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The G20
G20
(or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 19 countries and the European Union
European Union
(EU). Founded in 1999 with the aim to discuss policy pertaining to the promotion of international financial stability,[3] the G20
G20
has expanded its agenda since 2008 and heads of government or heads of state, as well as finance ministers and foreign ministers, have periodically conferred at summits ever since. It seeks to address issues that go beyond the responsibilities of any one organization.[3] Membership of the G20
G20
consists of 19 individual countries plus the European Union. The EU is represented by the European Commission
European Commission
and by the European Central Bank. Collectively, the G20
G20
economies account for around 90% of the gross world product (GWP), 80% of world trade (or, if excluding EU intra-trade, 75%), two-thirds of the world population,[2] and approximately half of the world land area. With the G20
G20
growing in stature[4] after its inaugural leaders' summit in 2008, its leaders announced on 25 September 2009 that the group would replace the G8 as the main economic council of wealthy nations.[5] Since its inception, the G20's membership policies have been criticized by some intellectuals,[6][7] and its summits have been a focus for major protests by left-wing groups and anarchists.[8] The heads of the G20
G20
nations held summits twice in 2009 and twice in 2010. Since the November 2011 Cannes summit, G20
G20
summits have been held annually.[9]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Founding 1.2 Early topics

2 Summits

2.1 List of summits 2.2 Chair rotation

3 Organization

3.1 Proposed permanent secretariat

4 List of members

4.1 Leaders 4.2 Member country data 4.3 Role of Asian countries

5 Invitees

5.1 Permanent guest invitees

6 G20
G20
Agenda

6.1 Financial focus 6.2 Inclusive growth 6.3 Interrelated themes

7 Criticisms

7.1 Exclusivity of membership

7.1.1 Norwegian perspective 7.1.2 Spanish position on membership 7.1.3 Polish aspirations 7.1.4 Global Governance Group (3G) response 7.1.5 Foreign Policy critiques

7.2 Wider concerns

8 See also 9 Notes 10 References

10.1 Footnotes 10.2 Bibliography

11 Further reading 12 External links

History[edit] Founding[edit] The G20
G20
is the latest in a series of post–World War 2 initiatives aimed at international coordination of economic policy, which include institutions such as the "Bretton Woods twins", the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and what is now the World Trade Organization.[10] The G20
G20
was foreshadowed at the Cologne Summit of the G7 in June 1999, and formally established at the G7 Finance Ministers' meeting on 26 September 1999 with an inaugural meeting on 15–16 December 1999 in Berlin. Canadian finance minister Paul Martin
Paul Martin
was chosen as the first chairman and German finance minister Hans Eichel
Hans Eichel
hosted the inaugural meeting.[11] A 2004 report by Colin I. Bradford and Johannes F. Linn of the Brookings Institution
Brookings Institution
asserted the group was founded primarily at the initiative of Eichel, the concurrent chair of the G7.[12] However, Bradford later described then-Finance Minister of Canada
Canada
(and future Prime Minister of Canada) Paul Martin
Paul Martin
as "the crucial architect of the formation of the G-20 at finance minister level", and as the one who later "proposed that the G-20 countries move to leaders level summits".[13] Canadian academic and journalistic sources have also identified the G20
G20
a project initiated by Martin and then-US Treasury Secretary Larry Summers.[14][15][16][17] All acknowledge, however, that Germany
Germany
and the United States
United States
played a key role in bringing their vision into reality. Martin and Summers conceived of the G20
G20
in response to the series of massive debt crises that had spread across emerging markets in the late 1990s, beginning with the Mexican peso crisis and followed by the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the 1998 Russian financial crisis, and eventually impacting the United States, most prominently in the form of the collapse of the prominent hedge fund Long-Term Capital Management in the autumn of 1998.[14][15][16] It illustrated to them that in a rapidly globalizing world, the G7, G8, and the Bretton Woods system
Bretton Woods system
would be unable to provide financial stability, and they conceived of a new, broader permanent group of major world economies that would give a voice and new responsibilities in providing it.[14][16] The G20
G20
membership was decided by Eichel's deputy Caio Koch-Weser
Caio Koch-Weser
and Summers' deputy Timothy Geithner. According to the political economist Robert Wade:

.mw-parser-output .templatequote overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px .mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0 "Geithner and Koch-Weser went down the list of countries saying, Canada
Canada
in, Portugal out, South Africa
South Africa
in, Nigeria
Nigeria
and Egypt
Egypt
out, and so on; they sent their list to the other G7 finance ministries; and the invitations to the first meeting went out."[18]

Early topics[edit] The G20's primary focus has been governance of the global economy. Summit themes have varied from year to year. The theme of the 2006 G20 ministerial meeting
2006 G20 ministerial meeting
was "Building and Sustaining Prosperity". The issues discussed included domestic reforms to achieve "sustained growth", global energy and resource commodity markets, reform of the World Bank
World Bank
and IMF, and the impact of demographic changes due to an aging world population. In 2007, South Africa
South Africa
hosted the secretariat with Trevor A. Manuel, South African Minister of Finance
Minister of Finance
as chairperson of the G20. In 2008, Guido Mantega, Brazil's Minister of Finance, was the G20 chairperson and proposed dialogue on competition in financial markets, clean energy, economic development and fiscal elements of growth and development. On 11 October 2008 after a meeting of G7 finance ministers, US President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
stated that the next meeting of the G20
G20
would be important in finding solutions to the burgeoning economic crisis of 2008.

