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Gian Galeazzo Ciano, 2nd Count
Count
of Cortellazzo and Buccari (Italian pronunciation: [ɡale'attso ˈtʃaːno]; 18 March 1903 – 11 January 1944) was Foreign Minister of Fascist Italy
Italy
from 1936 until 1943 and Benito Mussolini's son-in-law. On 11 January 1944, Count Ciano was shot by firing squad at the behest of his father-in-law, Mussolini, under pressure from Nazi Germany.[1] Ciano wrote and left behind a diary[2] that has been used as a source by several historians, including William Shirer
William Shirer
in his The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich and in the four-hour HBO
HBO
documentary-drama Mussolini and I.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Foreign Minister 3 Death 4 Children 5 In popular culture 6 References

6.1 Notes 6.2 Bibliography

7 External links

Early life[edit]

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Gian Galeazzo Ciano
Galeazzo Ciano
was born in Livorno, Italy, in 1903. He was the son of Costanzo Ciano
Costanzo Ciano
and his wife Carolina Pini; his father was an Admiral
Admiral
and World War I
World War I
hero in the Royal Italian Navy
Royal Italian Navy
(for which service he was given the aristocratic title of Count
Count
by Victor Emmanuel III). The elder Ciano, nicknamed Ganascia ("The Jaw"), was a founding member of the National Fascist Party
National Fascist Party
and re-organizer of the Italian merchant navy in the 1920s. Costanzo Ciano
Costanzo Ciano
was not above extracting private profit from his public office. He would use his influence to depress the stock of a company, after which he would buy a controlling interest, then increase his wealth after its value rebounded. Among other holdings, Costanzo Ciano
Costanzo Ciano
owned a newspaper, farmland in Tuscany and other properties worth huge sums of money. As a result, his son Galeazzo was accustomed to living a high-profile and glamorous life, which he maintained almost until the end of his life. Father and son both took part in Mussolini's 1922 March on Rome. After studying Philosophy of Law at the University of Rome, the Galeazzo Ciano
Galeazzo Ciano
worked briefly as a journalist before choosing a diplomatic career; soon, he served as an attaché in Rio de Janeiro. On 24 April 1930, when he was 27 years old, he married Benito Mussolini's daughter Edda Mussolini, and they had three children (Fabrizio, Raimonda, and Marzio), though he was known to have had several affairs while married. Soon after their marriage, Ciano left for Shanghai to serve as Italian consul. On his return to Italy
Italy
in 1935, he became the minister of press and propaganda in the government of his father-in-law. Foreign Minister[edit] Ciano volunteered for action in the Italian invasion of Ethiopia (1935–36) as a bomber squadron commander. He received two silver medals of valor and reached the rank of captain. His future opponent Alessandro Pavolini
Alessandro Pavolini
served in the same squadron as a lieutenant. Upon his highly trumpeted return from the war as a "hero" in 1936, he was appointed by Mussolini as replacement Foreign Minister. Ciano began to keep a diary a short time after his appointment and kept it active up to his 1943 dismissal as foreign minister. In 1937 he was allegedly involved in planning the murder of the brothers Carlo Rosselli
Carlo Rosselli
and Nello Rosselli, two exiled anti-fascist activists killed in the French spa town of Bagnoles-de-l'Orne
Bagnoles-de-l'Orne
on 9 June. Also in 1937, prior to the Italian annexation in 1939, Count
Count
Gian Galeazzo Ciano
Galeazzo Ciano
was named an Honorary Citizen of Tirana, Albania.[3]

Ciano arriving in Albania
Albania
in April 1939.

