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Fula /ˈflə/,[2] also known as Fulani /fʊˈlɑːn/[2] or Fulah[3][4][5] (Fula: Fulfulde 𞤊𞤵𞤤𞤬𞤵𞤤𞤣𞤫, Pulaar 𞤆𞤵𞤤𞤢𞥄𞤪, Pular 𞤆𞤵𞤤𞤢𞤪; French: Peul), is a Senegambian language spoken as a set of various dialects in a continuum that stretches across some 20 countries in West and Central Africa by more than 65 million people. Along with other related languages such as Serer and Wolof, it belongs to the Senegambian branch within the Niger–Congo family, which does not have tones, unlike most other Niger–Congo languages. More broadly, it belongs to the Atlantic geographic grouping within Niger–Congo. It is spoken as a first language by the Fula people ("Fulani", Fula: Fulɓe) from the Senegambia region and Guinea to Cameroon, Nigeria, and Sudan and by related groups such as the Toucouleur people in the Senegal River Valley. It is also spoken as a second language by various peoples in the region, such as the Kirdi of northern Cameroon and northeastern Nigeria.

Nomenclature

PersonPullo
PeopleFulɓe
LanguageFulfulde

Several names are applied to the language, just as to the Fula people. They call their language Pulaar or Pular in the western dialects and Fulfulde in the central and eastern dialects. Fula, Fulah and Fulani in English come originally from Manding (esp. Mandinka, but also Malinke and Bamana) and Hausa, respectively; Peul in French, also occasionally found in literature in English, comes from Wolof.

Morphology

Fula is based on verbonomial roots, from which verbal, noun, and modifier words are derived. It uses suffixes (sometimes inaccurately called infixes, as they come between the root and the inflectional ending) to modify meaning. These suffixes often serve the same purposes in Fula that prepositions do in English.

Noun classes

The Fula or Fulfulde language is characterized by a robust noun class system, with 24 to 26 noun classes being common across the Fulfulde dialects. [6] Noun classes in Fula are abstract categories with some classes having semantic attributes that characterize a subset of that class’ members, and others being marked by a membership too diverse to warrant any semantic categorization of the class’ members. [7] For example, classes are for stringy, long things, and another for big things, another for liquids, a noun class for strong, rigid objects, another for human or humanoid traits etc. Gender does not have any role in the Fula noun class system and the marking of gender is done with adjectives rather than class markers.[8] Noun classes are marked by suffixes on nouns. These suffixes are the same as the class name, though they are frequently subject to phonological processes, most frequently the dropping of the suffix's initial consonant. [9]

The table below illustrates the class name, the semantic property associated with class membership, and an example of a noun with its class marker. Classes 1 and 2 can be described as personal classes, classes 3-6 as diminutive classes, classes 7-8 as augmentative classes, and classes 9-25 as neutral classes. It is formed on the basis of McIntosh's 1984 description of Kaceccereere Fulfulde, which the author describes as "essentially the same" as Arnott's 1970 description of the noun classes of the Gombe dialect of Fula. Thus, certain examples from Arnott also informed this table.[10][11]

Number Class name Meaning Example
1.
o 𞤮 Person singular laam-ɗo ‘chief’; also loan words
2.
ɓe 𞤩𞤫 Person plural laam-ɓe ‘chiefs’
3.
ngel 𞤽𞤫𞤤 Diminutive singular loo-ngel ‘little pot’
4.
kal 𞤳𞤢𞤤 Diminutive quantities con-al ‘small quantity of flour’
5.
ngum/kum 𞤽𞤵𞤥/𞤳𞤵𞤥 Diminutive pejorative laam-ngum/laam-kum ‘worthless little chief’
6.
kon/koy 𞤳𞤮𞤲/𞤳𞤮𞤴 Diminutive plural ullu-kon/ullu-koy ‘small cats/kittens’
7.
nde 𞤲𞥋𞤣𞤫 Various, including globular objects, places, times loo-nde ‘storage pot’
8.
ndi 𞤲𞥋𞤣𞤭 Various, including uncountable nouns com-ri ‘tiredness’
9.
ndu 𞤲𞥋𞤣𞤵 Various ullu-ndu ‘cat’
10.
nga 𞤽𞤢 Various, including some large animals nood-a ‘crocodile’
11.
nge 𞤽𞤫 mainly for 'cow,' 'fire,' 'sun' 'hunger,' nagg-e ‘cow’
12.
ngo 𞤽𞤮 Various juu-ngo ‘hand’
13.
ngu 𞤽𞤵 Various ɓow-ngu ‘mosquito’
14.
ngal 𞤽𞤢𞤤 Various including augmentative singular ɗem-ngal ‘tongue’
15.
ngol 𞤽𞤮𞤤 Various, often long things ɓog-gol ‘rope’
16.
ngii/ngil 𞤽𞤭𞥅/𞤽𞤭𞤤 Various including augmentative singular ɓog-gii/ɓog-gii ‘big rope’
17.
ka 𞤳𞤢 Various laan-a ‘boat’
18.
ki 𞤳𞤭 Various lek-ki ‘tree’
19.
ko 𞤳𞤮 Various haak-o ‘soup’
20.
kol 𞤳𞤮𞤤 'Calf' 'foal' ñal-ol ‘calf’, mol-ol ‘foal’
21.
ɗam 𞤯𞤢𞤥 mainly for liquids lam-ɗam ‘salt’, ndiy-am ‘water’
22.
ɗum 𞤯𞤵𞤥 Neutral maw-ɗum ‘big thing’
23.
ɗe 𞤯𞤫 Nonhuman plural juu-ɗe ‘hands’
24.
ɗi 𞤯𞤭 Nonhuman plural na'i ‘cows’

