Fulton County is a county in the north central portion of the U.S.
state of Georgia. As of 2017 estimates, the population was 1,041,423,
making it Georgia's most populous county and the state's only county
with over 1 million inhabitants. Its county seat is Atlanta, which
has also been the state capital since 1868. Ninety percent of the City
Atlanta is within Fulton County (the other 10% lies within DeKalb
County). Fulton County is the principal county of the Atlanta
Fulton County is part of the Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell, GA
Metropolitan Statistical Area.
6.1 Adjacent counties
6.2 National protected areas
7.1 Major highways
7.1.1 Interstate highways
7.1.2 U.S. highways
7.1.3 State routes
7.2 Secondary highways
7.3 Mass transit
7.4 Recreational trails
12.2 Former Unincorporated communities
13 See also
15 External links
Atlanta and the Downtown Connector
Fulton County was created in 1853 from the western half of DeKalb
County. It was named in honor of Robert Fulton, inventor of the
steamboat. Organized as settlement increased in the Piedmont
section of upland Georgia, Fulton County grew rapidly after the
American Civil War
American Civil War as
Atlanta was rebuilt, becoming a center of
railroad shipping, industry and business.
After the war, there was considerable violence against freedmen in the
county. During the post-Reconstruction period, violence and the number
of lynchings of blacks increased in the late 19th century, as whites
exercised terrorism to re-establish and maintain white supremacy.
Whites lynched 35 African
Americans here from 1877-1950; most were
killed around the turn of the 20th century. This was the highest total
in the state. With a total of 589, Georgia was second to
Mississippi in its total number of lynchings in this period.
In addition to individual lynchings, during the
Atlanta Race Riot of
1906, whites killed at least 25 African Americans; the number may have
been considerably higher. Two white persons died during the riot; one
a woman who died of a heart attack. The violence affected black
residential and business development in the city afterward, some of
which has been maintained in county development. The Georgia
legislature effectively completed disenfranchisement of African
Americans in 1908 constitutional amendments that raised barriers to
voter registration and voting, excluding them from the political
At the beginning of 1932, as an austerity measure to save money during
the Great Depression, Fulton County annexed Milton County to the north
and Campbell County to the southwest, to centralize administration.
That resulted in the current long shape of the county along 80 miles
(130 km) of the Chattahoochee River. On May 9 of that year,
Cobb County ceded the city of Roswell and lands lying east
Willeo Creek to Fulton County so that it would be more contiguous
with the lands ceded from Milton County.
In the second half of the 20th century,
Atlanta and Fulton county
became the location of numerous national and international
headquarters for leading companies, attracting highly skilled
employees from around the country. As a result, the city and county
became more cosmopolitan and diverse.
Fulton County is governed by a seven-member board of commissioners,
whose members are elected from single-member districts. They serve
concurrent four-year terms. The most recent election was held in
November 2010. The county has a county manager system of government,
in which day-to-day operation of the county is handled by a manager
appointed by the board. The chairman of the Board of Commissioners is
elected at-large for the county-wide position. The vice chairman is
elected by peers on a yearly basis.
Board of Commissioners
District 7 (At-Large)
Robb Pitts (Chairman)
Marvin S. Arrington, Jr.
Emma I. Darnell
Board of Commissioners Appointees
Clerk to the Commission
Tonya Grier (interim)
Chief Financial Officer
Chief Operations Officer
Chief Strategy Officer
Fulton County's budget of $1.2 billion funds an array of resident
services. With 34 branches, the Atlanta-Fulton Public Library System
is one of the largest library systems in Georgia. Human services
programs include one of the strongest senior center networks in metro
Atlanta, including four multi-purpose senior facilities. The county
also provides funding to nonprofits with FRESH and Human Services
Previous Presidential Elections Results
Atlanta is the largest city in Fulton County, occupying the county's
narrow center section and thus geographically dividing the county's
northern and southern portions. Atlanta's last major annexation in
1952 brought over 118 square miles (310 km2) into the city,
including the affluent suburb of Buckhead. The movement to create a
city of Sandy Springs, launched in the early 1970s and reaching
fruition in 2005, was largely an effort to prevent additional
annexations by the city of Atlanta, and later to wrest local control
from the county commission.
Fulton County is one of the most reliably Democratic counties in the
entire nation. It has voted Democratic in every presidential election
since 1876, except that of 1928 and again in 1972, when George
McGovern could not win a single county in Georgia. The demographic
character of the Democratic Party has changed; as conservative whites,
previously its chief members in the South, have mostly shifted to the
Republican Party. In Fulton County, Democrats are composed primarily
of liberal urbanites of various ethnicities.
