Galatia
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Galatia (; grc, Γαλατία, ''Galatía'', "
Gaul Gaul ( la, Gallia) was a region of Western Europe Western Europe is the region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than a ...

Gaul
") was an ancient area in the highlands of central
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
, roughly corresponding to the
provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are gene ...
of
Ankara Ankara ( , ; ), historically known as Ancyra and Angora, is the list of national capitals, capital of Turkey. Located in the Central Anatolia Region, central part of Anatolia, the city has a population of 4.5 million in its urban center an ...
and
Eskişehir Eskişehir ( , ; from "old" and "city") is a city in northwestern Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Gre ...
, in modern
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia in Western Asia, with a small portion on the Balkans in Southeast Europe. It shares borders with Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest; the B ...

Turkey
. Galatia was named after the
Gauls The Gauls ( la, Galli; grc, Γαλάται, ''Galátai'') were a group of Celts, Celtic peoples of Continental Europe in the Iron Age Europe, Iron Age and the Roman Gaul, Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD). The a ...
from
Thrace Map of Ancient Thrace made by Abraham Ortelius in 1585, stating both the names Thrace and Europe. Thrace (; el, Θράκη, Thráki; bg, Тракия, Trakiya; tr, Trakya) or Thrake is a geographical and historical region In geography, ...
(cf.
Tylis Tylis (Ancient Greek, Greek: Τύλις) or Tyle was a capital of a short-lived Balkan state mentioned by Polybius that was founded by Celts led by Comontorius in the 3rd century BC. Following Gallic Invasion of Greece, their invasion of Thrace and ...
), who settled here and became a small transient foreign tribe in the 3rd century BC, following the supposed
Gallic invasion of the Balkans From their new bases in northern Illyria and Pannonia, the Gallic invasions climaxed in the early 3rd century BC, with the invasion of Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast ...
in 279 BC. It has been called the "Gallia" of the East; Roman writers calling its inhabitants ''Galli'' (''Gauls'' or ''Celts'').


Geography

Galatia was bounded on the north by
Bithynia Bithynia (; Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek language, ...
and
Paphlagonia Paphlagonia (; grc, Παφλαγονία, ''Paphlagonía'', modern translit. ''Paflagonía''; tr, Paflagonya) was an ancient region on the Black Sea coast of north central Anatolia, situated between Bithynia to the west and Pontus (region), Pontu ...
, on the east by Pontus and
Cappadocia Cappadocia (; also ''Capadocia''; grc, label=Ancient Greek, Ancient and Modern Greek, Καππαδοκία, translit=Kappadokía, from peo, 𐎣𐎫𐎱𐎬𐎢𐎣, translit=Katpatuka, arm, Կապադովկիա, translit=Kapadovkia, tr, Ka ...
, on the south by
Cilicia Cilicia (); el, Κιλικία, ''Kilikía''; Middle Persian: ''klkyʾy'' (''Klikiyā''), Parthian language, Parthian: ''kylkyʾ'' (''Kilikiyā''), tr, Kilikya). is a geo-cultural region in southern Turkey, extending inland from the northeastern ...
and
Lycaonia Lycaonia (; el, Λυκαονία, ''Lykaonia'', tr, Likaonya) was a large region in the interior of Asia Minor, north of the Taurus Mountains. It was bounded on the east by Cappadocia, on the north by Galatia, on the west by Phrygia and Pi ...
, and on the west by
Phrygia In classical antiquity, Phrygia (; grc, Φρυγία, ''Phrygía'' ; tr, Frigya) (also known as the Kingdom of Muska) was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centred on the Sangarios River. After its co ...
. Its capital was Ancyra (i.e.
Ankara Ankara ( , ; ), historically known as Ancyra and Angora, is the list of national capitals, capital of Turkey. Located in the Central Anatolia Region, central part of Anatolia, the city has a population of 4.5 million in its urban center an ...
, today the capital of modern Turkey).


