The Group of Seven or G7 is a group consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. These countries, with the 7 largest advanced economies in the world,[1] represent more than 62% of the global net wealth ($280 trillion)[2]. The G7 countries also represent 46% of the global nominal GDP evaluated at market exchange rates and 32% of the global purchasing power parity GDP.[3] The European Union is also represented at the G7 summit.

The 43rd G7 summit was held in Taormina (ME), Italy in May 2017.


Flags of G7 members as seen on University Avenue (Toronto).
G7 leaders during the 2014 emergency meeting about the Russian annexation of Crimea, hosted by the Netherlands.

The concept of a forum for the world's major industrialized countries emerged prior to the 1973 oil crisis. On Sunday, 25 March 1973, the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, George Shultz, convened an informal gathering of finance ministers from West Germany (Helmut Schmidt), France (Valéry Giscard d'Estaing), and the United Kingdom (Anthony Barber) before an upcoming meeting in Washington, D.C.. When running the idea past President Nixon, he noted that he would be out of town and offered use of the White House; the meeting was subsequently held in the library on the ground floor.[4] Taking their name from the setting, this original group of four became known as the "Library Group".[5] In mid-1973, at the World Bank-IMF meetings, Shultz proposed the addition of Japan to the original four nations, who agreed.[6] The informal gathering of senior financial officials from the United States, the United Kingdom, West Germany, Japan, and France became known as the "Group of Five"[7]

Later, a 1975 summit hosted by France brought together representatives of six governments: France, West Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, Schmidt and Giscard d'Estaing were heads of government in their respective countries, and since they both spoke fluent English, it occurred to them that they, and British Prime Minister Harold Wilson and U.S. President Gerald Ford could get together in an informal retreat and discuss election results and the issues of the day. In late spring, d'Estaing of France invited the heads of government from West Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States to a summit in Château de Rambouillet[8]; the annual meeting of the six leaders was organized under a rotating presidency, forming the Group of Six (G6). In 1976, with Wilson out as prime minister of Britain, Schmidt and Gerald Ford felt an English speaker with more experience was needed, so Canada's Pierre Trudeau was invited to join the group[9] and the group became the Group of Seven (G7)[8]. Since first invited by the United Kingdom in 1977 the European Union has been represented by the president of the European Commission, and the leader of the country that holds the presidency of the Council of the European Union[10] and the Council President now also regularly attends.

Until the 1985 Plaza Accord no one outside a tight official circle knew when the seven finance ministers met and what they agreed. The summit was announced the day before and a communiqué was issued afterwards.[11]

Following 1994's G7 summit in Naples, Russian officials held separate meetings with leaders of the G7 after the group's summits. This informal arrangement was dubbed the Political 8 (P8) – or, colloquially, the G7+1. At the invitation of Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair and President of the United States Bill Clinton,[12] Russian President Boris Yeltsin was invited first as a guest observer, later as a full participant. After the 1997 meeting Russia was formally invited to the next meeting and formally joined the group in 1998, resulting in a new governmental political forum, the Group of Eight or G8.[8] Russia in fact had and has limited net national wealth and financial weight, compared to the other members of the forum G7. Russia also hasn't ever been a major advanced economy according to IMF.[13][14] However Russia was ejected from the G8 political forum in March 2014 following the Russian annexation of Crimea.[15]

Early function

The organization was founded to facilitate shared macroeconomic initiatives by its members in response to the collapse of the exchange rate 1971, during the time of the Nixon Shock, the 1970s energy crisis and the ensuing recession.[16]


Host venues of G7 summits in North America
Host venues of G7 summits in Europe
Host venues of G7 summits in Japan

Since 1975, the group meets annually on summit site to discuss economic policies; since 1987, the G7 Finance Ministers have met at least semi-annually, up to 4 times a year at stand-alone meetings.[17]

In 1996, the G7 launched an initiative for the 42 heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC).[18]