Geographically remote from each other, the northern and southern
sections of the county have grown increasingly at odds over issues
related to taxes and distribution of services. Residents of the
affluent areas of North Fulton have increasingly complained that the
Fulton County Board of Commissioners has ignored their needs, taking
taxes collected in North Fulton, and spending them on programs and
services in less wealthy South Fulton. In 2005, responding to pressure
from North Fulton, the
Georgia General Assembly
Georgia General Assembly directed Fulton
County, alone among all the counties in the state, to limit the
expenditure of funds to the geographic region of the county where they
were collected. The Fulton County Commission contested this law, known
as the "Shafer Amendment" after Sen. David Shafer (Republican from
Duluth), in a lawsuit that went to the Georgia Supreme Court. On June
19, 2006, the Court upheld the law, ruling that the Shafer Amendment
The creation of the city of Sandy Springs stimulated the founding of
two additional cities, resulting in no unincorporated areas remaining
in north Fulton. In a domino effect, the residents of southwest Fulton
voted in referenda to create additional cities. In 2007, one of these
two referenda passed and the other was defeated, but later passed in
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help
improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2015) (Learn
how and when to remove this template message)
Road in Chattahoochee Hills
Since the 1970s, residents of Sandy Springs had waged a long-running
battle to incorporate their community as a city, which would make it
independent of county council control. They were repeatedly blocked in
the state legislature by
Atlanta Democrats, but when control of state
government switched to suburban Republicans after the 2002 and 2004
elections, the movement to charter the city picked up steam.
Pill Hill, Sandy Springs
The General Assembly approved creation of the city in 2005, and for
this case, it suspended an existing state law that prohibited new
cities (the only type of municipality in the state) from being within
three miles (4.8 km) of an existing one. The citizens of Sandy
Springs voted 94% in favor of ratifying the city charter in a
referendum held on June 21, 2005. The new city was officially
incorporated later that year at midnight on December 1.
Johns Creek city hall
Creation of Sandy Springs was a catalyst for municipalization of the
entire county, in which local groups would attempt to incorporate
every area into a city. Such a result would essentially eliminate the
county's home rule powers (granted statewide by a constitutional
amendment to the
Georgia State Constitution
Georgia State Constitution in the 1960s) to act as a
municipality in unincorporated areas, and return it to being entirely
the local extension of state government.
In 2006, the General Assembly approved creation of two new cities,
Milton and Johns Creek, which completed municipalization of North
Fulton. The charters of these two new cities were ratified
overwhelmingly in a referendum held July 18, 2006.
Voters in the Chattahoochee Hills community of southwest Fulton (west
of Cascade-Palmetto Highway) voted overwhelmingly to incorporate in
June 2007. The city became incorporated on December 1, 2007.
The General Assembly approved a proposal to form a new city called
South Fulton. Its proposed boundaries were to include those areas
still unincorporated on July 1, 2007. As a direct result of possibly
being permanently landlocked, many of the existing cities proposed
annexations, while some communities drew-up incorporation plans.
Voters in the area defined as the proposed city of South Fulton
overwhelmingly rejected cityhood in September 2007. It was the only
remaining unincorporated section of the county until the residents
voted in November 2016 to incorporate as the city of South Fulton,
Georgia. Prior to that vote North Fulton, which is overwhelmingly
Republican, and members of the state legislature, had discussed
forcing South Fulton residents to incorporate as a city in order to
force Fulton County out of the municipal services business.
Some residents of suburban north Fulton have advocated that they be
allowed to secede and re-form Milton County, after the county that was
absorbed into Fulton County in 1932 during the Great Depression.
Fulton County, in comparison to the state's other counties, is
physically large. Its population is greater than that of each of the
six smallest U.S. states.
The demographic make-up of Fulton County has changed considerably in
recent decades. The northern portion of the county, a suburban area
that is mostly Republican, is among the most affluent areas in the
nation and is majority white. The central and southern portion of the
county, which includes the city of
Atlanta and its core satellite
cities to the south, on the other hand, is overwhelmingly Democratic
and majority black. It contains some of the poorest sections in the
metropolitan area, but also has wealthy sections, particularly in the
neighborhoods along Cascade Road beyond I-285.
Cascade Heights and
Sandtown, located in the southwest region of Fulton County, are
predominantly affluent African American in population.
