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Fujiwara no Kamatari
Fujiwara no Kamatari
(藤原 鎌足, 614 – November 14, 669) was a Japanese statesman, courtier and politician during the Asuka period (538–710).[1] Kamatari was born to the Nakatomi clan and became the founder of the Fujiwara clan.[2] He, along with the Mononobe clan, was a supporter of Shinto
Shinto
and fought the introduction of Buddhism
Buddhism
to Japan. The Soga clan, defenders of Buddhism
Buddhism
in the Asuka period, defeated Kamatari and the Mononobe clan and Buddhism
Buddhism
became the dominant religion of the imperial court. Kamatari, along with Prince Naka no Ōe, later Emperor Tenji
Emperor Tenji
(626–672), launched the Taika Reform of 645, which centralized and strengthened the central government. Just before his death he received the honorific of Taishōkan (or Daishokukan) and the surname Fujiwara from the Emperor Tenji, thus establishing the Fujiwara clan.[3][4]

Contents

1 Biography 2 Legacy 3 Family 4 Popular culture 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

Biography[edit] Kamatari was born to the Nakatomi clan, was the son of Nakatomi no Mikeko, and named Nakatomi no Kamatari (中臣 鎌足) at birth.[3] He was a friend and supporter of the Prince Naka no Ōe, later Emperor Tenji. Kamatari was the head of the Jingi no Haku, or Shinto ritualists; as such, he was one of the chief opponents of the increasing power and prevalence of Buddhism
Buddhism
in the court, and in the nation. As a result, in 645, Prince Naka no Ōe and Kamatari made a coup d'état in the court. They slew Soga no Iruka
Soga no Iruka
who had a strong influence over Empress Kōgyoku; thereafter, Iruka's father, Soga no Emishi, committed suicide. Empress Kōgyoku
Empress Kōgyoku
was forced to abdicate in favor of her younger brother, who became Emperor Kōtoku; Kōtoku then appointed Kamatari naidaijin (内大臣, Inner Minister). Kamatari was a leader in the development of what became known as the Taika Reforms, a major set of reforms based on Chinese models and aimed at strengthening Imperial power.[3] He acted as one of the principal editors responsible for the development of the Japanese legal code known as Sandai-kyaku-shiki, sometimes referred to as the Rules and Regulations of the Three Generations.[5] During his life Kamatari continued to support Prince Naka no Ōe, who became Emperor Tenji
Emperor Tenji
in 661. Tenji granted him the highest rank Taishōkan (or Daishokukan) (大織冠) and a new clan name, Fujiwara (藤原), as honors.[3] Legacy[edit] Kamatari's son was Fujiwara no Fuhito. Kamatari's nephew, Nakatomi no Omimaro became head of Ise Shrine, and passed down the Nakatomi name. In the 13th century, the main line of the Fujiwara family split into five houses: Konoe, Takatsukasa, Kujō, Nijō and Ichijō. These five families in turn provided regents for the Emperors, and were thus known as the Five Regent Houses. The Tachibana clan (samurai)
Tachibana clan (samurai)
also claimed descent from the Fujiwara. Emperor Montoku
Emperor Montoku
of the Taira clan was descended through his mother to the Fujiwara. Until the marriage of the Crown Prince Hirohito
Hirohito
(posthumously Emperor Shōwa) to Princess Kuni Nagako (posthumously Empress Kōjun) in January 1924, the principal consorts of emperors and crown princes had always been recruited from one of the Sekke Fujiwara. Imperial princesses were often married to Fujiwara lords - throughout a millennium at least. As recently as Emperor Shōwa's third daughter, the late former Princess Takanomiya (Kazoku), and Prince Mikasa's elder daughter, the former Princess Yasuko, married into Takatsukasa and Konoe families, respectively. Empress Shōken
Empress Shōken
was a descendant of the Fujiwara clan
Fujiwara clan
and through Hosokawa Gracia
Hosokawa Gracia
of the Minamoto clan. Likewise a daughter of the last Tokugawa Shogun married a second cousin of Emperor Shōwa.

Fujiwara no Kamatari
Fujiwara no Kamatari
with his sons Joē and Fujiwara no Fuhito, who is wearing court robes.

