentius. Severus was later executed. The importance of the occasion needed the presence and abilities of Galerius. At the head of a powerful army collected from Illyricum and the East, he entered Italy, determined to avenge Severus and to punish the rebellious Romans.[13]:122 But due to the skill of Maximian, Galerius
Galerius
found every place hostile, fortified, and inaccessible; and though he forced his way as far as Narni, within sixty miles of Rome, his control in Italy was confined to the narrow limits of his camp. Seeing that he was facing ever-greater difficulties, Galerius
Galerius
made the first advances towards reconciliation, and dispatched two officers to tempt the Romans by the offer of a conference, and the declaration of his paternal regard for Maxentius, reminding them that they would obtain much more from his willing generosity than anything that might have been obtained through a military campaign. The offers of Galerius were rejected with firmness, his friendship refused, and it was not long before he discovered that unless he retreated, he might have succumbed to the fate of Severus. It was not a moment too soon; large monetary gifts from Maxentius
Maxentius
to his soldiers had corrupted the fidelity of the Illyrian legions. When Galerius
Galerius
finally began his withdrawal from Italy, it was only with great difficulty that he managed to stop his veterans deserting him.[26] In frustration, Galerius
Galerius
allowed his legions to ravage the countryside as they passed northwards. Maxentius
Maxentius
declined to make a general engagement. With so many emperors now in existence, in 308 Galerius, together with the retired emperor Diocletian
Diocletian
and the now active Maximian, called an imperial 'conference' at Carnuntum
Carnuntum
on the River Danube
Danube
to rectify the situation and bring some order back into the imperial government.[13]:120 Here it was agreed that Galerius’ long-time friend and military companion Licinius, who had been entrusted by Galerius
Galerius
with the defense of the Danube
Danube
while Galerius
Galerius
was in Italy, would become Augustus
Augustus
in the West, with Constantine as his Caesar. In the East, Galerius
Galerius
remained Augustus
Augustus
and Maximinus remained his Caesar. Maximian
Maximian
was to retire, and Maxentius
Maxentius
was declared a usurper. Galerius’ plan soon failed. The news of Licinius’ promotion was no sooner carried into the East, than Maximinus, who governed the provinces of Egypt and Syria, rejected his position as Caesar, and, notwithstanding the prayers as well as arguments of Galerius, exacted the equal title of Augustus.[26] For the first, and indeed for the last time, six emperors administered the Roman world. And though the opposition of interest, and the memory of a recent war, divided the empire into two great hostile powers, their mutual fears and the fading authority of Galerius
Galerius
produced an apparent tranquility in the imperial government. The last years of Galerius
Galerius
saw him relinquishing his aspirations towards being the supreme emperor of the empire, though he managed to retain the position of first among equals. He spent the remainder of his years enjoying himself and ordering some important public works, such as discharging into the Danube
Danube
the superfluous waters of Lake Pelso, and cutting down the immense forests that encompassed it.[26] Persecution of Christians[edit] Main article: Diocletian
Diocletian
Persecution

Detail of the Arch of Galerius
Galerius
in Thessaloniki.

