Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (German: [ˈʃɛlɪŋ]; 27 January
1775 – 20 August 1854), later (after 1812) von Schelling, was a
German philosopher. Standard histories of philosophy make him the
midpoint in the development of German idealism, situating him between
Johann Gottlieb Fichte, his mentor in his early years, and Georg
Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, his former university roommate, early friend,
and later rival. Interpreting Schelling's philosophy is regarded as
difficult because of its apparently ever-changing nature.
Schelling's thought in the large has been neglected, especially in the
English-speaking world, as has been his later work on mythology and
revelation, much of which remains untranslated. An important factor
was the ascendancy of Hegel, whose mature works portray Schelling as a
mere footnote in the development of idealism. Schelling's
Naturphilosophie also has been attacked by scientists for its
analogizing tendency and lack of empirical orientation. However,
some later philosophers have shown interest in re-examining
Schelling's body of work.
1.1 Early life
1.2 Jena period
1.3 Move to
Würzburg and personal conflicts
1.5 Berlin period
4 Reputation and influence
7 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
Schelling was born in the town of
Leonberg in the Duchy of
Württemberg (now Baden-Württemberg), the son of Joseph Friedrich
Schelling and his wife Gottliebin Marie. He attended the monastic
school at Bebenhausen, near Tübingen, where his father was chaplain
and an Orientalist professor. From 1783 to 1784 Schelling attended
a Latin school in
Nürtingen and knew Friedrich Hölderlin, who was
five years his senior. On 18 October 1790, at the age of 15, he
then was granted permission to enroll at the
Tübinger Stift (seminary
of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Württemberg), despite not
having yet reached the normal enrollment age of 20. At the Stift, he
shared a room with Hegel as well as Hölderlin, and the three became
Schelling studied the
Church fathers and ancient Greek philosophers.
His interest gradually shifted from Lutheran theology to philosophy.
In 1792 he graduated with his master's thesis, titled Antiquissimi de
prima malorum humanorum origine philosophematis Genes. III. explicandi
tentamen criticum et philosophicum, and in 1795 he finished
his doctoral thesis, titled De Marcione Paulinarum epistolarum
emendatore (On Marcion as emendator of the Pauline letters) under
Gottlob Christian Storr. Meanwhile, he had begun to study Kant and
Fichte, who influenced him greatly.
In 1797, while tutoring two youths of an aristocratic family, he
Leipzig as their escort and had a chance to attend lectures at
Leipzig University, where he was fascinated by contemporary physical
studies including chemistry and biology. At this time he also visited
Dresden, where he saw collections of the Elector of Saxony, to which
he referred later in his thinking on art. On a personal level, this
Dresden visit of six weeks from August 1797 saw Schelling meet the
August Wilhelm Schlegel
August Wilhelm Schlegel and
Karl Friedrich Schlegel
Karl Friedrich Schlegel and his
future wife Caroline (then married to August Wilhelm), and
After two years tutoring, in October 1798, at the age of only 23,
Schelling was called to
University of Jena
University of Jena as an extraordinary (i.e.,
unpaid) professor of philosophy. His time at Jena (1798–1803) put
Schelling at the center of the intellectual ferment of Romanticism. He
was on close terms with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who appreciated
the poetic quality of the Naturphilosophie, reading
Von der Weltseele.
As the prime minister of the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar, Goethe invited
Schelling to Jena. On the other hand, Schelling was unsympathetic to
the ethical idealism that animated the work of Friedrich Schiller, the
other pillar of Weimar Classicism. Later, in Schelling's Vorlesung
über die Philosophie der Kunst (Lecture on the Philosophy of Art,
1802/03), Schiller's theory on the sublime was closely reviewed.
In Jena, Schelling was on good terms with Fichte at first, but their
different conceptions, about nature in particular, led to increasing
divergence in their thought. Fichte advised him to focus on philosophy
in its original meaning, that is, transcendental philosophy:
specifically, Fichte's own Wissenschaftlehre. But Schelling, who was
becoming the acknowledged leader of the Romantic school, had begun to
reject Fichte's thought as cold and abstract.