Summits[edit] The Summit of G20
G20
Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors, who prepare the leaders' summit and implement their decisions, was created as a response both to the financial crisis of 2007–2008 and to a growing recognition that key emerging countries were not adequately included in the core of global economic discussion and governance. Additionally, the G20
G20
Summits of heads of state or government were held. After the 2008 debut summit in Washington, DC, G20
G20
leaders met twice a year: in London and Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
in 2009, and in Toronto
Toronto
and Seoul
Seoul
in 2010.[19] Since 2011, when France
France
chaired and hosted the G20, the summits have been held only once a year.[20] The 2016 summit was held in Hangzhou, China,[21] the 2017 summit was held in Hamburg, Germany
Germany
and the 2018 summit was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina.[22] A number of other ministerial-level G20
G20
meetings have been held since 2010. Agriculture ministerial meetings were conducted in 2011 and 2012; meetings of foreign ministers were held in 2012 and 2013; trade ministers met in 2012 and 2014, and employment ministerial meetings have taken place annually since 2010.[23] In March 2014, the former Australian foreign minister Julie Bishop, when Australia
Australia
was hosting the 2014 G20
G20
summit in Brisbane, proposed to ban Russia
Russia
from the summit over its role in the 2014 Crimean crisis.[24] The BRICS
BRICS
foreign ministers subsequently reminded Bishop that "the custodianship of the G20
G20
belongs to all Member States equally and no one Member State can unilaterally determine its nature and character."[25] Japan
Japan
hosted the 2019 Summit.[26] The 2020 Summit will be in Saudi Arabia[27]and 2022 in India.[28]

List of summits[edit] Main article: List of G20
G20
summits Chair rotation[edit] To decide which member nation gets to chair the G20
G20
leaders' meeting for a given year, all members, except the European Union, are assigned to one of five different groupings, with all but one group having four members, the other having three. Nations from the same region are placed in the same group, except Group 1 and Group 2. All countries within a group are eligible to take over the G20
G20
Presidency when it is their group’s turn. Therefore, the states within the relevant group need to negotiate among themselves to select the next G20
G20
President. Each year, a different G20
G20
member country assumes the presidency starting from 1 December until 30 November. This system has been in place since 2010, when South Korea, which is in Group 5, held the G20 chair. The table below lists the nations' groupings:[29][30]

Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5

 Australia  Canada  Saudi Arabia  United States

 India  Russia  South Africa  Turkey

 Argentina  Brazil  Mexico

 France  Germany  Italy  United Kingdom

 China  Indonesia  Japan  South Korea

To ensure continuity, the presidency is supported by a "troika" made up of the current, immediate past and next host countries.[31]

Organization[edit] The G20
G20
operates without a permanent secretariat or staff. The group's chair rotates annually among the members and is selected from a different regional grouping of countries. The incumbent chair establishes a temporary secretariat for the duration of its term, which coordinates the group's work and organizes its meetings. The current chair of the G20
G20
is Japan. The 2018 chair was Argentina, which hosted the 2018 Summit in Buenos Aires.[32] The 2020 chair will be Saudi Arabia, which will host the 2020 G20
G20
Riyadh summit. The 2021 summit will be held in Italy.

Proposed permanent secretariat[edit] In 2010, President of France
France
Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy
proposed the establishment of a permanent G20
G20
secretariat, similar to the United Nations. Seoul
Seoul
and Paris
Paris
were suggested as possible locations for its headquarters.[33] Brazil
Brazil
and China
China
supported the establishment of a secretariat, while Italy
Italy
and Japan
Japan
expressed opposition to the proposal.[33] South Korea
South Korea
proposed a "cyber secretariat" as an alternative.[33] It has been argued that the G20
G20
has been using the OECD
OECD
as a secretariat.[34]

List of members[edit] As of 2017[update] there are 20 members of the group: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Spain
Spain
is a permanent guest invitee.[35][36] Representative include, at the leaders' summits, the leaders of 19 countries and of the European Union, and, at the ministerial-level meetings, the finance ministers and central bank governors of 19 countries and of the European Union. In addition each year, the G20's guests include Spain; the Chair of ASEAN; two African countries (the chair of the African Union
African Union
and a representative of the New Partnership for Africa's Development) and a country (sometimes more than one) invited by the presidency, usually from its own region.[2][37][38] The first of the tables below lists the member entities and their heads of government, finance ministers and central bank governors. The second table lists relevant statistics such as population and GDP figures for each member, as well as detailing memberships of other international organizations, such as the G7, BRICS
BRICS
and MIKTA. Total GDP figures are given in millions of US dollars.