Christians had lived in peace during most of the rule of Diocletian. The persecutions that began with an edict of February 24, 303, were credited by Christians to Galerius' work, as he was a fierce advocate of the old ways and old gods. Christian
Christian
houses of assembly were destroyed, for fear of sedition in secret gatherings. Diocletian
Diocletian
was not anti- Christian
Christian
during the first part of his reign, and historians have claimed that Galerius
Galerius
decided to prod him into persecuting them by secretly burning the Imperial Palace and blaming it on Christian
Christian
saboteurs. Regardless of who was at fault for the fire, Diocletian's rage was aroused and he began one of the last and greatest Christian
Christian
persecutions in the history of the Roman Empire. It was at the insistence of Galerius
Galerius
that the last edicts of persecution against the Christians were published, beginning on February 24, 303, and this policy of repression was maintained by him until the appearance of the general edict of toleration, issued from Nicomedia
Nicomedia
in April 311, apparently during his last bout of illness (see Edict of Toleration by Galerius). Galerius's last request, that Christians should pray for him as he suffered with a painful and fatal illness, was in vain for he died six days later.[32] Initially one of the leading figures in the persecutions, Galerius later admitted that the policy of trying to eradicate Christianity
Christianity
had failed, saying: "wherefore, for this our indulgence, they ought to pray to their God for our safety, for that of the republic, and for their own, that the republic may continue uninjured on every side, and that they may be able to live securely in their homes." Lactantius gives the text of the edict in his moralized chronicle of the bad ends to which all the persecutors came, De Mortibus Persecutorum.[33] This marked the end of official persecution of Christians. Christianity
Christianity
was officially legalized in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
two years later in 313 by Constantine and Licinius
Licinius
in the Edict of Milan.[13]:125 Death[edit] Galerius
Galerius
died in late April or early May 311[34] from a horribly gruesome disease described by Eusebius[35] and Lactantius,[36] possibly some form of bowel cancer, gangrene or Fournier gangrene. Galerius
Galerius
was buried in his mausoleum at Gamzigrad-Romuliana, which was part of the palace he built at his birthplace, today's Zaječar
Zaječar
in Serbia. Several lumps composed of corroded iron ring mail (lorica hamata) have been found at the site. This mail armour may have been worn by the wax figure of the emperor that was burned during the imperial funeral and apotheosis ceremony.[37] The entire site has been inscribed into the World Heritage List
World Heritage List
in June 2007. Anti-Roman accusations[edit] According to Lactantius, Galerius
Galerius
affirmed his Dacian identity and avowed himself the enemy of the Roman name once made emperor, even proposing that the empire should be called, not the Roman, but the Dacian Empire, much to the horror of the patricians and senators. He exhibited anti-Roman attitude as soon as he had attained the highest power, treating the Roman citizens with ruthless cruelty, like the conquerors treated the conquered, all in the name of the same treatment that the victorious Trajan
Trajan
had applied to the conquered Dacians, forefathers of Galerius, two centuries before.[38] See also[edit]

Arch and Tomb of Galerius Civil Wars of the Tetrarchy
Tetrarchy
(306–324)

References[edit] Ancient sources[edit]

Codex Theodosianus.

Mommsen, T. and Paul M. Meyer, eds. Theodosiani libri XVI cum Constitutionibus Sirmondianis et Leges novellae ad Theodosianum pertinentes2 (in Latin). Berlin: Weidmann, [1905] 1954. Complied by Nicholas Palmer, revised by Tony Honoré for Oxford Text Archive, 1984. Prepared for online use by R.W.B. Salway, 1999. Preface, books 1–8. Online at University College London and the University of Grenoble. Accessed 25 August 2009. Unknown edition (in Latin). Online at AncientRome.ru. Accessed 15 August 2009.

Epitome de Caesaribus.

Banchich, Thomas M., trans. A Booklet About the Style of Life and the Manners of the Imperatores. Canisius College Translated Texts 1. Buffalo, NY: Canisius College, 2009. Online at De Imperatoribus Romanis. Accessed 15 August 2009.

Eusebius
Eusebius
of Caesarea.

Historia Ecclesiastica (Church History).

McGiffert, Arthur Cushman, trans. Church History. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 1. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian
Christian
Literature Publishing Co., 1890. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 25 August 2009.

Vita Constantini (Life of Constantine).

Richardson, Ernest Cushing, trans. Life of Constantine. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 1. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian
Christian
Literature Publishing Co., 1890. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 25 August 2009.

Festus. Breviarium.

Banchich, Thomas M., and Jennifer A. Meka, trans. Breviarium of the Accomplishments of the Roman People. Canisius College Translated Texts 2. Buffalo, NY: Canisius College, 2001. Online at De Imperatoribus Romanis. Accessed 15 August 2009.

Lactantius. De Mortibus Persecutorum (On the Deaths of the Persecutors).

Fletcher, William, trans. Of the Manner in Which the Persecutors Died. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 7. Edited by Alexander Roberts, James Donaldson, and A. Cleveland Coxe. Buffalo, NY: Christian
Christian
Literature Publishing Co., 1886. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 25 August 2009.

XII Panegyrici Latini (Twelve Latin
Latin
Panegyrics).