Schelling was especially close to
August Wilhelm Schlegel
August Wilhelm Schlegel and his
wife, Caroline. A marriage between Schelling and Caroline's young
daughter, Auguste Böhmer, was contemplated by both. Auguste died of
dysentery in 1800, prompting many to blame Schelling, who had overseen
her treatment. Robert Richards, however, argues in his book The
Romantic Conception of Life that Schelling's interventions were not
only appropriate but most likely irrelevant, as the doctors called to
the scene assured everyone involved that Auguste's disease was
inevitably fatal. Auguste's death drew Schelling and Caroline
closer. Schlegel had moved to Berlin, and a divorce was arranged (with
Goethe's help). Schelling's time at Jena came to an end, and on 2 June
1803 he and Caroline were married away from Jena. Their marriage
ceremony was the last occasion Schelling met his school friend
Hölderlin, who was already mentally ill at that time.
In his Jena period, Schelling had a closer relationship with Hegel
again. With Schelling's help, Hegel became a private lecturer
(Privatdozent) at Jena University. Hegel wrote a book titled Differenz
des Fichte'schen und Schelling'schen Systems der Philosophie
(Difference between Fichte's and Schelling's Systems of Philosophy,
1801), and supported Schelling's position against his idealistic
predecessors, Fichte and Karl Leonhard Reinhold. Beginning in January
1802, Hegel and Schelling published the Kritisches Journal der
Philosophie (Critical Journal of Philosophy) as co-editors, publishing
papers on the philosophy of nature, but Schelling was too busy to stay
involved with the editing and the magazine was mainly Hegel's
publication, espousing a thought different from Schelling's. The
magazine ceased publication in the spring of 1803 when Schelling moved
from Jena to Würzburg.
Würzburg and personal conflicts
After Jena, Schelling went to
Bamberg for a time, to study Brunonian
medicine (the theory of John Brown) with Adalbert Friedrich
Marcus (de) and Andreas Röschlaub. From September 1803 until
April 1806 Schelling was professor at the new University of Würzburg.
This period was marked by considerable flux in his views and by a
final breach with Fichte and Hegel.
In Würzburg, a conservative Catholic city, Schelling found many
enemies among his colleagues and in the government. He moved then to
Munich in 1806, where he found a position as a state official, first
as associate of the
Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities
Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities and
secretary of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, afterwards as secretary
of the Philosophische Klasse (philosophical section) of the Academy of
Sciences. 1806 was also the year Schelling published a book in which
he criticized Fichte openly by name. In 1807 Schelling received the
manuscript of Hegel's
Phaenomenologie des Geistes
Phaenomenologie des Geistes (Phenomenology of
the Spirit or Mind), which Hegel had sent to him, asking Schelling to
write the foreword. Surprised to find remarks directed at his own
philosophical theory, Schelling eventually wrote back, asking Hegel to
clarify whether he had intended to mock Schelling's followers who
lacked a true understanding of his thought, or Schelling himself.
Hegel never replied. In the same year, Schelling gave a speech about
the relation between the visual arts and nature at the Academy of Fine
Arts; and Hegel wrote a severe criticism of it to one of his friends.
After that, they criticized each other in lecture rooms and in books
publicly until the end of their lives.
Without resigning his official position in Munich, he lectured for a
short time in
Stuttgart (Stuttgarter Privatvorlesungen [Stuttgart
private lectures], 1810), and seven years at the University of
Erlangen (1820–1827). In 1809 Karoline died,
just before he published Freiheitschrift (Freedom Essay) the last book
published during his life. Three years later, introduced by
Goethe, Schelling married one of her closest friends,
Pauline Gotter, in whom he found a faithful companion.