Celtic Galatia

The terms "Galatians" came to be used by the Greeks for the three Celtic peoples of Anatolia: the
Tectosages The Tectosages or Tectosagii (Gaulish Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Continental Europe Mainland or continental Europe is the contiguous continent of Europe, excluding its surrounding islands. It c ...
, the
TrocmiiThe Trocmii or Trocmi were one of the three ancient tribes of Galatia Galatia (; grc, Γαλατία, ''Galatía'', "Gaul Gaul ( la, Gallia) was a region of Western Europe Western Europe is the region of Europe Europe is a continent ...
, and the
Tolistobogii Tolistobogii (in other sources Tolistobogioi, Tolistobōgioi, Tolistoboioi, Tolistobioi, Toligistobogioi or Tolistoagioi) is the name used by the Roman historian, Livy Titus Livius''Titus'' is the praenomen (the personal name); ''Livius'' is the ...
. By the 1st century BC the Celts had become so
Hellenized Hellenization (other British spelling Hellenisation) or Hellenism is the historical spread of ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from ar ...
that some Greek writers called them ''Hellenogalatai'' (Ἑλληνογαλάται). The Romans called them ''Gallograeci''. Though the Celts had, to a large extent, integrated into
Hellenistic The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire, as signified by the Battle of Actium The Battle of Actium was a naval battle in t ...
Asia Minor, they preserved their linguistic and ethnic identity. By the 4th century BC the Celts had penetrated into the
Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather ...
, coming into contact with the
Thracians The Thracians (; grc, Θρᾷκες ''Thrāikes''; la, Thraci) were an Indo-European speaking people, who inhabited large parts of Eastern Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines, a current Chinese airline based in Sh ...
and Greeks. In 380 BC they fought in the southern regions of
Dalmatia Dalmatia (; hr, Dalmacija ; it, Dalmazia; see #Name, names in other languages) is a region on the east shore of the Adriatic Sea, a narrow belt stretching from the island of Rab in the north to the Bay of Kotor in the south. The Dalmatian Hin ...

Dalmatia
(present day Croatia), and rumors circulated around the ancient world that
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus'') of the Ancient Greece, ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia (ancient kingdom) ...
s father,
Philip II of Macedonia Philip II of Macedon ( grc-gre, Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών; 382–336 BC) was the king (basileus) of the kingdom of Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Macedon from until his assassination in . He was a member of the Argead dynasty ...
had been assassinated by someone using a dagger of Celtic origins.
Arrian Arrian of Nicomedia (; Greek: ''Arrianos''; la, Lucius Flavius Arrianus; ) was a Greek historian, public servant, military commander and philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes ...
writes that "Celts established on the Ionic coast" were among those who came to meet Alexander the Great during a campaign against the
Getae The Getae ( ) or Gets ( ; grc, Γέται, singular ) were several Thracian tribes that once inhabited the regions to either side of the Lower Danube The Danube ( ; ) is Europe's List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest ri ...
in 335 BC. Several ancient accounts mention that the Celts formed an alliance with
Dionysius I of Syracuse Dionysius I or Dionysius the Elder (c.432-367 BC) was a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its ...

Dionysius I of Syracuse
who sent them to fight alongside the
Macedonians Macedonian most often refers to someone or something from or related to Macedonia (disambiguation), Macedonia. Macedonian may specifically refer to: People Modern * Macedonians (ethnic group), the South Slavic ethnic group primarily associated w ...
against the
Thebans Thebes (; ell, Θήβα, ''Thíva'' ; grc, Θῆβαι, ''Thêbai'' .) is a city in Boeotia Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinisation of names, Latinised as Boiotia, or Beotia (; el, Βοιωτία, , ; modern transliteration ''Voiotía'', ...
. In 279 BC two Celtic factions united under the leadership of
Brennus Brennus or Brennos ( Gaulish: ''Brano'' "raven") is the name of two Gaulish chieftains, famous in ancient history: * Brennus, chieftain of the Senones, a Gallic tribe originating from the modern areas of France known as Seine-et-Marne, L ...
and began to push southwards from southern Bulgaria towards the Greek states. According to
Livy Titus Livius (; 59 BC – AD 17), known in English as Livy ( ), was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ...
, a sizable force split off from this main group and headed toward
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while be ...
. For several years a federation of Hellespontine cities, including
Byzantion Byzantium () or Byzantion ( grc-gre, Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is o ...
and Chalkedon, prevented the Celts from entering Asia Minor. During the course of the power struggle between Nikomedes I of
Bithynia Bithynia (; Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek language, ...
and his brother Zipoetes, the former hired 20,000 Galatian mercenaries. The Galatians split into two groups headed by
Leonnorius Leonnorius was one of the leaders of the Celt Constrained Energy Lapped Transform (CELT) is an open, royalty-free lossy In information technology, lossy compression or irreversible compression is the class of data compression, data encoding met ...
and Lutarius respectively, which crossed the
Bosporus File:Bosphorus aerial view.jpg, Aerial view of the Bosporus taken from its northern end near the Black Sea (bottom), looking south (top) toward the Marmara Sea, with the city center of Istanbul visible along the strait's hilly banks. The Bosp ...
and the
Hellespont satellite in September 2006. The body of water on the left is the Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated Bay, embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between Europe's Geography of Europe, Balkan peninsula and A ...
respectively. In 277 BC, when the hostilities had ended the Galatians came out of Nikomedes' control and began raiding Greek cities in Asia Minor while Antiochus was solidifying his rule in Syria. The Galatians looted Cyzikus, ,
Didyma Didyma (; grc, Δίδυμα) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into th ...
,
Priene Priene ( grc, Πριήνη, Priēnē; tr, Prien) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often ro ...

