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GSM
GSM
(Global System for Mobile Communications, originally Groupe Spécial Mobile) is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe the protocols for second-generation digital cellular networks used by mobile devices such as tablets, first deployed in Finland
Finland
in December 1991.[2] As of 2014[update], it has become the global standard for mobile communications – with over 90% market share, operating in over 193 countries and territories.[3] 2G networks developed as a replacement for first generation (1G) analog cellular networks, and the GSM
GSM
standard originally described as a digital, circuit-switched network optimized for full duplex voice telephony. This expanded over time to include data communications, first by circuit-switched transport, then by packet data transport via GPRS
GPRS
(General Packet Radio Services) and EDGE
EDGE
(Enhanced Data rates for GSM
GSM
Evolution, or EGPRS). Subsequently, the 3GPP developed third-generation (3G) UMTS
UMTS
standards, followed by fourth-generation (4G) LTE Advanced
LTE Advanced
standards, which do not form part of the ETSI
ETSI
GSM
GSM
standard. "GSM" is a trademark owned by the GSM
GSM
Association. It may also refer to the (initially) most common voice codec used, Full Rate.

Contents

1 History 2 Technical details

2.1 Network structure 2.2 Base station
Base station
subsystem

2.2.1 GSM
GSM
carrier frequencies 2.2.2 Voice codecs

2.3 Subscriber Identity Module
Subscriber Identity Module
(SIM) 2.4 Phone locking

3 GSM
GSM
security 4 Standards information 5 GSM
GSM
open-source software

5.1 Issues with patents and open source

6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

History[edit] In 1983 work began to develop a European standard for digital cellular voice telecommunications when the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) set up the Groupe Spécial Mobile committee and later provided a permanent technical-support group based in Paris. Five years later, in 1987, 15 representatives from 13 European countries signed a memorandum of understanding in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
to develop and deploy a common cellular telephone system across Europe, and EU rules were passed to make GSM
GSM
a mandatory standard.[4] The decision to develop a continental standard eventually resulted in a unified, open, standard-based network which was larger than that in the United States.[5][6][7][8] In February 1987 Europe produced the very first agreed GSM
GSM
Technical Specification. Ministers from the four big EU countries cemented their political support for GSM
GSM
with the Bonn Declaration on Global Information Networks in May and the GSM
GSM
MoU was tabled for signature in September. The MoU drew in mobile operators from across Europe to pledge to invest in new GSM
GSM
networks to an ambitious common date. In this short 38-week period the whole of Europe (countries and industries) had been brought behind GSM
GSM
in a rare unity and speed guided by four public officials: Armin Silberhorn (Germany), Stephen Temple (UK), Philippe Dupuis (France), and Renzo Failli (Italy).[9] In 1989 the Groupe Spécial Mobile committee was transferred from CEPT to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI).[6][7][7][8] In parallel France
France
and Germany
Germany
signed a joint development agreement in 1984 and were joined by Italy
Italy
and the UK in 1986. In 1986, the European Commission
European Commission
proposed reserving the 900 MHz spectrum band for GSM. The former Finnish prime minister Harri Holkeri
Harri Holkeri
made the world's first GSM
GSM
call on July 1, 1991, calling Kaarina Suonio (mayor of the city of Tampere) using a network built by Telenokia and Siemens and operated by Radiolinja.[10] The following year saw the sending of the first short messaging service (SMS or "text message") message, and Vodafone UK
Vodafone UK
and Telecom Finland
Finland
signed the first international roaming agreement. Work began in 1991 to expand the GSM
GSM
standard to the 1800 MHz frequency band and the first 1800 MHz network became operational in the UK by 1993, called and DCS 1800. Also that year, Telecom Australia
Australia
became the first network operator to deploy a GSM
GSM
network outside Europe and the first practical hand-held GSM
GSM
mobile phone became available. In 1995 fax, data and SMS messaging services were launched commercially, the first 1900 MHz GSM
GSM
network became operational in the United States
United States
and GSM
GSM
subscribers worldwide exceeded 10 million. In the same year, the GSM Association
GSM Association
formed. Pre-paid GSM SIM cards were launched in 1996 and worldwide GSM
GSM
subscribers passed 100 million in 1998.[7] In 2000 the first commercial GPRS
GPRS
services were launched and the first GPRS-compatible handsets became available for sale. In 2001, the first UMTS
UMTS
(W-CDMA) network was launched, a 3G technology that is not part of GSM. Worldwide GSM
GSM
subscribers exceeded 500 million. In 2002, the first Multimedia Messaging Service
Multimedia Messaging Service
(MMS) was introduced and the first GSM
GSM
network in the 800 MHz frequency band became operational. EDGE
EDGE
services first became operational in a network in 2003, and the number of worldwide GSM
GSM
subscribers exceeded 1 billion in 2004.[7] By 2005 GSM
GSM
networks accounted for more than 75% of the worldwide cellular network market, serving 1.5 billion subscribers. In 2005, the first HSDPA-capable network also became operational. The first HSUPA network launched in 2007. (High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) and its uplink and downlink versions are 3G technologies, not part of GSM.) Worldwide GSM
GSM
subscribers exceeded three billion in 2008.[7] The GSM Association
GSM Association
estimated in 2010 that technologies defined in the GSM
GSM
standard served 80% of the mobile market, encompassing more than 5 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories, making GSM
GSM
the most ubiquitous of the many standards for cellular networks.[11] GSM
GSM
is a second-generation (2G) standard employing time-division multiple-Access (TDMA) spectrum-sharing, issued by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). The GSM
GSM
standard does not include the 3G Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
(UMTS) code division multiple access (CDMA) technology nor the 4G LTE orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) technology standards issued by the 3GPP.[12] GSM, for the first time, set a common standard for Europe for wireless networks. It was also adopted by many countries outside Europe. This allowed subscribers to use other GSM
GSM
networks that have roaming agreements with each other. The common standard reduced research and development costs, since hardware and software could be sold with only minor adaptations for the local market.[13] Telstra
Telstra
in Australia
Australia
shut down its 2G GSM
GSM
network on December 1, 2016, the first mobile network operator to decommission a GSM
GSM
network.[14] The second mobile provider to shut down its GSM
GSM
network (on January 1, 2017) was AT&T Mobility from the United States.[15] Optus
Optus
in Australia
Australia
completed the shut down its 2G GSM
GSM
network on August 1, 2017, part of the Optus
Optus
GSM
GSM
network covering Western Australia
Australia
and the Northern Territory
Northern Territory
had earlier in the year been shut down in April 2017.[16] Singapore
Singapore
shut down 2G services entirely in April 2017.[17] Technical details[edit]