During the long stay at
Munich (1806–1841) Schelling's literary
activity came gradually to a standstill. It is possible that it was
the overpowering strength and influence of the Hegelian system that
constrained Schelling, for it was only in 1834, after the death of
Hegel, that, in a preface to a translation by
Hubert Beckers of a work
by Victor Cousin, he gave public utterance to the antagonism in which
he stood to the Hegelian, and to his own earlier, conception of
philosophy. The antagonism certainly was not then a new fact; the
Erlangen lectures on the history of philosophy of 1822 express the
same in a pointed fashion, and Schelling had already begun the
treatment of mythology and religion which in his view constituted the
true positive complements to the negative of logical or speculative
Public attention was powerfully attracted by these vague hints of a
new system which promised something more positive, especially in its
treatment of religion, than the apparent results of Hegel's teaching.
The appearance of critical writings by David Friedrich Strauss,
Feuerbach, and Bruno Bauer, and the evident disunion in the Hegelian
school itself, express a growing alienation from the then dominant
philosophy. In Berlin, the headquarters of the Hegelians, this found
expression in attempts to obtain officially from Schelling a treatment
of the new system which he was understood to have in reserve. The
realization of the desire did not come about till 1841, when the
appointment of Schelling as Prussian privy councillor and member of
the Berlin Academy, gave him the right, a right he was requested to
exercise, to deliver lectures in the university. Among those in
attendance at his lectures were
Søren Kierkegaard (who said Schelling
talked "quite insufferable nonsense" and complained that he did not
end his lectures on time),
Mikhail Bakunin (who called them
"interesting but rather insignificant"), Jacob Burckhardt, Alexander
von Humboldt (who never accepted Schelling's natural
Friedrich Engels (who, as a partisan of Hegel,
attended to "shield the great man's grave from abuse"). The
opening lecture of his course was listened to by a large and
appreciative audience. The enmity of his old foe, H. E. G. Paulus,
sharpened by Schelling's apparent success, led to the surreptitious
publication of a verbatim report of the lectures on the philosophy of
revelation, and, as Schelling did not succeed in obtaining legal
condemnation and suppression of this piracy, he in 1845 ceased the
delivery of any public courses.
In 1793 Schelling contributed to Heinrich Eberhard Gottlob Paulus's
periodical Memorabilien. His 1795 dissertation was De Marcione
Paullinarum epistolarum emendatore (On Marcion as emendator of the
Pauline letters). In 1794, Schelling published an exposition of
Fichte's thought entitled Ueber die Möglichkeit einer Form der
Philosophie überhaupt (On the Possibility of a Form of Philosophy in
General). This work was acknowledged by Fichte himself and
immediately earned Schelling a reputation among philosophers. His more
elaborate work, Vom Ich als Prinzip der Philosophie, oder über das
Unbedingte im menschlichen Wissen (On Self as Principle of Philosophy,
or on the Unrestricted in Human Knowledge, 1795), while still
remaining within the limits of the Fichtean idealism, showed a
tendency to give the Fichtean method a more objective application, and
to amalgamate Spinoza's views with it. He contributed articles and
reviews to the Philosophisches Journal of Fichte and Friedrich
Immanuel Niethammer, and threw himself into the study of physical and
medical science. In 1795 Schelling published Philosophische Briefe
über Dogmatismus und Kritizismus (Philosophical Letters on Dogmatism
and Criticism), consisting of 10 letters addressed to an unknown
interlocutor that presented both a defense and critique of the Kantian
In the period 1796/97 there was written the seminal manuscript now
known as the Das älteste Systemprogramm des deutschen Idealismus
("The Oldest Systematic Program of German Idealism"). It survives in
Hegel's handwriting. On its first publication (1916) by Franz
Rosenzweig, it was attributed to Schelling. It has also been claimed
for Hegel and Hölderlin.