Nixon, C.E.V., and Barbara Saylor Rodgers, ed. and trans. In Praise of Later Roman Emperors: The Panegyrici Latini. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

Zosimus. Historia Nova (New History).

Unknown, trans. The History of Count Zosimus. London: Green and Champlin, 1814. Online at Tertullian. Accessed 15 August 2009.[notes 1]

Modern sources[edit]

Banchich, Thomas M. "Iulianus (c. 286–293 AD)." De Imperatoribus Romanis (1997). Accessed March 8, 2008. Barnes, Timothy D. " Lactantius
Lactantius
and Constantine." The Journal of Roman Studies 63 (1973): 29–46. Barnes, Timothy D. Constantine and Eusebius. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981. ISBN 978-0-674-16531-1 Barnes, Timothy D. The New Empire of Diocletian
Diocletian
and Constantine. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982. ISBN 0-7837-2221-4 Bleckmann, Bruno. "Diocletianus." In Brill's New Pauly, Volume 4, edited by Hubert Cancik and Helmut Schneider, 429–38. Leiden: Brill, 2002. ISBN 90-04-12259-1 Bowman, Alan K., Peter Garnsey, and Averil Cameron. The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume XII: The Crisis of Empire. Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-521-30199-8 Brown, Peter. The Rise of Western Christendom. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2003. ISBN 0-631-22138-7 Burgess, R.W. "The Date of the Persecution of Christians in the Army". Journal of Theological Studies 47:1 (1996): 157–158. Canduci, Alexander. Triumph and Tragedy: The Rise and Fall of Rome's Immortal Emperors. Pier 9, 2010. ISBN 978-1-74196-598-8 Corcoran, Simon. The Empire of the Tetrarchs: Imperial Pronouncements and Government, AD 284–324. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996. ISBN 0-19-815304-X Corcoran, "Before Constantine", Simon. "Before Constantine." In The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine, edited by Noel Lenski, 35–58. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Hardcover ISBN 0-521-81838-9 Paperback ISBN 0-521-52157-2 DiMaio, Jr., Michael. " Constantius I
Constantius I
Chlorus (305–306 AD)." De Imperatoribus Romanis (1996a). Accessed March 8, 2008. DiMaio, Jr., Michael. " Galerius
Galerius
(305–311 AD)." De Imperatoribus Romanis (1996b). Accessed March 8, 2008. DiMaio, Jr., Michael. "Maximianus Herculius (286–305 AD)." De Imperatoribus Romanis (1997). Accessed March 8, 2008. Elliott, T. G. The Christianity
Christianity
of Constantine the Great. Scranton, PA: University of Scranton Press, 1996. ISBN 0-940866-59-5 Gibbon, Edward, ‘Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire’, Chapter 14 Harries, Jill. Law and Empire in Late Antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Hardcover ISBN 0-521-41087-8 Paperback ISBN 0-521-42273-6 Helgeland, John. "Christians and the Roman Army A.D. 173–337." Church History 43:2 (1974): 149–163, 200. Jones, A.H.M. The Later Roman Empire, 284–602: A Social, Economic and Administrative Survey. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1986. Leadbetter, Bill. " Galerius
Galerius
and the Will of Diocletian", London and New York, Routledge, 2010. Hardcover ISBN 0-415-40488-6 Paperback ISBN 978-0-415-85971-4 Lenski, Noel. "The Reign of Constantine." In The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine, edited by Noel Lenski, 59–90. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006b. Hardcover ISBN 0-521-81838-9 Paperback ISBN 0-521-52157-2 Mackay, Christopher S. " Lactantius
Lactantius
and the Succession to Diocletian." Classical Philology 94:2 (1999): 198–209. Mathisen, Ralph W. " Diocletian
Diocletian
(284–305 AD.)." De Imperatoribus Romanis (1997). Accessed February 16, 2008. Odahl, Charles Matson. Constantine and the Christian
Christian
Empire. New York: Routledge, 2004. Hardcover ISBN 0-415-17485-6 Paperback ISBN 0-415-38655-1 Pohlsander, Hans. The Emperor Constantine. London & New York: Routledge, 2004a. Hardcover ISBN 0-415-31937-4 Paperback ISBN 0-415-31938-2 Pohlsander, Hans. " Constantine I
Constantine I
(306 – 337 AD)." De Imperatoribus Romanis (2004b). Accessed December 16, 2007. Potter, David S. The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
at Bay: AD 180–395. New York: Routledge, 2005. Hardcover ISBN 0-415-10057-7 Paperback ISBN 0-415-10058-5 Rees, Roger. Diocletian
Diocletian
and the Tetrarchy. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-7486-1661-6 Southern, Pat. The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
from Severus to Constantine. New York: Routledge, 2001. ISBN 0-415-23944-3 Rostovtzeff, Michael. The Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1966. ISBN 978-0-19-814231-7 Treadgold, Warren. A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2 Williams, Stephen. Diocletian
Diocletian
and the Roman Recovery. New York: Routledge, 1997. ISBN 0-415-91827-8