The structure of a GSM
GSM
network

Main article: GSM
GSM
services Network structure[edit] The network is structured into a number of discrete sections:

Base station subsystem
Base station subsystem
– the base stations and their controllers explained Network and Switching Subsystem – the part of the network most similar to a fixed network, sometimes just called the "core network" GPRS
GPRS
Core Network – the optional part which allows packet-based Internet
Internet
connections Operations support system (OSS) – network maintenance

Base station
Base station
subsystem[edit] Main article: Base station
Base station
subsystem

GSM
GSM
cell site antennas in the Deutsches Museum, Munich, Germany

GSM
GSM
is a cellular network, which means that cell phones connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity. There are five different cell sizes in a GSM
GSM
network—macro, micro, pico, femto, and umbrella cells. The coverage area of each cell varies according to the implementation environment. Macro cells can be regarded as cells where the base station antenna is installed on a mast or a building above average rooftop level. Micro cells are cells whose antenna height is under average rooftop level; they are typically used in urban areas. Picocells are small cells whose coverage diameter is a few dozen meters; they are mainly used indoors. Femtocells are cells designed for use in residential or small business environments and connect to the service provider’s network via a broadband internet connection. Umbrella cells are used to cover shadowed regions of smaller cells and fill in gaps in coverage between those cells. Cell horizontal radius varies depending on antenna height, antenna gain, and propagation conditions from a couple of hundred meters to several tens of kilometres. The longest distance the GSM
GSM
specification supports in practical use is 35 kilometres (22 mi). There are also several implementations of the concept of an extended cell,[18] where the cell radius could be double or even more, depending on the antenna system, the type of terrain, and the timing advance. Indoor coverage is also supported by GSM
GSM
and may be achieved by using an indoor picocell base station, or an indoor repeater with distributed indoor antennas fed through power splitters, to deliver the radio signals from an antenna outdoors to the separate indoor distributed antenna system. These are typically deployed when significant call capacity is needed indoors, like in shopping centers or airports. However, this is not a prerequisite, since indoor coverage is also provided by in-building penetration of the radio signals from any nearby cell. GSM
GSM
carrier frequencies[edit] Main article: GSM
GSM
frequency bands GSM
GSM
networks operate in a number of different carrier frequency ranges (separated into GSM frequency ranges for 2G and UMTS
UMTS
frequency bands for 3G), with most 2G GSM
GSM
networks operating in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands. Where these bands were already allocated, the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands were used instead (for example in Canada
Canada
and the United States). In rare cases the 400 and 450 MHz frequency bands are assigned in some countries because they were previously used for first-generation systems. For comparison most 3G networks in Europe operate in the 2100 MHz frequency band. For more information on worldwide GSM
GSM
frequency usage, see GSM
GSM
frequency bands. Regardless of the frequency selected by an operator, it is divided into timeslots for individual phones. This allows eight full-rate or sixteen half-rate speech channels per radio frequency. These eight radio timeslots (or burst periods) are grouped into a TDMA frame. Half-rate channels use alternate frames in the same timeslot. The channel data rate for all 8 channels is 270.833 kbit/s, and the frame duration is 4.615 ms. The transmission power in the handset is limited to a maximum of 2 watts in GSM
GSM
850/900 and 1 watt in GSM
GSM
1800/1900. Voice codecs[edit] GSM
GSM
has used a variety of voice codecs to squeeze 3.1 kHz audio into between 6.5 and 13 kbit/s. Originally, two codecs, named after the types of data channel they were allocated, were used, called Half Rate (6.5 kbit/s) and Full Rate (13 kbit/s). These used a system based on linear predictive coding (LPC). In addition to being efficient with bitrates, these codecs also made it easier to identify more important parts of the audio, allowing the air interface layer to prioritize and better protect these parts of the signal. GSM
GSM
was further enhanced in 1997[19] with the enhanced full rate (EFR) codec, a 12.2 kbit/s codec that uses a full-rate channel. Finally, with the development of UMTS, EFR was refactored into a variable-rate codec called AMR-Narrowband, which is high quality and robust against interference when used on full-rate channels, or less robust but still relatively high quality when used in good radio conditions on half-rate channel. Subscriber Identity Module
