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Friuli
Friuli
is an area of Northeast Italy
Italy
with its own particular cultural and historical identity. It comprises the major part of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, i.e. the administrative provinces of Udine, Pordenone, and Gorizia, excluding Trieste.

Contents

1 Names 2 Geography 3 Climate 4 Demography 5 History

5.1 Origins and the Roman era 5.2 Middle Ages 5.3 Venetian domination to Bourbon restoration 5.4 From the Restoration to the Great War 5.5 Autonomist movements

6 Regional languages and dialects 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Names[edit] The multiethnic and subsequent multilingual tradition of Friuli
Friuli
means that the name of the region varies according to locality. Besides Friuli
Friuli
from Italian (Italian: [friˈuːli]), other local Romance forms include Friulan Friûl ( listen (help·info)) and Venetian Friul; Friaul in German and Furlanija (Cyrillic: Фурланија) in Slovene and South Slavic languages. The name Friuli
Friuli
originates from the ancient Roman town of Forum Iulii (now Cividale del Friuli). Geography[edit] Friuli
Friuli
is bordered on the west by the Veneto
Veneto
region with the border running along the Livenza
Livenza
river, on the north by the crest of the Carnic Alps
Carnic Alps
between Carnia
Carnia
and Austrian Carinthia, on the east by the Julian Alps, the border with Slovenia
Slovenia
and the Timavo
Timavo
river, and on the south by the Adriatic
Adriatic
Sea. The adjacent Slovene parts of the Soča/ Isonzo
Isonzo
valley from Gorizia/ Nova Gorica
Nova Gorica
up to Mt. Triglav
Mt. Triglav
and the Vipava Valley, forming the Goriška
Goriška
region, may also be considered part of historic Friuli. The mountainous northern part of the region belongs to the Southern Limestone Alps. From west to east, the region's highest peaks are, in the Carnic Prealps
Carnic Prealps
(Dolomiti Friulane) — the Cima dei Preti, 2,703 metres (8,868 ft), Duranno 2,652 metres (8,701 ft), and Cridola 2,581 metres (8,468 ft); in the Carnic Alps
Carnic Alps
— Peralba 2,694 metres (8,839 ft), Monte Bìvera
Monte Bìvera
2,474 metres (8,117 ft) and Coglians
Coglians
2,780 metres (9,120 ft); in the Julian Alps, the Jôf Fuârt 2,666 metres (8,747 ft), the Jôf di Montasio 2,754 metres (9,035 ft), Mangart
Mangart
2,677 metres (8,783 ft), and Canin 2,587 metres (8,488 ft), which dominates the plain.

