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The G4 NATIONS comprising Brazil
Brazil
, Germany
Germany
, India
India
, and Japan
Japan
are four countries which support each other’s bids for permanent seats on the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council . Unlike the G7 , where the common denominator is the economy and long-term political motives, the G4's primary aim is the permanent member seats on the Security Council. Each of these four countries have figured among the elected non-permanent members of the council since the UN's establishment. Their economic and political influence has grown significantly in the last decades, reaching a scope comparable to the permanent members (P5). However, the G4's bids are often opposed by the Uniting for Consensus movement, and particularly their economic competitors or political rivals.

CONTENTS

* 1 Background * 2 Support * 3 Opposition * 4 Activity * 5 See also * 6 References

BACKGROUND

The UN currently has five permanent members with veto power in the Security Council: China
China
, France
France
, Russia
Russia
, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, and the United States
United States
- comprising the victors of World War II
World War II
. The G4 nations are regularly elected to two-year terms on the Security Council as non-permanent members by their respective regional groups: in the 24-year period from 1987 to 2010, Brazil
Brazil
and Japan
Japan
were elected for five terms each, Germany
Germany
for four terms (one term as West Germany and three terms as unified Germany) and India
India
for two terms. Cumulatively, the G4 has spent 64 years on the Security Council since the UN's inception, with each country serving at least a decade. By comparison, the three permanent members of the Security Council who have maintained their seats since the UN's founding (France, the UK, and the US) have each accrued 71 years of membership. The People's Republic of China
China
has held its permanent seat for 45 years, since it replaced the Republic of China
China
in 1971, and Russia
Russia
has held its permanent seat for 25 years, since it replaced the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991.

COMPARISON OF G4 AND P5 MEMBERS

% of World Population GDP (PPP) 1 GDP (NOMINAL) 1 UN FUNDING 2 UN peacekeepers Defence budget1 Active military Nuclear arsenal Total Warheads

Brazil
Brazil
G4 62.8% (5TH) 3$3,101 (7TH) 2$1,535 (9TH) 33.82% (7TH) 71,305 (20TH) $24.6 (11TH) 5 318,480 (16TH) N NO 3 –

China
China
P5 918.8% (1ST) 9$20,853 (1ST) 8$11,383 (2ND) 77.92% (3RD) 82,622 (12TH) $215.0 (2ND) 92,333,000 (1ST) Y YES 6260 (4TH)

France
France
P5 20.9% (20TH) 1$2,703 10TH) 4$2,465 (6TH) 54.86% (5TH) 6880 (33RD) $50.9 (7TH) 3 222,200 (24TH) Y YES 7300 (3RD)

Germany
Germany
G4 31.1% (17TH) 5$3,935 (5TH) 6$3,468 (4TH) 66.39% (4TH) 5434 (45TH) $39.4 (9TH) 2 186,450 (28TH) N NO 3 2 –

India
India
G4 817.7% (2ND) 7$9,542 (3RD) 3$2,610 (6TH) 10.74% (22ND) 97,713 (2ND) $55.9 (5TH) 71,325,000 (3RD) Y YES 4110–120 (7TH)

Japan
Japan
G4 41.7% (10TH) 6$4,901(4TH) 7$4,413 (3RD) 89.68% (2ND) 3272 (55TH) $40.9 (8TH) 4 247,150 (21ST) N NO 1 –

Russia
Russia
P5 42.0% (9TH) 4$3,685 (6TH) 1$1,133 (14TH) 23.09% (9TH) 298 (68TH) $66.4 (4TH) 6845,000 (5TH) Y YES 97,300 (1ST)

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
P5 10.9% (22ND) 2$2,757 (9TH) 5$2,761 (5TH) 44.46% (6TH) 4336 (52ND) $55.5 (5TH) 1 169,150 (32ND) Y YES 5215 (5TH)

United States
United States
P5 74.4% (3RD) 8$18,558 (2ND) 9$18,558 (1ST) 922.00% (1ST) 168 (73RD) 9$597.0 (1ST) 81,492,200 (2ND) Y YES 86,970 (2ND)

1 BILLIONS 2PERCENT CONTRIBUTED TO TOTAL UN BUDGET 3TAKES PART IN NATO
NATO
NUCLEAR WEAPONS SHARING AGREEMENT

SUPPORT

The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and France
France
have backed the G4's bid for permanent seats on the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council.

Japan
Japan
has support from the United States
United States
and the United Kingdom.

All the permanent of P5 have supported India's bids for permanent seat on the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council (UNSC) but China
China
had previously implied that it is only ready to support India's bid for a permanent seat on United Nations
United Nations
Security Council if India
India
did not associate its bid with Japan.

OPPOSITION

There has been discontent among the present permanent members regarding the inclusion of controversial nations or countries not supported by them.

For instance, Japan's bid is heavily opposed by China
China
and South Korea who think that Japan
Japan
still needs to make additional atonement for war crimes committed during World War II.

Under the leadership of Italy, countries that strongly oppose the G4 countries' bids have formed the Uniting for Consensus movement, or the Coffee Club, composed mainly of regional powers that oppose the rise of some nearby country to permanent member status.

In Latin America, Colombia, Argentina and Mexico are opposing a seat for Brazil.

In South Asia, Pakistan is opposing India's bid.

