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GAINAX CO., LTD. (株式会社ガイナックス, Kabushiki-gaisha Gainakkusu) is a Japanese anime studio famous for productions such as Gunbuster , The Wings of Honneamise , Nadia: The Secret of Blue Water , Neon Genesis Evangelion
Neon Genesis Evangelion
, Magical Shopping Arcade Abenobashi
Magical Shopping Arcade Abenobashi
, FLCL , Gurren Lagann
Gurren Lagann
and Panty Takeda reiterated in 2002 that "It sold record numbers of laserdiscs in Japan, and the DVD is still selling well today", as well as for their association with award-winning anime director and studio co-founder Hideaki Anno
Hideaki Anno
. The company is headquartered in Koganei , Tokyo
Tokyo
.

Until Neon Genesis Evangelion, Gainax
Gainax
typically worked on stories created in-house, but the studio has increasingly developed anime adaptations of existing manga like Kareshi Kanojo no Jijou and Mahoromatic . Series produced by Gainax
Gainax
are often known for their controversial twist endings.

The Animage Anime
Anime
Grand Prix has been awarded to Gainax
Gainax
for Nadia: The Secret of Blue Water in 1991, Neon Genesis Evangelion
Neon Genesis Evangelion
in 1995 and 1996, and The End of Evangelion
The End of Evangelion
in 1997.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Beginnings * 1.2 Evangelion * 1.3 2000s

* 2 Filmography

* 2.1 TV series * 2.2 Films * 2.3 OVAs and ONAs * 2.4 Daicon tokusatsu fan films

* 3 Other works * 4 Relationship to fan community * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links

HISTORY

BEGINNINGS

The studio was formed in the early 1980s as Daicon Film by university students Hideaki Anno
Hideaki Anno
, Yoshiyuki Sadamoto
Yoshiyuki Sadamoto
, Hiroyuki Yamaga
Hiroyuki Yamaga
, Takami Akai , Toshio Okada , Yasuhiro Takeda and Shinji Higuchi
Shinji Higuchi
. Their first project was an animated short for the 20th Annual Japan
Japan
National SF Convention , also known as Daicon III, held in 1981 in Osaka, Japan
Japan
. The short film is about a girl who fights monsters, robots, and spaceships from early science fiction TV shows and films (including Ultraman , Gundam
Gundam
, Space Runaway Ideon
Space Runaway Ideon
, Space Battleship Yamato
Space Battleship Yamato
, Star Trek
Star Trek
, Star Wars
Star Wars
, and Godzilla
Godzilla
) until she finally reaches a desert plain and pours a glass of water on a dried-out daikon radish , which immediately resurrects itself, grows into a huge spaceship, and beams her aboard. Though the short had an ambitious scope, the animation was rough and low-quality.

The group made a much bigger splash with the short they produced for the 22nd Annual Japan
Japan
National SF Convention, Daicon IV , in 1983. Starting with a better animated recap of their original 1981 short, the short then moves to the girl as a grown woman, wearing a bunny suit and fighting an even wider range of science fiction creatures (including various Mobile Suits from the Gundam
Gundam
series, Darth Vader
Darth Vader
, an Alien , a Macross Valkyrie , a Pern dragon , Aslan
Aslan
, a Klingon battle cruiser , Spider-Man , and a pan across a vast array of hundreds of other characters) while surfing through the sky on the sword Stormbringer
Stormbringer
. The action was all set to the Electric Light Orchestra song "Twilight ", though the group's failure to properly license the song would prevent the short's official release on DVD (and make the limited laserdisc release of the Daicon shorts very rare and highly sought after items).

The Daicon IV short firmly established Daicon Film as a talented new anime studio (albeit small and with only 20 million yen or about US$200,000). The studio changed its name to Gainax
Gainax
in 1985, basing the term "Gainax" on an obscure Tottori Prefecture term for "giant", with the English suffix -x added because it sounded "good and was international".

Gainax's first work as a commercial entity was Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honneamise , released in 1987. Honneamise was (and still is) critically acclaimed and a classic anime movie; however, it had a tepid commercial reaction ( Gainax
Gainax
did attempt to develop a sequel later in March 1992, before abandoning it for lack of funds).