Notes[edit]

^ This edition and translation is not very good. The pagination is broken in several places, there are many typographical errors (including several replacements of "Julian" with "Jovian" and "Constantine" with "Constantius"). It is nonetheless the only translation of the Historia Nova in the public domain.[39]

Citations[edit]

^ Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, pp. 8–9. ^ a b c d e Barnes, New Empire  ^ a b c d e Potter, The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
at Bay  ^ a b c d e f Southern, Severus to Constantine  ^ a b c Williams, Diocletian  ^ The earlier dates for Galerius' appointment have been argued for based on the suggestion that the appointments of Constantius and Galerius
Galerius
were timed to coincide (Barnes 1981, 8–9; Southern 1999, 146). Barnes (1982, 62) argues against a dating of 21 May 293 in Nicomedia
Nicomedia
originating in Seston, Dioclétien, 88ff., stating that the evidence adduced (the Paschal Chronicle 521 = Chronica Minora 1.229 and Lactantius, DMP 19.2) is invalid and confused. Lactantius
Lactantius
is commenting on Diocletian
Diocletian
and the place where Diocletian
Diocletian
was acclaimed, and that the "Maximianus" in the text is therefore a later gloss; the Paschal Chronicle is not authoritative for this period for events outside Egypt, and may simply be commenting on the day when the laureled image of the new emperors arrived in Alexandria. Potter (2004, 650) agrees that locating the acclamation to Nicomedia
Nicomedia
is false, but believes that Seston's other evidence makes a strong case for a temporal lag between the two Caesars' acclamations. ^ a b c Barnes, New Empire, p. 4. ^ Who’s who in the Roman world: " Galerius
Galerius
(C.250-311)" ^ Eutropius. Breviarivm historiae romanae, IX, 22 Template:Ref-la ^ Lactantius, DMP 35.4. The exact date is lost in a lacuna (Barnes 1982, 6). ^ a b Barnes, New Empire, p. 37. ^ In Classical Latin, Galerius' name would be inscribed as GAIVS GALERIVS VALERIVS MAXIMIANVS AVGVSTVS. ^ a b c d Canduci, Triumph & Tragedy .:119 ^ "Maximianus Galerius
Galerius
in Dacia
Dacia
haud longe a Serdica natus", Eutropii Breviarum IX. 22. ^ Lactantius, de Mortibus Persecutorum  ^ http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/0705.htm ^ Rees, Diocletian
Diocletian
and the Tetrarchy, p. 14, citing William Leadbetter, " Galerius
Galerius
and the Revolt of the Thebaid, 293/4," Antichthon 34 (2000) 82–94. ^ a b c Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, p. 17. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus 23.5.11. ^ Potter (2004), pp. 651–2  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ a b c d e f g Potter, The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
at Bay, p. 293. ^ Rees, Diocletian
Diocletian
and the Tetrarchy, p. 14. ^ a b c d e f g Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, p. 18. ^ Lactantius
Lactantius
(DMP 9.6) derides Diocletian
Diocletian
for his absence from the front; Southern (1999, 151, 335–36), on the basis of a dating of the African campaigns one year earlier than that given by Barnes, places him at Galerius' southern flank. Southern sees the Persian campaign progressing along the lines of Marcus Aurelius' (r. 161–80) earlier, unsuccessful Parthian campaign, which also had an emperor manning the southern flank. ^ The acceptance of these terms by the Persians also meant that Syriac culture would earn long-term influence in the region on both sides of the Tigris. With the heavily Christian
Christian
Syriac peoples so near their border, Armenia would also become susceptible to Christian
Christian
influence in later years, leading to its eventual conversion under Tiridates. Potter, The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
at Bay, p. 293. ^ a b c d e f g Gibbon, Edward, "14", Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire  ^ Barnes, CE, 28–9. ^ Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 62. ^ Odahl, 79–80. ^ Rees, 160. ^ DiMaio, Jr., Michael. Maxentius
Maxentius
(306-312 A.D.). De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and Their Families. Retrieved 20 July 2013.  ^ Davidson, J. (2005). Birth of the Church: From Jesus to Constantine, AD30-312. Monarch Books. ISBN 978-1854246585.  ^ Lactantius, "34, 35", De Mortibus Persecutorum [On the Deaths of the Persecutors]  ^ Corcoran, Simon, The empire of the tetrarchs: imperial pronouncements and government, AD 284–324, p. 187  ^ Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiae 352-356 ^ Lactantius, De Mortibus Persecutorum 33 ^ RING MAIL FROM GALERIUS' BURIAL RITE AT GAMZIGRAD (ROMULIANA), ANTE PORTAM AUREAM : STUDIA IN HONOREM PROFESSORIS ALEKSANDAR JOVANOVIĆ, Belgrade 2017, 239-250. MIROSLAV B. VUJOVIĆ. ^ Lactanius, De Mortibus Persecutorum 23 ^ Roger Pearse, "Preface to the online edition of Zosimus' New History". 19 November 2003, rev. 20 August 2003. Accessed 15 August 2009.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Galerius.