Tagliamento
Tagliamento
river at Gemona

Lagoon
Lagoon
of Marano, Alps in the background

Rivers flowing southwards from the mountains are numerous. The Friulian mountains surround the course of the Tagliamento
Tagliamento
river, which, at the latitude of Gemona del Friuli
Gemona del Friuli
first crosses the hills that occupy the center of the Friuli, then flows into a large flood plain. This plain is commonly divided into the High Friulian plain and the Low Friulian plain (Bassa Friulana), whose boundary is the Napoleonic road that connects the cities of Codroipo
Codroipo
and Palmanova. To the south of this road is the risorgive zone, where water resurfaces from underground waterways in spring-fed pools throughout the area. South of the plains lie the lagoons of Marano and Grado, which are nature reserves. Other important rivers include the Torre, Natisone, Stella, Isonzo/Soča, and Ausa. Friuli
Friuli
covers an area of 8,240 square kilometres (3,180 sq mi), subdivided among the provinces of Udine
Udine
4,905 square kilometres (1,894 sq mi), Pordenone
Pordenone
2,178 square kilometres (841 sq mi) and Gorizia
Gorizia
466 square kilometres (180 sq mi). The historical capital and most important city of is Udine, it was also the capital of the medieval Patria del Friuli. Other important towns are Pordenone, Gorizia/Nova Gorica, Sacile, Codroipo, Cervignano del Friuli, Cividale del Friuli, Gemona del Friuli, Monfalcone, and Tolmezzo. Climate[edit] The climate of the Friulian plain is humid sub-Mediterranean. The climate in this area is suitable for growing white wine grapes, and 2.5% of wine produced in Italy
Italy
comes from this part of the region.[1] The hills, however, have a continental climate, and the mountainous regions have an alpine climate. On the coast the mean annual temperature is 14 °C (57 °F), while in the inner plains, the average is lowered to 13 to 13.5 °C (55.4 to 56.3 °F; Udine
Udine
13.1 °C (55.6 °F), Pordenone 13.3 °C (55.9 °F), Gorizia
Gorizia
13.4 °C (56.1 °F)). Further north, in Tolmezzo, the average temperature is approximately 10.6 °C (51.1 °F). The lowest values are recorded in the Alps: 4 °C (39 °F) at Passo di Monte Croce Carnico (at 1,300 metres / 4,300 ft) and between 5.5 and 7 °C (41.9–44.6 °F) in Val Canale, which is situated 850 metres (2,790 ft) above sea level. In the coldest month, January, temperatures vary between approximately 4.5 °C (40.1 °F) in Monfalcone
Monfalcone
and nearly −5 °C (23 °F) in Passo di Monte Croce Carnico, with intermediate temperatures of 3 °C (37 °F) in Udine
Udine
and −2 or −3 °C (28 or 27 °F) in Valcanale. Gorizia, a short distance from Udine, enjoys a particularly milder micro-climate with its approximate annual average of 4 °C (39 °F). In the warmest month, July, the temperatures range between 22.5 and 24 °C (72.5–75.2 °F) along the coast and plains and between 14 and 16 °C (57–61 °F) in Val Canale.

Cividale on Natisone
Natisone
river

Precipitation in Friuli
Friuli
is relatively abundant; the distribution of rainfall varies a great deal during the course of the year. Minimum values in the southern part generally fall between 1,200 and 1,500 mm (47–59 in) ( Gorizia
Gorizia
over 1,350 mm (53 in) and Udine
Udine
over 1,400 mm (55 in)), whereas the alpine area's maximum annual rainfall is approximately 3,000 mm (120 in). The Julian Prealps is one of Italy's rainiest regions: Musi receives about 3,300 mm (130 in) of annual precipitation and can receive 400 mm (16 in) in a single month. In some areas of Friuli, excessive rainfall has caused erosion and the flooding of many rivers. Snow is sparse in the southern plains (3 or 4 snowy days each year in Udine
Udine
and Pordenone) but falls more consistently further to the north (Val Canale 25 days, Sauris
Sauris
23 days, and Passo di Monte Croce Carnico 28 days). Demography[edit] Friuli
Friuli
has a little under one million people. It must be considered also that Mandament of Portogruaro
Portogruaro
and comune of Sappada
Sappada
historically belong to Friuli. With these lands, the total population reaches 1,060,000 people (approximately 94,000 more).

Zona Population (2005) Land area (km²) Population density (inh./km²)

Province of Gorizia 140,681 466 302

Province of Udine 528,246 4,905 108

Province of Pordenone 297,699 2,178 137

Total 966,626 7,549 128

One of the most important demographic phenomena in Friuli
Friuli
was emigration. It began in the final decades of the 19th century and ended in the 1970s. It is estimated that more than a million Friulian people emigrated away over a period of approximately one hundred years. According to the most recent census by AIRE (2005), Friulian émigrés living abroad number 134,936. Of these, 56.0% reside in Europe, 24.0% in South America, 10.3% in North America and 4.7% in Oceania. This data only reflects those Friulians and their descendants who have Italian citizenship. The descendants of Friulians are excluded from the census because they are not Italian citizens. Friulians in the world have supported cultural associations called Fogolârs furlans, of which there are 46 in Italy
Italy
and 156 in the rest of the world. History[edit] Origins and the Roman era[edit]