In 1797 Schelling published the essay Neue Deduction des Naturrechts
("New Deduction of Natural Law"), which anticipated Fichte's treatment
of the topic in the Grundlage des Naturrechts (Foundations of Natural
Law). His studies of physical science bore fruit in the Ideen zu einer
Philosophie der Natur (Ideas Concerning a Philosophy of Nature, 1797),
and the treatise
Von der Weltseele (On the World-Soul, 1798). In Ideen
Schelling referred to Leibniz and quoted from his Monadology. He held
Leibniz in high regard because of his view of nature during his
natural philosophy period.
In 1800 Schelling published System des transcendentalen Idealismus
(System of Transcendental Idealism). In this book Schelling described
transcendental philosophy and nature philosophy as complementary to
one another. Fichte reacted by stating that Schelling was working on
the basis of a false philosophical principle: in Fichte's theory
nature as Not-Self (Nicht-Ich = object) could not be a subject of
philosophy, whose essential content is the subjective activity of the
human intellect. The breach became unrecoverable in 1801, after
Schelling published Darstellung des Systems meiner Philosophie
("Presentation of My System of Philosophy"). Fichte thought this title
absurd, since in his opinion philosophy could not be personalized.
Moreover, in this book Schelling publicly expressed his estimation of
Spinoza, whose work Fichte had repudiated as dogmatism, and declared
that nature and spirit differ only in their quantity, but are
essentially identical (Identität). According to Schelling, the
absolute was the indifference or identity, which he considered to be
an essential subject of philosophy.
The "Aphorisms on Naturphilosophie" published in the Jahrbücher der
Medicin als Wissenschaft (1806–1808) are for the most part extracts
Würzburg lectures, and the Denkmal der Schrift von den
göttlichen Dingen des Herrn Jacobi was a response to an attack by
Jacobi (the two accused each other of atheism). A work of
significance is the 1809 Philosophische Untersuchungen über das Wesen
der menschlichen Freiheit und die damit zusammenhängenden
Gegenstände (Philosophical Inquiries into the Essence of Human
Freedom), which carries out, with increasing tendency to mysticism,
the thoughts of the previous work, Philosophie und Religion
(Philosophy and Religion, 1804). However, in a change from the
Jena period works, now evil is not an appearance coming from the
quantitative differences between the real and the ideal, but something
substantial. This work clearly paraphrased Kant's distinction between
intelligible and empirical character. Otherwise, Schelling himself
called freedom "a capacity for good and evil".
The tract Ueber die Gottheiten zu Samothrake ("On the Divinities of
Samothrace") appeared in 1815, ostensibly a portion of a greater work,
Weltalter ("The ages of the world"), frequently announced as ready for
publication, but of which little was ever written. Schelling planned
Weltalter as a book in three parts, describing the past, present, and
future of the world; however, he began only the first part, rewriting
it several times and at last keeping it unpublished. The other two
parts were left only in planning. Christopher John Murray describes
the work as follows:
Building on the premise that philosophy cannot ultimately explain
existence, he merges the earlier philosophies of Nature and identity
with his newfound belief in a fundamental conflict between a dark
unconscious principle and a conscious principle in God. God makes the
universe intelligible by relating to the ground of the real but,
insofar as nature is not complete intelligence, the real exists as a
lack within the ideal and not as reflective of the ideal itself. The
three universal ages — distinct only to us but not in the eternal
God — therefore comprise a beginning where the principle of God
before God is divine will striving for being, the present age, which
is still part of this growth and hence a mediated fulfillment, and a
finality where God is consciously and consummately Himself to
No authentic information on the new positive philosophy (positive
Philosophie) of Schelling was available until after his death (at Bad
Ragatz, on 20 August 1854). His sons then began the issue of his
collected writings with the four volumes of Berlin lectures: vol. i.
Introduction to the Philosophy of
Mythology (1856); ii. Philosophy of
Mythology (1857); iii. and iv. Philosophy of Revelation (1858).
