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Fritz Busch
Fritz Busch
(13 March 1890 – 14 September 1951) was a German conductor.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Nazi regime 3 Notable recordings 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External links

Early life[edit] Busch was born on 13 March 1890 in Siegen, Province of Westphalia, the son of a former itinerant musician.[1] His brothers were also musicians, the violinist Adolf Busch
Adolf Busch
and the cellist Hermann Busch. He attended the Cologne Conservatory
Cologne Conservatory
in 1906,[2] where he studied conducting with Fritz Steinbach.[1] He was appointed conductor at the Deutsches Theater, Riga, starting in 1909,[2] and from 1911 to 1912 toured as a pianist.[2] He was then hired as music director for the city of Aachen
Aachen
in 1912, and worked there until the beginning of World War I in 1914, when he enlisted.[1][3] At the end of the war he returned to Aachen, where he conducted the Aachen
Aachen
Municipal Opera. But six weeks later, he was appointed music director of the Stuttgart Opera. There he became known for his efforts to increase the breadth of the repertoire including with works of new composers, such as Paul Hindemith
Paul Hindemith
and Hans Pfitzner.[1] His performances, including modern stagings and set designs by Adolphe Appia for Richard Wagner's Ring Cycle
Ring Cycle
music dramas, added to his increasing renown.[1] In 1922, he was appointed the music director of the Dresden State Opera. During his tenure of 11 years there he kept that organization at the highest level, mounting innovative, provocative stagings with the help of prominent costume and set designers.[1] He premiered works by Richard Strauss
Richard Strauss
(Intermezzo (1924) and Die Ägyptische Helena (1928)), Ferruccio Busoni
Ferruccio Busoni
(Doktor Faust (1925)), Paul Hindemith
Paul Hindemith
( Cardillac
Cardillac
(1926)) and Kurt Weill
Kurt Weill
(Der Protagonist, 1926).[1] In 1924 he made his only appearance at the Bayreuth Festival
Bayreuth Festival
conducting Die Meistersinger. Upon his arrival, he decided to attend a chorus rehearsal that was in progress, only to be dragooned into the tenor section by the chorus master Hugo Rüdel, who had mistaken him for a member of the choir.[4] His 1932 Salzburg Festival production of Mozart's Die Entführung aus dem Serail, which was designed by Carl Ebert
Carl Ebert
and sung by a carefully selected cast, was a highly successful collaboration.[1][5] Nazi regime[edit] Five weeks after Hitler came to power on January 30, 1933, Busch was removed from his post at the Dresden State Opera in a politically motivated dismissal.[6][7] This March 1933 dismissal was humiliating: Nazis in the front rows shouted "Out with Busch" at the beginning a performance of Rigoletto, leading to his replacement as conductor by Kurt Striegler.[6] The Nazis charged that despite his high salary, Busch had taken frequent leaves from the opera to accept guest-conducting invitations elsewhere, although these had been built into his contract.[6][8] Not himself Jewish, he counted many Jews among his friends and was opposed to dictatorship.[9] He went on to make several tours of South America
South America
before becoming the music director of the Glyndebourne Festival Opera
Glyndebourne Festival Opera
in England in 1934, where he made highly distinguished first recordings of Mozart's three da Ponte operas from 1934 to 1936 (see below). He remained at Glyndebourne
Glyndebourne
until the outbreak of World War II
World War II
in 1939.[2][10] He also conducted at the Teatro Colón
Teatro Colón
in Buenos Aires (1934–36 and 1940–47)[2] and at the Metropolitan Opera
Metropolitan Opera
in New York,[10] and from 1934 on with the Danish National Symphony Orchestra.[2] also conducted the Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra from 1937 to 1940.[2] Despite support from German novelist Thomas Mann, he was unsuccessful in obtaining Swiss citizenship, but in 1936 succeeded in obtaining Argentinian papers.[10] He resumed the Glyndebourne
Glyndebourne
musical directorship in 1950 following a healing of breach with the organization over his failure to cast Audrey Mildmay for a 1941 New Opera Company, New York production of Così fan tutte
Così fan tutte
at a time when she badly needed money.[11] He also conducted at the Met in New York from 1945 to 1949,[2] and the Chicago Symphony
Chicago Symphony
from 1948 to 1950.[2] After the war, he also returned to work in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
and Stockholm.[2] He was a National Patron of Delta Omicron, an international professional music fraternity.[12] He was the brother of distinguished violinist Adolf Busch[8] and cellist Hermann Busch, who made definitive recordings of Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Schumann, Brahms, Dvorak and Reger with their formidable Busch String Quartet. He was married to Margarete Boettcher Busch.[8][13] His son, Hans Busch, later stage director at the Indiana University Opera, was born in 1914.[14] He died in London
London
in 1951. Notable recordings[edit]