Roman forum ruins in Aquileia, which played an important role in Roman times and the early Middle Age when it became seat of the patriarchy

In the prehistoric era, Friuli
Friuli
was home to the Castellieri culture. These peoples most likely arrived from the sea and were the dominant culture in the area from about the 15th century BC until the early historical period. During the course of the 4th century BC the Carni (in ancient Greek Καρνίοι), a tribe of unknown ethnicity which may have spoken a Celtic, a Venetic or a Rhaetic language, and who introduced advanced techniques of working iron and silver settled Friuli. According to Strabo
Strabo
[4.6] the Carni inhabited "the country about the Adriatic
Adriatic
Gulf and Aquileia" and both Pliny [3.22(18)] and Ptolemy
Ptolemy
[3.1] ascribe Aquileia, Concordia and Forum Julii to belong to the "towns of the Carni" in the "country of the Carni". The Carni worshiped the deity Belenus
Belenus
which is attested by the most numerous votive inscriptions found in and around Aquileia.[2] A northern mountainous area of Friuli
Friuli
still retains the ancient name Carnia. Beginning from the 2nd century BC, Friuli
Friuli
was colonized by the Romans: Aquileia
Aquileia
was the fourth largest city of Italy
Italy
during Roman imperial times, capital of Regio X of the Italia province (the Augustan region Venetia et Histria). The city was the most important river port on the Natissa river, dominating trade between the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
and northern Europe (carried over the Via Iulia Augusta
Via Iulia Augusta
road). Aquileia
Aquileia
owed its importance to the strategic position it has on the Adriatic
Adriatic
sea and its proximity to the Alps. This location allowing Rome to intercept barbarian invasions from the East. Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
quartered his legions in Aquileia
Aquileia
during winter. The development of other centers, such as Forum Iulii (Cividale del Friuli) and Iulium Carnicum (Zuglio), contributed to the increase in economic and cultural wealth of Friuli until the first barbarian incursions, at the beginning of 5th century. In the final decades of the 3rd century, Aquileia
Aquileia
became the center of one of the most prestigious bishoprics of the empire, competing in Italy
Italy
with Milan
Milan
and, subsequently, Ravenna, for second place to Rome. A Hun
Hun
invasion marked the start of Friuli's decline: Aquileia, protected by meager forces, was forced to surrender and was razed to the ground by Attila
Attila
in 452. After the retreat of the Huns, the survivors, who had found shelter in the lagoon of Grado, returned to the city, but found it completely destroyed. The reconstruction of Aquileia
Aquileia
was never completed and it never regained the old splendour of the capital of X Regio. The city remained important even after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, due to the creation of the Patriarchate of Aquileia. It ranked among the highest ecclesiastic authorities in Italy
Italy
from the mid-6th century onward. The lack of security in the Friulian plain, crossroads of all the great barbarian invasions, drove many people to seek shelter on the islands of the lagoons or in fortified hill-villages, causing a generalized depopulation of the more fertile part of the region and its consequent colonization by barbarian gentes. Middle Ages[edit]

Duchy of Friuli
Duchy of Friuli
in Italian context (750).

