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FYNBOS (/ˈfeɪnbɒs/ ; Dutch pronunciation: meaning fine-leaved plants) is a small belt of natural shrubland or heathland vegetation located on the Western Cape
Western Cape
of South Africa. This area is predominantly winter rainfall coastal and mountainous areas with a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
. The fynbos ecoregion is within the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrubbiome . In fields related to biogeography , fynbos is known for its exceptional degree of biodiversity and endemism , consisting about 80% (8,500 fynbos) species of the Cape floral kingdomwhere nearly 6,000 of them are endemic. This land has faced severe threats and still does, but due to the many economic uses conservation efforts are being made to help restore it.

CONTENTS

* 1 Overview and history * 2 Cape Floral Kingdom * 3 Flora
Flora
* 4 Ecoregions * 5 Economic uses * 6 Threats and conservation * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links

OVERVIEW AND HISTORY

The word FYNBOS is often confusingly said to mean "fine bush" in Afrikaans
Afrikaans
, as "bos" means "bush". Typical fynbos foliage is ericoid rather than fine. The term, in its pre-Afrikaans, Dutch form, _fynbosch_, was recorded by Noble as being in casual use in the late 19th century. In the early 20th century, John Bews referred to: "South-Western or Cape Region of Macchia or Fynbosch". He said: "In this well-known region where the rain occurs in winter and the summers are more or less dry, the dominant vegetation is of a sclerophyllous type and there is little or no natural grassland , though there are many grasses..." He also refers to a high degree of endemism in the grasses in that region. Elsewhere he speaks of the term as "...applied by the inhabitants of the Cape to any sort of small woodland growth that does not include timber trees"; in the current vernacular, this still is the effective sense of the word. However, in the technical, ecological sense, the constraints are more demanding. In the latter half of the 20th century, "fynbos" gained currency as the term for the "distinctive vegetation of the southwestern Cape".

CAPE FLORAL KINGDOM

The Cape Floral Kingdom (Capensis) is one of only 6 floristic kingdoms in the world. It is also the smallest and richest per unit of area. Main article: Cape Floristic Region

Fynbos
Fynbos
– which grows in a 100-to-200-km-wide coastal belt stretching from Clanwilliam on the West coast to Port Elizabethon the Southeast coast – forms part of the Cape floral kingdom, where it accounts for half of the surface area and 80% of the plant species. The fynbos in the western regions is richer and more varied than in the eastern regions of South Africa.

Of the world's six floral kingdoms , this is the smallest and richest per unit of area. The Holarctickingdom, in contrast, incorporates the whole of the Northern Hemisphere north of the tropics. The diversity of fynbos plants is extremely high, with over 9000 species of plants occurring in the area, around 6200 of which are endemic , i.e. growing nowhere else in the world. South Africa's Western Cape
Western Cape
has a level of botanic diversity that exceeds that of the richest tropical rainforest in South America, including the Amazon. Of the _Ericas _, over 600 occur in the fynbos kingdom, while only two or three dozen have been described in the rest of the world. This is in an area of 46,000 km2 – by comparison, the Netherlands
Netherlands
, with an area of 33,000 km2, has 1400 species, none of them endemic. Table Mountain
Table Mountain
in Cape Town supports 2200 species, more than the entire United Kingdom. Thus, although the fynbos covers only 6% of the area of southern Africa, it has half the species on the subcontinent – and in fact has almost 1 in 5 of all African plant species so far described.

Five main river systems traverse the Cape floral kingdom: the Oliphants River of the Western Cape
Western Cape
; the Berg Riverwhich drains the West Coast Forelands plain stretching from the Cape Flatsto the Olifants; the Breede , which is the largest river on the Cape; the Olifants River (Southern Cape); Gourits and the Groot Rivers which drain the Little Karoo
Little Karoo
basin and the South Coast Forelands; and the Baviaanskloof and Gamtoos Rivers to the east.

FLORA

_ Peninsula Shale Fynbos
Peninsula Shale Fynbos
flora on Devils Peak , Cape Town
Cape Town
. Gladiolus alatus_ flowers in Cape fynbos.