In 1999, the G7 decided to get more directly involved in "managing the international monetary system" through the Financial Stability Forum, formed earlier in 1999 and the G-20, established following the summit, to "promote dialogue between major industrial and emerging market countries".[19] The G7 also announced their plan to cancel 90% of bilateral, and multilateral debt for the HIPC, totaling $100 billion. In 2005 the G7 announced debt reductions of "up to 100%" to be negotiated on a "case by case" basis.[20]

In 2008 the G7 met twice in Washington, D.C. to discuss the global financial crisis of 2007–2008[21] and in February 2009 in Rome.[22][23] The group of finance ministers pledged to take "all necessary steps" to stem the crisis.[24]

On 2 March 2014, the G7 condemned the "Russian Federation's violation of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine."[25] The G7 stated "that the International Monetary Fund (IMF) remains the institution best prepared to help Ukraine address its immediate economic challenges through policy advice and financing, conditioned on needed reforms", and that the G7 was "committed to mobilize rapid technical assistance to support Ukraine in addressing its macroeconomic, regulatory and anti-corruption challenges."[25] On 24 March 2014, the G7 convened an emergency meeting in response to the Russian Federation's annexation of Crimea at the official residence of the Prime Minister of the Netherlands, the Catshuis in The Hague. This location was chosen because all G7 leaders were already present to attend the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit hosted by the Netherlands. This was the first G7 meeting neither taking place in a member nation nor having the host leader participating in the meeting.[26] On 4 June 2014 leaders at the G7 summit in Brussels, condemned Moscow for its "continuing violation" of Ukraine's sovereignty, in their joint statement and stated they were prepared to impose further sanctions on Russia.[27] This meeting was the first since Russia was expelled from the group G8 following its annexation of Crimea in March.[27]

The annual G7 leaders summit is attended by the heads of government.[28] The member country holding the G7 presidency is responsible for organizing and hosting the year's summit. The serial annual summits can be parsed chronologically in arguably distinct ways, including as the sequence of host countries for the summits has recurred over time and series.[29] Generally every country hosts summit every 7 years.[30]