Medieval Sourcebook: Edict of Toleration by Galerius, 311. Gaius Galerius
Galerius
Valerius Maximianus Lactantius
Lactantius
about Galerius
Galerius
in his "De Mortibus Persecutorum" chapter XXIII & XXVII Catholic Encyclopedia

Galerius Constantinian dynasty Born: 250 Died: April or May 311

Regnal titles

Preceded by Diocletian, Maximian Roman Emperor 305 (Caesar from 293)–311 Served alongside: Constantius Chlorus, Constantine I, Licinius, Maximinus Succeeded by Constantine I, Licinius
Licinius
and Maximinus

Political offices

Preceded by Diocletian, Maximian Consul of the Roman Empire 294 with Constantius Chlorus Succeeded by Nummius Tuscus , Gaius Annius Anullinus

Preceded by Diocletian, Constantius Chlorus Consul of the Roman Empire 297 with Maximian Succeeded by Anicius Faustus Paulinus , Virius Gallus

Preceded by Diocletian, Maximian Consul of the Roman Empire 300 with Constantius Chlorus Succeeded by Titus Flavius Postumius Titianus , Virius Nepotianus

Preceded by Titus Flavius Postumius Titianus , Virius Nepotianus Consul of the Roman Empire 302 with Constantius Chlorus Succeeded by Diocletian
Diocletian
, Maximian

Preceded by Diocletian
Diocletian
, Maximian Consul of the Roman Empire 305–308 with Constantius Chlorus, Maximian
Maximian
, Constantine I, Flavius Valerius Severus, Maximinus Daia, Diocletian
Diocletian
, Maxentius, Valerius Romulus Succeeded by Licinius
Licinius
, Constantine I, Maxentius, Valerius Romulus

Preceded by Tatius Andronicus , Pompeius Probus, Maxentius Consul of the Roman Empire 311 with Maximinus Daia , Gaius Caeionius Rufius Volusianus, Aradius Rufinus Succeeded by Constantine I
Constantine I
, Licinius, Maxentius

v t e

Roman and Byzantine emperors

Principate 27 BC – 235 AD

Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero Galba Otho Vitellius Vespasian Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and Lucius Verus Commodus Pertinax Didius Julianus (Pescennius Niger) (Clodius Albinus) Septimius Severus Caracalla
Caracalla
with Geta Macrinus
Macrinus
with Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus Alexander

