The FRISIAN /ˈfriːʒən/ languages are a closely related group of
* 1 Division
* 1.1 Speakers * 1.2 Status
* 2 History
* 3 Family tree
* 4 Text samples
* 4.1 The Lord\'s Prayer * 4.2 Comparative sentence
* 5 See also
* 6 References
* 6.1 Notes * 6.2 General references
* 7 External links
There are three varieties of Frisian: West Frisian , Saterland
Frisian , and
The situation in the Dutch province of Groningen and the German
Most Frisian speakers live in the
As a regional language in the Netherlands, West Frisian is only spoken by a certain demographic, specifically rural, lower-class people in contrast with the Dutch speaking upper-class.
West Frisian-Dutch bilinguals are split into two categories: Speakers who had Dutch as their first language tended to maintain the Dutch system of homophony between plural and linking suffixes when speaking West Frisian, by using the West Frisian plural as a linking morpheme. Speakers who had West Frisian as their first language often maintained the West Frisian system of no homophony when speaking West Frisian.
Speakers of the many Frisian dialects may also be found in the United States and Canada.
ISO 639 code stq is used for the
Saterland Frisian language
The Ried fan de Fryske Beweging is an organization which works for
the preservation of the
West Frisian language and culture in the Dutch
L2 speakers , both the quality and amount of time Frisian is
taught in the classroom is low, concluding that Frisian lessons do not
contribute meaningfully to the linguistic and cultural development of
the students. Moreover, Frisian runs the risk of dissolving into
Dutch, especially in
Old Frisian text from 1345.
Main article: Old Frisian
Early Middle Ages the Frisian lands stretched from the area
Frisian is the language most closely related to English and Scots , but after at least five hundred years of being subject to the influence of Dutch , modern Frisian in some aspects bears a greater similarity to Dutch than to English; one must also take into account the centuries-long drift of English away from Frisian. Thus the two languages have become less mutually intelligible over time, partly due to the marks which Dutch and Low German have left on Frisian, and partly due to the vast influence some languages (in particular Norman French ) have had on English throughout the centuries.
Old Frisian , however, was very similar to Old English . Historically, both English and Frisian are marked by the loss of the Germanic nasal in words like us (ús; uns in German), soft (sêft; sanft) or goose (goes; Gans): see Anglo-Frisian nasal spirant law . Also, when followed by some vowels, the Germanic k softened to a ch sound; for example, the Frisian for cheese and church is tsiis and tsjerke, whereas in Dutch it is kaas and kerk, and in High German the respective words are Käse and Kirche. Contrarily, this did not happen for chin and choose, which are kin and kieze.
One rhyme demonstrates the palpable similarity between Frisian and English: "Butter, bread and green cheese is good English and good Frisian," which is pronounced more or less the same in both languages (West Frisian: "Bûter, brea en griene tsiis is goed Ingelsk en goed Frysk.")
One major difference between Old Frisian and modern Frisian is that in the Old Frisian period (c.1150-c.1550) grammatical cases still existed. Some of the texts that are preserved from this period are from the 12th or 13th, but most are from the 14th and 15th centuries. Generally, all these texts are restricted to legalistic writings. Although the earliest definite written examples of Frisian are from approximately the 9th century, there are a few examples of runic inscriptions from the region which are probably older and possibly in the Frisian language. These runic writings however usually do not amount to more than single- or few-word inscriptions, and cannot be said to constitute literature as such. The transition from the Old Frisian to the Middle Frisian period (c.1550-c.1820) in the 16th century is based on the fairly abrupt halt in the use of Frisian as a written language.
Main article: Middle Frisian
Up until the 15th century Frisian was a language widely spoken and written, but from 1500 onwards it became an almost exclusively oral language, mainly used in rural areas. This was in part due to the occupation of its stronghold, the Dutch province of Friesland (Fryslân), in 1498, by Duke Albert of Saxony, who replaced West Frisian as the language of government with Dutch.
Afterwards this practice was continued under the
In this period the great Frisian poet
Gysbert Japiks (1603–66), a
schoolteacher and cantor from the city of
His example was not followed until the 19th century, when entire generations of Frisian authors and poets appeared. This coincided with the introduction of the so-called newer breaking system, a prominent grammatical feature in almost all West Frisian dialects, with the notable exception of Southwest Frisian. Therefore, the Modern Frisian period is considered to have begun at this point in time, around 1820.
The revival of the Frisian Language comes from the poet Gysbert Japiks , who had begun to write in the language as a way to show that it was possible, and created a collective Frisian identity and Frisian standard of writing through his poetry. Later on, Johannes Hilarides would build off Gysbert Japik's work by building on Frisian orthography, particularly on its pronunciation; he also, unlike Japiks, set a standard of the Frisian language that focused more heavily on how the common people used it as an everyday language.
Perhaps the most important figure in the spreading of the Frisian language was J. H. Halbertsma (1789–1869), who translated many works into the Frisian language, such as the New Testament He had however, like Hilarides, focused mostly on the vernacular of the Frisian language, where he focused on translating texts, plays and songs for the lower and middle classes in order to teach and expand the Frisian language. This had begun the effort to continuously preserve the Frisian language, which continues unto this day. It was however not until the first half of the 20th century that the Frisian revival movement began to gain strength, not only through its language, but also through its culture and history, supporting singing and acting in Frisian in order to facilitate Frisian speaking.
