HOME
The Info List - Galápagos Fur Seal


--- Advertisement ---



The Galápagos fur seal (Arctocephalus galapagoensis) breeds on the Galápagos Islands in the eastern Pacific, west of mainland Ecuador.

Contents

1 Description 2 Range and habitat 3 Reproduction

3.1 Maternal care 3.2 Interbrood conflict

4 Feeding and predation 5 Conservation 6 References 7 Further reading

Description[edit]

Basking

Galápagos fur seals are the smallest of otariids. They have a grayish brown fur coat. The adult males of the species average 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) in length and 64 kg (141 lb) in mass. The females average 1.2 m (3 ft 11 in) in length and 28 kg (62 lb) in mass. They spend more time out of the water than almost any other seal. On average, 70% of their time is spent on land. Most seal species spend 50% of their time on land and 50% in the water. Range and habitat[edit] The Galápagos fur seal is endemic to the Galápagos Islands, with a single colony in northern Peru, according to the Organisation for Research and Conservation of Aquatic Animals[citation needed]; they live on the rocky shores of the islands, which tend to be on the west sides, leaving only to feed. Reproduction[edit] Galápagos fur seals live in large colonies on the rocky shores. These colonies are then divided into territories by the female seals during breeding season, which is mid-August to mid-November. Every mother seal claims a territory for herself and breeds her pup there.[2] Maternal care[edit] Galápagos fur seals have the lowest reproductive rate reported in seals, and it takes an unusually long time to raise seal pups to independence.[2] Females bear only one pup at a time, and she remains with her newborn for a week before leaving to feed. She then periodically returns to the pup and stays to suckle it for a few days before leaving on another hunting trip. Females recognize their own pups by smell and sound, and pups also learn to identify their mothers by the females’ “Pup Attraction Calls”.[3] Mother-pup recognition is crucial because females exclusively nurse their own pups, often violently rejecting strange pups that approach. Orphaned seal pups usually try to sneak up on sleeping or calling females to suckle, but stealing milk is not enough to sustain the pups, and they usually die within a month.[3] Interbrood conflict[edit] Fur seal pups rely on their mother’s milk for the first eighteen months, and weaning may be delayed for up to two or three years if conditions are poor. The result is that every year up to 23% of pups are born when an older sibling is still suckling.[4] Survival of the younger sibling greatly depends on the availability of resources. In years when there is abundant food, the mortality rate of second pups is as low as 5%, which is equivalent to the mortality rate of pups without siblings. In years when food is scarce, 80% of pups with suckling older siblings die within a month.[2] The younger sibling thus serves as an insurance in case the first sibling dies, and also provides extra reproductive value in case conditions prove better than expected. Such a bet-hedging strategy is particularly useful in Galapagos fur seals, since there is a great deal of maternal investment in raising a seal pup to independence in an environment that has great fluctuations in food. The high level of resource uncertainty, late weaning, and potential overlap time of suckling young all lead to violent sibling rivalry and provide a good environment for studying parent-offspring conflict. From an offspring’s point of view, it would be most beneficial to continue suckling and receive more than its fair share of milk, but to the mother seal, it would pay to wean the older, more independent offspring in order to invest in the next pup.[4] Thus, studies show that 75% of mothers intervened, often aggressively, when the older sibling harassed the newborn pups. Mothers would bite or lift the older offspring roughly by its skin, which sometimes caused open wounds. Maternal aggression towards the older sibling diminishes with time after the second sibling’s birth. Even without direct aggression, older siblings may still indirectly harm their younger siblings by outcompeting them for milk. The older offspring usually suckles first and allows their younger sibling access to the mother only after it is satiated, resulting in very little milk left over for the younger pup. Thus, the younger siblings often die from starvation.[5] During periods when there is very little prey, interbrood conflict increases. Galapagos fur seal population is drastically affected by El Niño, a period accompanied by high water temperatures and a deepening thermocline.[6] Food becomes scarce during El Niño, and thus older seals exhibit an intense aversion to weaning, causing the mother seal to neglect the younger sibling. Feeding and predation[edit] The Galápagos fur seal feeds primarily on fish, squid and shellfish. They feed relatively close to shore and near the surface, but have been seen at depths of 169 m (554 ft). They primarily feed at night because their prey is much easier to catch then.[7] During normal years, food is relatively plentiful. However, during an El Niño year, there can be fierce competition for food, and many young pups die during these years. The adult seals feed themselves before their young and during particularly rough El Niño years, most of the young seal populations will die. The Galápagos fur seal has virtually no constant predators. Occasionally, sharks and orcas have been seen feeding on the seals, but this is very rare. Sharks and orcas are the main predator of most other seal species, but their migration paths do not usually pass the Galápagos. Conservation[edit] Galápagos fur seals have had a declining population since the 19th century. Thousands of these seals were killed for their fur in the 1800s by poachers. Starting in 1959, Ecuador established strict laws to protect these animals. The government of Ecuador declared the Galápagos Islands a national park, and since then no major poaching has occurred. Despite the laws, another tragic blow to their population occurred during the 1982–1983 El Niño weather event. Almost all of the seal pups died, and about 30% of the adult population was wiped out. The population is relatively stable now and is on the rise. Since 1983 no major calamity has occurred to decrease their population significantly.[citation needed] References[edit]

