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The G4 nations
G4 nations
comprising Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan
Japan
are four countries which support each other’s bids for permanent seats on the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council. Unlike the G7, where the common denominator is the economy and long-term political motives, the G4's primary aim is the permanent member seats on the Security Council. Each of these four countries have figured among the elected non-permanent members of the council since the UN's establishment. Their economic and political influence has grown significantly in the last decades, reaching a scope comparable to the permanent members (P5). However, the G4's bids are often opposed by the Uniting for Consensus movement, and particularly their economic competitors or political rivals.[1]

Contents

1 Background 2 Support 3 Opposition 4 Activity 5 See also 6 References

Background[edit] The UN currently has five permanent members with veto power in the Security Council: China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States- comprising the victors of World War II. The G4 nations are regularly elected to two-year terms on the Security Council as non-permanent members by their respective regional groups: in the 24-year period from 1987 to 2010, Brazil
Brazil
and Japan
Japan
were elected for five terms each, Germany
Germany
for four terms (one term as West Germany
Germany
and three terms as unified Germany) and India
India
for two terms.[2] Cumulatively, the G4 has spent 64 years on the Security Council since the UN's inception, with each country serving at least a decade.[3] By comparison, the three permanent members of the Security Council who have maintained their seats since the UN's founding (France, the UK, and the US) have each accrued 72 years of membership. The People's Republic of China
China
has held its permanent seat for 46 years, since it replaced the Republic of China
China
in 1971, and Russia
Russia
has held its permanent seat for 26 years, since it replaced the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991.

Comparison of G4 and P5 Members

% of World Population GDP (PPP)1 GDP (nominal)1 UN funding2 UN peacekeepers Defence budget1 Active military Nuclear arsenal Total Warheads

 Brazil G4 62.8% (5th) 3$3,101 (7th) 2$1,535 (9th) 33.82% (7th) 71,305 (20th) $24.6 (11th) 5 318,480 (16th) N NO 3 –

 China P5 918.8% (1st) 9$20,853 (1st) 8$11,383 (2nd) 77.92% (3rd) 82,622 (12th) $215.0 (2nd) 92,333,000 (1st) Y YES 6260 (4th)

 France P5 20.9% (20th) 1$2,703 10th) 4$2,465 (6th) 54.86% (5th) 6880 (33rd) $50.9 (7th) 3 222,200 (24th) Y YES 7300 (3rd)

 Germany G4 31.1% (17th) 5$3,935 (5th) 6$3,468 (4th) 66.39% (4th) 5434 (45th) $39.4 (9th) 2 186,450 (28th) N NO 2 –

 India G4 817.7% (2nd) 7$10,542 (3rd) 3$2,910 (5th) 10.74% (22nd) 97,713 (2nd) $55.9 (5th) 71,325,000 (3rd) Y YES 4110–120 (7th)

 Japan G4 41.7% (10th) 6$4,901(4th) 7$4,413 (3rd) 89.68% (2nd) 3272 (55th) $40.9 (8th) 4 247,150 (21st) N NO 1 –

 Russia P5 42.0% (9th) 4$3,685 (6th) 1$1,133 (14th) 23.09% (9th) 298 (68th) $66.4 (4th) 6845,000 (5th) Y YES 97,300 (1st)

 United Kingdom P5 10.9% (22nd) 2$2,757 (9th) 5$2,761 (5th) 44.46% (6th) 4336 (52nd) $55.5 (5th) 1 169,150 (32nd) Y YES 5215 (5th)

 United States P5 74.4% (3rd) 8$18,558 (2nd) 9$18,558 (1st) 922.00% (1st) 168 (73rd) 9$597.0 (1st) 81,492,200 (2nd) Y YES 86,970 (2nd)

1$US billions 2Percent contributed to total UN budget 3Takes part in NATO
NATO
nuclear weapons sharing agreement