Crisis 235–284

Maximinus Thrax Gordian I
Gordian I
and Gordian II Pupienus
Pupienus
and Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
with Philip II Decius
Decius
with Herennius Etruscus Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus
Trebonianus Gallus
with Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus
Gallienus
with Saloninus and Valerian II Claudius
Claudius
Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus
Carinus
and Numerian

Gallic Emperors: Postumus (Laelianus) Marius Victorinus (Domitianus II) Tetricus I
Tetricus I
with Tetricus II
Tetricus II
as Caesar

Dominate 284–395

Diocletian
Diocletian
(whole empire) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) with Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) with Severus (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Severus (West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Maxentius
Maxentius
(West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Licinius
Licinius
I (West) with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Maxentius
Maxentius
(alone) Licinius
Licinius
I (West) and Maximinus II (East) with Constantine the Great (Self-proclaimed Augustus) and Valerius Valens Licinius
Licinius
I (East) and Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) with Licinius
Licinius
II, Constantine II, and Crispus
Crispus
as Caesares (Martinian) Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(whole empire) with son Crispus
Crispus
as Caesar Constantine II Constans
Constans
I Magnentius
Magnentius
with Decentius as Caesar Constantius II
Constantius II
with Vetranio Julian Jovian Valentinian the Great Valens Gratian Valentinian II Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
with Victor Theodosius the Great (Eugenius)

Western Empire 395–480

Honorius Constantine III with son Constans
Constans
II) Constantius III Joannes Valentinian III Petronius Maximus
Petronius Maximus
with Palladius Avitus Majorian Libius Severus Anthemius Olybrius Glycerius Julius Nepos Romulus Augustulus

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204

Arcadius Theodosius II Pulcheria Marcian Leo I the Thracian Leo II Zeno (first reign) Basiliscus
Basiliscus
with son Marcus as co-emperor Zeno (second reign) Anastasius I Dicorus Justin I Justinian the Great Justin II Tiberius
Tiberius
II Constantine Maurice with son Theodosius as co-emperor Phocas Heraclius Constantine III Heraklonas Constans
Constans
II Constantine IV
Constantine IV
with brothers Heraclius
Heraclius
and Tiberius
Tiberius
and then Justinian II as co-emperors Justinian II
Justinian II
(first reign) Leontios Tiberios III Justinian II
Justinian II
(second reign) with son Tiberius
Tiberius
as co-emperor Philippikos Anastasios II Theodosius III Leo III the Isaurian Constantine V Artabasdos Leo IV the Khazar Constantine VI Irene Nikephoros I Staurakios Michael I Rangabe
Michael I Rangabe
with son Theophylact as co-emperor Leo V the Armenian
Leo V the Armenian
with Symbatios-Constantine as junior emperor Michael II
Michael II
the Amorian Theophilos Michael III Basil I
Basil I
the Macedonian Leo VI the Wise Alexander Constantine VII
Constantine VII
Porphyrogennetos Romanos I Lekapenos
Romanos I Lekapenos
with sons Christopher, Stephen and Constantine as junior co-emperors Romanos II Nikephoros II Phokas John I Tzimiskes Basil II Constantine VIII Zoë (first reign) and Romanos III Argyros Zoë (first reign) and Michael IV the Paphlagonian Michael V Kalaphates Zoë (second reign) with Theodora Zoë (second reign) and Constantine IX Monomachos Constantine IX Monomachos
Constantine IX Monomachos
(sole emperor) Theodora Michael VI Bringas Isaac I Komnenos Constantine X Doukas Romanos IV Diogenes Michael VII Doukas
Michael VII Doukas
with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine Nikephoros III Botaneiates Alexios I Komnenos John II Komnenos
John II Komnenos
with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor Manuel I Komnenos Alexios II Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Alexios IV Angelos Nicholas Kanabos (chosen by the Senate) Alexios V Doukas

Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261

Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV Laskaris

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453

Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos
Andronikos II Palaiologos
with Michael IX Palaiologos
Michael IX Palaiologos
as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
with John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors John V Palaiologos Andronikos IV Palaiologos John VII Palaiologos Andronikos V Palaiologos Manuel II Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI Palaiologos

Italics indicates a co-emperor, while underlining indicates an usurper.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 15159877 LCCN: nr97013151 GND: 1023938

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