List of summits

Date Host Host leader Location held Website Notes
1st 15–17 November 1975  France Valéry Giscard d'Estaing Château de Rambouillet, District of the Paris Region G6 Summit
2nd 27–28 June 1976  United States Gerald R. Ford Dorado, Puerto Rico[31] Also called "Rambouillet II". Canada joined the group, forming the G7[31]
3rd 7–8 May 1977  United Kingdom James Callaghan London, England The President of the European Commission was invited to join the annual G7 summits
4th 16–17 July 1978  West Germany Helmut Schmidt Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia
5th 28–29 June 1979  Japan Masayoshi Ōhira Tokyo
6th 22–23 June 1980  Italy Francesco Cossiga Venice, Veneto Prime Minister Ōhira died in office on 12 June; Foreign Minister Saburō Ōkita led the delegation which represented Japan.
7th 20–21 July 1981  Canada Pierre E. Trudeau Montebello, Quebec
8th 4–6 June 1982  France François Mitterrand Versailles, Île-de-France
9th 28–30 May 1983  United States Ronald Reagan Williamsburg, Virginia
10th 7–9 June 1984  United Kingdom Margaret Thatcher London, England
11th 2–4 May 1985  West Germany Helmut Kohl Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia
12th 4–6 May 1986  Japan Yasuhiro Nakasone Tokyo
13th 8–10 June 1987  Italy Amintore Fanfani Venice, Veneto
14th 19–21 June 1988  Canada Brian Mulroney Toronto, Ontario
15th 14–16 July 1989  France François Mitterrand Paris, Île-de-France
16th 9–11 July 1990  United States George H. W. Bush Houston, Texas
17th 15–17 July 1991  United Kingdom John Major London, England
18th 6–8 July 1992  Germany Helmut Kohl Munich, Bavaria
19th 7–9 July 1993  Japan Kiichi Miyazawa Tokyo
20th 8–10 July 1994  Italy Silvio Berlusconi Naples, Campania
21st 15–17 June 1995  Canada Jean Chrétien Halifax, Nova Scotia [32]
22nd 27–29 June 1996  France Jacques Chirac Lyon, Rhône-Alpes International organizations' debut to G7 Summits periodically. The invited ones here were: United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization.[33]
23rd 20–22 June 1997  United States Bill Clinton Denver, Colorado [34] Russia joins the group, forming G8
24th 15–17 May 1998  United Kingdom Tony Blair Birmingham, West Midlands [35]
25th 18–20 June 1999  Germany Gerhard Schröder Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia [36] First Summit of the G-20 major economies at Berlin
26th 21–23 July 2000  Japan Yoshiro Mori Nago, Okinawa [37] Formation of the G8+5 starts, when South Africa was invited. Until the 38th G8 summit in 2012, it has been invited to the Summit annually without interruption. Also, with permission from a G8 leader, other nations were invited to the Summit on a periodical basis for the first time. Nigeria, Algeria and Senegal accepted their invitations here. The World Health Organization was also invited for the first time.[33]
27th 20–22 July 2001  Italy Silvio Berlusconi Genoa, Liguria [38] Leaders from Bangladesh, Mali and El Salvador accepted their invitations here.[33] Demonstrator Carlo Giuliani is shot and killed by police during a violent demonstration. One of the largest and most violent anti-globalization movement protests occurred for the 27th G8 summit.[39] Following those events and the September 11 attacks two months later in 2001, the G8 have met at more remote locations.
28th 26–27 June 2002  Canada Jean Chrétien Kananaskis, Alberta [40] Russia gains permission to officially host a G8 Summit.
29th 2–3 June 2003  France Jacques Chirac Évian-les-Bains, Rhône-Alpes The G8+5 was unofficially made, when China, India, Brazil, and Mexico were invited to this Summit for the first time. South Africa has joined the G8 Summit, since 2000, until the 2012 edition. Other first-time nations that were invited by the French president included: Egypt, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia and Switzerland.[33]
30th 8–10 June 2004  United States George W. Bush Sea Island, Georgia [41] A record number of leaders from 12 different nations accepted their invitations here. Amongst a couple of veteran nations, the others were: Ghana, Afghanistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Turkey, Yemen and Uganda.[33] Also, the state funeral of former President Ronald Reagan took place in Washington during the summit.
31st 6–8 July 2005  United Kingdom Tony Blair Gleneagles, Scotland [42] The G8+5 was officially formed. On the second day of the meeting, suicide bombers killed 52 people on the London Underground and a bus. Nations that were invited for the first time were Ethiopia and Tanzania. The African Union and the International Energy Agency made their debut here.[33] During the 31st G8 summit in United Kingdom, 225,000 people took to the streets of Edinburgh as part of the Make Poverty History campaign calling for Trade Justice, Debt Relief and Better Aid. Numerous other demonstrations also took place challenging the legitimacy of the G8.[43]
32nd 15–17 July 2006  Russia (only G8 member, not G7)[44] Vladimir Putin Strelna, Saint Petersburg First G8 Summit on Russian soil. Also, the International Atomic Energy Agency and UNESCO made their debut here.[33]