Subscriber Identity Module
(SIM)[edit] Main article: Subscriber Identity Module One of the key features of GSM
GSM
is the Subscriber Identity Module, commonly known as a SIM card. The SIM is a detachable smart card containing the user's subscription information and phone book. This allows the user to retain his or her information after switching handsets. Alternatively, the user can change operators while retaining the handset simply by changing the SIM. Some operators will block this by allowing the phone to use only a single SIM, or only a SIM issued by them; this practice is known as SIM locking. Phone locking[edit] Main article: SIM lock Sometimes mobile network operators restrict handsets that they sell for use with their own network. This is called locking and is implemented by a software feature of the phone. A subscriber may usually contact the provider to remove the lock for a fee, utilize private services to remove the lock, or use software and websites to unlock the handset themselves. It is possible to hack past a phone locked by a network operator. In some countries (e.g., Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Iran, Lebanon, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Poland, Singapore, South Africa, Thailand) all phones are sold unlocked.[20] GSM
GSM
security[edit] GSM
GSM
was intended to be a secure wireless system. It has considered the user authentication using a pre-shared key and challenge-response, and over-the-air encryption. However, GSM
GSM
is vulnerable to different types of attack, each of them aimed at a different part of the network.[21] The development of UMTS
UMTS
introduced an optional Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM), that uses a longer authentication key to give greater security, as well as mutually authenticating the network and the user, whereas GSM
GSM
only authenticates the user to the network (and not vice versa). The security model therefore offers confidentiality and authentication, but limited authorization capabilities, and no non-repudiation. GSM
GSM
uses several cryptographic algorithms for security. The A5/1, A5/2, and A5/3 stream ciphers are used for ensuring over-the-air voice privacy. A5/1
A5/1
was developed first and is a stronger algorithm used within Europe and the United States; A5/2 is weaker and used in other countries. Serious weaknesses have been found in both algorithms: it is possible to break A5/2 in real-time with a ciphertext-only attack, and in January 2007, The Hacker's Choice started the A5/1
A5/1
cracking project with plans to use FPGAs that allow A5/1
A5/1
to be broken with a rainbow table attack.[22] The system supports multiple algorithms so operators may replace that cipher with a stronger one. Since 2000 different efforts have been made in order to crack the A5 encryption algorithms. Both A5/1
A5/1
and A5/2 algorithms have been broken, and their cryptanalysis has been revealed in the literature. As an example, Karsten Nohl (de) developed a number of rainbow tables (static values which reduce the time needed to carry out an attack) and have found new sources for known plaintext attacks.[23] He said that it is possible to build "a full GSM
GSM
interceptor...from open-source components" but that they had not done so because of legal concerns.[24] Nohl claimed that he was able to intercept voice and text conversations by impersonating another user to listen to voicemail, make calls, or send text messages using a seven-year-old Motorola
Motorola
cellphone and decryption software available for free online.[25] GSM
GSM
uses General Packet Radio Service
General Packet Radio Service
(GPRS) for data transmissions like browsing the web. The most commonly deployed GPRS
GPRS
ciphers were publicly broken in 2011.[26] The researchers revealed flaws in the commonly used GEA/1 and GEA/2 ciphers and published the open-source "gprsdecode" software for sniffing GPRS
GPRS
networks. They also noted that some carriers do not encrypt the data (i.e., using GEA/0) in order to detect the use of traffic or protocols they do not like (e.g., Skype), leaving customers unprotected. GEA/3 seems to remain relatively hard to break and is said to be in use on some more modern networks. If used with USIM to prevent connections to fake base stations and downgrade attacks, users will be protected in the medium term, though migration to 128-bit GEA/4 is still recommended. Standards information[edit] The GSM
GSM
systems and services are described in a set of standards governed by ETSI, where a full list is maintained.[27] GSM
GSM
open-source software[edit] Several open-source software projects exist that provide certain GSM features:

gsmd daemon by Openmoko[28] OpenBTS
OpenBTS
develops a Base transceiver station The GSM
GSM
Software Project aims to build a GSM
GSM
analyzer for less than $1,000[29] OsmocomBB
OsmocomBB
developers intend to replace the proprietary baseband GSM stack with a free software implementation[30] YateBTS develops a Base transceiver station
Base transceiver station
[31]

Issues with patents and open source[edit] Patents remain a problem for any open-source GSM
GSM
implementation, because it is not possible for GNU or any other free software distributor to guarantee immunity from all lawsuits by the patent holders against the users. Furthermore, new features are being added to the standard all the time which means they have patent protection for a number of years.[citation needed] The original GSM
GSM
implementations from 1991 may now be entirely free of patent encumbrances, however patent freedom is not certain due to the United States' "first to invent" system that was in place until 2012. The "first to invent" system, coupled with "patent term adjustment" can extend the life of a U.S. patent far beyond 20 years from its priority date. It is unclear at this time whether OpenBTS
OpenBTS
will be able to implement features of that initial specification without limit. As patents subsequently expire, however, those features can be added into the open-source version. As of 2011, there have been no lawsuits against users of OpenBTS
OpenBTS
over GSM
GSM
use.[citation needed] See also[edit]

Cellular network Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) Enhanced Network Selection (ENS) GSM
GSM
forwarding standard features codes – list of call forward codes working with all operators and phones GSM
GSM
frequency bands GSM
GSM
services

Cell Broadcast GSM
GSM
localization Multimedia Messaging Service
Multimedia Messaging Service
(MMS) NITZ Network Identity and Time Zone Wireless Application Protocol
Wireless Application Protocol
(WAP)

GSM-R
GSM-R
(GSM-Railway) GSM
GSM
USSD codes – Unstructured Supplementary Service Data: list of all standard GSM
GSM
codes for network and SIM related functions Handoff High-Speed Downlink Packet Access
High-Speed Downlink Packet Access
(HSDPA) International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) Long Term Evolution (LTE) MSISDN Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number Nordic Mobile Telephone
Nordic Mobile Telephone
(NMT) ORFS Personal communications network (PCN) RTP audio video profile Simulation of GSM
GSM
networks Standards