The chief opponents to the proposed division of the county comes from
the residents of south Fulton County, who say that the proposed
separation is racially motivated. State Senator Vincent Fort, an
Atlanta Democrat and a member of the Georgia Legislative Black Caucus,
very strongly opposes the plan to split the county. "If it gets to the
floor, there will be blood on the walls", Fort stated. "As much as you
would like to think it's not racial, it's difficult to draw any other
conclusion", he later added.
In 2006 a political firestorm broke out in
Atlanta when State Senator
Sam Zamarripa (Democrat from Atlanta) suggested that the cities in
North Fulton be allowed to secede and form Milton County in exchange
Atlanta and Fulton County consolidating their governments into a
Atlanta County". South Fulton residents were strongly opposed to
Fulton County's possible future division.
Fulton County has a 7% total sales tax, including 4% state, 1% SPLOST,
1% homestead exemption, and 1% MARTA. Sales taxes apply through the
entire county and its cities, except for Atlanta's additional 1%
Municipal Option Sales Tax to fund capital improvements to its
combined wastewater sewer systems (laying new pipes to separate storm
sewers from sanitary sewers), and to its drinking water system.
Fulton County has lowered its general fund millage rate by 26% over an
In early 2017, the state's first (and so far only) fractional-percent
sales taxes took effect in Fulton.
Atlanta added an additional 0.5%
for MARTA and 0.4% T
SPLOST for other transportation projects, while
anti-transit Republicans legislators from north Fulton blocked a
countywide referendum on improving and extending MARTA, and instead
allowed only a vote on a 0.75% T
SPLOST for more roads in the areas
outside Atlanta. This puts the total sales tax at 8.9% in
7.75% in the rest of the county, with 4% less on groceries. 
Garrett Lake, Mountain Park
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of
534 square miles (1,380 km2), of which 527 square miles
(1,360 km2) is land and 7.7 square miles (20 km2) (1.4%) is
water. The shape of the county resembles a sword with its handle
at the northeastern part, and the tip at the southwestern portion.
Going from north to south, the northernmost portion of Fulton County,
encompassing Milton and northern Alpharetta, is located in the Etowah
River sub-basin of the
ACT River Basin (Coosa-Tallapoosa River Basin).
The rest of north and central Fulton, to downtown Atlanta, is located
in the Upper
Chattahoochee River sub-basin of the ACF River Basin
(Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin). The bulk of south
Fulton County, from
Atlanta to Palmetto, is located in the Middle
Lake Harding sub-basin of the larger ACF River
Basin, with just the eastern edges of south Fulton, from Palmetto
northeast through Union Hill to Hapeville, in the Upper Flint River
sub-basin of the same larger ACF River Basin.
Cherokee County – northwest
Forsyth County – northeast
Gwinnett County – east
DeKalb County – east
Clayton County – south
Fayette County – south
Coweta County – southwest
Carroll County – west
Douglas County – west
Cobb County – west
National protected areas
Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area (part)
Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this
section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material
may be challenged and removed. (May 2009) (Learn how and when to
remove this template message)
South Fulton Parkway
Almost every major highway, and every major Interstate highway, in
Atlanta passes through Fulton County. Outside
Georgia 400 is the major highway through north Fulton, and Interstate
85 to the southwest.
U.S. Route 19
U.S. Route 23
U.S. Route 29
U.S. Route 29 Alternate
U.S. Route 41
U.S. Route 78
U.S. Route 278
State Route 3
State Route 3 Connector
State Route 6
State Route 8
State Route 9
State Route 10
State Route 13
State Route 14
State Route 14 Alternate
State Route 14 Connector
State Route 42
State Route 42 Connector
State Route 42 Spur
State Route 54
State Route 54 Connector
State Route 70
State Route 74
State Route 92
State Route 120
State Route 138
State Route 139
State Route 140
State Route 141
State Route 154
State Route 154 Connector
State Route 166
State Route 236
State Route 237
State Route 279
State Route 280
State Route 372
State Route 400
State Route 401 (unsigned designation for I-75)
State Route 402 (unsigned designation for I-20)
State Route 403 (unsigned designation for I-85)
State Route 407 (unsigned designation for I-285)
Peachtree Street in Midtown Atlanta
East Wesley Road
Freedom Parkway (Georgia 10)
Johnson Ferry Road
Lindbergh Drive (Georgia 236)
Memorial Drive (Georgia 154)
Moreland Avenue (U.S. 23/Georgia 42)
Mount Vernon Highway
Peachtree Road (Georgia 141)
Piedmont Road (Georgia 237)
Ponce de Leon Avenue
Ponce de Leon Avenue (U.S. 23/29/78/278/Georgia 8/10)
Powers Ferry Road
Roswell Road (U.S. 19/Georgia 9)
East Point MARTA station
MARTA serves most of the county, and along with Clayton and Dekalb
County, Fulton pays a 1% sales tax to fund it. MARTA train service in
Fulton is currently limited to the cities of Atlanta, Sandy Springs,
East Point, and College Park, as well as the airport.