33rd 6–8 June 2007  Germany Angela Merkel Heiligendamm, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Seven different international organizations accepted their invitations to this Summit. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the Commonwealth of Independent States made their debut here.[33]
34th 7–9 July 2008  Japan Yasuo Fukuda Tōyako, Hokkaidō [45] Nations that accepted their G8 Summit invitations for the first time are: Australia, Indonesia and South Korea.[33]
35th 8–10 July 2009  Italy Silvio Berlusconi La Maddalena, Sardinia (cancelled)
L'Aquila, Abruzzo (re-located)[46]
[2] This G8 Summit was originally planned to be in La Maddalena (Sardinia), but was moved to L'Aquila as a way of showing Prime Minister Berlusconi's desire to help the region after the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake. Nations that accepted their invitations for the first time were: Angola, Denmark, Netherlands and Spain.[47] A record of ten international organizations were represented in this G8 Summit. For the first time, the Food and Agriculture Organization, the International Fund for Agricultural Development, the World Food Programme, and the International Labour Organization accepted their invitations.[48]
36th 25–26 June 2010[49]  Canada Stephen Harper Huntsville, Ontario[50] [51] Malawi, Colombia, Haiti, and Jamaica accepted their invitations for the first time.[52]
37th 26–27 May 2011  France Nicolas Sarkozy Deauville,[53][54] Lower Normandy Guinea, Niger, Côte d'Ivoire and Tunisia accepted their invitations for the first time. Also, the League of Arab States made its debut to the meeting.[55]
38th 18–19 May 2012  United States Barack Obama Chicago, Illinois (cancelled)
Camp David, Maryland (re-located)[56]
The summit was originally planned for Chicago, along with the NATO summit, but it was announced officially on 5 March 2012, that the G8 summit will be held at the more private location of Camp David and at one day earlier than previously scheduled.[57] Also, this is the second G8 summit, in which one of the leaders, Vladimir Putin, declined to participate. This G8 summit concentrated on the core leaders only; no non-G8 leaders or international organizations were invited.
39th 17–18 June 2013  United Kingdom David Cameron Lough Erne, County Fermanagh[58] [3] As in 2012, only the core members of the G8 attended this meeting. The four main topics that were discussed here were trade, government transparency, tackling tax evasion, and the ongoing Syrian crisis.[59]
40th 4–5 June 2014  European Union Herman Van Rompuy
José Manuel Barroso
Brussels, Belgium (re-located from Sochi, Russia) G7 summit as an alternative meeting without Russia in 2014 due to association with Crimean crisis.[60] The 2014 G8 summit in Sochi was cancelled and re-located to Brussels, Belgium without Russia.[61] Emergency meeting in March 2014 in The Hague.
41st 7–8 June 2015  Germany Angela Merkel Schloss Elmau, Bavaria[62] [4] Summit dedicated to focus on the global economy as well as on key issues regarding foreign, security and development policy.[63] The Global Apollo Programme was also on the agenda.[64]
42nd 26–27 May 2016[65][66]  Japan Shinzō Abe Shima, Mie Prefecture[67] [5] The G7 leaders aim to address challenges affecting the growth of the world economy, like slowdowns in emerging markets and drops in price of oil. The G7 also issued a warning on the United Kingdom that "a UK exit from the EU would reverse the trend towards greater global trade and investment, and the jobs they create and is a further serious risk to growth".[68] Commitment to an EU–Japan Free Trade Agreement.
43rd 26–27 May 2017[69]  Italy Paolo Gentiloni Taormina, Sicily[70] [6] G7 leaders emphasized common endeavours: to end the Syrian crisis, to fulfill the UN mission in Libya and reducing the presence of ISIS, ISIL and Da'esh in Syria and Iraq. North Korea was urged to comply with UN resolutions, Russian responsibility was stressed for Ukrainian conflict. Supporting economic activity and ensuring price stability was demanded while inequalities in trade and gender were called to be challenged. It was agreed to help countries in creating conditions that address the drivers of migration: ending hunger, increasing competitiveness and advancing global health security.[71]
44th 8–9 June 2018  Canada[72] Justin Trudeau La Malbaie, Quebec [7] To be held at the Manoir Richelieu. Prime Minister Trudeau announced five themes for Canada’s G7 presidency which began in January 2018. Under the “Working together on climate change, oceans and clean energy” theme, Canada is hosting domestic and international discussions to advance priorities specifically focusing on oceans. These discussions will bring together experts to discuss challenges and opportunities both domestically and internationally, to move toward zero plastic waste and mitigating marine plastic litter, including microplastics.[73]
45th TBD, 2019  France[74] Emmanuel Macron TBD
46th TBD, 2020  United States[74] Donald Trump TBD
47th TBD, 2021  United Kingdom[75] Theresa May TBD