Comparison of mobile phone standards GEO-Mobile Radio Interface GSM 02.07 - Cellphone features GSM 03.48 – Security mechanisms for the SIM application toolkit Intelligent Network Parlay X RRLP – Radio Resource Location Protocol

Um interface Visitors Location Register (VLR)

References[edit]

^ Sauter, Martin (21 Nov 2013). "The GSM
GSM
Logo: The Mystery of the 4 Dots Solved". Retrieved 23 Nov 2013. [...] here's what [Yngve Zetterstrom, rapporteur of the Maketing and Planning (MP) group of the MoU (Memorandum of Understanding group, later to become the GSM Association (GSMA)) in 1989] had to say to solve the mystery: '[The dots symbolize] three [clients] in the home network and one roaming client.' There you go, an answer from the prime source!  ^ Anton A. Huurdeman, The Worldwide History of Telecommunications, John Wiley & Sons, 31 juli 2003, page 529 ^ " GSM
GSM
Global system for Mobile Communications". 4G Americas. Archived from the original on 8 February 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-22.  ^ EU Seeks To End Mandatory GSM
GSM
for 900Mhz - Source ^ Leader (7 September 2007). "Happy 20th Birthday, GSM". zdnet.co.uk. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on 5 May 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011. Before GSM, Europe had a disastrous mishmash of national analogue standards in phones and TV, designed to protect national industries but instead creating fragmented markets vulnerable to big guns from abroad.  ^ a b "GSM". etsi.org. European Telecommunications Standards Institute. 2011. Archived from the original on 5 May 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011. GSM
GSM
was designed principally for voice telephony, but a range of bearer services was defined...allowing circuit-switched data connections at up to 9600 bits/s.  ^ a b c d e f "History". gsmworld.com. GSM
GSM
Association. 2001. Archived from the original on 5 May 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 1982 Groupe Speciale Mobile (GSM) is formed by the Confederation of European Posts and Telecommunications (CEPT) to design a pan-European mobile technology.  ^ a b "Cellular History". etsi.org. European Telecommunications Standards Institute. 2011. Archived from the original on 5 May 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011. The task was entrusted to a committee known as Groupe Spécial Mobile (GSMTM), aided by a "permanent nucleus" of technical support personnel, based in Paris.  ^ "Who created GSM?". Stephen Temple. Retrieved 7 April 2013. Before GSM, Europe had a disastrous mishmash of national analogue standards in phones and TV, designed to protect national industries but instead creating fragmented markets vulnerable to big guns from abroad.  ^ "Maailman ensimmäinen GSM-puhelu" [World's first GSM
GSM
call]. yle.fi. Yelisradio OY. 22 February 2008. Archived from the original on 5 May 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011. Harri Holkeri
Harri Holkeri
made the first call on the Radiolinja (Elisa's subsidiary) network, at the opening ceremony in Helsinki on 07.01.1991.  ^ " GSM
GSM
World statistics". gsmworld.com. GSM
GSM
Association. 2010. Archived from the original on 21 May 2010. Retrieved 8 June 2010.  ^ "Mobile technologies GSM". Retrieved 7 November 2013.  ^ Martin Sauter (23 June 2014). From GSM
GSM
to LTE-Advanced : An Introduction to Mobile Networks and Mobile Broadband (Second ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated. ISBN 9781118861929.  ^ " Telstra
Telstra
switches off GSM
GSM
network". TeleGeography. 2016-12-02. Retrieved 2016-12-02.  ^ bmobile in Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
shut down it's 2G GSM
GSM
network in December 2017. "2G Sunset" (PDF). ATT Mobility. Retrieved 10 August 2016.  ^ " Optus
Optus
to complete 2G network turn off". Optus. 2017-08-01. Retrieved 2017-08-01.  ^ "Joint Media Release by IMDA, M1, Singtel & StarHub: 2G services to cease on 1 April 2017". M1. 2017-03-27. Retrieved 2017-10-22.  ^ Motorola
Motorola
Demonstrates Long Range GSM
GSM
Capability – 300% More Coverage With New Extended Cell. Archived 19 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " GSM
GSM
06.51 version 4.0.1" (ZIP). ETSI. December 1997. Retrieved 5 September 2007.  ^ Victoria Shannon (2007). "iPhone Must Be Offered Without Contract Restrictions, German Court Rules". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 February 2011.  ^ Solutions to the GSM
GSM
Security Weaknesses, Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Next Generation Mobile Applications, Services, and Technologies (NGMAST2008), pp.576–581, Cardiff, UK, September 2008, arXiv:1002.3175 ^ Steve. "The A5/1
A5/1
Cracking Project". scribd.com. Retrieved 3 November 2011.  ^ Kevin J. O'Brien (28 December 2009). "Cellphone Encryption Code Is Divulged". New York Times.  ^ " A5/1
A5/1
Cracking Project". Archived from the original on 25 December 2009. Retrieved 30 December 2009.  ^ Owano, Nancy (27 December 2011). " GSM
GSM
phones -- call them unsafe, says security expert". Archived from the original on 28 December 2011. Retrieved 27 Dec 2011. Nohl said that he was able to intercept voice and text conversations by impersonating another user to listen to their voice mails or make calls or send text messages. Even more troubling was that he was able to pull this off using a seven-year-old Motorola
Motorola
cellphone and decryption software available free off the Internet.  ^ "Codebreaker Karsten Nohl: Why Your Phone Is Insecure By Design". Forbes.com. 12 August 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2011.  ^ " GSM
GSM
UMTS
UMTS
3GPP Numbering Cross Reference". ETSI. Retrieved 30 December 2009.  ^ "Gsmd – Openmoko". Wiki.openmoko.org. 8 February 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2010.  ^ "The Hacker's Choice Wiki". Retrieved 30 August 2010.  ^ "OsmocomBB". Bb.osmocom.org. Retrieved 22 April 2010.  ^ "YateBTS". Legba Inc. Retrieved 30 October 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