The next release, the 1988 OVA
OVA
Gunbuster , was a commercial success and put Gainax
Gainax
on a stabler footing to produce works like Nadia
Nadia
and Otaku no Video . During this period, Gainax
Gainax
also produced a number of items such as garage kit and adult video games (a major earner which kept Gainax
Gainax
afloat on occasion, though they were sometimes banned).

EVANGELION

Gainax's offices in Koganei , Tokyo
Tokyo
, circa 2004. The studio since moved to a modest two-story premise, also in Koganei, before moving again to another premise.

In 1995, Gainax
Gainax
produced perhaps their best known series, the commercially successful and critically lauded Neon Genesis Evangelion . In the wake of Evangelion's success, however, Gainax
Gainax
was audited by the National Tax Agency at the urging of the Tokyo
Tokyo
Regional Taxation Bureau on suspicion of committing tax evasion on the massive profits accruing from various Evangelion properties. It was later revealed that Gainax
Gainax
had concealed 1.56 billion yen worth of income (thereby failing to pay 560 million yen due in corporate taxes ) which it had earned between the release of Evangelion and July 1997 by paying closely related companies various large fees, ostensibly to pay for animation expenses, but then immediately withdraw 90% of the sums from the other company's accounts as cash and store it in safe deposit boxes (leaving 10% as a reward for the other company's assistance).

Gainax
Gainax
president Takeshi Sawamura and tax accountant Yoshikatsu Iwasaki were arrested on July 13, 1999 and later jailed for accounting fraud. Yasuhiro Takeda later defended Sawamura's actions as being a reaction to Gainax's perpetually precarious finances and the shaky accounting procedures internally:

"Sawamura understood our financial situation better than anyone, so when Evangelion took off and the money really started rolling in, he saw it as possibly our one and only opportunity to set something aside for the future. I guess he was vulnerable to temptation at that point, because no one knew how long the Evangelion goose would keep laying golden eggs. I don't think he purposely set out with the goal of evading taxes. It was more that our level of accounting knowledge wasn't up to the task of dealing with revenues on such a large scale."

2000S

Current Gainax
Gainax
headquarters in Koganei , Tokyo
Tokyo
.

In 2004, Gainax
Gainax
marked their 20th anniversary with the production of Diebuster , the sequel to Gunbuster . Gainax's most recent successes on television have been the popular anime series Tengen Toppa Gurren Lagann (2007) and Panty & Stocking with Garterbelt
Panty & Stocking with Garterbelt
(2010).

In August 2011, Gainax
Gainax
was sued by A.D. Vision, who claimed Gainax's refusal to accept an option payment for the perpetual live-action rights to Evangelion was a breach of contract and had resulted in losing an opportunity to produce the film with a major studio. A.D. Vision has asked to be awarded the live-action rights to Evangelion and any accruing legal fees .

In 2012, Gainax
Gainax
announced it would be producing its first live-action television series, EA\'s Rock , with director Nobuhiro Yamashita .

At the 2013 Tokyo
Tokyo
Anime
Anime
Fair , Gainax
Gainax
announced that they would be making once-dead Blue Uru film with Hiroyuki Yamaga
Hiroyuki Yamaga
as the director and screenwriter and Yoshiyuki Sadamoto
Yoshiyuki Sadamoto
as the character designer.

FILMOGRAPHY

TV SERIES

TITLE YEAR(S) DIRECTOR(S) CO-PRODUCTION COMPANIES

Nadia: The Secret of Blue Water 1990–1991 Hideaki Anno
Hideaki Anno
Group TAC
Group TAC

Neon Genesis Evangelion
Neon Genesis Evangelion
1995–1996 Hideaki Anno Tatsunoko

His and Her Circumstances 1998–1999 Hideaki Anno Kazuya Tsurumaki J.C.Staff

Modern Love's Silliness 1999 Issei Kume Group TAC

Oruchuban Ebichu
Oruchuban Ebichu
1999 Makoto Moriwaki Group TAC

Mahoromatic 2001–2003, 2009 Hiroyuki Yamaga
Hiroyuki Yamaga
Shaft

Magical Shopping Arcade Abenobashi
Magical Shopping Arcade Abenobashi
2002 Hiroyuki Yamaga Madhouse