covers most of the remainder, except the rural areas in the far
southwest. North Fulton residents have been asking for service, to
extend the North Line ten miles (16 km) up the Georgia 400
Perimeter Center to the fellow edge city of Alpharetta.
However, as the only major transit system in the country that its
state government will not fund, there is no money to expand the
system. Sales taxes now go entirely to operating, maintaining, and
refurbishing the system. Xpress GA/ RTA provides commuter bus service
from the outer suburbs of Fulton County, the city of Sandy Springs to
Midtown and Downtown Atlanta.
BeltLine (under construction)
Big Creek Greenway (under construction)
PATH400 (under construction)
Peachtree Creek Greenway (under construction)
Airport straddles the border
with Clayton County to the south and is the busiest airport in the
world. The Fulton County Airport, often called Charlie Brown Field
after politician Charles M. Brown, is located just west-southwest of
Atlanta's city limit. It is run by the county as a municipal or
general aviation airport, serving business jets and private aircraft.
U.S. Decennial Census
As of the 2010
United States Census, there were 920,581 people,
376,377 households, and 209,215 families residing in the
county. The population density was 1,748.0 inhabitants per square
mile (674.9/km2). There were 437,105 housing units at an average
density of 830.0 per square mile (320.5/km2). The racial makeup of
the county was 46.4% white, 44.3% black or African American, 6.9%
Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 3.4% from other races, and 2.2% from two
or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 7.5% of the
population. In terms of ancestry, 7.7% were English, 7.2% were
German, 6.3% were Irish, and 5.4% were American.
Of the 376,377 households, 30.9% had children under the age of 18
living with them, 35.7% were married couples living together, 15.7%
had a female householder with no husband present, 44.4% were
non-families, and 35.4% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was
3.15. The median age was 34.2 years.
The median income for a household in the county was $56,709 and the
median income for a family was $75,579. Males had a median income of
$56,439 versus $42,697 for females. The per capita income for the
county was $37,211. About 12.0% of families and 15.3% of the
population were below the poverty line, including 22.0% of those under
age 18 and 12.0% of those age 65 or over.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help
improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2012)
(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Companies headquartered in Fulton County include AFC Enterprises
(Popeyes Chicken/Cinnabon), AT&T Mobility, Chick-fil-A, Children's
Healthcare of Atlanta, Church's Chicken, The Coca-Cola Company, Cox
Enterprises, Delta Air Lines, Earthlink, Equifax, First Data,
Georgia-Pacific, Global Payments, Inc., InterContinental Hotels Group,
IBM Internet Security Systems,
Mirant Corp., Newell Rubbermaid,
Northside Hospital, Piedmont Healthcare,
Porsche Cars North America,
Saint Joseph's Hospital, Southern Company, Spectrum Brands, SunTrust
Banks, United Parcel Service, and Wendy's/
Arby's Group are based in
various cities throughout Fulton County.
Marble Slab Creamery
Marble Slab Creamery had their headquarters in an
unincorporated area in the county, however, now those
companies are located in neighboring
Gwinnett County in
Atlanta § Education
All portions of Fulton County outside of the city limits of Atlanta
are served by the Fulton County School System.
All portions within
Atlanta are served by
Atlanta Public Schools.
The Atlanta-Fulton County Library system we know today began in 1902
as the Carnegie Library of Atlanta, one of the first public libraries
in the United States. In 9135, the city of
Atlanta and the Fulton
County Board of Commissioners signed a contract under which library
service was extended to all of Fulton County. Then in 1982, Georgia
voters passes a constitutional Amendment authorizing the transfer of
responsibility for the Library system from the city of
Atlanta to the
county. On July 1, 1983, the transfer finally became official, and the
system was renamed the Atlanta-Fulton Public Library System.