Redl, Siegmund M.; Weber, Matthias K.; Oliphant, Malcolm W (February 1995). An Introduction to GSM. Artech House. ISBN 978-0-89006-785-7.  Redl, Siegmund M.; Weber, Matthias K.; Oliphant, Malcolm W (April 1998). GSM
GSM
and Personal Communications Handbook. Artech House Mobile Communications Library. Artech House. ISBN 978-0-89006-957-8.  Hillebrand, Friedhelm, ed. (December 2001). GSM
GSM
and UMTS, The Creation of Global Mobile Communications. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-84322-2.  Mouly, Michel; Pautet, Marie-Bernardette (June 2002). The GSM
GSM
System for Mobile Communications. Telecom Publishing. ISBN 978-0-945592-15-0.  Salgues, Salgues B. (April 1997). Les télécoms mobiles GSM
GSM
DCS. Hermes (2nd ed.). Hermes Sciences Publications. ISBN 2866016068. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to GSM
GSM
Standard.

GSM
GSM
Association—Official industry trade group representing GSM network operators worldwide 3GPP—3G GSM
GSM
standards development group LTE-3GPP.info: online GSM
GSM
messages decoder fully supporting all 3GPP releases from early GSM
GSM
to latest 5G

v t e

Cellular network
Cellular network
standards

List of mobile phone generations

0G (radio telephones)

MTS MTA - MTB - MTC - MTD IMTS AMTS OLT Autoradiopuhelin B-Netz Altai AMR

1G (1985)

AMPS family

AMPS (TIA/EIA/IS-3, ANSI/TIA/EIA-553) N-AMPS (TIA/EIA/IS-91) TACS ETACS

Other

NMT C-450 Hicap Mobitex DataTAC

2G (1992)

GSM/ 3GPP family

GSM CSD HSCSD

3GPP2 family

cdmaOne (TIA/EIA/ IS-95
IS-95
and ANSI-J-STD 008)

AMPS family

D-AMPS ( IS-54 and IS-136)

Other

CDPD iDEN PDC PHS

2G transitional (2.5G, 2.75G)

GSM/ 3GPP family

GPRS EDGE/E GPRS
GPRS
(UWC-136/136HS/TDMA-EDGE)

