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GAINAX CO., LTD. (株式会社ガイナックス, _Kabushiki-gaisha Gainakkusu_) is a Japanese anime studio famous for productions such as _ Gunbuster _, _ The Wings of Honneamise _, _Nadia: The Secret of Blue Water _, _ Neon Genesis Evangelion _, _Magical Shopping Arcade Abenobashi _, _ FLCL _, _ Gurren Lagann _ and _Panty Takeda reiterated in 2002 that "It sold record numbers of laserdiscs in Japan, and the DVD is still selling well today", as well as for their association with award-winning anime director and studio co-founder Hideaki Anno . The company is headquartered in Koganei , Tokyo .

Until _Neon Genesis Evangelion_, Gainax typically worked on stories created in-house, but the studio has increasingly developed anime adaptations of existing manga like _ Kareshi Kanojo no Jijou _ and _ Mahoromatic _. Series produced by Gainax are often known for their controversial twist endings.

The Animage Anime Grand Prix has been awarded to Gainax for _Nadia: The Secret of Blue Water _ in 1991, _ Neon Genesis Evangelion _ in 1995 and 1996, and _ The End of Evangelion _ in 1997.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Beginnings * 1.2 _Evangelion_ * 1.3 2000s

* 2 Filmography

* 2.1 TV series * 2.2 Films * 2.3 OVAs and ONAs * 2.4 Daicon tokusatsu fan films

* 3 Other works * 4 Relationship to fan community * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links

HISTORY

BEGINNINGS

The studio was formed in the early 1980s as _Daicon Film_ by university students Hideaki Anno , Yoshiyuki Sadamoto , Hiroyuki Yamaga , Takami Akai , Toshio Okada , Yasuhiro Takeda and Shinji Higuchi . Their first project was an animated short for the 20th Annual Japan National SF Convention , also known as Daicon III, held in 1981 in Osaka, Japan . The short film is about a girl who fights monsters, robots, and spaceships from early science fiction TV shows and films (including _ Ultraman _, _ Gundam _, _ Space Runaway Ideon _, _ Space Battleship Yamato _, _ Star Trek _, _ Star Wars _, and _Godzilla _) until she finally reaches a desert plain and pours a glass of water on a dried-out daikon radish , which immediately resurrects itself, grows into a huge spaceship, and beams her aboard. Though the short had an ambitious scope, the animation was rough and low-quality.

The group made a much bigger splash with the short they produced for the 22nd Annual Japan National SF Convention, Daicon IV , in 1983. Starting with a better animated recap of their original 1981 short, the short then moves to the girl as a grown woman, wearing a bunny suit and fighting an even wider range of science fiction creatures (including various Mobile Suits from the Gundam series, Darth Vader , an Alien , a _Macross _ Valkyrie , a Pern dragon , Aslan , a Klingon battle cruiser , Spider-Man , and a pan across a vast array of hundreds of other characters) while surfing through the sky on the sword Stormbringer . The action was all set to the Electric Light Orchestra song "Twilight ", though the group's failure to properly license the song would prevent the short's official release on DVD (and make the limited laserdisc release of the Daicon shorts very rare and highly sought after items).

The Daicon IV short firmly established Daicon Film as a talented new anime studio (albeit small and with only 20 million yen or about US$200,000). The studio changed its name to Gainax in 1985, basing the term "Gainax" on an obscure Tottori Prefecture term for "giant", with the English suffix _-x_ added because it sounded "good and was international".

Gainax's first work as a commercial entity was _Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honneamise _, released in 1987. _Honneamise_ was (and still is) critically acclaimed and a classic anime movie; however, it had a tepid commercial reaction ( Gainax did attempt to develop a sequel later in March 1992, before abandoning it for lack of funds).

The next release, the 1988 OVA _ Gunbuster _, was a commercial success and put Gainax on a stabler footing to produce works like _ Nadia _ and _ Otaku no Video _. During this period, Gainax also produced a number of items such as garage kit and adult video games (a major earner which kept Gainax afloat on occasion, though they were sometimes banned).

_EVANGELION_

Gainax's offices in Koganei , Tokyo , circa 2004. The studio since moved to a modest two-story premise, also in Koganei, before moving again to another premise.

In 1995, Gainax produced perhaps their best known series, the commercially successful and critically lauded _Neon Genesis Evangelion _. In the wake of _Evangelion's_ success, however, Gainax was audited by the National Tax Agency at the urging of the Tokyo Regional Taxation Bureau on suspicion of committing tax evasion on the massive profits accruing from various _Evangelion_ properties. It was later revealed that Gainax had concealed 1.56 billion yen worth of income (thereby failing to pay 560 million yen due in corporate taxes ) which it had earned between the release of _Evangelion_ and July 1997 by paying closely related companies various large fees, ostensibly to pay for animation expenses, but then immediately withdraw 90% of the sums from the other company's accounts as cash and store it in safe deposit boxes (leaving 10% as a reward for the other company's assistance).