Leaders[edit]

Member

Leader position

State leader

Finance portfolio

Portfolio minister

Central bank

Central bank
Central bank
governor

 Argentina

President

Mauricio Macri

Minister of the Treasury

Nicolás Dujovne

Central Bank of Argentina

Guido Sandleris

 Australia

Prime Minister

Scott Morrison

Treasurer

Josh Frydenberg

Reserve Bank of Australia

Philip Lowe

 Brazil

President

Jair Bolsonaro

Minister of Economy

Paulo Guedes

Central Bank of Brazil

Roberto Campos Neto

 Canada

Prime Minister

Justin Trudeau

Minister of Finance

Bill Morneau

Bank of Canada

Stephen Poloz

 China

President[note 1]

Xi Jinping[note 1]

Minister of Finance

Liu Kun

People's Bank of China

Yi Gang

 France

President

Emmanuel Macron

Minister of the Economy

Bruno Le Maire

Bank of France

François Villeroy de Galhau

 Germany

Chancellor

Angela Merkel

Minister of Finance

Olaf Scholz

Deutsche Bundesbank

Jens Weidmann

 India

Prime Minister

Narendra Modi

Minister of Finance

Nirmala Sitharaman

Reserve Bank of India

Shaktikanta Das

 Indonesia

President

Joko Widodo

Minister of Finance

Sri Mulyani

Bank Indonesia

Perry Warjiyo

 Italy

Prime Minister

Giuseppe Conte

Minister of Economy and Finance

Giovanni Tria

Bank of Italy

Ignazio Visco

 Japan

Prime Minister

Shinzō Abe

Minister of Finance

Tarō Asō

Bank of Japan

Haruhiko Kuroda

 Mexico

President

Andrés Manuel López Obrador

Secretary of Finance

Arturo Herrera Gutiérrez

Bank of Mexico

Alejandro Díaz de León

 Russia

President

Vladimir Putin

Minister of Finance

Anton Siluanov

Bank of Russia

Elvira Nabiullina

 Saudi Arabia

King

Salman

Minister of Finance

Mohammed Al-Jadaan

Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority

Ahmed Abdulkarim Al-Khulaifi

 South Africa

President

Cyril Ramaphosa

Minister of Finance

Tito Mboweni

South African Reserve Bank

Lesetja Kganyago

 South Korea

President

Moon Jae-in

Minister of Economy and Finance

Hong Nam-ki

Bank of Korea

Lee Ju-yeol

 Turkey

President

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

Minister of Finance

Berat Albayrak

Central Bank of Turkey

Murat Çetinkaya

 United Kingdom

Prime Minister

Boris Johnson

Chancellor of the Exchequer

Sajid Javid

Bank of England

Mark Carney

 United States

President

Donald Trump

Secretary of the Treasury

Steven Mnuchin

Federal Reserve

Jerome Powell

 European Union[39]

President of the European Council

Donald Tusk

Commissioner for Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and Customs

Pierre Moscovici

European Central Bank

Mario Draghi

President of the European Commission

Jean-Claude Juncker

Member country data[edit]

Member

TradeBil. USD (2018)[citation needed]

Nom. GDPmil. USD (2019)[40][41]

PPP GDPmil. USD (2019)[42]

Nom. GDP per capitaUSD (2019)[40][41]

PPP GDP per capitaUSD (2019)[43]

HDI(2017)

Population(2018)[44]

Areakm2

P5

G4

G7

BRICS

MIKTA

DAC

OECD

C'wth

N11

OPEC

CIVETS

IMF
IMF
economy classification[45][46]

