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The Gaelic revival
Gaelic revival
(Irish: Athbheochan na Gaeilge) was the late-nineteenth-century national revival of interest in the Irish language (also known as Gaelic)[1] and Irish Gaelic culture (including folklore, sports, music, arts, etc.). Irish had diminished as a spoken tongue, remaining the main daily language only in isolated rural areas, with English having become the dominant language in the majority of Ireland. Interest in Gaelic culture was evident in the beginning of the nineteenth century with the formation of the Ulster Gaelic Society in 1830, and later in the scholarly works of John O'Donovan and Eugene O'Curry, and the foundation of the Ossianic Society. Concern for spoken Irish led to the formation of the Society for the Preservation of the Irish Language in 1876, and the Gaelic Union in 1880. The latter produced the Gaelic Journal. Irish sports were fostered by the Gaelic Athletics Association, founded in 1884. The Gaelic League (Conradh na Gaeilge) was established in 1893 by Eoin MacNeill and other enthusiasts of Gaelic language and culture. Its first president was Douglas Hyde. The objective of the League was to encourage the use of Irish in everyday life in order to counter the ongoing anglicisation of the country. It organised weekly gatherings to discuss Irish culture, hosted conversation meetings, edited and periodically published a newspaper named An Claidheamh Soluis, and successfully campaigned to have Irish included in the school curriculum. The League grew quickly, having more than 400 branches within four years of its foundation. It had fraught relationships with other cultural movements of the time, such as the Pan-Celtic movement and the Irish Literary Revival. Important writers of the Gaelic revival
Gaelic revival
include Peadar Ua Laoghaire, Patrick Pearse
Patrick Pearse
(Pádraig Mac Piarais) and Pádraic Ó Conaire.