Before World War II
World War II
Mussolini may have been preparing Ciano to succeed him as Duce.[4] At the start of the war in 1939, Ciano did not agree with Mussolini's plans and knew that Italy's armed forces were ill-prepared for a major war. When Mussolini formally declared war on France in 1940, he wrote in his diary, "I am sad, very sad. The adventure begins. May God help Italy!" After 1939, Ciano became increasingly disenchanted with Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and the course of World War II, although when the Italian regime embarked on an ill-advised "parallel war" alongside Germany, he went along, despite the terribly-executed Italian invasion of Greece and its subsequent setbacks. Prior to the German campaign in France in 1940, Count
Count
Ciano leaked a warning of imminent invasion to neutral Belgium. In late 1942 and early 1943, following the Axis defeat in North Africa, other major setbacks on the Eastern Front, and with an Anglo-American assault on Sicily looming, Ciano turned against the doomed war and actively pushed for Italy's exit from the conflict. He was silenced by being removed from his post as foreign minister. The rest of the cabinet was removed as well on 5 February 1943. He was offered the post of ambassador to the Holy See, and presented his credentials to Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII
on 1 March.[5] In this role he remained in Rome, watched closely by Mussolini. The regime's position had become even more unstable by the coming summer, however, and court circles were already probing the Allied commands for some sort of agreement.

Ciano (far right) standing alongside (right to left) Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, Édouard Daladier, and Neville Chamberlain
Neville Chamberlain
prior to the signing of the Munich Agreement.

On the afternoon of 24 July 1943, Mussolini summoned the Fascist Grand Council to its first meeting since 1939, prompted by the Allied invasion of Sicily. At that meeting, Mussolini announced that the Germans were thinking of evacuating the south. This led Count
Count
Dino Grandi to launch a blistering attack on his longtime comrade. Grandi put on the table a resolution asking King Victor Emmanuel III
Victor Emmanuel III
to resume his full constitutional powers – in effect, a vote leading to Mussolini's ousting from leadership. The motion won by an unexpectedly large margin, 19-8, with Ciano voting in favor. Mussolini's replacement was Pietro Badoglio, an Italian general in both World Wars. Mussolini did not think that the vote had any real value, and showed up at work the next morning like any other day. That afternoon, the king summoned him to Villa Savoia
Villa Savoia
and dismissed him from office. Upon leaving the villa, Mussolini was arrested. For the next two months he was moved from place to place to hide him and prevent his rescue by the Germans. Ultimately, Mussolini was sent to Gran Sasso, a mountain resort in Abruzzo. He was kept in complete isolation until rescued by the Germans on 12 September 1943. Mussolini then set up a puppet government in the area of northern Italy
Italy
still under German occupation called the Italian Social Republic. Death[edit]

Ciano trial in Verona, 1944.

Ciano was dismissed from his post by the new government of Italy
Italy
put in place after his father-in-law was overthrown. Ciano, Edda and their three children fled to Germany on 28 August 1943, in fear of being arrested by the new Italian government, but the Germans turned him over to Mussolini's administration. He was then formally arrested on charges of treason. Under German and fascist pressure, Mussolini had Ciano imprisoned before he was tried and found guilty. After the Verona
Verona
trial and sentence, on 11 January 1944, Ciano was executed by a firing squad along with 4 others (Emilio De Bono, Luciano Gottardi, Giovanni Marinelli
Giovanni Marinelli
and Carlo Pareschi) who had voted for Mussolini's ousting. As a further humiliation, the executed Italians were tied to chairs and shot in the back, though according to some accounts Ciano managed to twist the chair around at the last minute to face the firing squad. Ciano's last words were "Long live Italy!"[6] Ciano is remembered for his Diaries 1937–1943, a revealing daily record of his meetings with Mussolini, Hitler, Ribbentrop, foreign ambassadors and other political figures, which later proved embarrassing to the Nazi leadership and the fascist diehards.[citation needed] Edda tried to barter his papers to the Germans in return for his life; Gestapo agents helped her confidant Emilio Pucci
Emilio Pucci
rescue some of them from Rome. Pucci was then a lieutenant in the Italian Air Force, but would find fame after the war as a fashion designer. When Hitler vetoed the plan, she hid the bulk of the papers at a clinic in Ramiola, near Medesano
Medesano
and on 9 January 1944, Pucci helped Edda escape to Switzerland with five diaries covering the war years.[7] The diary was first published in English in London in 1946, edited by Malcolm Muggeridge, covering 1939 to 1943. The complete English version was published in 2002.[citation needed] Children[edit] Gian Galeazzo and Edda Ciano had three offspring:

Oldest child, Fabrizio Ciano, 3º Conte di Cortellazzo e Buccari (Shanghai, 1 October 1931 – San José, Costa Rica, 8 April 2008), married to Beatriz Uzcategui Jahn, without issue. Wrote a personal memoir entitled Quando il nonno fece fucilare papà ("When Grandpa had Daddy Shot"). Middle child, Raimonda Ciano (Rome, 12 December 1933 – Rome, 24 May 1998), married to Nobile Alessandro Giunta (1929 -), son of Nobile Francesco Giunta
Francesco Giunta
(Piero, 1887–1971) and wife (m. Rome, 1924) Zenaida del Gallo Marchesa di Roccagiovine
Roccagiovine
(Rome, 1902 – São Paulo, Brazil, 1988) Youngest child, Marzio Ciano, (Rome, 18 December 1937 – 11 April 1974), married Gloria Lucchesi

In popular culture[edit]

A number of films have depicted Ciano's life, including The Verona Trial (1962) by Carlo Lizzani, where he is played by Frank Wolff and Mussolini and I
Mussolini and I
(1985) in which he was played by Anthony Hopkins. Raúl Juliá
Raúl Juliá
played Ciano in the 1985 television mini-series, Mussolini: The Untold Story. In Serbia there is proverb : "Living like Count
Count
Ciano" – describing a flamboyant and luxurious life (Živi ko grof Ćano/Живи ко гроф Ћано) Ciano's diaries were published in 1946 and were used by the prosecution against Hitler's Foreign Minister, Joachim von Ribbentrop, during the post-war Nuremberg Trials. Curzio Malaparte
Curzio Malaparte
- "Kaputt": After he wrote 'The Technique of Coup d'Etat', Malaparte was jailed by the fascist regime. He was freed on the personal intervention of Count
Count
Galeazzo Ciano. In 'Kaputt' Malaparte refers to Count
Count
Ciano and his wife Edda. Like Edda Ciano, Malaparte spent time in forced excile on the island of Lipari.

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ Moseley, Ray (2004). Mussolini : the last 600 days of il Duce (1. ed.). Dallas: Taylor Trade Publ. p. 79. ISBN 1589790952.  ^ Ciano, Galeazzo (2002). Diary, 1937-1943 (1st complete and unabridged English ed.). New York: Enigma Books. ISBN 1929631022.  ^ Municipality of Tirana
Tirana
website Archived 12 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine., tirana.gov.al; accessed 5 January 2016. ^ Gunther, John (1940). Inside Europe. New York: Harper & Brothers. pp. 257–258.  ^ Pius XII speech at the presentation of credentials (in Italian) ^ "Mussolini's Daughter’s Affair with Communist Revealed in Love Letters". The Telegraph, 17 April 2009; retrieved 20 January 2010. ^ McGaw Smyth, Howard (1969). "The Ciano Papers: Rose Garden". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 23 April 2008. 