 Argentina

127

477,743

920,209

10,667

20,537

0.825

44,570,000

2,780,400

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

Emerging

 Australia

481.1

1,417,003

1,369,392

56,698

52,373

0.939

25,182,000

7,692,024

N

N

N

N

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

N

N

Advanced

 Brazil

421.1

1,960,000

3,495,000

9,343

16,662

0.759

210,400,000

8,515,767

N

Y

N

Y

N

N

N

N

Y

N

N

Emerging

 Canada

910

1,739,110

1,896,725

46,733

49,651

0.926

37,078,000

9,984,670

N

N

Y

N

N

Y

Y

Y

N

N

N

Advanced

 China

4,629

14,216,503

27,331,166

9,633

18,110

0.752

1,396,982,000

9,634,057

Y

N

N

Y

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

Emerging

 France

1,227.4

2,761,633

3,054,599

42,931

45,775

0.901

65,098,000

640,679

Y

N

Y

N

N

Y

Y

N

N

N

N

Advanced

 Germany

2,834

3,963,880

4,467,238

48,670

52,559

0.936

82,786,000

357,114

N

Y

Y

N

N

Y

Y

N

N

N

N

Advanced

 India

830.7

2,971,996

11,468,022

2,016

7,874

0.640

1,334,221,000

3,287,263

N

Y

N

Y

N

N

N

Y

N

N

N

Emerging

 Indonesia

368.9

1,100,911

3,743,159

4,120

13,230

0.694

265,316,000

1,904,569

N

N

N

N

Y

N

N

N

Y

N

Y

Emerging

 Italy

1,047.4

2,025,866

2,442,144

34,349

39,637

0.880

60,756,000

301,336

N

N

Y

N

N

Y

Y

N

N

N

N

Advanced

 Japan

1,486.6

5,176,205

5,749,550

39,306

44,227

0.909

126,431,000

377,930

N

Y

Y

N

N

Y

Y

N

N

N

N

Advanced

 Mexico

915.2

1,241,450

2,658,041

9,807

20,602

0.774

124,738,000

1,964,375

N

N

N

N

Y

N

Y

N

Y

N

N

Emerging

 Russia

687.5

1,610,381

4,357,759

11,327

29,267

0.816

143,965,088

17,098,242

Y

N

N

Y

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

Emerging

 Saudi Arabia

369.1

762,259

1,924,253

23,187

55,944

0.853

33,203,000

2,149,690

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

Y

N

Emerging/Developing

 South Africa

187.8

371,298

813,100

6,560

13,675

0.699

57,420,000

1,221,037

N

N

N

Y

N

N

N

Y

N

N

Y

Emerging/Developing

 South Korea

1,140.4

1,656,674

2,229,779

32,046

41,351

0.903

51,665,000

100,210

N

N

N

N

Y

Y

Y

N

Y

N

N

Advanced

 Turkey

391

706,237

2,274,072

9,346

27,956

0.791

71,867,000

783,562

N

N

N

N

Y

N

Y

N

Y

N

Y

Emerging

 United Kingdom

1,157.1

2,829,163

3,128,185

42,261

45,705

0.922

66,466,000

242,495

Y

N

Y

N

N

Y

Y

Y

N

N

N

Advanced

 United States

4,278

21,344,667

21,344,667

62,606

62,606

0.924

328,116,000

9,526,468

Y

N

Y

N

N

Y

Y

N

N

N

N

Advanced

 European Union

18,705,132

22,761,233

33,715

41,091

0.899

512,600,000

4,422,773

N

N

Y

N

N

Y

N

N

N

N

N

N/A

In addition to these 20 members, the chief executive officers of several other international forums and institutions participate in meetings of the G20.[2] These include the managing director and Chairman of the International Monetary Fund, the President of the World Bank, the International Monetary and Financial Committee
International Monetary and Financial Committee
and the Chairman of the Development Assistance Committee. The G20's membership does not reflect exactly the 19 largest national economies of the world in any given year. The organization states:[1]

In a forum such as the G20, it is particularly important for the number of countries involved to be restricted and fixed to ensure the effectiveness and continuity of its activity. There are no formal criteria for G20
G20
membership and the composition of the group has remained unchanged since it was established. In view of the objectives of the G20, it was considered important that countries and regions of systemic significance for the international financial system be included. Aspects such as geographical balance and population representation also played a major part.

All 19 member nations are among the top 32 economies as measured in GDP at nominal prices in a list published by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) for 2018.[47] Not represented by membership in the G20
G20
are Switzerland
Switzerland
(ranked 20th by the IMF), Taiwan (21), Thailand
Thailand
(25), Norway
Norway
(28), the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
(29), Iran (30) and Nigeria
Nigeria
(31). even though they rank higher than some members. The Netherlands
Netherlands
(17), Sweden
Sweden
(22), Poland
Poland
(23), Belgium
Belgium
(24), and Austria
Austria
(27) are included only as part of the EU, and not independently. Spain
Spain
(13) is a permanent guest invitee. When the countries' GDP is measured at purchasing power parity (PPP) rates,[48][49] all 19 members are among the top 30 in the world for the year of 2017, according to the IMF. Iran
Iran
(18), Thailand
Thailand
(20), Egypt
Egypt
(21), Taiwan
Taiwan
(22), Nigeria
Nigeria
(24), Pakistan
Pakistan
(25), Malaysia
Malaysia
(26) and Philippines
Philippines
(29) are not G20
G20
members, while Poland (23) and the Netherlands
Netherlands
(28) are only included by virtue of being EU members, and Spain
Spain
(15), is a permanent guest invitee. However, in a list of average GDP, calculated for the years since the group's creation (1999–2008) at both nominal and PPP rates, only Spain, the Netherlands, Nigeria, Poland, Taiwan, Iran
Iran
and Thailand
Thailand
appear above any G20
G20
member in both lists simultaneously. Spain, being the 14th largest economy in the world and 5th in the European Union
European Union
in terms of nominal GDP, has been a "permanent guest" of the organization, and the Spanish government's policy is to not request official membership.[50][51] A Spanish delegation has been invited to, and has attended, every G20
G20
heads of state summit since the G20's inception.

Role of Asian countries[edit] A 2011 report released by the Asian Development Bank
Asian Development Bank
(ADB) predicted that large Asian economies such as China
China
and India
India
would play a more important role in global economic governance in the future. The report claimed that the rise of emerging market economies heralded a new world order, in which the G20
G20
would become the global economic steering committee.[52] The ADB furthermore noted that Asian countries had led the global recovery following the late-2000s recession. It predicted that the region would have a greater presence on the global stage, shaping the G20's agenda for balanced and sustainable growth through strengthening intraregional trade and stimulating domestic demand.[52]