After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, Friuli
Friuli
belonged to the kingdom of Odoacer
Odoacer
and subsequently to that of Theodoric the Great. The Byzantine reconquest under Justinian I
Justinian I
was brief in the region, in 568 it was one of the first provinces conquered by the Lombards, who invaded from Pannonia, and with that, ended the Greek-Byzantine era of the region. The Lombard king Alboin
Alboin
established the Duchy of Friuli, the first Lombard duchy, and granted it to his relative Gisulf I. The capital of the duchy was established at Forum Iulii (Cividale del Friuli), which became the most important city of the area and for where it derived its name. The duchy of Friuli
Friuli
was from the start one of the most important Lombard duchies. It served as a barrier against the threat of invasion by the Avars and Slavs
Slavs
from Pannonia. Among the duchies of the North, which were closely aligned with the crown (unlike Spoleto and Benevento to the South), it was the most powerful, probably due to its marcher status. Among later dukes, Ratchis
Ratchis
became king in 744 and his ducal successor, Aistulf, succeeded him as king in 749. The historian Paul the Deacon
Paul the Deacon
was born in Friuli
Friuli
(730/5), he went on to write the Historia Langobardorum and taught Latin grammar at Charlemagne's court. Another teacher and a trusted advisor Charlemagne's court, Paulinus, was born at Cividale and eventually became patriarch of Aquileia. After the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
fell to the Franks, the duchy of Friuli
Friuli
was reorganized into counties according to the Frankish model. The region was again reorganized into the March of Friuli
March of Friuli
in 846. The march was granted to the Unruoching dynasty. Friuli
Friuli
became the base of power of Berengar I during his struggles for the throne of Italy
Italy
between 888 and 924. The march was transformed under his rule, its territory extended to Lake Garda, the capital moved to Verona, and a new March of Verona
Verona
and Aquileia
Aquileia
established in its place. The territory was now subjected to the Duchy of Bavaria, then to the Duchy of Carinthia, for more than a century. On 3 April 1077, the Emperor Henry IV granted the county of Friuli, with ducal status, to Sigaerd, Patriarch of Aquileia. In the succeeding centuries, the patriarchate expanded its control over neighboring Trieste, Istria, Carinthia, Styria, and Cadore. The patriarchal state of Friuli
Friuli
was one of the best organized polities of the Italian Middle Ages. From the 12th century it possessed a parliament representing the communes as well as the nobility and the clergy. This institution only survived six centuries, remaining alive yet weak even during Venetian domination. It convened for the last time in 1805, when it was abolished by Napoleon Bonaparte. The Patriarch Marquardo of Randeck (1365–1381) had gathered together and codified all the laws of Friuli
Friuli
and promulgated them as the Constitutiones Patriae Foriiulii ("Constitutions of the Country of Friuli"). Cividale del Friuli
Cividale del Friuli
was seat of the Patriarchate until 1238, when the patriarch moved his seat to Udine, where he had a magnificent episcopal edifice constructed. Udine
Udine
was so important that it in time became the institutional capital of Friuli. Venetian domination to Bourbon restoration[edit]

The Venetian-style Piazza Libertà in Udine. The city became de facto capital of Friuli.

The Patriarchy ended in 1420: surrounded by the powerful states of the Austrian Empire, the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
and the Venetian Republic, it was the theatre of a war between Hungary and Venice, and was conquered by the latter. Friuli
Friuli
maintained some form of autonomy, by keeping its own Parliament
Parliament
ruling on the old territory of the Patriarchate, an autonomy not granted to the other cities and provinces submitted to Venice (even Venetian ones); on the other side, it maintained also its feudal nobility, which was able to keep their feudal rights over the land and its inhabitants for some time. Friuli
Friuli
was the eastern border of the Stato da Tera, and suffered both from Ottoman raids and from the border wars with Austria. These wars led to poverty and instability of the rural population, with the inability to cultivate the land crossed by fighting armies and with the forced surrender of all livestock to feed traveling troops. The lumber needed to build Venetian ships caused complete deforestation of the Bassa Friulana and central Friuli. Venice took possession of collective farms belonging to rural Friulian communities and seriously impoverishing them. These properties in turn would be sold by Venice during the 17th century to raise cash to alleviate their poor financial condition. Beginning in the 1630s the Venetian Republic
Venetian Republic
entered a relative decline, due to the enlarging horizon of European markets (going now from Asia to Africa to Americas); Venetian richest families often directed financial resources into unproductive investments (specifically real estate), while there was a loss of competitiveness in industries and services. Friuli
Friuli
was subject to increasingly fiscal pressure and its industries and commercial activities were affected too.