^ Trillmich, F. (2015). Arctocephalus galapagoensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T2057A45223722.en ^ a b c Horning, M.; Trillmich, F. (1997). "Ontogeny of diving behaviour in the Galapagos fur seal". Behaviour. 134 (15): 1211–1257. doi:10.1163/156853997X00133.  ^ a b Trillmich, Fritz (1981). "Mutual Mother-Pup Recognition in Galápagos Fur Seals and Sea Lions: Cues Used and Functional Significance". Behaviour. 78 (1/2): 21–42. doi:10.1163/156853981X00248.  ^ a b Davies, N. and Krebs, J. and West, S. (2012). An Introduction to Behavioural Ecology (Fourth ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4443-3949-9. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Trillmich, Fritz.; Wolf, Jochen (2008). "Parent–offspring and Sibling Conflict in Galápagos Fur Seals and Sea Lions". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 62 (3): 363–375. doi:10.1007/s00265-007-0423-1.  ^ Aurioles-Gamboa, D. and Schramm, Y. and Mesnick, S. (2004). "Galapagos Fur Seals, Arctocephalus Galapagoensis, in Mexico". Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals. 3 (1): 77–80. doi:10.5597/lajam00051. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Horning, M.; Trillmich, F. (1999). "Lunar Cycles in Diel Prey Migrations Exert a Stronger Effect on the Diving of Juveniles Than Adult Galapagos Fur Seals". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 266 (1424): 1127–1132. doi:10.1098/rspb.1999.0753. PMC 1689955 . PMID 10406130. 

Further reading[edit]

MarineBio. (1999). Retrieved September 22, 2008, from http://marinebio.org/species.asp?id=293 Randall R. Reeves; Brent S. Stewart; Phillip J. Clapham; James A. Powell (2002). National Audubon Society Guide to Marine Mammals of the World. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. ISBN 0375411410. 

v t e

Extant Carnivora species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet (N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose (A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose (B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose (B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose (B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse (C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse (C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse (C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse (C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose (C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose (D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose (G. flavescens) Black mongoose (G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose (G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose (G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose (G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose (H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose (H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose (H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose (H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose (H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose (H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose (H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose (H. naso) Collared mongoose (H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose (H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose (H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose (H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose (I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose (L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose (M. gambianus) Banded mongoose (M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose (P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose (R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat (S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena (C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena (H. brunnea) Striped hyena (H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf (P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah (A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal (C. caracal) African golden cat (C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat (C. badia) Asian golden cat (C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat (F. silvestris) African wildcat (F. lybica) Jungle cat (F. chaus) Black-footed cat (F. nigripes) Sand cat (F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot (L. pardalis) Margay (L. wiedii) Pampas cat (L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat (L. geoffroyi) Kodkod (L. guigna) Andean mountain cat (L. jacobita) Oncilla (L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina (L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval (L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx (L. lynx) Iberian lynx (L. pardinus) Bobcat (L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat (O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat (P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat (P. viverrinus) Leopard cat (P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat (P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat (P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar (P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi (H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion (P. leo) Jaguar (P. onca) Leopard (P. pardus) Tiger (P. tigris) Snow leopard (P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard (N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard (N. diardi)