Invitees[edit] G20
G20
members (blue) and invited states (pink) as of 2016 Typically, several participants that are not permanent members of the G20
G20
are extended invitations to participate in the summits. Each year, the Chair of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations; the Chair of the African Union; and a representative of the New Partnership for Africa's Development are invited in their capacities as leaders of their organisations and as heads of government of their home states.[53] Additionally, the leaders of the Financial Stability Board, the International Labour Organization, the International Monetary Fund, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the United Nations, the World Bank
World Bank
Group and the World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
are invited and participate in pre-summit planning within the policy purview of their respective organisation.[54] Spain
Spain
is a permanent non-member invitee.[53] Other invitees are chosen by the host country, usually one or two countries from its own region.[53] For example, South Korea invited Singapore. International organisations which have been invited in the past include the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC), the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision
Basel Committee on Banking Supervision
(BCBS), the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Eurasian Economic Community
Eurasian Economic Community
(EAEC), the European Central Bank
European Central Bank
(ECB), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the Global Governance Group (3G) and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Previously, the Netherlands
Netherlands
had a similar status to Spain
Spain
while the rotating presidency of the Council of the European Union would also receive an invitation, but only in that capacity and not as their own state's leader (such as the Czech premiers Mirek Topolánek and Jan Fischer during the 2009 summits). As of 2017, leaders from the following nations have been invited to the G20
G20
summits: Azerbaijan, Benin, Brunei, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Kazakhstan, Laos, Malawi, Malaysia, Mauritania, Myanmar, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, the Philippines, Poland, Senegal, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Thailand, the United Arab Emirates, Vietnam, and Zimbabwe.[53]

Permanent guest invitees[edit]

Invitee

Officeholder

State

Official title

  African Union
African Union
(AU)

Abdel Fattah el-Sisi

 Egypt

President(Chairperson)

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC)

Sebastián Piñera

 Chile

President(2019 host)

Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
(ASEAN)

Prayut Chan-o-cha

 Thailand

Prime Minister(2019 Chair)

Lim Jock Hoi

N/A

Secretary-General

Financial Stability Board
Financial Stability Board
(FSB)

Randal K. Quarles

N/A

Chairperson

International Labour Organization
International Labour Organization
(ILO)

Guy Ryder

N/A

Director General

International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
(IMF)

Christine Lagarde

N/A

Managing Director

 Spain

Pedro Sánchez

 Spain

Prime Minister

New Partnership for Africa's Development
New Partnership for Africa's Development
(NEPAD)

Macky Sall

 Senegal

President(Chair)

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD)

José Ángel Gurría

N/A

Secretary-General

  United Nations
United Nations
(UN)

António Guterres

N/A

Secretary-General

World Bank
World Bank
Group (WBG)

David Malpass

N/A

Acting President

World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
(WTO)

Roberto Azevêdo

N/A

Director General

G20
G20
Agenda[edit] Financial focus[edit] The initial G20
G20
agenda, as conceived by US, Canadian and German policy makers, was very much focused on the sustainability of sovereign debt and global financial stability, in an inclusive format that would bring in the largest developing economies as equal partners. During a summit in November 2008, the leaders of the group pledged to contribute trillions to international finance organizations, including the World Bank
World Bank
and IMF, mainly for reestablishing the global financial system.[55][56] Since inception, the recurring themes covered by G20
G20
summit participants have related in priority to global economic growth, international trade and financial market regulation.[57]

Inclusive growth[edit] After the adoption of the UN Sustainable Development Goals
Sustainable Development Goals
and the Paris
Paris
Climate Agreement in 2015, more "issues of global significance"[57][58] were added to the G20
G20
agenda: migration, digitisation, employment, healthcare, the economic empowerment of women and development aid.[59]

Interrelated themes[edit] Wolfgang Schäuble, German Federal Minister of Finance, has insisted on the interconnected nature of the issues facing G20
G20
nations, be they purely financial or developmental, and the need to reach effective, cross-cutting policy measures: "Globalization has lifted hundreds of millions out of poverty, but there is also a growing rise in frustration in some quarters […] development, [national] security and migration are all interlinked"[58]

Criticisms[edit] Exclusivity of membership[edit] Although the G20
G20
has stated that the group's "economic weight and broad membership gives it a high degree of legitimacy and influence over the management of the global economy and financial system",[60] its legitimacy has been challenged. A 2011 report for the Danish Institute for International Studies criticised the G20's exclusivity, particularly highlighting its underrepresentation of African countries and its practice of inviting observers from non-member states as a mere "concession at the margins", which does not grant the organisation representational legitimacy.[61] With respect to the membership issue, former US President
US President
Barack Obama noted the difficulty of pleasing everyone: "Everybody wants the smallest possible group that includes them. So, if they're the 21st largest nation in the world, they want the G21, and think it's highly unfair if they have been cut out."[62] Others stated in 2011 that the exclusivity is not an insurmountable problem, and proposed mechanisms by which it could become more inclusive.[63]

Norwegian perspective[edit] In line with Norway's emphasis on inclusive international processes, the United Nations
United Nations
and the UN-system, in a 2010 interview with Der Spiegel, former Norwegian foreign minister Jonas Gahr Støre
Jonas Gahr Støre
called the G20
G20
"one of the greatest setbacks since World War II"[6] as 173 nations who are all members of the UN are not among the G20. This includes Norway, a major developed economy and the seventh-largest contributor to UN international development programs,[64] which is not a member of the EU, and thus is not represented in the G20
G20
even indirectly.[6] Norway, like other such nations, has little or no voice within the group. Støre argued that the G20
G20
undermines the legitimacy of international organizations set up in the aftermath of World War II, such as the IMF, World Bank and United Nations:

The G20
G20
is a self-appointed group. Its composition is determined by the major countries and powers. It may be more representative than the G7 or the G8, in which only the richest countries are represented, but it is still arbitrary. We no longer live in the 19th century, a time when the major powers met and redrew the map of the world. No one needs a new Congress of Vienna.[6]

Norway, under the government of Erna Solberg, attended the 2017 G20 Summit in Hamburg, Germany,[65] and participates in working groups and sub-working groups, for instance on research. The Norwegian Minister of the Elderly will participate under the 2019 Japanese presidency of the G20.

Spanish position on membership[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) The Spanish government's policy is to not request official membership. Despite being hit hard by the economic crisis after 2008, Spain
Spain
is still the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP (the 5th in the European Union) and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity, clearly exceeding the numbers of several current members of the G20
G20
such as Argentina
Argentina
or South Africa. In addition, since the 1990s several Spanish companies have gained multinational status, often expanding their activities in culturally close Latin America, where Spain
Spain
is the second biggest foreign investor after the United States and keeps an important influence. These facts have reinforced the idea that Spain
Spain
should seek permanent membership of the G20.

Polish aspirations[edit] In contrast with the Spanish position, the Polish government has repeatedly asked to join the G20. Before the 2009 G20
G20
London summit, the Polish government expressed an interest in joining with Spain
Spain
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
and condemned an "organisational mess" in which a few European leaders speak in the name of all the EU without legitimate authorisation in cases which belong to the European Commission. During a 2010 meeting with foreign diplomats, former Polish president Lech Kaczyński
Lech Kaczyński
said:

Polish economy is according to our data an 18th world economy. The place of my country is among the members of the G20. This is a very simple postulate: firstly – it results from the size of Polish economy, secondly – it results from the fact that Poland
Poland
is the biggest country in its region and the biggest country that has experienced a certain story. That story is a political and economic transformation.[66]

In 2012 Forbes
Forbes
wrote that swapping Argentina
Argentina
for Poland
Poland
should be considered, claiming that the Polish economy was headed toward a leadership role in Europe and its membership would be more legitimate.[67] Similar opinions have been later expressed by American magazine Foreign Policy, Wall Street Journal
Wall Street Journal
and by Mamta Murthi from the World Bank.[68][69][70] In 2014 consulting company Ernst & Young published its report about optimal members for G20. After analyzing trade, institutional and investment links Poland
Poland
was included as one of the optimal members.[71] G20
G20
membership has been part of Poland's Law and Justice
Law and Justice
party and President Andrzej Duda
Andrzej Duda
political program.[72] In March 2017, Deputy Prime Minister of Poland
Poland
Mateusz Morawiecki
Mateusz Morawiecki
took part in a meeting of G20
G20
financial ministers in Baden-Baden
Baden-Baden
as the first Polish representative.[73][74] In 2017, Poland's GDP is 483 billion dollars (less than Argentina's 620 billion dollars, more than South Africa's 326 billion dollars). In 2018 Poland's GDP is 614 billion dollars (less than Argentina's 625 billion dollars, more than South Africa's 370 billion dollars).

Global Governance Group (3G) response[edit] In June 2010, Singapore's representative to the United Nations
United Nations
warned the G20
G20
that its decisions would affect "all countries, big and small", and asserted that prominent non- G20
G20
members should be included in financial reform discussions.[75] Singapore
Singapore
thereafter took a leading role in organizing the Global Governance Group (3G), an informal grouping of 30 non- G20
G20
countries (including several microstates and many Third World
Third World
countries) with the aim of collectively channelling their views into the G20
G20
process more effectively.[76][77][78] Singapore's chairing of the 3G was cited as a rationale for inviting Singapore
Singapore
to the November 2010 G20
G20
summit in South Korea, as well as the 2011, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and the recently concluded 2017 summits.[79]

Foreign Policy critiques[edit] The American magazine Foreign Policy has published articles condemning the G20, in terms of its principal function as an alternative to the supposedly exclusive G8. It questions the actions of some of the G20 members, and advances the notion that some nations should not have membership in the first place. Furthermore, with the effects of the Great Recession still ongoing, the magazine has criticized the G20's efforts to implement reforms of the world's financial institutions, branding such efforts as failed.[80]

Wider concerns[edit] The G20's prominent membership gives it a strong input on global policy despite lacking any formal ability to enforce rules. There are disputes over the legitimacy of the G20,[81] and criticisms of its organisation and the efficacy of its declarations.[82] The G20's transparency and accountability have been questioned by critics, who call attention to the absence of a formal charter and the fact that the most important G20
G20
meetings are closed-door.[83] In 2001, the economist Frances Stewart proposed an Economic Security Council within the United Nations
United Nations
as an alternative to the G20. In such a council, members would be elected by the General Assembly based on their importance to the world economy, and the contribution they are willing to provide to world economic development.[84] The cost and extent of summit-related security is often a contentious issue in the hosting country, and G20
G20
summits have attracted protesters from a variety of backgrounds, including information activists, opponents of fractional-reserve banking and anti-capitalists. In 2010, the Toronto
Toronto
G20
G20
summit sparked mass protests and rioting, leading to the largest mass arrest in Canada's history.