Member Representative(s) Minister of Finance Central Bank Governor
Canada Prime Minister Justin Trudeau Minister of Finance Bill Morneau Stephen Poloz
France President Emmanuel Macron Minister of the Economy Bruno Le Maire François Villeroy de Galhau
Prime Minister Édouard Philippe
Germany Chancellor Angela Merkel Minister of Finance Peter Altmaier Jens Weidmann
Italy Prime Minister Paolo Gentiloni Minister of Economy
and Finance
Pier Carlo Padoan Ignazio Visco
Japan Prime Minister Shinzō Abe Minister of Finance Tarō Asō Haruhiko Kuroda
United Kingdom Prime Minister Theresa May Chancellor of the Exchequer Philip Hammond Mark Carney
United States President Donald Trump Secretary of the Treasury Steven Mnuchin Jerome Powell
European Union Council President[76] Donald Tusk Commissioner for Economic
and Monetary Affairs
and the Euro
Jyrki Katainen Mario Draghi
Commission President[76] Jean-Claude Juncker

Country leaders and EU representatives, as of 2018

Member country data

Member Trade mil. USD (2014) Nom. GDP mil. USD (2014)[77] PPP GDP mil. USD (2014)[77] Nom. GDP per capita USD (2014)[77] PPP GDP per capita USD (2014)[77] HDI (2015) Population (2014) Permanent members of UN Security Council DAC OECD Economic classification (IMF)[78]
Canada 947,200 1,785,387 1,595,975 50,304 44,967 0.913 35,467,000 Red XN Green tickY Green tickY Advanced
France 1,212,300 2,833,687 2,591,170 44,332 40,538 0.888 63,951,000 Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Advanced
Germany 2,866,600 3,874,437 3,748,094 47,774 46,216 0.916 80,940,000 Red XN Green tickY Green tickY Advanced
Italy 948,600 2,167,744 2,135,359 35,335 35,131 0.873 60,665 551 Red XN Green tickY Green tickY Advanced
Japan 1,522,400 4,602,367 4,767,157 36,222 37,519 0.891 127,061,000 Red XN Green tickY Green tickY Advanced
United Kingdom 1,189,400 2,950,039 2,569,218 45,729 39,826 0.907 64,511,000 Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Advanced
United States 3,944,000 17,348,075 17,348,075 54,370 54,370 0.915 318,523,000 Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Advanced
European Union 4,485,000 18,527,116 18,640,411 36,645 36,869 0.865 505,570,700 N/A Green tickY N/A N/A

The G7 is composed of the seven wealthiest advanced countries. The People's Republic of China, according to its data, would be the second-largest (10.3% of the world net wealth) in the world,[79], but is excluded because the IMF and other main global institutions do not consider China an advanced country because of its relatively low net wealth per adult and its not major advanced economy.[80][81] As of 2017 Crédit Suisse reports the G7 (without the European Union) represents above 62% of the global net wealth.[82] Including the EU the G7 represents over 70% of the global net wealth.[83]

Member facts


In 2015, despite Germany's immense efforts to prevent it and despite the remote location of the summit, the luxury hotel Schloss Elmau at the foot of the Wetterstein mountains at an altitude of 1008 m above sea level, about 300 of the 7500 peaceful protesters led by the group 'Stop-G7' managed to reach the 3 m high and 7 km long security fence surrounding the summit location. The protesters questioned the legitimation of the G7 to make decisions that could affect the whole world. Authorities had banned demonstrations in the closer area of the summit location and 20,000 policemen were on duty in Southern Bavaria to keep activists and protesters from interfering with the summit.[94][95]

