In the United States, Geospatial intelligence, GEOINT (GEOspatial INTelligence) is intelligence about the human activity on earth derived from the exploitation and analysis of imagery and geospatial information that describes, assesses, and visually depicts physical features and geographically referenced activities on the Earth. GEOINT, as defined in US Code, consists of imagery, imagery intelligence (IMINT) and geospatial information. GEOINT knowledge and related tradecraft is no longer confined to the U.S. government (IC), or even the world’s leading military powers. Additionally, countries such as India are holding GEOINT-specific conferences. While other countries may define geospatial intelligence somewhat differently than does the U.S., the use of GEOINT data and services is the same.
1 Amplified definition 2 Principles 3 Geospatial data, information, and knowledge 4 Relationship to other "INTs" 5 Other factors 6 De facto definition 7 GEOINT Agencies 8 US Service Fusion/GEOINT Centers 9 GEOINT Units 10 See also 11 References 12 External links
GEOINT encompasses all aspects of imagery (including capabilities formerly referred to as Advanced Geospatial Intelligence and imagery-derived MASINT) and geospatial information and services (GI&S); formerly referred to as mapping, charting, and geodesy). It includes, but is not limited to, data ranging from the ultraviolet through the microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, as well as information derived from the analysis of literal imagery; geospatial data; georeferenced social media; and information technically derived from the processing, exploitation, literal, and non-literal analysis of spectral, spatial, temporal, radiometric, phase history, polarimetric data, fused products (products created out of two or more data sources), and the ancillary data needed for data processing and exploitation, and signature information (to include development, validation, simulation, data archival, and dissemination). These types of data can be collected on stationary and moving targets by electro-optical (to include IR, MWIR, SWIR TIR, Spectral, MSI, HSI, HD), SAR (to include MTI), related sensor programs (both active and passive) and non-technical means (to include geospatial information acquired by personnel in the field).
Geospatial Intelligence, or the frequently used term GEOINT, is
an intelligence discipline comprising the exploitation and analysis of
geospatial data and information to describe, assess, and visually
depict physical features (both natural and constructed) and
geographically referenced activities on the Earth. Geospatial
Intelligence data sources include imagery and mapping data, whether
collected by commercial satellite, government satellite, aircraft
(such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles [UAV] or reconnaissance aircraft),
or by other means, such as maps and commercial databases, census
GEOINT, rooted in the geospatial sciences, geospatial technologies and critical geospatial thinking, seeks knowledge to achieve a decision advantage. Analysis occurs as a natural human to technical to human sequence of events. GEOINT reveals how human intent is constrained by the physical landscape and human perceptions of Earth. GEOINT seeks to anticipate patterns of life through time. Data and technical systems used by analysts are human creations and reflect human biases.
Geospatial data, information, and knowledge
It should be noted that the definitions and usage of the terms
geospatial data, geospatial information, and geospatial knowledge are
not consistent or unambiguous, further exacerbating the situation.
Geospatial data can (usually) be applied to the output of a collector
or collection system before it is processed, i.e., data that was
Geospatial Information is geospatial data that has been
processed or had value added to it by a human or machine process.
Geospatial knowledge is a structuring of geospatial information,
accompanied by an interpretation or analysis. The terms Data,
Information, Knowledge and Wisdom (DIKW pyramid) are difficult to
define, but cannot be used interchangeably.
Generally, geospatial intelligence can be more readily defined as,
data, information, and knowledge gathered about entities that can be
referenced to a particular location on, above, or below the earth's
surface. The intelligence gathering method can include imagery,
signals, measurements and signatures, and human sources, i.e., IMINT,
SIGINT, MASINT, and HUMINT, as long as a geo-location can be
associated with the intelligence.
Relationship to other "INTs"
Thus, rather than being a peer to the other "INTs", geospatial
intelligence might better be viewed as the unifying structure of the
earth's natural and constructed features (including elevations and
depths)—whether as individual layers in a GIS or as composited into
a map or chart, imagery representations of the earth, AND, the
presentation of the existence of data, information, and knowledge
derived from analysis of IMINT, SIGINT, MASINT, HUMINT, and other
intelligence sources and disciplines.
It has been suggested that GEOINT is just a new term used to identify
a broad range of outputs from intelligence organizations that use a
variety of existing spatial skills and disciplines including
photogrammetry, cartography, imagery analysis, remote sensing, and
terrain analysis. However, GEOINT is more than the sum of these parts.