ACTIVITY

The G4 suggested that two African nations, in addition to themselves, be included in the enlarged UNSC. In several conferences during the summer of 2005, African Union
African Union
was unable to agree on two nominees: Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa all lay claim to a permanent African UNSC seat.

A UN General Assembly in September 2005 marked the 60th anniversary of the UN and the members were to decide on a number of necessary reforms—including the enlarged Security Council. However the unwillingness to find a negotiable position stopped even the most urgent reforms; the September 2005 General Assembly was a setback for the UN.

The G4 retain their goal of permanent UNSC membership for all four nations (plus two African nations). In January 2006, Japan
Japan
announced it would not support putting the G4 resolution back on the table, not to interfere with any effort by the African Union
African Union
to unite behind a single plan. And meanwhile, Japan's continuing relations with the G4 were not mutually exclusive.

G4 issued a joint statement on 12 February 2011, in which their foreign ministers agreed to seek concrete outcome in the current session of the UN General Assembly.

On 26 September 2015, Narendra Modi invited the leaders of the G4 for a summit following the adoption of UN General Assembly Decision 69/560 by consensus, which moved forward for the first time.

In 2017, it was reported that the G4 nations
G4 nations
were willing to temporarily forgo veto power if granted a permanent UNSC seat.

SEE ALSO

* List of country groupings * List of multilateral free-trade agreements * Group of Five
Group of Five
* Uniting for Consensus (Coffee club) * Reform of the United Nations Security Council

REFERENCES

* ^ " Japan
Japan
Says No to G4 Bid". Globalpolicy.org. 2006-01-07. Retrieved 2011-05-30. * ^ Membership of the Security Council Archived 6 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ List of members of the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council * ^ "Joint UK- France
France
Summit Declaration". British Prime Minister’s Office. 27 March 2008. Archived from the original on 9 January 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2008. * ^ US backs Japan\'s UNSC bid despite setback to momentum, People\'s Daily , 19 April 2005 * ^ UK backs Japan
Japan
for UNSC bid Archived 21 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
., Central Chronicle, 11 January 2007 * ^ " China
China
Should Back India
India
for a Permanent UN Security Council Seat". * ^ China
China
supports India\'s bid for UNSC seat: Wen. * ^ Krishnan, Ananth (16 July 2011). " China
China
ready to support Indian bid for UNSC". The Hindu. Chennai, India. * ^ "Countries Welcome Work Plan as Security Council Reform Process Commences New Phase". Center for UN Reform Education. * ^ http://www.ndtv.com/india-news/allying-with-japan-at-security-council-is-indias-biggest-mistake-chinese-media-1219912 * ^ "Players and Proposals in the Security Council Debate", Global Policy Forum, 3 July 2005. Retrieved 14 May 2006. * ^ Africa\'s Battle for Power in the Security Council, United Nations Radio, 21 July 2005. Retrieved 14 May 2006. Archived 27 December 2005 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Africa: Security Council Expansion, AfricaFocus Bulletin, 30 April 2005. Retrieved 14 May 2006. * ^ International Review, Summer, 2006 by Emily Bruemmer * ^ Japan
Japan
Says No to G4 Bid, Global Policy Forum, News24.com, 7 Jan 2006 * ^ Thaindian News Sat Feb 12 2011 by IANS * ^ Sharma, Rajeev (27 September 2015). " India
India
pushes the envelope at G4 Summit: PM Modi tells UNSC to make space for largest democracies". First Post. Retrieved 20 October 2015. * ^ " India
India
Offers To Temporarily Forgo Veto Power If Granted Permanent UNSC Seat". The Huffington Post
The Huffington Post
. Retrieved 9 March 2017.

* v * t * e

Power in international relations

TYPES

* Economic * Energy * Food * Hard * National * Power politics * Realpolitik * Smart * Soft

STATUS

* Emerging * Small * Middle * Regional * Great * Super * Hyper

GEOPOLITICS

* American * Asian * British * Chinese * Indian * Pacific

HISTORY

* List of ancient great powers * List of medieval great powers * List of modern great powers * International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919)

THEORY

* Balance of power

* European

* Center of power * Hegemonic stability theory * Philosophy of power * Polarity * Power projection * Power transition theory * Second Superpower
Superpower
* Sphere of influence
Sphere of influence
* Superpower
Superpower
collapse * Superpower
Superpower
disengagement

STUDIES

* Composite Index of National Capability * Comprehensive National Power

ORGANIZATIONS AND GROUPS BY REGION OR REGIONS AFFECTED

AFRICA

* African Union
African Union
* Union for the Mediterranean
Union for the Mediterranean

AFRICA–ASIA

* Arab League
Arab League
* Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
(GCC) * Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)

AMERICAS

* Mercosur
Mercosur
* North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) * Organization of American States
Organization of American States
(OAS) * Union of South American Nations
Union of South American Nations
(Unasur)

ASIA

* Asia Cooperation Dialogue
Asia Cooperation Dialogue
(ACD) * Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC) * Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
(ASEAN) * China–Japan–South Korea trilateral summits * Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) * South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) * Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)

EUROPE

* Council of Europe
Council of Europe
(CE) * European Union
European Union
(EU) * Nordic Council
Nordic Council
* Visegrád Group
Visegrád Group

EURASIA

* Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS) * Collective Security Treaty Organization
Collective Security Treaty Organization
(CSTO) * Economic Cooperation