Petite Princess Yucie 2002–2003 Masahiko Otsuka AIC

Melody of Oblivion
Melody of Oblivion
2004 Hiroshi Nishikiori J.C.Staff

This Ugly yet Beautiful World 2004 Shouji Saeki Shaft

He Is My Master
He Is My Master
2005 Shouji Saeki Shaft

Gurren Lagann
Gurren Lagann
2007 Hiroyuki Imaishi
Hiroyuki Imaishi

Corpse Princess 2008 Masahiko Murata
Masahiko Murata
Feel

Hanamaru Kindergarten
Hanamaru Kindergarten
2010 Seiji Mizushima

Panty ">

SEE ALSO

* Tokyo
Tokyo
portal * Companies portal * Anime
Anime
and Manga
Manga
portal

* Gonzo - studio created by ex- Gainax
Gainax
staff * Khara - studio created by Gainax's co-founder * Trigger - studio created by ex- Gainax
Gainax
staff

REFERENCES

* ^ "Considered one of the top 10 films of 1987 by Japanese film critics, The Wings of Honneamise is..." "Heads Up, Mickey: Anime
Anime
may be Japan\'s first really big cultural export", Issue 3.04 - Apr 1995, Wired Magazine * ^ The studio's works have garnered them Animage 's coveted Anime Grand Prix award over ten times since 1990. * ^ "スポニチ Sponichi Annex ニュース 芸能". sponichi.co.jp. Archived from the original on 14 February 2007. Retrieved 7 May 2015. * ^ Greenfield, Matt (April 2, 2006). Evangelion - 10 years of Death and Re:Birth (Speech). Tekkoshocon 2006. Pittsbugh, Pennsylvania. * ^ Gainax
Gainax
Internet Section. "GAINAX NET|会社案内|会社概要". Gainax.co.jp. Retrieved 2015-04-30. * ^ A B Asahi Shimbun
Asahi Shimbun
/ASAHI EVENING NEWS. November 13, 1998. "JAPAN- Animator hit for tax evasion" Pg. News. * ^ Takami Akai is from Tottori and suggested it. * ^ "Bienvenue sur le site internet de Sekai Project". Gainax.fr. Retrieved 2015-04-30. * ^ " "The first commercial success of the fan-turned-pro studio Gainax, "Gunbuster" ("Aim for the Top!") was the first anime OVA (original video animation) made by and for the "otaku generation" — a series for those who love anime. Not tied to any pre-existing manga or toy campaign, "Gunbuster" was a declaration that anime could be made for its own sake." Business Wire. October 24, 2006 Tuesday 1:00 PM GMT "Image Entertainment and Bandai Visual
Bandai Visual
USA to Release Classic Anime
Anime
Series Gunbuster" * ^ Electronic Brain Academy Scenario 1 (released November 1990) was banned in July 1992 in Miyazaki Prefecture
Miyazaki Prefecture
, the first to be so banned in Japan; Gainax
Gainax
sued, charging the ban was unconstitutional, but lost. See Japan
Japan
Economic Newswire JANUARY 24, 1994, MONDAY. "Court backs ban on sale, lease of porno computer game". By Miyazaki, Jan. 24 Kyodo * ^ " Anime
Anime
News Service - July 1999 Anime
Anime
News: President Of Gainax Arrested". Yomiuri Shimbun
Yomiuri Shimbun
. 1999-07-13. Retrieved 2006-10-23. * ^ "Gainax, company president admit tax evasion - News". Animenewsnetwork.com. 1998-11-12. Retrieved 2015-04-30. * ^ "July 1999 Anime
Anime
News". Animenewsservice.com. Retrieved 2015-04-30. * ^ pg 170, Takeda 2002 * ^ "A.D. Vision, Inc. sues Gainax
Gainax
Co., Ltd. over live-action