Patria del Friuli, 1650 map

The political populism practiced by Venice, according to some historians, looked for ways to limit the most oppressive and anachronistic effects of feudalism. Other researchers affirm that the Venetian aristocratic government maintained a most oppressive feudal condition in Friuli.[citation needed] These policies were practiced by the Venetian government to ensure the support of the urban and rural population as a counterbalance to the independent tendencies and power of local oligarchies and aristocrats. An important jacquerie, known as Joibe Grasse 1511 (Fat Thursday 1511), was started in Udine
Udine
in February 27 by starving Udinesi citizens. They were subsequently joined by the farmers and the revolt spread to the whole territory of Friûl, against the feudal rule of some noble families; some other noble family, like the pro-Venetian Savorgnan, initially supported the revolters. This insurrection was one of the largest in Renaissance Italy
Italy
and it lasted from 27 February until 1 March, when it ended as Venice dispatched around one hundred cavalry to put down the rebellion. The chiefs of the revolt were executed, but the feudal powers of the Friulian noblemen were reduced. With the 1516 Noyon pacts the boundary between the Venetian Republic and the County of Gorizia
Gorizia
and Gradisca, now in the hands of the House of Habsburg, were redefined. Venice lost the upper Isonzo
Isonzo
valley (that is the Gastaldia of Tolmino with Plezzo and Idria), but it kept Monfalcone, Marano and a series of shed feudal islands in the Western Friuli
Friuli
stayed with the Archduke of Austria (until 1543). Between 1615 and 1617 Venice and Austria again fought for the possession of the fort of Gradisca d'Isonzo. The so-called War of Gradisca ended with a return to the status quo. Beginning in 1516 the Habsburg Empire
Habsburg Empire
controlled eastern Friuli, while western and central Friuli
Friuli
was Venetian. In 1797, the year of the Treaty of Campo Formio, this part of the Friuli
Friuli
was surrendered to Austria. For a brief period from 1805 until the Bourbon Restoration, Friuli
Friuli
belonged to the Italic Kingdom. From the Restoration to the Great War[edit]

Etnographic map of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
(1855) by Karl Freiherrn von Czoernig

Graffiti of Friûl libar ("Free Friuli") in Aiello del Friuli

In 1815, the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
confirmed the union of Veneto, which Central-West Friuli
Friuli
was part of, with Lombardy (previously divided between Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
and Venetian Republic), to constitute the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia. Eastern Friuli
Friuli
was not included in the puppet state. In 1838, the District of Portogruaro
Portogruaro
was removed from the Province of the Friuli
Friuli
due to the Austrians' wishes[citation needed] and assigned to the Province of Venice. Portogruaro
Portogruaro
was for long time part of Friuli, even under Venetian Republic, and Friulian language was spoken in the area. In 1866, central Friuli
Friuli
(today's province of Udine) and western Friuli
Friuli
(today's province of Pordenone) were annexed by Italy
Italy
together with Veneto
Veneto
after the Third Italian War of Independence, while eastern Friuli
Friuli
(County of Gorizia
Gorizia
and Gradisca) remained under Austria until the end of World War I. The Ethnographic map of Karl von Czoernig-Czernhausen, issued by the k. u. k. Administration of Statistics in 1855, recorded a total of 401,357 Friulians living in the Austrian Empire. The majority of Friulians (351,805) lived in that part of Friuli
Friuli
that belonged to the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia, the others (49.552) in the Friulian parts of the Austrian Küstenland. Friulians were registered as their own category separate from Italians. During World War I, Friuli
Friuli
was a theater of battle that had serious consequences for the civilian population, specifically the Battle of Caporetto. Autonomist movements[edit] After World War II, the pro-devolution movement gained momentum in 1945. Friuli
Friuli
got entangled in the maze of opposing forces acting in the territory. Yugoslavian Titoists pursued an annexation of Friuli
Friuli
to the rising communist Yugoslavia. By contrast, in 1945, the traditionalist association Patrie tal Friul was founded by Tiziano Tessitori with a view to establishing an autonomous Friuli
Friuli
within Italy.[3] The draft autonomic project was launched with the support of the Christian Democratic Party. In January 1947, the poet Pier Paolo Pasolini
Pier Paolo Pasolini
went on to found the party Movimiento Popolari Friulano, with the same purpose of devolution. Pasolini opposed a possible Yugoslavian annexation, but at the same time lashed out at those who aimed at using regionalism for their immobilist, "backwards Conservatism".[4] Pasolini dropped membership in his party after the Christian Democrats came to pull its strings. The Communist Party of Italy
Italy
opposed devolution, sticking to an Italian centralist agenda.[5] Friuli
Friuli
holds a large number of Friulan native speakers that still keep their native culture.[citation needed] There are some movements and political parties that advocate a more autonomous, or even an independent Friuli
Friuli
in line with historical borders, such as the Friuli Movement, Front Furlan, Patrie Furlane and Republiche dal Friûl – Parlament furlan. Regional languages and dialects[edit]