Priene
,
Thyatira Thyateira (also Thyatira) ( grc, Θυάτειρα) was the name of an ancient Greek city in Asia Minor, now the modern Turkey, Turkish city of Akhisar ("white castle"). The name is probably Lydian language, Lydian. It lies in the far west of Tur ...
and
Laodicea on the Lycus Laodicea on the Lycus ( el, Λαοδίκεια πρὸς τοῦ Λύκου ''Laodikia pros tou Lykou''; la, Laodicea ad Lycum, also transliterated as ''Laodiceia'' or ''Laodikeia'') (modern tr, Laodikeia) was an ancient city built on the river ...
, while the citizens of
Erythras Erythras (; Ancient Greek: Ἐρύθραν) was a name attributed to three men in Greek mythology. *Erythras, son of Poseidon and Amphimedusa, daughter of Danaus. *Erythras, son of Leucon. One of the suitors of Hippodamia, killed by Oenomaus. *Eryt ...
paid them ransom. Either in 275 or 269 BC Antiochus' army faced the Galatians somewhere on the plain of
Sardis Sardis () or Sardes (; Lydian: 𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣 ''Sfard''; grc, Σάρδεις ''Sardeis''; peo, Sparda; hbo, ספרד ''Sfarad'') was an ancient city at the location of modern ''Sart'' (Sartmahmut before 19 October 2005), near Salihli, ...

Sardis
in the Battle of Elephants. In the aftermath of the battle the Celts then settled in northern
Phrygia In classical antiquity, Phrygia (; grc, Φρυγία, ''Phrygía'' ; tr, Frigya) (also known as the Kingdom of Muska) was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centred on the Sangarios River. After its co ...
, a region that eventually came to be known as Galatia. The territory of Celtic Galatia included the cities of
Ancyra Ankara, historically known as Ancyra and Angora, is the list of national capitals, capital of Turkey. Located in the Central Anatolia Region, central part of Anatolia, the city has a population of 4.5 million in its urban centre and over 5 ...
(present day Ankara),
Pessinus Pessinus ( el, Πεσσινούς or Πισσινούς) was an Ancient city and archbishopric in Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la ...
,
TaviumTavium, or Tavia ( grc, Τάουιον, translit=Taouion; la, Taouion or Tavium), was the chief city of the Galatian tribe of Trocmi, one of the three Celtic tribes which migrated from the Danube Valley to Galatia in present-day central Turkey in ...
, and
Gordion Gordion ( el, Γόρδιον, ''Górdion''; tr, Gordion or ; la, Gordium) was the capital city of ancient Phrygia. It was located at the site of modern Yassıhüyük, about southwest of Ankara (capital of Turkey), in the immediate vicinity ...
.


Roman Galatia

Upon the death of
DeiotarusDeiotarus of Galatia (in Galatian language, Galatian and Greek language, Greek Deiotaros, surnamed Philoromaios ("Friend of the Romans"); 42 BC, 41 BC or 40 BC) was a Chief wikt:tetrarch, Tetrarch of the Tolistobogii in western Galatia, Anatolia, Asi ...
, the Kingdom of Galatia was given to , an auxiliary commander in the Roman army of Brutus and Cassius who gained the favor of Mark Antony. After his death in 25 BC, Galatia was incorporated by
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles througho ...