The most conspicuous components of the flora are evergreen sclerophyllous plants, many with ericoid leaves and gracile habit, as opposed to timber forest. Several plant families are conspicuous in fynbos; the Proteaceaeare prominent, with genera such as _ Protea
Protea
_, _ Leucospermum
Leucospermum
_ (the "pincushions"), and _ Leucadendron
Leucadendron
_ (the silver tree and "cone bushes "). Proteas are represented by many species and are prominent in the landscape, generally with large striking flowers, many of which are pollinated by birds, and others by small mammals. Most of these do not have anything like ericoid leaves, and nor do most Rhamnaceae
Rhamnaceae
, Fabaceae
Fabaceae
, or Geraniaceae
Geraniaceae
. Fynbos
Fynbos
Ericaceaeinclude more species of _Erica_ than all other regions combined. They are popularly called heaths and are generally smaller plants bearing many small, tubular or globular flowers and ericoid leaves. Restionaceae also occur in greater variety in fynbos than anywhere else; their species are superficially grass-like. Many of them grow in wet areas such as seasonal marshes and spongy basins in the sources of mountain streams, but others grow in decidedly arid conditions.

Depending on the locality and the aspects under discussion, several other families have equal claim to being characteristic, including Asteraceae
Asteraceae
, Rutaceae
Rutaceae
, and Iridaceae. More than 1400 bulb species occur among the fynbos, of which 96 are _ Gladiolus
Gladiolus
_ and 54 _ Lachenalia_. Areas that are dominated by "renosterbos", _ Elytropappus rhinocerotis_, (Asteraceae) are known as Renosterveld ( Afrikaans
Afrikaans
for "rhinoceros veld").

ECOREGIONS

The fynbos area has been divided into two very similar ecoregions : the lowland fynbos (below 300 m above sea level) on the sandy soil of the west coast, and the montane fynbos of the Cape Fold Belt. Lowland fynbos, in this case Hangklip Sand Fynboson the Cape Peninsula Montane fynbos, in this case Peninsula Sandstone Fynbos on the Cape Peninsula
Cape Peninsula
Renosterveld
Renosterveld
, in this case Swartland Shale Renosterveld
Renosterveld

The LOWLAND FYNBOS AND RENOSTERVELD experiences regular winter rainfall, especially to the west of Cape Agulhas. The ecoregion has been subdivided into 9 areas: the West Coast Forelands from the Cape Flats to the Olifants River (Western Cape); the Warm Bokkeveld basin around the town of Ceres ; the Elgin Valley around the town of Elgin ; the sandy Agulhas Plain on the coast; the Breede Rivervalley around the town of Worcester ; the South Coast Forelands from Caledon west to Mossel Bay
Mossel Bay
; the south-eastern end of the Little Karoo; Langkloof valley; and the Southeastern Coast Forelands west from Tsitsikammato Port Elizabeth.

The flora of the lowlands contains a high number of endemic species, and tends to favour larger plants than those growing on the hillier areas. They include the larger Restionaceaesuch as species of _Elegia _, _ Thamnochortus_, and _Willdenowia _ and proteas such as king protea (_ Protea
Protea
cynaroides _) and blushing bride (_Serruria florida _). Particular types of lowland fynbos include the shrubs and herbs of the coastal sand dunes, the mixture of ericoids and restoids with thickets of shrubs such as _ Maytenus
Maytenus
_, and other Celastraceae, sideroxylons and other Sapotaceae, and _ Rhus
Rhus
_ and other Anacardiaceae
Anacardiaceae
on the coastal sands; the classic fynbos of the sandplains of the West Coast Forelands, and the Agulhas Plain; the grassy fynbos of the hillier and wetter areas of the South and South-Eastern Coast Forelands; areas where fynbos and renosterveld are mixed; coastal renosterveld on the West and South Coast Forelands; and the inland renosterveld of the drier inland Little Karoo
Little Karoo
and Warm Bokkeveld.

The area is also home to a large number of endemic creatures that have adapted to life in this area, such as the monkey beetles which pollinate _ Ixia viridiflora_. Endemic species of fish in the five river systems occur in the area, too. Endemic reptiles and amphibians include a number of tortoises and the chameleon-like arum frog (_ Hyperolius horstockii_). A 360 degree photograph of fynbos in the Groot Winterhoeksection of the Cape Fold Mountains about 18 months after a fire. New plants can be seen in various stages of growth following the fire. The infertile white soil that fynbos tends to grow in can also be clearly seen. Click here to see the photograph in 360 degrees.

The MONTANE FYNBOS AND RENOSTERVELD is the area above 300 m, a total of 45,000 km2 of the Cape Fold Mountains. The same level of floral variety, including all three characteristic fynbos families, is found there, but ericas predominate. Because the higher and wetter areas are more protected and contain important water sources, the original flora is more intact than in the lowlands; but agriculture and global warming are stll threats. The region includes the mountains in the west from the Cape Peninsula
Cape Peninsula
to the Kouebokkeveld Mountains, the south coast hinterland from Elgin to Port Elizabeth, the mountains north of the Little Karoo
Little Karoo
from Laingsburg to Willowmore, and the inselberg hills within the Little Karoo. About half of these areas are originally fynbos, and about half are renosterveld.