Contents

1 Early movements 2 Gaelic League 3 Writers 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Early movements[edit] Early pioneers of Irish scholarship were John O'Donovan, Eugene O'Curry and George Petrie; O'Donovan and O'Curry found an outlet for their work in the Archaeological Society, founded in 1840.[2] From 1853, translations of Irish literary works, particularly mythological works of the Ossianic Cycle—associated with the Fianna—were published by the Ossianic Society, in which Standish Hayes O'Grady was active.[2] The Society for the Preservation of the Irish Language was formed in 1877 by, among others, George Sigerson
George Sigerson
and Thomas O'Neill Russell.[2] The secretary of that society, Father John Nolan, split with it in 1880 and formed the Gaelic Union, of which the president was The O'Conor Don, and whose members included Douglas Hyde
Douglas Hyde
and Michael Cusack.[3] Cusack's interest in Gaelic culture was not restricted to the language; he took a keen interest in the traditional games of Ireland, and in 1884, with Maurice Davin, he would found the Gaelic Athletic Association
Gaelic Athletic Association
to promote the games of Gaelic football, hurling and handball.[4] In 1882 the Gaelic Union began publication of a monthly journal, the Gaelic Journal. Its first editor was David Comyn; he was followed by John Fleming, a prominent Irish scholar,[3] and then Father Eugene O'Growney.[5] Gaelic League[edit] In November 1892 Douglas Hyde
Douglas Hyde
gave a lecture to the National Literary Society entitled "The Necessity for De-Anglicising Ireland."[6] He said that the Irish people had become almost completely anglicised, and that this could only be reversed through building up the language.[7] Eoin MacNeill
Eoin MacNeill
followed this up with an article in the Gaelic Journal, "A Plea and a Plan for the Extension of the Movement to Preserve and Spread the Gaelic language in Ireland", and set about forming an organisation to help bring this about, together with Eugene O'Growney and J. H. Lloyd (Seosamh Laoide).[8] The Gaelic League (Conradh na Gaeilge) was founded on 31 July 1893. Hyde was elected president, MacNeill secretary, and Lloyd treasurer, and Thomas O'Neill Russell was among those elected to the council.[9] The Gaelic League held weekly meetings that were a combination of classes and conversation.[10] Its focus on the vernacular form of language and modern literature distinguished it from the Society for the Preservation of the Irish Language, The Celtic Society and the Gaelic Union. Within months it had branches in Cork and Galway. After four years it had 43 branches, and after ten years more than 400.[11] Although it was more concerned with fostering the language in the home than with teaching it in schools, it was nonetheless successful in having Irish added to the curriculum; the number of schools teaching it rose from about a dozen in the 1880s to 1,300 in 1903.[12] The League took over the Gaelic Journal
Gaelic Journal
in 1894, when O'Growney retired as editor, with MacNeill replacing him.[11] In January 1898 it began publication of a weekly newspaper, Fáinne
Fáinne
an Lae.[13] In March of the following year, following a dispute with the owner, this was replaced by An Claidheamh Soluis, with MacNeill again as editor.[14] In 1901 MacNeill was replaced as editor by Eoghan Ó Neachtain, who was in turn replaced in 1903 by Patrick Pearse.[15] The League also concerned itself with the folk music of Ireland, and was involved in the movement which led to the organisation of the Feis Ceoil (Festival of Music) by Annie Patterson in 1897.[16] The League's relations with contemporary cultural movements were strained, and sometimes hostile, despite the fact that some of the League's leaders were on friendly terms with those movements. Pan-Celticism
Pan-Celticism
was viewed with suspicion by many members because its leaders in Ireland, especially Lord Castletown, were closely associated with the Irish establishment.[17] When Douglas Hyde
Douglas Hyde
was invited to the planned Pan-Celtic Congress of 1900—to be held in Dublin—as a delegate of the League, the Coiste Gnótha (executive committee) refused to send any representative, though Hyde might attend as an individual if he wished. Hyde reluctantly declined to attend.[18] The Irish Literary Revival
Irish Literary Revival
was denounced because its works were written in English, not Irish, and therefore tended even more towards anglicisation. Eoin MacNeill
Eoin MacNeill
wrote, "Let them write for the 'English-speaking world' or the 'English-speaking race' if they will. But let them not vex our ears by calling their writings Irish and national."[19] Patrick Pearse
Patrick Pearse
said of the Irish Literary Theatre, recently founded by W. B. Yeats
W. B. Yeats
and Lady Gregory, that it should be "strangled at birth".[19] Writers[edit] An tAthair Peadar Ua Laoghaire
Peadar Ua Laoghaire
(Fr. Peter O'Leary), a parish priest from Castlelyons
Castlelyons
in County Cork, began contributing to the Gaelic Journal in 1894, and in November of that year he published the first instalment of Séadna, which was to become his best-known work. It was described by the journal as a "specimen of Munster Irish, one of the best samples, if not the very best, of southern popular Gaelic that has ever been printed."[20] Séadna was the first major work of modern literature in Irish.[21] Ua Laoghaire serialised the Táin Bó Cúailnge in the Cork Weekly Examiner in 1900–1901, and followed it up with a series of modern renderings of ancient Irish tales such as Bricriu, Eisirt, An Cleasaidhe and An Craos-Deamhan, all of which eschewed scholarship in favour of colloquial, entertaining Irish.[22] After Séadna, his best-known work is his autobiography, Mo Scéal Féin. All his works are written in what was called "caint na ndaoine" (the language of the people).[21] Patrick Pearse
Patrick Pearse
(Pádraig Mac Piarais), the editor of An Claidheamh Soluis—and later a revolutionary leader in the Easter Rising—wrote poetry, short stories and plays. He is considered the first modernist writer in Irish.[23] Pearse rejected what he called the imposition of "dead linguistic and literary forms on a living language", but at the same time rejected the idea that only native speakers like Ua Laoghaire could produce "Irish Irish".[24] He produced two books of short stories, Íosagán agus Scéalta Eile (1907) and An Mháthair agus Scéalta Eile (1916).[23] His collection of poems, Suantraithe agus Goltraithe (1914) contains his most famous poem, "Mise Éire" ("I am Ireland").[25] Pádraic Ó Conaire was arguably the best writer of the period.[23] He wrote more than 400 short stories between 1901 and his death in 1928. His stories were darker than those of his contemporaries. According to his entry in the Dictionary of Irish Biography, they deal with "isolation, conflict between good and evil, the tragedy of life, hatred, blindness, despair, and madness."[26] He wrote one novel, Deoraíocht (Exile), described by John T. Koch as a "strange and brooding psychological novel, the first of the genre in Irish", about a Connemara
Connemara
man living in London.[23] Ó Conaire's works were controversial, addressing themes such as alcoholism and prostitution, which Ua Laoghaire and others within the movement found objectionable.[26] See also[edit]