Gainax president Takeshi Sawamura and tax accountant Yoshikatsu Iwasaki were arrested on July 13, 1999 and later jailed for accounting fraud. Yasuhiro Takeda later defended Sawamura's actions as being a reaction to Gainax's perpetually precarious finances and the shaky accounting procedures internally:

"Sawamura understood our financial situation better than anyone, so when _Evangelion_ took off and the money really started rolling in, he saw it as possibly our one and only opportunity to set something aside for the future. I guess he was vulnerable to temptation at that point, because no one knew how long the _Evangelion_ goose would keep laying golden eggs. I don't think he purposely set out with the goal of evading taxes. It was more that our level of accounting knowledge wasn't up to the task of dealing with revenues on such a large scale."

2000S

Current Gainax headquarters in Koganei , Tokyo .

In 2004, Gainax marked their 20th anniversary with the production of _ Diebuster _, the sequel to _ Gunbuster _. Gainax's most recent successes on television have been the popular anime series _Tengen Toppa Gurren Lagann _ (2007) and _ Panty & Stocking with Garterbelt _ (2010).

In August 2011, Gainax was sued by A.D. Vision, who claimed Gainax's refusal to accept an option payment for the perpetual live-action rights to _Evangelion_ was a breach of contract and had resulted in losing an opportunity to produce the film with a major studio. A.D. Vision has asked to be awarded the live-action rights to _Evangelion_ and any accruing legal fees .

In 2012, Gainax announced it would be producing its first live-action television series, EA\'s Rock , with director Nobuhiro Yamashita .

At the 2013 Tokyo Anime Fair , Gainax announced that they would be making once-dead _Blue Uru_ film with Hiroyuki Yamaga as the director and screenwriter and Yoshiyuki Sadamoto as the character designer.

FILMOGRAPHY

TV SERIES

TITLE YEAR(S) DIRECTOR(S) CO-PRODUCTION COMPANIES

_Nadia: The Secret of Blue Water _ 1990–1991 Hideaki Anno Group TAC

_ Neon Genesis Evangelion _ 1995–1996 Hideaki Anno Tatsunoko

_ His and Her Circumstances _ 1998–1999 Hideaki Anno Kazuya Tsurumaki J.C.Staff

_Modern Love's Silliness_ 1999 Issei Kume Group TAC

_ Oruchuban Ebichu _ 1999 Makoto Moriwaki Group TAC

_ Mahoromatic _ 2001–2003, 2009 Hiroyuki Yamaga Shaft

_ Magical Shopping Arcade Abenobashi _ 2002 Hiroyuki Yamaga Madhouse

_ Petite Princess Yucie _ 2002–2003 Masahiko Otsuka AIC

_ Melody of Oblivion _ 2004 Hiroshi Nishikiori J.C.Staff

_ This Ugly yet Beautiful World _ 2004 Shouji Saeki Shaft

_ He Is My Master _ 2005 Shouji Saeki Shaft

_ Gurren Lagann _ 2007 Hiroyuki Imaishi

_ Corpse Princess _ 2008 Masahiko Murata Feel

_ Hanamaru Kindergarten _ 2010 Seiji Mizushima

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SEE ALSO

* Tokyo portal * Companies portal * Anime and Manga portal

* Gonzo - studio created by ex- Gainax staff * Khara - studio created by Gainax's co-founder * Trigger - studio created by ex- Gainax staff

REFERENCES

* ^ "Considered one of the top 10 films of 1987 by Japanese film critics, The Wings of Honneamise is..." "Heads Up, Mickey: Anime may be Japan\'s first really big cultural export", Issue 3.04 - Apr 1995, _ Wired Magazine _ * ^ The studio's works have garnered them Animage 's coveted Anime Grand Prix award over ten times since 1990. * ^ "スポニチ Sponichi Annex ニュース 芸能". _sponichi.co.jp_. Archived from the original on 14 February 2007. Retrieved 7 May 2015. * ^ Greenfield, Matt (April 2, 2006). _ Evangelion - 10 years of Death and Re:Birth_ (Speech). Tekkoshocon 2006. Pittsbugh, Pennsylvania. * ^ Gainax Internet Section. "GAINAX NET|会社案内|会社概要". Gainax.co.jp. Retrieved 2015-04-30. * ^ _A_ _B_ _ Asahi Shimbun _/ASAHI EVENING NEWS. November 13, 1998. "JAPAN- Animator hit for tax evasion" Pg. News. * ^