Schelling at all stages of his thought called to his aid outward forms
of some other system. Fichte, Spinoza,
Jakob Boehme and the mystics,
and finally, major Greek thinkers with their Neoplatonic, Gnostic, and
Scholastic commentators, give colouring to particular works. In
Schelling's own view, his philosophy fell into three stages. These
the transition from Fichte's method to the more objective conception
of nature i.e. the advance to Naturphilosophie
the definite formulation of that which implicitly, as Schelling
claims, was involved in the idea of Naturphilosophie, that is, the
thought of the identical, indifferent, absolute substratum of both
nature and spirit, the advance to Identitätsphilosophie
the opposition of negative and positive philosophy, an opposition
which is the theme of his Berlin lectures, though its germs may be
traced back to 1804.
Main article: Naturphilosophie
The function of Schelling's
Naturphilosophie is to exhibit the ideal
as springing from the real. The change which experience brings before
us leads to the conception of duality, the polar opposition through
which nature expresses itself. The dynamical series of stages in
nature are matter, as the equilibrium of the fundamental expansive and
contractive forces; light, with its subordinate processes (magnetism,
electricity, and chemical action); organism, with its component phases
of reproduction, irritability and sensibility.
Reputation and influence
Some scholars characterize Schelling as a protean thinker who,
although brilliant, jumped from one subject to another and lacked the
synthesizing power needed to arrive at a complete philosophical
system. Others challenge the notion that Schelling's thought is marked
by profound breaks, instead arguing that his philosophy always focused
on a few common themes, especially human freedom, the absolute, and
the relationship between spirit and nature. Unlike Hegel, Schelling
did not believe that the absolute could be known in its true character
through rational inquiry alone.
Schelling's thought is still studied, although his reputation has
varied over time. His work impressed the English romantic poet and
critic Samuel Taylor Coleridge, who introduced his ideas into
English-speaking culture, sometimes without full acknowledgment, as in
the Biographia Literaria. Coleridge's critical work was itself
influential, and it was he who introduced into English literature
Schelling's concept of the unconscious. Schelling's System of
Transcendental Idealism has been seen as a precursor of Sigmund
Interpretation of Dreams
Interpretation of Dreams (1899).
By the 1950s, Schelling was almost a forgotten philosopher even in
Germany. In the 1910s and 1920s, philosophers of neo-Kantianism and
Wilhelm Windelband or Richard Kroner, tended to
describe Schelling as an episode connecting Fichte and Hegel. His late
period tended to be ignored, and his philosophies of nature and of art
in the 1790s and first decade of the 19th century were the main focus.
In this context
Kuno Fischer characterized Schelling's early
philosophy as "aesthetic idealism", focusing on the argument where he
ranked art as "the sole document and the eternal organ of philosophy"
(das einzige wahre und ewige Organon zugleich und Dokument der
Philosophie). From socialist philosophers like György Lukács, he
received criticism as anachronistic. An exception was Martin
Heidegger, who treated Schelling's
On Human Freedom in his lectures in
1936. Heidegger found there central themes of Western ontology: the
issues of being, existence, and freedom.
In the 1950s, the situation began to change. In 1954, the centennial
of his death, an international conference on Schelling was held.
Several philosophers including
Karl Jaspers gave presentations about
the uniqueness and relevance of his thought, the interest shifting
toward his later work on being and existence, or, more precisely, the
origin of existence. Schelling was the subject of the 1954
dissertation of Jürgen Habermas. In 1955 Jaspers published a book
titled Schelling, representing him as a forerunner of the
existentialists. Walter Schulz, one of organizers of the 1954
conference, published a book claiming that Schelling had made German
idealism complete with his late philosophy, particularly with his
Berlin lectures in the 1840s. Schulz presented Schelling as the person
who resolved the philosophical problems which Hegel had left
incomplete, in contrast to the contemporary idea that Schelling had
been surpassed by Hegel much earlier. Theologian
Paul Tillich wrote:
"what I learned from Schelling became determinative of my own
philosophical and theological development". Maurice Merleau-Ponty
likened his own project of natural ontology to Schelling's in his
1957-58 Course on Nature.