See also


  1. ^ https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2017/02/weodata/weoselco.aspx?g=119&sg=All+countries+%2f+Advanced+economies+%2f+Major+advanced+economies+(G7)
  2. ^ http://publications.credit-suisse.com/tasks/render/file/index.cfm?fileid=A8BD95FB-A213-1EE7-59CC7F2F001A11AF
  3. ^ "IMF – International Monetary Fund Home Page". 
  4. ^ Shultz, George P., Turmoil and Triumph: My Years as Secretary of State, 1993, p. 148 ISBN 0-684-19325-6
  5. ^ Nicholas Bayne, Robert D. Putnam (2000). Hanging in There, Ashgate Pub Ltd, 230 pages, ISBN 075461185X
  6. ^ Shultz, ibid.
  7. ^ Farnsworth, Clyde H. "A Secret Society of Finance Ministers," New York Times. 8 May 1977.
  8. ^ a b c "Evian summit – Questions about the G8". Ministère des Affaires étrangères, Paris. 
  9. ^ [1] G8: The Most Exclusive Club in the World, Thomas S. Axworthy, The Canadian Encyclopedia, Historica Foundation of Canada, Toronto, Undated. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  10. ^ "EU and the G8". European Union. Archived from the original on 26 December 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2006. 
  11. ^ Schaefer, Robert K (2005). "Dollar Devaluations". Understanding Globalization: The Social Consequences of Political, Economic, and Environmental Change. Rowman and Littlefield. p. 346. 
  12. ^ "Russia — Odd Man Out in the G-8", Mark Medish, The Globalist, 02-24-2006 Archived 5 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine..Accessed: 7 December 2008
  13. ^ https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2017/02/weodata/weoselgr.aspx
  14. ^ http://publications.credit-suisse.com/tasks/render/file/index.cfm?fileid=AD6F2B43-B17B-345E-E20A1A254A3E24A5
  15. ^ Smale, Alison; Shear, Michael D. (24 March 2014). "Russia Is Ousted From Group of 8 by U.S. and Allies". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 13 October 2017. 
  16. ^ Bayne, Nicholas (7 December 1998), "International economic organizations : more policy making less autonomy", in Reinalda, Bob; Verbeek, Bertjan, Autonomous Policymaking By International Organizations (Routledge/Ecpr Studies in European Political Science, 5), Routledge, ISBN 9780415164863, OCLC 70763323, 0415164869 
  17. ^ "G7/8 Ministerial Meetings and Documents". G8 Information Centre. University of Toronto. 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2014. 
  18. ^ International Money Fund. "Debt Relief Under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative;Perspectives on the Current Framework and Options for Change". IMF.org. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  19. ^ Van Houtven, Leo (September 2004). "Rethinking IMF Governance" (PDF). Finance & Development. International Money Fund. p. 18. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  20. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/4238045.stm
  21. ^ Bo Nielsen (14 April 2008). "G7 Statement Fails to Convince Major Traders to Change Outlook". Bloomberg L.P. 
  22. ^ Simon Kennedy (10 October 2008). "G7 Against the Wall- Weighs Loan-Guarantee Plan (Update1)". Bloomberg L.P. 
  23. ^ Yahoo.com Archived 16 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ O'Grady, Sean (11 October 2008). "G7 pledges action to save banks". The Independent. Retrieved 7 June 2017. 
  25. ^ a b "Statement by G7 Nations". G8 Info Ctr. University of Toronto. 2 March 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014. 
  26. ^ "G7 leaders descend on the Netherlands for Ukraine crisis talks". CBC news. Thomson Reuters. 23 March 2014. 
  27. ^ a b BBC (5 June 2014). "G7 leaders warn Russia of fresh sanctions over Ukraine". BBC. 
  28. ^ Feldman, Adam (7 July 2008). "What's Wrong with the G-8". Forbes. New York. 
  29. ^ Hajnal, Peter I. (1999). The G8 System and the G20: Evolution, Role and Documentation, p. 30., p. 30, at Google Books
  30. ^ G7 Italy 2017, official website.