3GPP2 family

CDMA2000
CDMA2000
1X (TIA/EIA/IS-2000) CDMA2000
CDMA2000
1X Advanced

Other

WiDEN DECT

3G (2003)

3GPP family

UMTS

UTRA-FDD / W-CDMA UTRA-TDD LCR / TD-SCDMA UTRA-TDD HCR / TD-CDMA

3GPP2 family

CDMA2000
CDMA2000
1xEV-DO Release 0 (TIA/IS-856)

3G transitional (3.5G, 3.75G, 3.9G)

3GPP family

HSPA

HSDPA HSUPA

HSPA+ LTE (E-UTRA)

3GPP2 family

CDMA2000
CDMA2000
1xEV-DO Revision A (TIA/EIA/IS-856-A) EV-DO Revision B (TIA/EIA/IS-856-B) EV-DO Revision C

IEEE family

Mobile WiMAX

IEEE 802.16e

Flash-OFDM iBurst

IEEE 802.20

4G (2013) (IMT Advanced)

3GPP family

LTE Advanced
LTE Advanced
(E-UTRA) LTE Advanced
LTE Advanced
Pro (4.5G Pro/pre-5G/4.9G)

IEEE family

WiMAX
WiMAX
(IEEE 802.16m)

WiMax 2.1 (LTE-TDD)

5G (2020) (IMT-2020) (Under development)

LTE

 

5G-NR

 

Related articles

Cellular networks Mobile telephony History List of standards Comparison of standards Channel access methods Spectral efficiency comparison table Cellular frequencies (Bands: GSM UMTS LTE) Mobile broadband NGMN Alliance MIMO VoLTE

v t e

Channel access methods and Media access control

Channel-based

FDMA

OFDMA WDMA SC-FDMA

TDMA

MF-TDMA STDMA

CDMA

W-CDMA TD-CDMA TD-SCDMA DS-CDMA FH-CDMA MC-CDMA

SDMA

HC-SDMA

PDMA

PAMA

Packet-based

Collision recovery

ALOHA Slotted ALOHA R-ALOHA AX.25

Collision avoidance

MACA MACAW CSMA CSMA/CD CSMA/CA DCF PCF HCF CSMA/CARP

Collision-free

Token ring Token bus MS-ALOHA

Delay & disruption tolerant

MANET VANET DTN Dynamic Source Routing

Duplexing methods

TDD FDD

v t e

Telecommunications

History

Beacon Broadcasting Cable protection system Cable TV Communications satellite Computer network Drums Electrical telegraph Fax Heliographs Hydraulic telegraph Internet Mass media Mobile phone Optical telecommunication Optical telegraphy Pager Photophone Prepay mobile phone Radio Radiotelephone Satellite communications Semaphore Smartphone Smoke signals Telecommunications history Telautograph Telegraphy Teleprinter
Teleprinter
(teletype) Telephone The Telephone Cases Television Timeline of communication technology Undersea telegraph line Videoconferencing Videophone Videotelephony Whistled language

Pioneers

Edwin Howard Armstrong John Logie Baird Paul Baran Alexander Graham Bell Tim Berners-Lee Jagadish Chandra Bose Vint Cerf Claude Chappe Donald Davies Lee de Forest Philo Farnsworth Reginald Fessenden Elisha Gray Erna Schneider Hoover Charles K. Kao Hedy Lamarr Innocenzo Manzetti Guglielmo Marconi Antonio Meucci Radia Perlman Alexander Stepanovich Popov Johann Philipp Reis Nikola Tesla Camille Tissot Alfred Vail Charles Wheatstone Vladimir K. Zworykin

Transmission media

Coaxial cable Fiber-optic communication

Optical fiber

Free-space optical communication Molecular communication Radio waves Transmission line

Network topology and switching

Links Nodes Terminal node Network switching (circuit packet) Telephone exchange

Multiplexing

Space-division Frequency-division Time-division Polarization-division Orbital angular-momentum Code-division

Networks

ARPANET BITNET Cellular network Computer CYCLADES Ethernet FidoNet Internet ISDN LAN Mobile NGN NPL network Public Switched Telephone Radio Telecommunications equipment Television Telex WAN Wireless World Wide Web

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