Many different microclimates occur, so the flora changes from west to east, and also varies with altitude up the hillsides away from the coast and according to compass direction. Lower elevations are covered with protea fynbos, with ericas taking over further up. Plant species include pincushions (_ Leucospermum
Leucospermum
_). The wildlife includes a number of endemic bees, beetles, horseflies, and ants, and birds such as Cape sugarbirds and the orange-breasted sunbird . Many of these birds and insects are important and specific pollinators for the fynbos, such as the mountain pride butterfly (_ Aeropetes tulbaghia_) which only visits red flowers such as _ Disa uniflora_ and pollinates 15 different species. Larger animals include antelopes, particularly Cape grysbok (_ Raphicerus melanotis_), common duiker (_Sylvicapra grimmia _), and klipspringer (_ Oreotragus oreotragus_). The extinct blue antelope and quagga were also fynbos natives.

ECONOMIC USES

Researchers in a relatively remote stretch of Kogelberg Sandstone Fynbos
Fynbos

Rooibos
Rooibos
(_Aspalathus linearis_) and honeybush (_Cyclopia intermedia_) are of economic importance, grown and harvested in large quantities in the Cederbergarea, and providing important exports. Restios continue to be used for thatching, as they have for hundreds or even thousands of years. Proteas and other floral species are grown in many areas and their flowers harvested for export.

In many areas with Mediterranean climates, fynbos species have become popular garden plants, in particular aloes and geraniums , and in cooler regions are used as window plants.

A very large number of fynbos plant species are used in traditional medicine, and while only a tiny proportion have as yet been subjected to formal testing, many have already been identified as having medicinal properties. Community conservation group for the critically endangered remnant of Lourensford Alluvium Fynbosat Harmony Flats
Harmony Flats
, Cape Town
Cape Town
.

THREATS AND CONSERVATION

The regrowth of fynbos species, from around the trunk of a fallen invasive pine tree. Cape Town.

The fynbos is the region of South Africa most affected by invasive alien species which collectively cover around 10% of the entire country. The most common invasive plants are wattles and hakeas , native to Australia, and pines native to Europe and the Californian coast of the United States. Pines had been introduced to South Africa by the 19th century and the wattles were imported into the mid-1870s to stabilize sand dunes . In 1997 it was estimated that invasion caused the fynbos region to decline in value by US$750 million per year.

The Working for Water (WfW) program was started in 1995 by the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry to control these invasive species which were shown to sequester 9.95% of usable surface water runoff. Since then, over 1,000,00 hectares of land have been cleared of invasive species while providing jobs to around 20,000 people per year, most of which are women and unskilled workers. Systematic monitoring of WfW's progress is lacking but there is anecdotal evidence that endemic silver peas have returned to Table Mountain after being thought extinct.

SEE ALSO

* Shrubland * Heath (habitat)

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Manning, John (2008). _Field Guide to Fynbos_. Cape Town: Struik Publishers. ISBN 9781770072657 . * ^ "Lowland fynbos and renosterveld". _Terrestrial Ecoregions_. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 26 January 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Fynbos, South Africa". _panda.org_. Retrieved 15 January 2017. * ^ Noble, John. Descriptive handbook of the Cape Colony: its condition and resources Publisher: Juta 1875 it may be downloaded from: https://archive.org/details/descriptivehandb00nobl * ^ Bews, John William. The grasses and grasslands of South Africa Publisher: Pietermaritzburg, P. David & Sons, Ltd., Printers 1918 May be downloaded from: https://archive.org/details/grassesgrassland00bews * ^ "Lowland fynbos and renosterveld". _Terrestrial Ecoregions_. World Wildlife Fund. * ^ "Working with fynbos - Fynbos
Fynbos
Hub". _fynboshub.co.za_. Retrieved 15 January 2017. * ^ "Pig’s ears and buchu brandy: medicinal plants of the fynbos – Table Mountain
Table Mountain
Aerial Cableway - Official Website". _tablemountain.net_. Retrieved 15 January 2017. * ^ "Commercialization of South African Indigenous Crops: Aspects of Research and Cultivation of Products". _purdue.edu_. Retrieved 15 January 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "STATUS OF INVASIVE TREE SPECIES IN SOUTHERN AFRICA". _Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations_. Retrieved 2016-01-27. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Working for Water Programme". _Department of Environmental Affairs_. Retrieved 2016-01-27. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Balmford, Andrew (2012). _Wild Hope: On the Front Lines of Conservation Success_. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. pp. 67–87. ISBN 978-0-226-03601-4 .

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to FYNBOS _.

EXTERNAL LINKS

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