Bilingual road sign (Italian and Friulian) near San Vito al Torre

The University of Udine
Udine
is an important center for studies of the Friulian language

While standard Italian is the primary official language of the region, several other regional languages and dialects are spoken in Friuli. Friulian is spoken in the provinces of Udine, Gorizia, and Pordenone. Venetian and its dialects are usually spoken (for historical reasons) on the western border regions (i.e. Pordenone), sparingly in a few internal towns (i.e. Gorizia, etc.), and historically in some places along the Adriatic
Adriatic
coast. In the southeastern part of Friuli, a Venetian transitional dialect is spoken, called Bisiaco, that has influences of both Slovene and Friulian. Slovene dialects
Slovene dialects
are spoken in the largely rural border mountain region known as Venetian Slovenia. German (Bavarian dialect) is spoken in Val Canale (mostly in Tarvisio
Tarvisio
and Pontebba); in some of Val Canale's municipalities (particularly in Malborghetto Valbruna), Carinthian Slovenian dialects are spoken too. Slovene is also spoken in the Collio area north of Gorizia. In the Resia valley, between Venetian Slovenia
Slovenia
and the Val Canale, most of the inhabitants still speak an archaic dialect of Slovene, known as Resian. According to the official estimates of the Italian government, between 45,000 and 51,000 Slovene speakers live in Friuli: around 11,000 in the Province of Gorizia, and the rest in the Province of Udine.[6] Due to emigration, most Slovene speakers in the Province of Udine
Province of Udine
live outside their traditional compact zone of settlement.[6] German-related dialects (like Rogasaxon) are spoken in several ancient enclaves like Timau, Zahre (Sauris) and Plodn (Sappada). Only Friulian, Slovenian and German are allowed to be local secondary official languages in their historic areas, but not their related dialects. See also[edit]

Benandanti Furlanis List of dukes and margraves of Friuli List of Friulian place names Triveneto Venetian Slovenia

References[edit]

^ " Friuli
Friuli
White Wines: Refreshing (and Sometimes Quirky)". IntoWine.com.  ^ Maier, Bernhard (2000). Die Kelten. Ulm. p. 119.  ^ Siciliano, Enzo (2014). Pasolini; Una vida tormentosa. Torres de Papel. p. 111. ISBN 978-84-943726-4-3.  ^ Siciliano, Enzo. 2014, p. 112 ^ Pasolini held this move to be tactic, just a way of opposing the Christian Democratic stance. ^ a b Prof. Samo Pahor: "Koliko je Slovencev v Italiji?"

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Friuli.

Autonomous Region of Friuli
Friuli
Venezia Giulia Official regional tourism agency of FVG Friulan gastronomy FVG international Airport Italian Language School in Friuli

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