Language revival Celtic Revival Cornish revival Irish Literary Revival Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
Renaissance

References[edit]

^ Blackshire-Belay, Carol (1994). Current Issues in Second Language Acquisition and Development. University Press of America. p. 32. ISBN 0819191825. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ a b c Tierney, Michael (1980). Eoin MacNeill:Scholar and Man of Action 1867–1945. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 16. ISBN 0 19 822440 0.  ^ a b Tierney (1980), p. 17 ^ "Michael Cusack, Maurice Davin
Maurice Davin
and the Gaelic Athletic Association" (PDF). The 1916 Rising: Personalities and Perspectives. National Library of Ireland. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 April 2008. Retrieved 4 April 2013.  ^ Ryan, John (Dec 1945). "Eoin Mac Neill 1867–1945". Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review. Irish Province of the Society of Jesus. 34 (136): 438. JSTOR 30100064.  ^ Duffy, Charles Gavan; George Sigerson; Douglas Hyde
Douglas Hyde
(1894). The Revival of Irish Literature. London: T. F. Unwin. p. 117. Retrieved 4 April 2013.  ^ Tierney (1980), p. 20 ^ Tierney (1980), pp. 21–2 ^ Tierney (1980), p. 24 ^ Tierney (1980), p. 26 ^ a b Tierney (1980), p. 28 ^ Tierney (1980), p. 42 ^ Tierney (1980), p. 44 ^ Tierney (1980), p. 48 ^ Tierney (1980), p. 73 ^ Tierney (1980), pp. 29–30 ^ Edwards, Ruth Dudley (1977). Patrick Pearse: The Triumph of Failure. London: Victor Gollancz Ltd. pp. 31–2. ISBN 0 575 02153 5.  ^ Dunleavy, Janet Egleson; Gareth W. Dunleavy (1991). Douglas Hyde: A Maker of Modern Ireland. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 204. ISBN 0 520 90932 1. Retrieved 7 April 2013.  ^ a b Tierney (1980), p. 66 ^ Tierney (1980), p. 35 ^ a b Murphy, John A. (2009). "Ó Laoghaire, Peadar". Dictionary of Irish Biography. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 9 April 2013.  ^ O'Leary, Philip (2005). The Prose Literature of the Gaelic Revival, 1881–1921: Ideology and Innovation. Penn State Press. p. 238. ISBN 0271025964. Retrieved 9 April 2013.  ^ a b c d Koch, John (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. p. 1013. ISBN 1851094407. Retrieved 9 April 2013.  ^ Edwards (1977), p. 97 ^ Pierce, David (2000). Irish Writing in the Twentieth Century: A Reader. Cork: Cork University Press. p. 260. ISBN 1859182089. Retrieved 9 April 2013.  ^ a b Ní Mhunghaile, Lesa (2009). "Ó Conaire, Pádraic". Dictionary of Irish Biography. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 9 April 2013. 