Support[edit] The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and France
France
have backed the G4's bid for permanent seats on the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council.[4] Japan
Japan
has support from the United States[5] and the United Kingdom.[6] All the permanent members of P5 have supported India's bids for permanent seat on the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council (UNSC) but China had previously implied that it is only ready to support India's bid for a permanent seat on United Nations
United Nations
Security Council if India
India
did not associate its bid with Japan.[7][8][9][10] Opposition[edit] There has been discontent among the present permanent members regarding the inclusion of controversial nations or countries not supported by them. For instance, Japan's bid is heavily opposed by China[11] Hong Kong, North Korea and South Korea who think that Japan
Japan
still needs to make additional atonement for war crimes committed during World War II. Under the leadership of Italy,[12] countries that strongly oppose the G4 countries' bids have formed the Uniting for Consensus
Uniting for Consensus
movement, or the Coffee Club, composed mainly of regional powers that oppose the rise of some nearby country to permanent member status. In Africa and Europe, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Namibia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, and Spain
Spain
are opposing a seat for Germany. In Latin America, Argentina, Colombia and Mexico are opposing a seat for Brazil. In South Asia, Pakistan is strongly opposing India's bid. Activity[edit] The G4 suggested that two African nations, in addition to themselves, be included in the enlarged UNSC. In several conferences during the summer of 2005, African Union
African Union
was unable to agree on two nominees: Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa all lay claim to a permanent African UNSC seat.[13][14] A UN General Assembly in September 2005 marked the 60th anniversary of the UN and the members were to decide on a number of necessary reforms—including the enlarged Security Council. However the unwillingness to find a negotiable position stopped even the most urgent reforms; the September 2005 General Assembly was a setback for the UN.[citation needed] The G4 retain their goal of permanent UNSC membership for all four nations (plus two African nations). In January 2006, Japan
Japan
announced it would not support putting the G4 resolution back on the table, not to interfere with any effort by the African Union
African Union
to unite behind a single plan. And meanwhile, Japan's continuing relations with the G4 were not mutually exclusive.[15][16] G4 issued a joint statement on 12 February 2011, in which their foreign ministers agreed to seek concrete outcome in the current session of the UN General Assembly.[17] On 26 September 2015, Narendra Modi invited the leaders of the G4 for a summit following the adoption of UN General Assembly Decision 69/560 by consensus, which moved forward for the first time.[18] In 2017, it was reported that the G4 nations
G4 nations
were willing to temporarily forgo veto power if granted a permanent UNSC seat.[19] See also[edit]

Group of Five List of country groupings List of multilateral free-trade agreements Reform of the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council Uniting for Consensus
Uniting for Consensus
(Coffee club)

References[edit]

^ " Japan
Japan
Says No to G4 Bid". Globalpolicy.org. 2006-01-07. Retrieved 2011-05-30.  ^ Membership of the Security Council Archived 6 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ List of members of the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council ^ "Joint UK- France
France
Summit Declaration". British Prime Minister’s Office. 27 March 2008. Archived from the original on 9 January 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2008.  ^ US backs Japan's UNSC bid despite setback to momentum, People's Daily, 19 April 2005 ^ UK backs Japan
Japan
for UNSC bid Archived 21 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine., Central Chronicle, 11 January 2007 ^ " China
China
Should Back India
India
for a Permanent UN Security Council Seat".  ^ China
China
supports India's bid for UNSC seat: Wen. ^ Krishnan, Ananth (16 July 2011). " China
China
ready to support Indian bid for UNSC". The Hindu. Chennai, India.  ^ "Countries Welcome Work Plan as Security Council Reform Process Commences New Phase". Center for UN Reform Education. ^ Allying with Japan
Japan
at Security Council is India's 'Biggest Mistake': Chinese Media ^ "Players and Proposals in the Security Council Debate", Global Policy Forum, 3 July 2005. Retrieved 14 May 2006. ^ Africa's Battle for Power in the Security Council, United Nations Radio, 21 July 2005. Retrieved 14 May 2006. Archived 27 December 2005 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Africa: Security Council Expansion, AfricaFocus Bulletin, 30 April 2005. Retrieved 14 May 2006. ^ International Review, Summer, 2006 by Emily Bruemmer ^ Japan
Japan
Says No to G4 Bid, Global Policy Forum, News24.com, 7 Jan 2006 ^ Thaindian News Sat Feb 12 2011 by IANS ^ Sharma, Rajeev (27 September 2015). " India
India
pushes the envelope at G4 Summit: PM Modi tells UNSC to make space for largest democracies". First Post. Retrieved 20 October 2015.  ^ " India
India
Offers To Temporarily Forgo Veto Power If Granted Permanent UNSC Seat". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 9 March 2017. 

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