Augustus
into the Roman Empire, becoming a Roman province. Near his capital Ancyra (modern Ankara), Pylamenes, the king's heir, rebuilt a temple of the
Phrygia In classical antiquity, Phrygia (; grc, Φρυγία, ''Phrygía'' ; tr, Frigya) (also known as the Kingdom of Muska) was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centred on the Sangarios River. After its co ...
n god
Men A man is an adult male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male cannot sexual reproduction, reproduce ...
to venerate Augustus (the
Monumentum Ancyranum Temple of Augustus and Rome; is an augusteum located in Altındağ district of Ankara. It is thought to have been built around 25-20 AD. Besides being one of the most important Roman period ruins in the city, it is also known for ''Monumentum Ancyr ...
), as a sign of fidelity. It was on the walls of this temple in Galatia that the major source for the ''
Res Gestae ''Res gestae'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Ro ...

Res Gestae
'' of Augustus were preserved for modernity. Few of the provinces proved more enthusiastically loyal to Rome.
Josephus Titus Flavius Josephus (; ; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu ( he, יוסף בן מתתיהו ''Yōsef ben Matiṯyāhu''; grc-gre, Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς ''Iṓsēpos Matthíou paîs''), was a first-century Romano-Jewish ...

Josephus
related the Biblical figure
Gomer Gomer (גֹּמֶר, Standard Hebrew ''Gómer'', Tiberian Hebrew ''Gōmer'', ; el, Γαμὲρ, translit=Gamér) was the eldest son of Japheth (and of the Japhetic line), and father of Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah, according to the " Tab ...
to Galatia (or perhaps to Gaul in general): "For Gomer founded those whom the Greeks now call Galatians, alls but were then called Gomerites." Others have related Gomer to
Cimmerians The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
.
Paul the Apostle Paul; el, Παῦλος, translit=Paulos; cop, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; he, פאולוס השליח, name=, group= (born Saul of Tarsus;; ar, بولس الطرسوسي; el, Σαῦλος Ταρσεύς, Saũlos Tarseús; tr, Tarsuslu Pavlus AD ...
visited Galatia in his missionary journeys, and wrote to the Christians there in the
Epistle to the Galatians The Epistle to the Galatians, often shortened to Galatians, is the ninth book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the ...
. Although originally possessing a strong
cultural identity Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling differ ...

cultural identity
, by the 2nd century AD, the Galatians had become assimilated (
Hellenization Hellenization (other British spelling Hellenisation) or Hellenism is the historical spread of Ancient Greece, ancient Greek Ancient Greece#Culture, culture, Hellenistic religion, religion, and, to a lesser extent, language over foreign peoples c ...
) into the
Hellenistic civilization The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire, as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the conquest of Ptolemaic ...
of
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
.Galatia
/ref> The Galatians were still speaking the
Galatian language Galatian is an extinct Celtic language once spoken by the Galatians in Galatia, in central Anatolia (part of modern Turkey) from the 3rd century BC up to at least the 4th century AD. Some sources suggest that it was still spoken in the 6th cen ...
in the time of St.
Jerome Jerome (; la, Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 342–347 – 30 September 420), also known as Jerome of Stridon, was a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belo ...

Jerome
(347–420 AD), who wrote that the Galatians of Ancyra and the
Treveri The Treveri or Treviri (Gaulish Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Continental Europe Mainland or continental Europe is the contiguous continent of Europe, excluding its surrounding islands. It can also ...
of
Trier Trier ( , ; lb, Tréier ), formerly known in English as Trèves ( ;) and Triers (see also Names of Trier in different languages, names in other languages), is a city on the banks of the Moselle (river), Moselle in Germany. It lies in a valley be ...

Trier
(in what is now the
Rhineland The Rhineland (german: Rheinland; french: Rhénanie; nl, Rijnland; ksh, Rhingland; Latinised name: ''Rhenania'') is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany The old states of Germany (german: die alten Länder) are the t ...

Rhineland
) spoke the same
language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system composed of glyphs to inscribe the original soun ...
(''Comentarii in Epistolam ad Galatos'', 2.3, composed c. 387). In an administrative reorganisation (''c.'' 386–395), two new provinces succeeded it, ''Galatia Prima'' and ''Galatia Secunda'' or ''Salutaris'', which included part of Phrygia. The fate of the Galatian people is a subject of some uncertainty, but they seem ultimately to have been absorbed into the Greek-speaking populations of Anatolia.