Voice

Verbs in Fula are usually classed in three voices: active, middle, and passive.[12] Not every root is used in all voices. Some middle-voice verbs are reflexive.

A common example are verbs from the root loot-:

  • lootude, to wash (something) [active voice]
  • lootaade, to wash (oneself) [middle voice]
  • looteede, to be washed [passive voice]

Consonant mutation

Another feature of the language is initial consonant mutation between singular and plural forms of nouns and of v

Several names are applied to the language, just as to the Fula people. They call their language Pulaar or Pular in the western dialects and Fulfulde in the central and eastern dialects. Fula, Fulah and Fulani in English come originally from Manding (esp. Mandinka, but also Malinke and Bamana) and Hausa, respectively; Peul in French, also occasionally found in literature in English, comes from Wolof.

Morphology

Fula is based on verbonomial roots, from which verbal, noun, and modifier words are derived. It uses suffixes (sometimes inaccurately called infixes, as they come between the root and the inflectional ending) to modify meaning. These suffixes often serve the same purposes in Fula that prepositions do in English.

Noun classes

The Fula or Fulfulde language is characterized by a robust noun class system, with 24 to 26 noun classes being common across the Fulfulde dialects. [6] Noun classes in Fula are abstract categories with some classes having semantic attributes that characterize a subset of that class’ members, and others being marked by a membership too diverse to warrant any semantic categorization of the class’ members. [7] For example, classes are for stringy, long things, and another for big things, another for liquids, a noun class for strong, rigid objects, another for human or humanoid traits etc. Gender does not have any role in the Fula noun class system and the marking of gender is done with adjectives rather than class markers.[8] Noun classes are marked by suffixes on nouns. These suffixes are the same as the class name, though they are frequently subject to phonological processes, most frequently the dropping of the suffix's initial consonant. [9]

The table below illustrates the class name, the semantic property associated with class membership, and an example of a noun with its class marker. Classes 1 and 2 can be described as personal classes, classes 3-6 as diminutive classes, classes 7-8 as augmentative classes, and classes 9-25 as neutral classes. It is formed on the basis of McIntosh's 1984 description of Kaceccereere Fulfulde, which the author describes as "essentially the same" as Arnott's 1970 description of the noun classes of the Gombe dialect of Fula. Thus, certain examples from Arnott also informed this table.[10][11]

Number Class name Meaning Example
1.
o 𞤮 Person singular laam-ɗo ‘chief’; also loan words
2.
ɓe 𞤩𞤫 Person plural laam-ɓe ‘chiefs’
3.
ngel 𞤽𞤫𞤤 Diminutive singular loo-ngel ‘little pot’
4.
kal 𞤳𞤢𞤤 Diminutive quantities con-al ‘small quantity of flour’
5.
ng

Fula is based on verbonomial roots, from which verbal, noun, and modifier words are derived. It uses suffixes (sometimes inaccurately called infixes, as they come between the root and the inflectional ending) to modify meaning. These suffixes often serve the same purposes in Fula that prepositions do in English.