See also[edit]

International relations portal Model G20 Big Four (Western Europe) Pacific Alliance Emerging power Group of Ten (economics) Group of Eight
Group of Eight
or G8 Group of Seven
Group of Seven
or G7 BRICS MIKTA Great power Middle power Regional power Global governance List of countries by GDP (nominal) List of countries by GDP (PPP) List of country groupings List of multilateral free-trade agreements Notes[edit]

^ a b The de jure head of government of China
China
is the Premier, whose current holder is Li Keqiang. The President of China
China
is legally a ceremonial office, but the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China
China
(de facto leader) has always held this office since 1993 except for the months of transition, and the current paramount leader is Xi Jinping.

References[edit] Footnotes[edit]

^ a b "FAQ #5: What are the criteria for G-20 membership?" Archived 16 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. G20.org. Retrieved 21 February 2013.

^ a b c d " G20
G20
Members". G20.org. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 15 January 2014..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ a b " G20
G20
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^ "Global Politics". Andrew Heywood. Retrieved 4 December 2015.

^ "Officials: G-20 to supplant G-8 as international economic council". CNN. 25 September 2009. Retrieved 25 September 2009.

^ a b c d " Norway
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^ Bosco, David (19 April 2012). "Who would replace Argentina
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on the G20?". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 24 April 2012.

^ Mahoney, Jill; Ann Hui (29 June 2010). "G20-related mass arrests unique in Canadian history". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Retrieved 21 July 2010.

^ "Past Summits"

^ See, e.g., Woods 2006; Gilpin 2001; Markwell 2006.

^ "What is the G20?". University of Toronto. 2010. Retrieved 12 November 2014.

^ Colin I. Bradford; Johannes F. Linn (2004). "Global Economics". Brookings Institution. Retrieved 12 November 2014.

^ Bradford, Colin I. (23 June 2010). "Web Chat: Previewing the G-20 Summit". Brookings Institution. Retrieved 7 July 2017.

^ a b c Kirton, John (17 December 2013). "Explaining G20
G20
Summit Success". G20
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^ a b "Who gets to rule the world". Sean Kilpatrick. Maclean's Magazine (Canada). 1 July 2010

^ a b c Ibbitson, John; Perkins, Tara (18 June 2010). "How Canada
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made the G20
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happen". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 7 July 2017.

^ Thomas Axworthy. "Eight is not enough at summit." Toronto
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^ Wade 2009, p. 553.

^ "US to host next G20
G20
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^ "Leaders' statement, the Pittsburgh
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^ "G20". Bond.org.uk. Retrieved 16 June 2013.

^ " Argentina
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^ " G20
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^ "Canberra considers barring Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
from G20
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Brisbane
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BRICS
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^ " India
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G20
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G20
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^ " G20
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^ " G20
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^ a b c "Who Would Host a G20
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^ Wouters & Van Kerckhoven 2011.

^ " G20
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G20
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^ "The G20
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and the world". G20
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Australia
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^ "What is the G-20". G20.org. Archived from the original on 20 November 2013. Retrieved 27 June 2010.

^ "Van Rompuy and Barroso to both represent EU at G20". EUobserver.com. 19 March 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2012. "The permanent president of the EU Council, former Belgian premier Herman Van Rompuy, also represents the bloc abroad in foreign policy and security matters...in other areas, such as climate change, President Barroso will speak on behalf of the 27-member club."

^ a b "World Economic Outlook Database: GDP, GDP per capita, GDP PPP,". International Monetary Fund. October 2018. Retrieved 2 April 2019. (2016 GDP and GDP PPP numbers for Germany
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are IMF
IMF
staff estimates.)

^ a b "World Economic Outlook Database: GDP, GDP PPP, Population for EU countries". International Monetary Fund. April 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2017. (2016 GDP and GDP PPP numbers for Belgium, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Luxembourg, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Sweden
Sweden
are IMF
IMF
staff estimates.)

^ "World Economic Outlook Database: GDP, GDP per capita, GDP PPP, GDP PPP per capita, Population for G20
G20
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^ World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019, International Monetary Fund. Database updated in April 2019. Accessed on 12 April 2019.

^ " International Monetary Fund
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^ "World Economic Outlook Database: WEO Groups and Aggregates Information". International Monetary Fund. April 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2017.

^ "World Economic Outlook: Frequently Asked Questions. Q. How does the WEO categorize advanced versus emerging market and developing economies?". International Monetary Fund. 29 July 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2017.

^ "Gross domestic product, current prices". IMF
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^ "Gross domestic product based on purchasing-power-parity (PPP) valuation of country GDP". IMF
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^ "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved 9 May 2018.

^ The G20
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^ España será invitado permanente en el G-20. Elpais.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 December 2011.