Gallery

File:Galatian head Thrace detail.jpg, A Galatian's head as depicted on a gold Thracian ''objet d'art'', 3rd century BC.
Istanbul Archaeological Museum The Istanbul Archaeology Museums ( tr, ) are a group of three archaeological museums located in the Eminönü Eminönü is a former district of Istanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code , postal_code = ...
. File:Galatian bronze horse bit.jpg, Galatian bronze horse bit, 3rd century BC, Hidirsihlar
tumulus File:Gamla uppsala.jpg, The Royal mounds of Gamla Uppsala in Sweden from the 5th and 6th centuries originally the site had 2,000 to 3,000 tumuli, but due to quarrying and agriculture only 250 remain. A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of Soi ...

tumulus
,
Bolu Bolu is a city in Turkey, and administrative center of the Bolu Province. The population is 131,264 (2012 census). The city has been governed by mayor Tanju Özcan (Republican People's Party (Turkey), CHP) since 2019 Turkish local elections, loca ...

Bolu
. Istanbul Archaeological Museum. File:Galatian bracelets and earrings 3rd century BCE Bolu Hidirsihlar tumulus.jpg, Galatian bracelets and earrings, 3rd century BC, Hidirsihlar tumulus,
Bolu Bolu is a city in Turkey, and administrative center of the Bolu Province. The population is 131,264 (2012 census). The city has been governed by mayor Tanju Özcan (Republican People's Party (Turkey), CHP) since 2019 Turkish local elections, loca ...

Bolu
. Istanbul Archaeological Museum. File:Galatian torques 3rd century BCE Bolu Hidirsihlar tumulus.jpg, Galatian
torc A torc, also spelled torq or torque, is a large rigid or stiff neck ring in metal, made either as a single piece or from strands twisted together. The great majority are open at the front, although some had hook and ring closures and a few had m ...
s, 3rd century BC, Hidirsihlar tumulus, Bolu. Istanbul Archaeological Museum. File:Galatian plate 3rd century BCE Bolu Hidirsihlar tumulus.jpg, Galatian plate, 3rd century BC, Hidirsihlar tumulus, Bolu. Istanbul Archaeological Museum. File:Galatian object 3rd century BCE Bolu Hidirsihlar tumulus.jpg, Galatian object, 3rd century BC, Hidirsihlar tumulus, Bolu. Istanbul Archaeological Museum. File:15th century map of Turkey region.jpg, Part of a 15th-century map showing Galatia.


See also

*
Ancient regions of Anatolia The following is a list of regions of History of Anatolia, Ancient Anatolia, also known as "Asia Minor," in the present day Anatolia region of Turkey in Western Asia. Late Bronze Age regions (circa 1200 BC) *Alasiya / Alashiya (later Cyprus in ...
*
History of Anatolia The history History (from Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the invention of writing systems are considered prehistory. "History" is an umbrella te ...


References


Notes

* Encyclopedia, MS Encarta 2001, under article "Galatia". * Barraclough, Geoffrey, ed. ''HarperCollins Atlas of World History''. 2nd ed. Oxford: HarperCollins, 1989. 76–77. * John King, Celt Kingdoms, pg. 74–75. * The Catholic Encyclopedia, VI: Epistle to the Galatians. * Stephen Mitchell, 1993. ''Anatolia: Land, Men, and Gods in Asia Minor'' vol. 1: "The Celts and the Impact of Roman Rule." (Oxford: Clarendon Press) 1993. . Concentrates on Galatia; volume 2 covers "The Rise of the Church".
Bryn Mawr Classical Review
* David Rankin, (1987) 1996. ''Celts and the Classical World'' (London: Routledge): Chapter 9 "The Galatians". * Coşkun, A., "Das Ende der "romfreundlichen Herrschaft" in Galatien und das Beispiel einer "sanften Provinzialisierung" in Zentralanatolien," in Coşkun, A. (hg), ''Freundschaft und Gefolgschaft in den auswärtigen Beziehungen der Römer (2. Jahrhundert v. Chr. – 1. Jahrhundert n. Chr.)'', (Frankfurt M. u. a., 2008) (Inklusion, Exklusion, 9), 133–164. * Justin K. Hardin: ''Galatians and the Imperial Cult. A Critical Analysis of the First-Century Social Context of Paul's Letter''. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, Germany 2008, . *


External links



*
UNRV.com: Galatia
{{Ancient kingdoms in Anatolia States and territories established in the 3rd century BC States and territories disestablished in the 1st century BC Regions of Asia Historical regions Historical regions of Anatolia Pauline churches Ancient Greek geography Former countries in the Middle East Hellenistic Phrygia Geography of the Middle East History of Western Asia Near East New Testament regions Gauls