Noun classes

The Fula or Fulfulde language is characterized by a robust noun class system, with 24 to 26 noun classes being common across the Fulfulde dialects. [6] Noun classes in Fula are abstract categories with some classes having semantic attributes that characterize a subset of that class’ members, and others being marked by a membership too diverse to warrant any semantic categorization of the class’ members. [7] For example, classes are for stringy, long things, and another for big things, another for liquids, a noun class for strong, rigid objects, another for human or humanoid traits etc. Gender does not have any role in the Fula noun class system and the marking of gender is done with adjectives rather than class markers.[8] Noun classes are marked by suffixes on nouns. These suffixes are the same as the class name, though they are frequently subject to phonological processes, most frequently the dropping of the suffix's initial consonant. [9]

The table below illustrates the class name, the semantic property associated with class membership, and an example of a noun with its class marker. Classes 1 and 2 can be described as personal classes, classes 3-6 as diminutive classes, classes 7-8 as augmentative classes, and classes 9-25 as neutral classes. It

The table below illustrates the class name, the semantic property associated with class membership, and an example of a noun with its class marker. Classes 1 and 2 can be described as personal classes, classes 3-6 as diminutive classes, classes 7-8 as augmentative classes, and classes 9-25 as neutral classes. It is formed on the basis of McIntosh's 1984 description of Kaceccereere Fulfulde, which the author describes as "essentially the same" as Arnott's 1970 description of the noun classes of the Gombe dialect of Fula. Thus, certain examples from Arnott also informed this table.[10][11]

Verbs in Fula are usually classed in three voices: active, middle, and passive.[12] Not every root is used in all voices. Some middle-voice verbs are reflexive.

A common example are verbs from the root loot-:

  • lootude, to wash (something) [active voice]
  • lootaade, to wash (oneself) [middle voice]
  • looteede, to be washed [passive voice]

Consonant mutation

Another feature of the language is initial consonant mutation between singular and plural forms of nouns and of verbs (except in Pular, no consonant mutation exists in verbs, only in nouns).

A simplified schema is:

  • w ↔ b ↔ mb
  • r ↔ d ↔ nd
  • y ↔ j ↔ nj
  • w ↔ g ↔ ng
  • f ↔ p
  • s ↔ c
  • h ↔ k

Pronouns

Fula has inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns. The inclusive pronouns include both the speaker and those being spoken to, while the exclusive pronouns exclude the listeners.

The pronoun that corresponds to a given noun is determined by the noun class. Because men and women belong to the same noun class, the English pronouns "he" and "she" are translated into Fula by the same pronoun. However, depending on the dialect, there are some 25 different noun classes, each with its own pronoun. Sometimes those pronouns have both a nominative case (i.e., used as verb subject) and an accusative or dative case (i.e., used as a verb object) as well as a possessive form. Relative pronouns generally take the same form as the nominative.

Varieties

While there are numerous varieties of Fula, it is typically regarded as a single language. Wilson (1989) states that "travelers over wide distances never find communication impossible," and Ka (1991) concludes that despite its geographic span and dialect variation, Fulfulde is still fundamentally one language.[13] However, Ethnologue has found that nine different translations are needed to make the Bible comprehensible for most Fula speakers, and it treats these varieties as separate languages. They are listed in the box at the beginning of this article.

Status

Fulfulde is an official language in Senegal (Pulaar), an official lingua franca in Guinea, Senegambia, Maasina (Inner Niger Delta), North Eastern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon, precisely in Adamawa regions of the two countries (Fulfulde), where many speakers are bilingual, and a local language in many African countries, such as Mauritania, Mali, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, Togo, Ghana, A common example are verbs from the root loot-:

Another feature of the language is initial consonant mutation between singular and plural forms of nouns and of verbs (except in Pular, no consonant mutation exists in verbs, only in nouns).

A simplified schema is:

  • w ↔ b ↔ mb
  • r ↔ d ↔ nd
  • y ↔ j ↔ nj
  • w ↔ g ↔ ng
  • f ↔ p
  • s ↔ c
  • h ↔ k

Pronouns

Fula has inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pron

A simplified schema is:

Fula has inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns. The inclusive pronouns include both the speaker and those being spoken to, while the exclusive pronouns exclude the listeners.