External links[edit]

The Revival of the Irish Language, from The Irish Fireside, 1886

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Gaelic literature

General

Early Irish literature Gaelic revival Modern literature in Irish Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
literature Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
Renaissance Manx literature Gaelic script Ogham

Modern

Connacht Irish

Mícheál Breathnach Pádraic Breathnach Tomás de Bhaldraithe Dónall Mac Amhlaigh Liam Mac Con Iomaire Máirtín Ó Cadhain Pádraic Ó Conaire Dara Ó Conaola Mícheál Ó Conghaile Seán Ó Conghaile Máirtín Ó Direáin Liam Ó Flaithearta Diarmuid Ó Gráinne Breandán Ó hEithir Joe Steve Ó Neachtain Patrick Pearse Caitlín Maude Daithí Ó Muirí Doireann Ní Ghríofa

Munster Irish

Amhlaoibh Ó Súilleabháin Bláithín Tomás Ó Criomhthain Peig Sayers Muiris Ó Súilleabháin Máire Mhac an tSaoi Peadar Ó Laoghaire Pádraig Ó Duinnín Pádraig Ó Fiannachta Mícheál Ó Siochfhradha Pádraig Ó Siochfhradha Nuala Ní Dhomhnaill Seán Mac Mathúna Seán Ó Ríordáin Maidhc Dainín Ó Sé Pádraig Tyers

Ulster Irish

Peadar Toner Mac Fhionnlaoich Micí Mac Gabhann Seosamh Mac Grianna Cosslett Ó Cuinn Niall Ó Dónaill Séamus Ó Grianna Brian Ó Nualláin Cathal Ó Searcaigh

Scottish Gaelic

Meg Bateman Aonghas Phàdraig Caimbeul Maoilios Caimbeul Catrìona Lexy Chaimbeul Dòmhnall Ruadh Chorùna Dòmhnall MacAmhlaigh Alasdair mac Mhaighstir Alasdair Donnchadh Bàn Mac an t-Saoir Iain Mac Fhearchair Màiri Mhòr nan Òran Eoghan MacLachlainn Ailein MacDhòmhnaill Somhairle MacGill-Eain Deòrsa Mac Iain Dheòrsa Ruaraidh MacThòmais Iain Mac a' Ghobhainn Aonghas MacNeacail

Related

Celtic literature European literature Literature in the other languages of Britain

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Gaels

General history

Gaelic Ireland High King of Ireland Gaelic Irish kingdoms Dál Riata Alba Nine Years' War Statutes of Iona Flight of the Earls Plantation of Ulster 1641 Rebellion Act for the Settlement of Ireland 1652 Jacobite risings Bliadhna Theàrlaich Penal Laws Great Hunger Irish diaspora Highland Clearances Gaelic Revival Gaeltacht Gàidhealtachd

Gaelic culture

Ogham Brehon law Gaelic mythology Lebor Gabála Érenn Gaelic warfare Gaelic astrology Gaelic kinship Bardic poetry Gaelic literature
Gaelic literature
(Early Irish, Modern Irish, Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
& Manx) Gaelic type Insular script Fáinne Gaelic music Sean-nós song Oireachtas na Gaeilge Am Mòd Gaelic games Highland games Insular Christianity Gaelic Christian mission

Language

Primitive Irish Old Irish Middle Irish Classical Gaelic Irish Manx Scottish Gaelic

Major tribes or clans

Connachta
Connachta
(incl. Uí Néill, Clan Colla, Clan Donald, Uí Maine, etc) Dál gCais
Dál gCais
(incl. Déisi) Eóganachta Érainn (incl. Dál Riata, Corcu Loígde, Clan Conla, Dál Fiatach, etc) Laigin Ulaid
Ulaid
(incl. Dál nAraidi, Conmhaícne, Ciarraige, etc)

Prominent organisations

Údarás na Gaeltachta Foras na Gaeilge Bòrd na Gàidhlig Culture Vannin Conradh na Gaeilge An Comunn Gàidhealach Manx Gaelic Society Seachtain na Gaeilge Gael Linn ULTACH Trust Comunn na Gàidhlig Columba Project Clans of Ireland An Coimisinéir Teanga An Comunn Gàidhealach
An Comunn Gàidhealach
America

Related subjects

Haplogroup R-M269
Haplogroup R-M269
(human genetics) Celts Norse– Gaels
Gaels
(incl. Uí Ímair
Uí Ímair
and Clan MacLeod) Kingdom of the Isles Gaelicisation

Celts
Celts
portal Ireland portal Scotland portal Isle of Man portal Category WikiProject

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National revivals during the 19th century

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