In the 1970s nature was again of interest to philosophers in relation
to environmental issues. Schelling's philosophy of nature,
particularly his intention to construct a program which covers both
nature and the intellectual life in a single system and method, and
restore nature as a central theme of philosophy, has been reevaluated
in the contemporary context. His influence and relation to the German
art scene, particularly to Romantic literature and visual art, has
been an interest since the late 1960s, from
Philipp Otto Runge
Philipp Otto Runge to
Gerhard Richter and Joseph Beuys.
In relation to psychology, Schelling was considered to have coined the
Slavoj Žižek has written two books
attempting to integrate Schelling's philosophy, mainly his middle
period works including Weltalter, with the work of Jacques
Lacan. The opposition and division in God and thus the problem
of evil in God faced by the later Schelling influenced Luigi
Ken Wilber places Schelling as one of
two philosophers who "after Plato, had the broadest impact on the
"Nature is visible Spirit; Spirit is invisible Nature." (Ideen,
"History as a whole is a progressive, gradually self-disclosing
revelation of the Absolute." (System of Transcendental Idealism, 1800)
"Now if the appearance of freedom is necessarily infinite, the total
evolution of the Absolute is also an infinite process, and history
itself a never wholly completed revelation of that Absolute which, for
the sake of consciousness, and thus merely for the sake of appearance,
separates itself into conscious and unconscious, the free and the
intuitant; but which itself, however, in the inaccessible light
wherein it dwells, is Eternal Identity and the everlasting ground of
harmony between the two." (System of Transcendental Idealism, 1800)
"Has creation a final goal? And if so, why was it not reached at once?
Why was the consummation not realized from the beginning? To these
questions there is but one answer: Because God is Life, and not merely
Being." (Philosophical Inquiries into the Nature of Human Freedom,
"Only he who has tasted freedom can feel the desire to make over
everything in its image, to spread it throughout the whole universe."
(Philosophical Inquiries into the Nature of Human Freedom, 1809)
"As there is nothing before or outside of God he must contain within
himself the ground of his existence. All philosophies say this, but
they speak of this ground as a mere concept without making it
something real and actual." (Philosophical Inquiries into the Nature
of Human Freedom, 1809)
"[The Godhead] is not divine nature or substance, but the devouring
ferocity of purity that a person is able to approach only with an
equal purity. Since all Being goes up in it as if in flames, it is
necessarily unapproachable to anyone still embroiled in Being." (The
Ages of the World, c. 1815)
"God then has no beginning only insofar as there is no beginning of
his beginning. The beginning in God is eternal beginning, that is,
such a one as was beginning from all eternity, and still is, and also
never ceases to be beginning." (Quoted in Hartshorne & Reese,
Philosophers Speak of God, Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1953,
Selected works are listed below.
Ueber Mythen, historische Sagen und Philosopheme der ältesten Welt
(On Myths, Historical Legends and Philosophical Themes of Earliest
Ueber die Möglichkeit einer Form der Philosophie überhaupt (On the
Possibility of an Absolute Form of Philosophy, 1794),
Vom Ich als Prinzip der Philosophie oder über das Unbedingte im
menschlichen Wissen (Of the I as the Principle of Philosophy or on the
Unconditional in Human Knowledge, 1795), and
Philosophische Briefe über Dogmatismus und Kriticismus (Philosophical
Letters on Dogmatism and Criticism, 1795).
1, 2, 3 in The Unconditional in Human Knowledge: Four Early Essays
1794–6, translation and commentary by F. Marti, Lewisburg: Bucknell
University Press (1980).
De Marcione Paulinarum epistolarum emendatore (1795).
Abhandlung zur Erläuterung des Idealismus der Wissenschaftslehre
Ideen zu einer Philosophie der Natur als Einleitung in das Studium
dieser Wissenschaft (1797) as Ideas for a Philosophy of Nature: as
Introduction to the Study of this Science, translated by E. E. Harris
and P. Heath, introduction R. Stern, Cambridge: Cambridge University
Von der Weltseele (1798).