^ a b "Asia to play bigger role on world stage, G20: ADB report". The People's Daily. 26 April 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2011.

^ a b c d " G20
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^ "International Organisations". G-20 Australia. 2014. Retrieved 22 December 2014.

^ Ibbitson, John (18 June 2016). "How Canada
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Made the G20
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^ "The End of the G-20". Foreign Affairs. September 2016. – via  Foreign Affairs
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(subscription required)

^ a b The Federal Government, of Germany
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^ a b Firzli, M. Nicolas J. (7 July 2017). " G20
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Bibliography[edit] .mw-parser-output .refbegin font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul list-style-type:none;margin-left:0 .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none .mw-parser-output .refbegin-100 font-size:100% Cooper, Andrew F. (2011). "The G20
G20
and Its Regional Critics: The Search for Inclusion". Global Policy. doi:10.1111/j.1758-5899.2011.00081.x. ISSN 1758-5899. Firzli, Nicolas J. (2017). " G20
G20
Nations Shifting the Trillions: Impact Investing, Green Infrastructure and Inclusive Growth" (PDF). Revue Analyse Financière. 64 (3): 15–18. Gilpin, Robert (2001). Global Political Economy: Understanding the International Economic Order. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-08676-7. Markwell, Donald (2006). John Maynard Keynes and International Relations: Economic Paths to War and Peace. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198292364.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-829236-4. Wade, Robert (2009). "From Global Imbalances to Global Reorganisations". Cambridge Journal of Economics. 33 (4): 539–562. doi:10.1093/cje/bep032. ISSN 1464-3545. Woods, Ngaire (2006). The Globalizers: The IMF, the World Bank, and Their Borrowers. Cornell Studies in Money. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4424-1. JSTOR 10.7591/j.ctt1ffjpgn. Wouters, Jan; Van Kerckhoven, Sven (2011). " OECD
OECD
and the G20: An Ever Closer Relationship" (PDF). George Washington International Law Review. 43 (2): 345–374. ISSN 1534-9977.

Further reading[edit]

Haas, Peter M. (1992). "Introduction: Epistemic Communities and International Policy Coordination" (PDF). International Organization. 46 (1): 1–35. doi:10.1017/S0020818300001442. ISSN 1531-5088. JSTOR 2706951. Hajnal, Peter I. (2007). "The G8 System and the G20: Evolution, Role and Documentation". Global Finance Series. Aldershot, England: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-4550-4. Kirton, John J. (2013). G20
G20
Governance for a Globalized World. Global Finance Series. Abingdon, England: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-4094-2829-9. Reinalda, Bob; Verbeek, Bertjan, eds. (1998). Autonomous Policy Making by International Organizations. Routledge/ECPR Studies in European Political Science. 5. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-16486-3. Samans, Richard; Uzan, Marc; Lopez-Claros, Augusto, eds. (2007). The International Monetary System, the IMF
IMF
and the G-20: A Great Transformation in the Making?. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-52495-8.

External links[edit]

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vte G20
G20
major economies  Argentina  Australia  Brazil  Canada  China  European Union  France  Germany  India  Indonesia  Italy  Japan  Mexico  Russia  Saudi Arabia  South Africa  Republic of Korea  Turkey  United Kingdom  United States

vteHeads of state of the G20  Macri   Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(Governor-General: Hurley)  Bolsonaro   Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(Governor General: Payette)  Xi  Tusk  Macron  Steinmeier  Kovind  Jokowi  Mattarella  Naruhito  López Obrador  Putin  Salman  Ramaphosa  Moon  Erdoğan  Elizabeth II  Trump

vteLeaders of the G20  Macri  Morrison  Bolsonaro  Trudeau  Xi  Tusk / Juncker  Macron  Merkel  Modi  Jokowi  Conte  Abe

 López Obrador  Putin  Salman  Ramaphosa  Moon  Erdoğan  Johnson  Trump

vteForeign ministers of the G20  Faurie  Payne  Araújo  Freeland  Wang  Mogherini  Le Drian  Maas  Jaishankar  Marsudi  Moavero Milanesi  Kōno

 Ebrard  Lavrov  Al-Assaf  Sisulu  Kang  Çavuşoğlu  Raab  Pompeo

vteFinance ministers of the G20  Dujovne  Frydenberg  Guedes  Morneau  Liu  Moscovici  Le Maire  Scholz  Sitharaman  Sri Mulyani  Tria  Asō

 Urzúa  Siluanov  Jadaan  Mboweni  Hong  Ağbal  Javid  Mnuchin

vte Central bank
Central bank
governors of the G20 Sandleris Lowe Campos Neto Poloz Yi Draghi Villeroy de Galhau Weidmann Das Warjiyo Visco Kuroda

León Nabiullina Al-Khulaifi Kganyago Lee Başçı Carney Powell

vte G20
G20
summits 2008 Washington 2009 London 2009 Pittsburgh 2010 Toronto 2010 Seoul 2011 Cannes 2012 Los Cabos 2013 St Petersburg 2014 Brisbane 2015 Antalya 2016 Hangzhou 2017 Hamburg 2018 Buenos Aires 2019 Osaka 2020 Riyadh 2021

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