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Fusobacteria
Fusobacteria
are obligately anaerobic non-sporeforming Gram-negative bacilli. Since the first reports in the late nineteenth century, various names have been applied to these organisms, sometimes with the same name being applied to different species. More recently, not only have there been changes to the nomenclature, but also attempts to differentiate between species which are believed to be either pathogenic or commensal or both. Because of their asaccharolytic nature, and a general paucity of positive results in routine biochemical tests, laboratory identification of the fusobacteria has been difficult. However, the application of novel molecular biological techniques to taxonomy has established a number of new species, together with the subspeciation of Fusobacterium
Fusobacterium
necrophorum and F. nucleatum, and provided new methods for identification. The involvement of fusobacteria in a wide spectrum of human infections causing tissue necrosis and septicaemia has long been recognised, and, more recently, their importance in intra-amniotic infections, premature labour and tropical ulcers has been reported. Since the first reports of fusobacteria in the late nineteenth century, the variety of species names has led to some confusion within the genera Fusobacterium
Fusobacterium
and Leptotrichia. However, newer methods of investigation have led to a better understanding of the taxonomy, with the description of several new species of fusobacteria. Among the new species described are F. ulcerans from tropical ulcers, and several species from the oral cavity. Subspeciation of the important species F. necrophorum and F. nucleatum has also been possible. It is probable that the taxonomy of the fusobacteria may be further developed in the future.[1] Phylogeny[edit] The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LSPN)[2][3] and the phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 123 by The All-Species Living Tree Project.[4]

Leptotrichiaceae

Streptobacillus

S. hongkongensis Woo et al. 2014

S. moniliformis Levaditi et al. 1925

Sneathia sanguinegens Collins et al. 2002 (type sp.)

Sebaldella termitidis (Sebald 1962) Collins and Shah 1986

Leptotrichia

L. goodfellowii Eribe et al. 2004

L. hofstadii Eribe et al. 2004

L. buccalis (Robin 1853) Trevisan 1879 (type sp.)

L. wadei Eribe et al. 2004

L. shahii Eribe et al. 2004

L. hongkongensis Woo et al. 2011

L. trevisanii Tee et al. 2002

Fusobacteriaceae

Psychrilyobacter atlanticus Zhao et al. 2009

Ilyobacter tartaricus Schink 1985

Ilyobacter polytropus Stieb and Schink 1985 (type sp.)

Propionigenium maris Janssen and Liesack 1996 emend. Watson et al. 2000

Ilyobacter insuetus Brune et al. 2002

Propionigenium modestum Schink and Pfennig 1983 (type sp.)

Cetobacterium

C. ceti Foster et al. 1996 (type sp.)

C. somerae Finegold et al. 2003

Fusobacterium

F. perfoetens (Tissier 1905) Moore and Holdeman 1973

F. necrogenes (Weinberg et al. 1937) Moore and Holdeman 1970

F. mortiferum (Harris 1901) Moore and Holdeman 1970

Clostridium rectum (Heller 1922) Holdeman and Moore 1972

F. ulcerans Adriaans and Shah 1988

F. varium (Eggerth and Gagnon 1933) Moore and Holdeman 1969

F. gonidiaformans (Tunnicliff and Jackson 1925) Moore and Holdeman 1970

F. equinum Dorsch et al. 2001

F. necrophorum

F. n. funduliforme (ex Hallé 1898) Shinjo et al. 1991

F. n. necrophorum (Flügge 1886) Shinjo et al. 1991

F. russii (Hauduroy et al. 1937) Moore and Holdeman 1970

F. nucleatum polymorphum (ex Knorr 1922) Dzink et al. 1990

F. periodonticum Slots et al. 1984

F. canifelinum Conrads et al. 2004

F. nucleatum fusiforme (ex Veillon and Zuber 1898) Gharbia and Shah 1992

F. nucleatum vincentii Dzink et al. 1990

F. nucleatum nucleatum (Knorr 1922) Dzink et al. 1990 (type sp.)

F. simiae Slots and Potts 1982

F. nucleatum animalis Gharbia and Shah 1992

Filifactor alocis (Cato et al. 1985) Jalava and Eerola 1999

Note 1: Species not used in the All-Species Living Tree Project

Leptotrichiaceae

Caviibacter abscessus Eisenberg et al. 2016 Oceanivirga salmonicida Eisenberg et al. 2016 Streptobacillus
Streptobacillus
felis Eisenberg et al. 2015 Streptobacillus
Streptobacillus
notomytis Eisenberg et al. 2015 Streptobacillus
Streptobacillus
ratti Eisenberg et al. 2015 Sneathia amnionii ♠ Harwich et al. 2012