Bibliography[edit]

Galeazzo Ciano, Ciano's Diary, 1939–1943, edited and with an introduction by Malcolm Muggeridge, foreword by Sumner Welles, translated by V. Umberto Coletti-Perucca, London and Toronto: William Heinemann Ltd., (1947). Ciano's diplomatic papers: being a record of nearly 200 conversations held during the years 1936–42 with Hitler, Mussolini, Franco; together with important memoranda, letters, telegrams etc. / edited by Malcolm Muggeridge; translated by Stuart Hood, London: Odhams Press, (1948). Galeazzo Ciano, Diary 1937–1943, Preface by Renzo De Felice (Professor of History University of Rome) and original introduction by Sumner Welles
Sumner Welles
(U.S. Under Secretary of State 1937–1943), translated by Robert L. Miller (Enigma Books, 2002), ISBN 1-929631-02-2 The Ciano Diaries 1939–1943: The Complete, Unabridged Diaries of Count
Count
Galeazzo Ciano, Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1936–1943 (2000) ISBN 1-931313-74-1 Giordano Bruno Guerri – Un amore fascista. Benito, Edda e Galeazzo. (Mondadori, 2005) ISBN 88-04-53467-2 Чиано Галеаццо, Дневник фашиста. 1939–1943, (Москва: Издательство "Плацъ", Серия "Первоисточники новейшей истории", 2010, 676 стр.) ISBN 978-5-903514-02-1 Ray Moseley – Mussolini's Shadow: The Double Life of Count
Count
Galeazzo Ciano, (Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0-300-07917-6 R.J.B. Bosworth – Mussolini (Hodder Arnold, 2002) ISBN 0-340-73144-3 Michael Salter and Lorie Charlesworth – "Ribbentrop and the Ciano Diaries at the Nuremberg Trial" in Journal of International Criminal Justice 2006 4(1):103–127 doi:10.1093/jicj/mqi095 Fabrizio Ciano – Quando il nonno fece fucilare papà ("When Grandpa had Daddy Shot"). Milano: Mondadori, 1991. "Galeazzo Ciano’s Last Reflections before Execution." World War II Today RSS. Accessed 25 March 2015. " Galeazzo Ciano
Galeazzo Ciano
– a Summary – History in an Hour." History in an Hour. 10 January 2014. Accessed 25 March 2015. "Gian Galeazzo Ciano
Galeazzo Ciano
– Comando Supremo." Comando Supremo. 14 February 2010. Accessed 25 March 2015. "The Ciano Papers: Rose Garden." Central Intelligence Agency. 4 August 2011. Accessed 25 March 2015.

External links[edit]

Quotations related to Galeazzo Ciano
Galeazzo Ciano
at Wikiquote Media related to Galeazzo Ciano
Galeazzo Ciano
at Wikimedia Commons

Italian nobility

Preceded by Costanzo Ciano Count
Count
of Cortellazzo and Buccari 1939–1944 Succeeded by Fabrizio Ciano

Government offices

Preceded by Gaetano Polverelli Head of the Government Press Office 1933–1934 Succeeded by None (Office abolished) Himself as Undersecretary for Press and Propaganda

Preceded by None (Office established) Undersecretary for Press and Propaganda 1934–1935 Succeeded by None (Office abolished) Himself as Minister for Press and Propaganda

Preceded by None (Office established) Minister of Press and Propaganda 1935 Succeeded by Dino Alfieri

Preceded by Benito Mussolini Minister of Foreign Affairs 1936–1943 Succeeded by Benito Mussolini

v t e

Italian Ministers of Foreign Affairs

Kingdom of Italy

Cavour Ricasoli Rattazzi Pasolini Visconti-Venosta La Marmora Visconti-Venosta Campello Menabrea Visconti-Venosta Melegari Depretis Corti Cairoli Depretis Cairoli Mancini Depretis Robilant Depretis Crispi Starabba di Rudinì Brin Blanc Caetani Capelli Canevaro Visconti-Venosta Prinetti Tittoni Paternò-Castello Guicciardini Tittoni Guicciardini Paternò-Castello Sonnino Tittoni Scialoja Sforza Tommasi della Torretta Schanzer Mussolini Grandi Mussolini Ciano Mussolini Guariglia Badoglio Bonomi De Gasperi