Under the leadership of Ella Gaines Yates, who was the first African
American director of the Library System, a new Central library was
opened to the public in May 1988. The building was designed by Marcel
Breuer, a participant in the innovative Bauhaus movement, working
side-by-side with his associate Hamilton Smith. The Central Library
was dedicated on May 25, 1980 and Breuer would die a year later on
July, 1981 at the age of 81.
In 2002 after a hundred years of library service to the public, a
major renovation of the Central Library was completed.
Under the current director of the Atlanta-Fulton Public Library
System, Dr. Gabriel Morley who was appointed on April 20,2017, the
libraries serve as a cultural and intellectual center that enriches
the community and empowers all residents with essential tools for
lifelong learning. The
Atlanta-Fulton Public Library System
Atlanta-Fulton Public Library System serves the
citizens of Fulton County and the
City of Atlanta. It is the largest
System in the state with 34 different library branches and a
collection of more than 2.5 million items. it offers new and creative
programs, services and virtual resources customized to meet the needs
of each branch's community. A variety of classes are offered to
children, teens, and adults. Also available to the customers are the
opportunities to visit exhibitions, listen to author's discuss their
work, checkout videos, DVD's and CD's. There are also book club
discussions that can be attended, people can get homework help, listen
to music and see live performances.
In 2016, patrons borrowed over 4.2 million items, made 4 million
visits to the libraries and its website had over 4 million hits.
Former Unincorporated communities
Birmingham (now within Milton)
Campbellton (now within South Fulton)
Ocee (now within Johns Creek)
Red Oak (now within South Fulton)
Rico (now within Chattahoochee Hills)
Sandtown (now within South Fulton)
Serenbe (village within Chattahoochee Hills)
Shakerag (within Johns Creek)
Warsaw (now within Johns Creek)
State of Georgia portal
National Register of Historic Places listings in Fulton County,
Fulton County Sheriff's Office
^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the
original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
^ Fulton County, The New Georgia Encyclopedia
^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the
United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 133.
^ Lynching in America/ Supplement: Lynchings by County, 3rd Edition,
2015, p. 4
^ AJC Staff, "Hundreds more were lynched in the South than previously
Atlanta Journal-Constitution, 14 June 2017; accessed
26 March 2018
^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections".
^ Dewan, Shaila (July 13, 2006). "In Georgia County, Divisions of
North and South Play Out in Drives to Form New Cities". The New York
^ Census tracts 78.05, 103.01, 103.03 and 103.04
^ "Plan to split county hints at racial divide". Retrieved March 19,
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-02-02. Retrieved
^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990".
United States Census
Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
^ "Georgia Soil and Water Conservation Commission Interactive Mapping
Experience". Georgia Soil and Water Conservation Commission. Retrieved
^ "ARC allocations could provide for bus transit expansion, funding
for Beltline extensions".
^ "Alpharetta OKs design to close
Big Creek Greenway gap".
^ "Roswell backs trail along Ga. 400".
Peachtree Creek Greenway work could begin early next year". 21
^ "American FactFinder". Retrieved March 22, 2018.
^ "U.S. Decennial Census".
United States Census Bureau. Archived from
the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved June 22, 2014.
^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library.
Retrieved June 22, 2014.
^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United
States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 22, 2014.
^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000"
United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 22, 2014.
^ "State & County QuickFacts".
United States Census Bureau.
Archived from the original on July 10, 2011. Retrieved June 22,
^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing
Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data".
United States Census
Bureau. Retrieved 2015-12-29.
^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County".
United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-12-29.
^ "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES –
2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-12-29.
^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American
Community Survey 5-Year Estimates".
United States Census Bureau.
^ "Contact Us." MaggieMoo's. Retrieved on February 26, 2010.[dead
^ "Contact Us Archived 2010-02-28 at the Wayback Machine.." Marble
Slab Creamery. Retrieved on February 26, 2010.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fulton County, Georgia.
Fulton County, New Georgia Encyclopedia
Documents from Fulton County at the Digital Library of Georgia
Fulton County Jail Information
Fulton County historical marker
Places adjacent to Fulton County, Georgia
Carroll County, Douglas County
Fulton County, Georgia
Gwinnett County and DeKalb County
Municipalities and communities of Fulton County, Georgia, United
County seat: Atlanta
‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or
Municipalities and CDPs in Metro Atlanta
North Druid Hills
Colleges and Universities
Transportation (Metro Atlanta)
State of Georgia
Seal of Georgia
Atlantic coastal plain
Lower Coastal Plain
North Georgia Mountains
Ridge and Valley
Coordinates: 33°47′N 84°28′W / 33.79°N 84.47°W /