Fusobacteriaceae

Ilyobacter delafieldii Janssen and Harfoot 1991 Ilyobacter psychrophilus ♠ Qoura & Antranikian 2005a Fusobacterium
Fusobacterium
naviforme (Jungano 1909) Moore and Holdeman 1970 Fusobacterium
Fusobacterium
plautii corrig. Séguin 1928 Fusobacterium
Fusobacterium
polysaccharolyticum van Gylswyk 1981 Fusobacterium
Fusobacterium
prausnitzii (Hauduroy et al. 1937) Moore & Holdeman 1970 Fusobacterium
Fusobacterium
sulci Cato et al. 1985

Note 2: ♠ Strain found at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) but not listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) See also[edit]

Fusiform

References[edit]

^ Bennett, K. W.; Eley, A. (1 October 1993). "Fusobacteria: New taxonomy and related diseases". Journal of Medical Microbiology. 39 (4): 246–254. doi:10.1099/00222615-39-4-246.  ^ J.P. Euzéby. "Fusobacteria". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved 2016-03-20.  ^ Sayers; et al. "Fusobacteria". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database. Retrieved 2016-03-20.  ^ See the All-Species Living Tree Project
All-Species Living Tree Project
[1]. Data extracted from the "16S rRNA-based LTP release 123 (full tree)" (PDF). Silva Comprehensive Ribosomal RNA Database. Retrieved 2016-03-20. 

v t e

Prokaryotes: Bacteria
Bacteria
classification (phyla and orders)

Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta

Animal Fungi)

G-/ OM

Terra-/ Glidobacteria (BV1)

Eobacteria

Deinococcus–Thermus

Deinococcales Thermales

Chloroflexi

Anaerolineales Caldilineales Chloroflexales Herpetosiphonales Dehalococcoidales Ktedonobacterales Thermogemmatisporales Thermomicrobiales Sphaerobacterales

other glidobacteria

Thermodesulfobacteria thermophiles

Aquificae Thermotogae

Cyanobacteria

Proteobacteria (BV2)

Alpha

Caulobacterales Kiloniellales Kordiimonadales Magnetococcales Parvularculales Rhizobiales Rhodobacterales Rhodospirillales Rickettsiales Sneathiellales Sphingomonadales

Beta

Burkholderiales Hydrogenophilales Methylophilales Neisseriales Nitrosomonadales Procabacteriales Rhodocyclales

Gamma

Acidithiobacillales Aeromonadales Alteromonadales Cardiobacteriales Chromatiales Enterobacteriales Legionellales Methylococcales Oceanospirillales Orbales Pasteurellales Pseudomonadales Salinisphaerales Thiotrichales Vibrionales Xanthomonadales

Delta

Bdellovibrionales Desulfarculales Desulfobacterales Desulfovibrionales Desulfurellales Desulfuromonadales Myxococcales Syntrophobacterales Syntrophorhabdales

Epsilon

Campylobacterales Nautiliales

Zeta

Mariprofundales

BV4

Spirochaetes

Spirochaetes

Sphingobacteria (FCB group)

Fibrobacteres Chlorobi

Chlorobiales Ignavibacteriales

Bacteroidetes

Bacteroidales Cytophagales Flavobacteriales Sphingobacteriales

Planctobacteria/ (PVC group)

Chlamydiae Lentisphaerae

Lentisphaerales Oligosphaerales Victivallales

Planctomycetes

Phycisphaerales Planctomycetales

Verrucomicrobia

Puniceicoccales Opitutales Chthoniobacterales Verrucomicrobiales

"Poribacteria"

Other GN

Acidobacteria

Acidobacteriales Acanthopleuribacterales Holophagales Solibacterales

Armatimonadetes

Armatimonadales Chthonomonadales Fimbriimonadales

Caldiserica Chrysiogenetes Deferribacteres Dictyoglomi Elusimicrobia Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Synergistetes

G+/ no OM

Firmicutes (BV3)

Bacilli

Bacillales Lactobacillales

Clostridia

Clostridiales Halanaerobiales Thermoanaerobacteriales Natranaerobiales

Erysipelotrichia

Erysipelotrichiales

Thermolithobacteria

Thermolithobacterales

Tenericutes/ Mollicutes

Mycoplasmatales Entomoplasmatales Anaeroplasmatales Acholeplasmatales Haloplasmatales

Negativicutes

Selenomonadales

Actinobacteria (BV5)

Actinobacteria

Actinomycetales Bifidobacteriales

Acidimicrobiia

Acidimicrobiales

Coriobacteriidae

Coriobacteriales

Nitriliruptoria

Euzebyales Nitriliruptorales

Rubrobacteria

Gaiellales Rubrobacterales Thermoleophilales Solirubrobacterales

Incertae sedis

†Archaeosphaeroides †Eobacterium †Leptotrichites

Source: Bergey's Manual (2001–2012). Alternative views: Wikispecies.

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q1137677 EoL: 7734 EPPO: 1FUSBC iNaturalist: 151854 ITIS:

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