Spatial thinking as applied in
Geospatial Intelligence can synthesize
any intelligence or other data that can be conceptualized in a
geographic spatial context.
Geospatial Intelligence can be derived
entirely independent of any satellite or aerial imagery and can be
clearly differentiated from
Geospatial Intelligence is a field of knowledge, a process, and a profession. As knowledge, it is information integrated in a coherent space-time context that supports descriptions, explanations, or forecasts of human activities with which decision makers take action. As a process, it is the means by which data and information are collected, manipulated, geospatially reasoned, and disseminated to decision-makers. The geospatial intelligence profession establishes the scope of activities, interdisciplinary associations, competencies, and standards in academe, government, and the private sectors.
This has been suggested as an operational definition of Geospatial Intelligence which might use the moniker of GeoIntel so as to distinguish it from the more restrictive definition offered in U.S. Code Title 10, §467. GEOINT Agencies
Australian Geospatial-Intelligence Organisation (AGO)
formerly known as Defence Imagery and
Geospatial Organisation (DIGO)
European Union Satellite Centre
US Service Fusion/GEOINT Centers
Geospatial Center (AGC)
National Air and Space Intelligence Center
Australian Army: 1st Topographical Survey Squadron (1 TOPO SVY
SQN) (Homeland Security: Army Spatial Information Capabilities)
United States Army:
United States Army
Dino A. Brugioni – pioneer of imagery intelligence (now called
^ "10 U.S.C. § 467 : US Code - Section 467: Definitions". ^ United States Geospatial Intelligence Foundation (USGIF), 2016 State of GEOINT Report. Feb 2016, p. 16 ^ Memorandum for Principal Director of National Intelligence, Deputy Director of National Intelligence for Collection, from James R. Clapper, Lieutenant General, USAF (Ret.), Director [NGA] 17 October 2005, gwg.nga.mil ^ Murdock, Darryl; Tomes, Robert; Tucker, Chris, eds. (16 September 2014). "Human Geography: Socio-Cultural Dynamics and Challenges to Global Security". USGIF – via Amazon. ^ http://strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/parameters/Issues/Summer_2015/9_Tomes.pdf ^ http://www.acq.osd.mil/dsb/reports/ADA495025.pdf ^ Masback, Keith (2010) GIF 2010 Volume: 8 Issue: 6 (September) ^ Priorities for GEOINT Research at the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, The National Academies Press, 2006, P. 9 ^ "Pathfinder Archive". ^ "Defining 'First Principles' of Geospatial Intelligence « Earth Imaging Journal: Remote Sensing, Satellite Images, Satellite Imagery". ^ Bacastow, Todd S. (2010). The Learner's Guide to Geospatial Analysis. Dutton Education Institute, Penn State University. ^ Bridges, Donna M. (2010). A Structured Geospatial Analytic Method and Pedagogy for the Intelligence Community. International Association of Law Enforcement Intelligence Analysts (IALEIA) Journal. 19 (1). ^ Bacastow, T.S. and Bellafiore, D.J. (2009). Redefining geospatial intelligence. American Intelligence Journal. Pp 38-40 ^ "Events.oesr.qld.gov.au" (PDF). ^ SMDC.army.mil Archived 2011-07-28 at the Wayback Machine. ^ I-mef.usmc.mil Archived 2009-03-29 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Iimefpublic.usmc.mil Archived 2008-12-07 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Iiimef.usmc.mil". Archived from the original on 2009-03-28.
@52.832005.2.3278 External links
DGI - Defence
Geospatial Intelligence Conference
GEOINT Symposium 2008
GEOINT Symposium 2007
GEOINT Symposium 2006
GEOINT Symposium 2005
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
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United States tri-service Q-series UAV designations post-1962
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1 Not assigned Drones designated in missile sequence
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Asset Black operation
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One-way voice link Resident spy Steganography Surveillance
By alliances, nations and industries In modern history Operational platforms by nation Direction finding Traffic analysis TEMPEST
Measurement and signature (MASINT)
Electro-optical Geophysical Nuclear Radar Radiofrequency Materials Casualty estimation (earthquake)
Cultural (CULTINT) Financial (FININT) Geospatial (GEOINT) Imagery (IMINT) Market (MARKINT) Open-source (OSINT) Technical (TECHINT)
Cognitive traps Competing hypotheses Target-centric Words of estimative probability
Intelligence cycle security Counterintelligence