The pronoun that corresponds to a given noun is determined by the noun class. Because men and women belong to the same noun class, the English pronouns "he" and "she" are translated into Fula by the same pronoun. However, depending on the dialect, there are some 25 different noun classes, each with its own pronoun. Sometimes those pronouns have both a nominative case (i.e., used as verb subject) and an accusative or dative case (i.e., used as a verb

The pronoun that corresponds to a given noun is determined by the noun class. Because men and women belong to the same noun class, the English pronouns "he" and "she" are translated into Fula by the same pronoun. However, depending on the dialect, there are some 25 different noun classes, each with its own pronoun. Sometimes those pronouns have both a nominative case (i.e., used as verb subject) and an accusative or dative case (i.e., used as a verb object) as well as a possessive form. Relative pronouns generally take the same form as the nominative.

While there are numerous varieties of Fula, it is typically regarded as a single language. Wilson (1989) states that "travelers over wide distances never find communication impossible," and Ka (1991) concludes that despite its geographic span and dialect variation, Fulfulde is still fundamentally one language.[13] However, Ethnologue has found that nine different translations are needed to make the Bible comprehensible for most Fula speakers, and it treats these varieties as separate languages. They are listed in the box at the beginning of this article.

Status

Fulfulde is an official language in Senegal (Pulaar), an official lingua franca in Guinea, Senegambia, Maasina (lingua franca in Guinea, Senegambia, Maasina (Inner Niger Delta), North Eastern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon, precisely in Adamawa regions of the two countries (Fulfulde), where many speakers are bilingual, and a local language in many African countries, such as Mauritania, Mali, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, Togo, Ghana, Benin and Niger.

Writing systems and phonology

a, aa, b, mb (or nb), ɓ, c, d, nda, aa, b, mb (or nb), ɓ, c, d, nd, ɗ, e, ee, f, g, ng, h, i, ii, j, nj, k, l, m, n, ŋ, ɲ (ny or ñ), o, oo, p, r, s, t, u, uu, w, y, ƴ or 'y, '

The letters q, v, x, z are used in some cases for loan words.

Fula Alphabets
The letters q, v, x, z are used in some cases for loan words.

Long vowels are written doubled: <aa, ee, ii, oo, uu> The standard Fulfulde alphabet adopted during the UNESCO-sponsored expert meeting in Bamako in March 1966 is as follows:[14] a, b, mb, ɓ, c, d, nd, ɗ, e, f, g, ng, h, i, j, nj, k, l, m, n, ŋ, ny (later ɲ or ñ), o, p, r, s, t, u, w, y, ƴ, '.

Phonology

Consonants

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
plain pal.
Plosive plain p t c ~ t͡ʃ k ʔ ʔʲ
voiced b d ɟ ~ d͡ʒ ɡ
prenasal ᵐb ⁿd ᶮɟ ~ ᶮd͡ʒ ᵑɡ
Implosive ɓ ɗ
Fricative f s h
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Trill r
Lateral l
Approximant j w

The two sounds /c/ and /ɟ/, may be realized as affricate sounds [] and [].

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid The two sounds /c/ and /ɟ/, may be realized as affricate sounds [] and [].

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid e o
Open a

Short /i e o u/ vowel sounds can also be realized as [ɪ ɛ ɔ ʊ]. Long vowel sounds can occur as /iː eː aː oː uː/.

Arabic script

Fula has also been written in the Arabic script or Ajami since before colonization by many scholars and learned people including Usman dan Fodio and the early emirs of the northern Nigeria emirates. This continues to a certain degree and notably in some areas like Guinea and Cameroon.[citation needed]

In fact, Fula retains many Arabic loanwords.

Adlam script

Adlam Pular
𞤀𞤣𞤤𞤢𞤥 𞤆𞤵𞤤𞤢𞤪
Type
Alphabet
LanguagesFula
Time period
Invented 1989
DirectionRight-to-left
ISO 15924Adlm, 166
Unicode alias
Adlam
U+1E900–U+1E95F

There were unsuccessful efforts in the 1950s and 1960s to create a unique script to write Fulfulde. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, two teenage broth

Short /i e o u/ vowel sounds can also be realized as [ɪ ɛ ɔ ʊ]. Long vowel sounds can occur as /iː eː aː oː uː/.

Arabic script

Fula has also been written in the Arabic script or Ajami since before colonization by many scholars and learned people including Usman dan Fodio and the early emirs of the northern Nigeria emirates. This continues to a certain degree and notably in some areas like Guinea and Cameroon.[citation needed]

In fact, Fula retains many Arabic script or Ajami since before colonization by many scholars and learned people including Usman dan Fodio and the early emirs of the northern Nigeria emirates. This continues to a certain degree and notably in some areas like Guinea and Cameroon.[citation needed]

In fact, Fula retains many Arabic loanwords.

Adlam script

References

Works