It was not until 1960 that Dutch began to dominate Frisian in
Friesland; with many non-Frisian immigrants into Friesland, the
language gradually began to diminish, and only survives now due to the
constant effort of scholars and organisations. The province of
Each of the
The Germanic branch of the
* West Frisian language , spoken in the Netherlands.
* Clay Frisian (Klaaifrysk)
* Wood Frisian (Wâldfrysk)
* South Frisian (Súdhoeks)
* Southwest Frisian (Súdwesthoeksk)
* East Frisian language, spoken in Lower Saxony, Germany.
* Several extinct dialects
* North Frisian language , spoken in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
* Mainland dialects
* Island dialects
* Extinct dialects
THE LORD\'S PRAYER
The Lord\'s Prayer in Standard Western Frisian (Frysk): Us Heit, dy't yn de himelen is jins namme wurde hillige. Jins keninkryk komme. Jins wollen barre, allyk yn 'e himel sa ek op ierde. Jou ús hjoed ús deistich brea. En ferjou ús ús skulden, allyk ek wy ferjouwe ús skuldners. En lied ús net yn fersiking, mar ferlos ús fan 'e kweade. "Amen"
The English translation in the 1662 Anglican Book of Common Prayer : Our Father, which art in Heaven Hallowed be thy Name. Thy Kingdom come. Thy will be done, in earth as it is in Heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our trespasses, As we forgive them that trespass against us. And lead us not into temptation; But deliver us from evil. Amen.
(NB: Which was changed to "who", in earth to "on earth," and them that to "those who" in the 1928 version of the Church of England prayer book and used in other later Anglican prayer books too. However, the words given here are those of the original 1662 book as stated)
The Standard Dutch translation from the Dutch Bible Society Onze Vader die in de hemelen zijt, Uw naam worde geheiligd; Uw Koninkrijk kome; Uw wil geschiede, gelijk in de hemel alzo ook op de aarde. Geef ons heden ons dagelijks brood; en vergeef ons onze schulden, gelijk ook wij vergeven onze schuldenaren; en leid ons niet in verzoeking, maar verlos ons van de boze. Amen.
Saterland Frisian : Die Wänt strookede dät Wucht uum ju Keeuwe
un oapede hier ap do Sooken.
* ^ A B West Frisian at
Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
* ^ A B C Extra, Guus; Gorter, Durk (2001-01-01). The Other Languages of Europe: Demographic, Sociolinguistic, and Educational Perspectives. Multilingual Matters. ISBN 9781853595097 . * ^ A B C Bremmer, Rolf Hendrik (2009-01-01). An Introduction to Old Frisian: History, Grammar, Reader, Glossary. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN 9027232555 . * ^ "Gegenwärtige Schätzungen schwanken zwischen 1.500 und 2.500." Marron C. Fort: Das Saterfriesische. In: Horst Haider Munske, Nils Århammar: Handbuch des Friesischen – Handbook of Frisian Studies. Niemayer (Tübingen 2001). * ^ "Frisian language use and ethnic identity: International Journal of the Sociology of Language". www.degruyter.com. Retrieved 2015-10-30. * ^ Gesetz zur Förderung des Friesischen im öffentlichen Raum - Wikisource (in German) * ^ Christian Galinski; Rebecca Guenther; Håvard Hjulstad. "Registration Authority Report 2004-2005" (PDF). p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-10-20. Retrieved 2007-11-23. * ^ A B Fishman, Joshua A. (2001-01-01). Can Threatened Languages be Saved?: Reversing Language Shift, Revisited : a 21st Century Perspective. Multilingual Matters. ISBN 9781853594922 . * ^ Matthias Brenzinger, Language Diversity Endangered, Mouton de Gruter, The Hague: 222 * ^ "Atlas of languages in danger United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". www.unesco.org. Retrieved 2015-10-28. * ^ A B C Deumert, Ana; Vandenbussche, Wim (2003-10-27). Germanic Standardizations: Past to Present. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN 9789027296306 . * ^ A B (PDF) http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Charlotte_Gooskens/publication/237534065_The_Position_of_Frisian_in_the_Germanic_Language_Area/links/00463528e89b97127d000000.pdf. Missing or empty title= (help ) * ^ "English to Frisian dictionary". * ^ The History of English: A Linguistic Introduction. Scott Shay, Wardja Press, 2008, ISBN 0-615-16817-5 , ISBN 978-0-615-16817-3 * ^ A B C D E Linn, Andrew R.; McLelland, Nicola (2002-12-31). Standardization: Studies from the Germanic languages. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN 9789027283672 . * ^ Yngve, Victor; Wasik, Zdzislaw (2006-11-25). Hard-Science Linguistics. A&C Black. ISBN 9780826492395 . * ^ Yngve, Victor; Wasik, Zdzislaw (2006-11-25). Hard-Science Linguistics. A&C Black. ISBN 9780826492395 . * ^ Linn, Andrew Robert; McLelland, Nicola (2002-01-01). Standardization: Studies from the Germanic Languages. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN 9027247471 .
* Omniglot links to various Frisian