Among Kamatari's descendants are Fumimaro Konoe[citation needed] the 34th/38th/39th Prime Minister of Japan and Konoe's grandson Morihiro Hosokawa[citation needed] the 79th Prime Minister of Japan (who is also a descendant of the Hosokawa clan
Hosokawa clan
via the Ashikaga clan
Ashikaga clan
of the Minamoto clan). Family[edit]

Father: Nakatomi no Mikeko (中臣御食子) Mother: Ōtomo no Chisen-no-iratsume (大伴智仙娘), daughter of Otomo no Kuiko (大伴囓子). Also known as "Ōtomo-bunin" (大伴夫人).

Main wife: Kagami no Ōkimi (鏡王女, ?-683) Wife: Kurumamochi no Yoshiko-no-iratsume (車持与志古娘), daughter of Kurumamochi no Kuniko (車持国子).

1st son: Jōe
Jōe
(定恵, 643–666), buddhist monk who traveled to China. 2nd son: Fujiwara no Fuhito (藤原不比等, 659–720)

Children with unknown mother:

Daughter: Fujiwara no Hikami-no-iratsume (藤原氷上娘, ?–682), Bunin of Emperor Tenmu, mother of Princess Tajima. Daughter: Fujiwara no Ioe-no-iratsume (藤原五百重娘), Bunin of Emperor Tenmu, wife of Fujiwara no Fuhito and mother of Prince Niitabe and Fujiwara no Maro. Daughter: Fujiwara no Mimimotoji (藤原耳面刀自), Bunin of Emperor Kōbun, mother of Princess Ichishi-hime (壱志姫王). Daughter: Fujiwara no Tome/Tone-no-iratsume (藤原斗売娘), wife of Nakatomi no Omimaro (中臣意美麻呂), mother of Nakatomi no Azumahito (中臣東人).

Popular culture[edit]

Portrayed by Noh Seung-jin in the 2012-2013 KBS1
KBS1
TV series The King's Dream.

See also[edit]

Tōshi Kaden, a bibliographic record

Notes[edit]

^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Fujiwara no Tadahira" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 203, p. 203, at Google Books; Brinkley, Frank et al. (1915). A History of the Japanese People from the Earliest Times to the End of the Meiji Era, p. 203., p. 203, at Google Books ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1962). Sovereign and Subject, pp. 216-220. ^ a b c d "Fujiwara no Kamatari". Encyclopedia of Japan. Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. OCLC 56431036. Archived from the original on 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2012-10-27.  ^ "藤原 鎌足" [Fujiwara no Kamatari]. Dijitaru Daijisen (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. OCLC 56431036. Archived from the original on 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2012-10-27.  ^ Brinkley, p. 177., p. 177, at Google Books

References[edit]

Brinkley, Frank and Dairoku Kikuchi. (1915). A History of the Japanese People from the Earliest Times to the End of the Meiji Era. New York: Encyclopædia Britannica. OCLC
OCLC
413099 Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC
OCLC
58053128 Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Ōdai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC
OCLC
5850691

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Fujiwara family tree

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Kamatari

Fuhito

NANKE branch

HOKKE branch

SHIKIKE branch

KYŌKE branch

Muchimaro

Fusasaki

Umakai

Maro

Toyonari

Nakamaro

Nagate

Kiyokawa

Matate

Uona

Kaedemaro

Hirotsugu

Kiyonari

Yoshitsugu

Momokawa

Kurajimaro

Hamanari

Tsuginawa

Asakari

Uchimaro

Fujinari

Sonondo

Tanetsugu

Otsugu

Fuyutsugu

Toyozawa

Nakanari

Nagara

Yoshifusa

Yoshisuke

Yoshikado

Murao

Mototsune

Hidesato

Tokihira

Nakahira

Tadahira

Morosuke

Saneyori

Tamemitsu

Kinsue

Koretada

Kaneie

Kanemichi

Yoritada

Michinaga

Michikane

Michitaka

Kintō

Yorimichi

Norimichi

Nagaie

Korechika

Morozane

Nobunaga

Tadaie

Moromichi

Toshitada

Tadazane

Toshinari

Yorinaga

Tadamichi

Sadaie

Konoe Motozane

Matsudono Motofusa

Kujō Kanezane

Notes

In the 13th century, the main line of the Fujiwara family split into five families or houses: the Kujō, Nijō and Ichijō (descendants of Kanezane); and also the Konoe and Takatsukasa (descendants of Motozane).

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 25972163 LCCN: n83018951 SUDOC: 15401

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