  31. ^ a b Shabecoff, Philip. "Go-Slow Policies Urged by Leaders in Economic Talks; Closing Statement Calls for Sustained Growth Coupled With Curbs on Inflation; Ford's Aims Realized; 7 Heads of Government Also Agree to Consider a New Body to Assist Italy Co-Slow Economic Policies Urged by 7 Leaders," New York Times. 29 June 1976; Chronology, June 1976. Archived 15 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  32. ^ "Halifax G7 Summit 1995". Chebucto.ns.ca. 28 May 2000. Retrieved 27 June 2010. 
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i Kirton, John. "A Summit of Substantial Success: The Performance of the 2008 G8"; page 88 and 89 G8 Information Centre – University of Toronto 17 July 2008.
  34. ^ "Denver Summit of the Eight". State.gov. Retrieved 8 February 2010. 
  35. ^ "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. 12 December 1998. Archived from the original on 12 December 1998. Retrieved 21 May 2011. 
  36. ^ "1999 G8 summit documents". Web.archive.org. 26 February 2005. Archived from the original on 26 February 2005. Retrieved 27 June 2010. 
  37. ^ "Kyushu-Okinawa Summit". MOFA. Retrieved 8 February 2010. 
  38. ^ "Vertice di Genova 2001". Web.archive.org. 6 August 2001. Archived from the original on 6 August 2001. Retrieved 8 February 2010. 
  39. ^ Italy officials convicted over G8, BBC News, 15 July 2008
  40. ^ "UT G8 Info. Centre. Kananaskis Summit 2002. Summit Contents". G8.utoronto.ca. Retrieved 8 February 2010. 
  41. ^ "Sea Island Summit 2004". Georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov. Retrieved 8 February 2010. 
  42. ^ "Special Reports G8_Gleneagles". BBC News. 17 September 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2010. 
  43. ^ David Miller "Spinning the G8" Archived 28 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine., Zednet, 13 May 2005.
  44. ^ https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2017/02/weodata/weoselgr.aspx
  45. ^ "Hokkaido Toyako Summit – TOP". Mofa.go.jp. Retrieved 8 February 2010. 
  46. ^ "BERLUSCONI PROPOSES RELOCATION OF G8 SUMMIT TO L'AQUILA". Running in heels. 24 April 2009. Retrieved 12 June 2016. 
  47. ^ "G8 Summit 2009 – official website – Other Countries". G8italia2009.it. Archived from the original on 6 April 2010. Retrieved 8 February 2010. 
  48. ^ "G8 Summit 2009 – official website – International Organizations". G8italia2009.it. Retrieved 8 February 2010. 
  49. ^ "Canada's G8 Plans" (PDF). Retrieved 27 June 2010. 
  50. ^ "Prime Minister of Canada: Prime Minister announces Canada to host 2010 G8 Summit in Huntsville". Pm.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 8 February 2010. Retrieved 8 February 2010. 
  51. ^ "2010 Muskoka Summit". Canadainternational.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 10 April 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2011. 
  52. ^ Participants at the 2010 Muskoka Summit. G8 Information Centre. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
  53. ^ "Le prochain G20 aura lieu à Cannes," Le point. 12 November 2010.
  54. ^ The City of Deauville Official 2011 G8 website. Retrieved 7 February 2011. Archived 19 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  55. ^ Kirton, John (26 May 2011). "Prospects for the 2011 G8 Deauville Summit". G8 Information Centre. Retrieved 27 May 2011. 
  56. ^ "2012 G8 Summit Relocation". G8.utoronto.ca. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  57. ^ "White House Moves G8 Summit From Chicago To Camp David". CBS Chicago. 5 March 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2012. 
  58. ^ "BBC News – Lough Erne resort in Fermanagh to host G8 summit". Bbc.co.uk. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  59. ^ "As it happened: G8 summit". BBC News. Retrieved 18 June 2013. 
  60. ^ "Russia out in the cold after suspension from the G8". The Scotsman. 18 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014. 
  61. ^ "G-7 Agrees to Exclude Russia, Increase Sanctions/World Powers to Meet in Brussels in June Without Russia". The Wall Street Journal. 25 March 2014. 
  62. ^ Germany to hold 2015 G8 summit at Alpine spa Elmau in Bavaria
  63. ^ "German G7 presidency – Key topics for the summit announced". 19 November 2014. 