Family Viverridae (includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong (A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet (A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet (M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet (P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet (P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet (P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet (C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet (C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet (D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet (H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang (P. linsang) Spotted linsang (P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet (C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet (G. abyssinica) Angolan genet (G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet (G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet (G. cristata) Common genet (G. genetta) Johnston's genet (G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet (G. maculata) Pardine genet (G. pardina) Aquatic genet (G. piscivora) King genet (G. poensis) Servaline genet (G. servalina) Haussa genet (G. thierryi) Cape genet (G. tigrina) Giant forest genet (G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang (P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang (P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet (V. civettina) Large-spotted civet (V. megaspila) Malayan civet (V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet (V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet (V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc (E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet (F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose (G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose (G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose (G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose (M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose (S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia (cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda (A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear (H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear (M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear (T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear (U. americanus) Brown bear (U. arctos) Polar bear (U. maritimus) Asian black bear (U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk (C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk (C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk (C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk (C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk (M. macroura) Striped skunk (M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger (M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger (M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk (S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk (S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk (S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk (S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo (B. alleni) Northern olingo (B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo (B. medius) Olinguito (B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat (B. astutus) Cacomistle (B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati (N. narica) South American coati (N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou (P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon (P. cancrivorus) Raccoon (P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon (P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda (A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia (cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) (Pinniped inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal (A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal (A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal (A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal (A. philippii) Brown fur seal (A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal (A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal (A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal (C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion (E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion (N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion (O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion (P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion (Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion (Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae (Pinniped inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus (O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) (Pinniped inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal (C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal (E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal (H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal (L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal (L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal (M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal (M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal (M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal (M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal (O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal (P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal (P. largha) Harbor seal (P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal (P. caspica) Ringed seal (P. hispida) Baikal seal (P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae (includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog (A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal (C. adustus) African golden wolf (C. anthus) Golden jackal (C. aureus) Coyote (C. latrans) Gray wolf (C. lupus) Black-backed jackal (C. mesomelas) Red wolf (C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf (C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox (C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf (C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole (C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo (L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox (L. fulvipes) South American gray fox (L. griseus) Pampas fox (L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox (L. sechurae) Hoary fox (L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog (L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox (O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog (S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox (U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox (U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox (V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox (V. cana) Cape fox (V. chama) Corsac fox (V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox (V. ferrilata) Arctic fox (V. lagopus) Kit fox (V. macrotis) Pale fox (V. pallida) Rüppell's fox (V. rueppelli) Swift fox (V. velox) Red fox (V. vulpes) Fennec fox (V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter (A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter (A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter (E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter (H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter (L. canadensis) Marine otter (L. felina) Neotropical otter (L. longicaudis) Southern river otter (L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter (L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter (L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter (L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter (P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger (A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra (E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison (G. cuja) Greater grison (G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine (G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat (I. libyca) Striped polecat (I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel (L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten (M. americana) Yellow-throated marten (M. flavigula) Beech marten (M. foina) Nilgiri marten (M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten (M. martes) Japanese marten (M. melampus) Sable (M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger (M. anakuma) Asian badger (M. leucurus) European badger (M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger (M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger (M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger (M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger (M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger (M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel (M. africana) Mountain weasel (M. altaica) Stoat (M. erminea) Steppe polecat (M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel (M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel (M. frenata) Japanese weasel (M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel (M. kathiah) European mink (M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel (M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret (M. nigripes) Least weasel (M. nivalis) Malayan weasel (M. nudipes) European polecat (M. putorius) Siberian weasel (M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel (M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel (M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink (N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel (P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger (T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat (V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q571618 ADW: Arctocephalus_galapagoensis ARKive: arctocephalus-galapagoensis EoL: 328624 Fossilworks: 71850 GBIF: 2433473 iNaturalist: 41747 ITIS: 180634 IUCN: 2057 MSW: 14001000 NCBI: 30584 Species+:

.