Italian Republic

De Gasperi Nenni Sforza De Gasperi Pella Piccioni Martino Pella Fanfani Pella Segni Fanfani Piccioni Saragat Moro Fanfani Moro Fanfani Medici Nenni Moro Medici Moro Rumor Forlani Malfatti Ruffini Colombo Andreotti De Michelis Scotti Colombo Andreatta Elia Martino Agnelli Dini Ruggiero Berlusconi Frattini Fini D'Alema Frattini Terzi di Sant'Agata Bonino Mogherini Gentiloni Alfano

v t e

Members of Mussolini Cabinet

Head of government
Head of government
and duce of Fascism

Benito Mussolini

Minister of the Air Force (since 1925)

Italo Balbo

Minister of Foreign Affairs

Benito Mussolini Dino Grandi Galeazzo Ciano

Minister of agriculture (abolished in 1923)

Giuseppe De Capitani D'Arzago

Minister of Agriculture and Forestry (since 1929)

Giacomo Acerbo Edmondo Rossoni Giuseppe Tassinari Carlo Pareschi

Minister of the Colonies (abolished in 1937)

Luigi Federzoni Benito Mussolini Pietro Lanza di Scalea Emilio De Bono Alessandro Lessona

Minister of Italian Africa (since 1937)

Alessandro Lessona Benito Mussolini Attilio Teruzzi

Minister of Communications (since 1924)

Costanzo Ciano Umberto Puppini Antonio Stefano Benni Nino Host Venturi Vittorio Cini Giuseppe Peverelli

Minister of Corporations (since 1926)

Benito Mussolini Giuseppe Bottai Ferruccio Lantini Renato Ricci Carlo Tiengo Tullio Cianetti

Ministry of People's Culture (since 1937)

Dino Alfieri Alessandro Pavolini Gaetano Polverelli

Minister of the Interior

Benito Mussolini Luigi Federzoni

Minister of domestic economy

Orso Mario Corbino Cesare Nava Giuseppe Belluzzo Alessandro Martelli

Minister of domestic education

Balbino Giuliano Francesco Ercole Cesare Maria De Vecchi Giuseppe Bottai Carlo Alberto Biggini

Minister of Finance

Alberto De Stefani Giuseppe Volpi Antonio Mosconi Guido Jung Paolo Ignazio Maria Thaon di Revel Giacomo Acerbo

Minister of Justice and Affairs of Religion

Aldo Oviglio Alfredo Rocco Pietro De Francisci Arrigo Solmi Dino Grandi Alfredo De Marsico

Minister of Industry and Commerce

Teofilo Rossi

Minister of Public Works

Gabriello Carnazza Gino Sarrocchi Giovanni Giuriati Benito Mussolini Michele Bianchi Araldo di Crollalanza Luigi Razza Giuseppe Cobolli Gigli Adelchi Serena Giuseppe Gorla Zenone Benini

Minister of War

Armando Diaz Antonino Di Giorgio Benito Mussolini Pietro Gazzera Benito Mussolini

Minister of Labour and Social Security

Stefano Cavazzoni

Minister of Posts and Telegraphs

Giovanni Antonio Colonna di Cesarò Costanzo Ciano

Minister of War Production (since 6 February 1943)

Carlo Favagrossa

Minister of Public Education

Giovanni Gentile Alessandro Casati Pietro Fedele Giuseppe Belluzzo

Minister of Trades and Currencies

Felice Guarneri Raffaello Riccardi Oreste Bonomi

Minister of Press and Propaganda

Galeazzo Ciano Dino Alfieri

Minster of Freed Territories from enemies (abolished on 5 February 1923)

Giovanni Giuriati

Minister of Treasure (merged into Ministry of Finance on 31 December 1922)

Vincenzo Tangorra Alberto De Stefani

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 56702085 LCCN: n79063684 ISNI: 0000 0000 8077 4137 GND: 119178362 SELIBR: 211446 SUDOC: 033485879 BNF: cb12434736n (data) NDL: 00551738 NKC: xx0011270 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV05

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