  64. ^ Carrington, Damian. "Global Apollo programme seeks to make clean energy cheaper than coal". The Guardian (2 June 2015). Guardian News Media. Retrieved 2 June 2015. 
  65. ^ "Japan announced to host G7 summit in 2016 in Shima". prepsure.com. 23 June 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  66. ^ "Japan Announces Dates for G7 Summit in 2016". NDTV. 23 June 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  67. ^ "来年のサミット 三重県志摩市で開催へ (Next Year's Summit To Be Held in Shima City, Mie Prefecture)" (in Japanese). 5 June 2015. Archived from the original on 5 June 2015. Retrieved 5 June 2015. 
  68. ^ Asthana, Anushka (27 May 2016). "Brexit would pose 'serious risk' to global growth, say G7 leaders". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 May 2016. 
  69. ^ "Renzi announces to host G7 summit in 2017 in Taormina". RaiNews24. 26 May 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2016. 
  70. ^ Redazione (1 April 2016). "G7 a Taormina, è ufficiale. Renzi chiama da Boston il sindaco Giardina: «Il vertice si farà nella Perla»". 
  71. ^ "G7 Taormina Leaders' Communiqué" (PDF). G7 Italy 2017. 27 May 2017. Retrieved 11 June 2017. 
  72. ^ "Canada to host 2018 G7 Summit in Charlevoix, Quebec". pm.gc.ca. Prime Minister of Canada. 27 May 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2017. 
  73. ^ Walker, T.R, Xanthos, D. (2018). A call for Canada to move toward zero plastic waste by reducing and recycling single-use plastics. Resources, Conservation & Recycling, 133, 99-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2018.02.014
  74. ^ a b "G7 Summit in Brussels, 4 – 5 June 2014: Background note and facts about the EU's role and action". 3 June 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2015. 
  75. ^ http://www.g7italy.it/cose-g7
  76. ^ a b "Van Rompuy and Barroso to both represent EU at G20". EUobserver.com. 19 March 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2012. "The permanent president of the EU Council, former Belgian premier Herman Van Rompuy, also represents the bloc abroad in foreign policy and security matters...in other areas, such as climate change, President Barroso will speak on behalf of the 27-member club."
  77. ^ a b c d "Gross domestic product". IMF World Economic Outlook. October 2015. Retrieved 14 October 2015. 
  78. ^ "World Economic Outlook data". IMF. 2014. Retrieved 19 October 2014. 
  79. ^ Crédit Suisse factsheet.
  80. ^ https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2017/02/weodata/weoselgr.aspx
  81. ^ http://publications.credit-suisse.com/tasks/render/file/index.cfm?fileid=A8BD95FB-A213-1EE7-59CC7F2F001A11AF
  82. ^ Global wealth, Crédit Suisse.
  83. ^ Crédit Suisse publication 2.
  84. ^ "CIA World Fact Country Rankings". 
  85. ^ "exports". cia factbook. 
  86. ^ "Sovereign Wealth Fund Rankings". SWF Institute. Retrieved 16 February 2012. 
  87. ^ "Status of Nuclear Forces". Federation of American Scientists. 26 March 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  88. ^ "Which countries have nuclear weapons?". BBC News. 26 March 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  89. ^ Malcolm Chalmers & Simon Lunn (March 2010), NATO's Tactical Nuclear Dilemma, Royal United Services Institute, retrieved 16 March 2010 
  90. ^ "Der Spiegel: ''Foreign Minister Wants US Nukes out of Germany'". Der Spiegel. 10 April 2009. Retrieved 10 April 2014. 
  91. ^ "Germany: Nuclear power plants to close by 2022". BBC. 30 May 2011. Retrieved 12 August 2011. 
  92. ^ "Tomari shutdown leaves Japan without nuclear power". BBC News. 5 May 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2012. 
  93. ^ "11 countries with perfect credit". USA Today. 16 October 2013. Retrieved 10 April 2014. 
  94. ^ "Der Spiegel: Proteste um Schloss Elmau – Demonstranten wandern bis zum G7-Zaun". Der Spiegel. 7 June 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2015. 
  95. ^ "Bild: 7 Kilometer lang, 3 Meter hoch, auf ganzer Länge beleuchtet". Bild. 3 June 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2015. 

External links