1935: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Così fan tutte, with the Glyndebourne Festival Opera, feat. soloists Heddle Nash, John Brownlee, et al. (EMI Références, Naxos Historical) 1934–1935: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, The Marriage of Figaro, with the Glyndebourne
Glyndebourne
Festival Opera, feat. soloists Roy Henderson, Norman Allin, et al. (Naxos Historical) 1936: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Don Giovanni, with the Glyndebourne Festival Opera, feat. soloists John Brownlee, Salvatore Baccaloni, Ina Souez, Roy Henderson, et al. (Naxos Historical) 1950: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Così fan tutte
Così fan tutte
excerpts, with the Glyndebourne
Glyndebourne
Festival Opera, feat. soloists Sena Jurinac, Richard Lewis, Erich Kunz, Mario Borriello et al. (Guild Historical, Immortal Performances) 1951: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Idomeneo
Idomeneo
excerpts, with the Glyndebourne
Glyndebourne
Festival Opera, feat. soloists Sena Jurinac, Richard Lewis, Alexander Young et al. (Immortal Performances)

All of these outstanding Mozart
Mozart
Glyndebourne
Glyndebourne
recordings, excellent-sounding for their day, have been collected and reissued in one finely transferred nine-disc CD set (Warner Classics). Source: Fritz Busch
Fritz Busch
discography (in German) [1] References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h Stevenson, Joseph (2012). "Fritz Busch". allmusic.com. Retrieved 28 October 2012.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Don Michael Randel (1999). The Harvard Concise Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Harvard University Press. pp. 100–101. ISBN 978-0-674-00084-1. Retrieved 6 December 2012.  ^ Michael H. Kater (22 April 1999). The Twisted Muse: Musicians and Their Music in the Third Reich. Oxford University Press. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-19-513242-7. Retrieved 26 October 2012.  ^ Ib Melchior; Lauritz Melchior (1 June 2003). Lauritz Melchior: The Golden Years of Bayreuth. Baskerville Publishers, Inc. pp. 74–76. ISBN 978-1-880909-62-1. Retrieved 11 November 2012.  ^ Erik Levi (1 February 2011). Mozart
Mozart
and the Nazis. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-16581-4.  ^ a b c David Josephson (14 September 1999). "The Exile of European Music". In Reinhold Brinkmann; Christoph Wolff. Driven into Paradise: The Musical Migration from Nazi Germany
Germany
to the United States. University of California Press. pp. 92–93. ISBN 978-0-520-21413-2. Retrieved 13 October 2012.  ^ Kater (1999). The Twisted Muse. p. 65. Retrieved 26 October 2012.  ^ a b c Kater (1999). The Twisted Muse. p. 121. Retrieved 26 October 2012.  ^ Kater (1999). The Twisted Muse. p. 79. Retrieved 26 October 2012.  ^ a b c Kater (1999). The Twisted Muse. p. 123. Retrieved 6 December 2012.  ^ Busch, Grete (1970). Fritz Busch: Dirigent. Frankfurt: S. Fischer. Retrieved 26 February 2014.  ^ Delta Omicron Archived 27 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine., in the category "Patrons/Patronesses", accessible via the "National" dropdown menu on the DO website front page. ^ "Mrs. Fritz Busch, 80, conductor's widow". New York Times. 28 November 1966.  ^ Tomasini, Anthony (29 September 1996). "Hans Busch, 82, Stage Director Of the Indiana University Opera". New York Times. 

Bibliography[edit]

Busch, Fritz (1953). Pages from a Musician’s Life. Translated by Marjorie Strachey. London: Hogarth Press.

External links[edit]

Fritz Busch
Fritz Busch
at AllMusic Fritz Busch
Fritz Busch
- Profile at The Remington Site

Cultural offices

Preceded by none Musical Directors, Glyndebourne
Glyndebourne
Opera Festival 1934-1951 Succeeded by Vittorio Gui

Preceded by Václav Talich Principal Conductors, Royal Stockholm
Stockholm
Philharmonic Orchestra 1937-1940 Succeeded by Carl Garaguly

Preceded by Nikolai Malko Principal Conductors, Danish National Symphony Orchestra 1937-1951 Succeeded by Mogens Andersen

v t e

Principal Conductors of the Staatskapelle Dresden

Julius Rietz
Julius Rietz
(1874) Franz Wüllner
Franz Wüllner
(1877) Ernst von Schuch
Ernst von Schuch
(1884) Fritz Reiner
Fritz Reiner
(1914) Fritz Busch
Fritz Busch
(1922) Karl Böhm
Karl Böhm
(1934) Karl Elmendorff
Karl Elmendorff
(1943) Joseph Keilberth
Joseph Keilberth
(1945) Rudolf Kempe
Rudolf Kempe
(1949) Franz Konwitschny
Franz Konwitschny
(1953) Lovro von Matačić
Lovro von Matačić
(1956) Otmar Suitner
Otmar Suitner
(1960) Kurt Sanderling
Kurt Sanderling
(1964) Martin Turnovský (1966) Herbert Blomstedt
Herbert Blomstedt
(1975) Hans Vonk (1985) Giuseppe Sinopoli
Giuseppe Sinopoli
(1992) Bernard Haitink
Bernard Haitink
(2002) Fabio Luisi
Fabio Luisi
(2007) Christian Thielemann
Christian Thielemann
(2012)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 111565417 LCCN: n82077251 ISNI: 0000 0001 2032 8431 GND: 118517872 SUDOC: 080493912 BNF: cb13892007q (data) MusicBrainz: 82d45890-0594-423c-9cc4-369d2d7000d1 NDL: 01151002 BNE: XX865

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