System des transcendentalen Idealismus (1800) as System of
Transcendental Idealism, translated by P. Heath, introduction M.
Vater, Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia (1978).
Ueber den wahren Begriff der
Naturphilosophie und die richtige Art
ihre Probleme aufzulösen (1801).
"Darstellung des Systems meiner Philosophie" (1801), also known as
"Darstellung meines Systems der Philosophie", as "Presentation of My
System of Philosophy," translated by M. Vater, The Philosophical
Forum, 32(4), Winter 2001, pp. 339–371.
Bruno oder über das göttliche und natürliche Prinzip der Dinge
(1802) as Bruno, or On the Natural and the Divine Principle of Things,
translated with an introduction by M. Vater, Albany: State University
of New York Press (1984).
Philosophie der Kunst (lecture) (delivered 1802–3; published 1859)
as The Philosophy of Art (1989) Minnesota: Minnesota University Press.
Vorlesungen über die Methode des akademischen Studiums (delivered
1802; published 1803) as On University Studies, translated E. S.
Morgan, edited N. Guterman, Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press
System der gesamten Philosophie und der
Philosophische Untersuchungen über das Wesen der menschlichen
Freiheit und die damit zusammenhängenden Gegenstände (1809) as Of
Human Freedom, a translation with critical introduction and notes by
J. Gutmann, Chicago: Open Court (1936); also as Philosophical
Investigations into the Essence of Human Freedom, trans. Jeff Love and
SUNY Press (2006).
Clara. Oder über den Zusammenhang der Natur- mit der Geisterwelt
(Nachlass) (1810) as Clara: or On Nature's Connection to the Spirit
World trans. Fiona Steinkamp, Albany: State University of New York
Weltalter (1811–15) as The Ages of the World, translated with
introduction and notes by F. de W. Bolman, jr., New York: Columbia
University Press (1967); also in The Abyss of Freedom/Ages of the
World, trans. Judith Norman, with an essay by Slavoj Žižek, Ann
Arbor: The University of Michigan Press (1997).
"Ueber die Gottheiten von Samothrake" (1815) as Schelling's Treatise
on 'The Deities of Samothrace', a translation and introduction by R.
F. Brown, Missoula, Mont.: Scholars Press (1977).
Darstellung des philosophischen Empirismus (Nachlass) (1830).
Philosophie der Mythologie (lecture) (1842).
Philosophie der Offenbarung (lecture) (1854).
Zur Geschichte der neueren Philosophie (probably 1833–4) as On the
History of Modern Philosophy, translation and introduction by A.
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press (1994).
Collected works in German
Historisch-kritische Schelling-Ausgabe der Bayerischen Akademie der
Wissenschaften. Edited by Hans Michael Baumgartner, Wilhelm G. Jacobs,
Jörg Jantzen, Hermann Krings and Hermann Zeltner, Stuttgart-Bad
Cannstatt: Frommann-Holzboog, 1976 ff.
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schellings sämmtliche Werke. Edited by
K. F. A. Schelling. 1st division (Abteilung): 10 vols. (= I–X); 2nd
division: 4 vols. (= XI–XIV), Stuttgart/Augsburg 1856–1861. The
original edition in new arrangement edited by M. Schröter, 6 main
volumes (Hauptbände), 6 supplementary volumes (Ergänzungsbände),
Munich, 1927 ff., 2nd edition 1958 ff.
History of aesthetics before the 20th century
^ Nectarios G. Limnatis, German Idealism and the Problem of Knowledge:
Kant, Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel, Springer, 2008, pp. 166, 177.
^ Frederick Beiser, German Idealism: The Struggle Against
Subjectivism, 1781-1801, Harvard University Press, 2002, p. 470.
^ The term absoluter Idealismus occurs for the first time in
Schelling's Ideen zu einer Philosophie der Natur als Einleitung in das
Studium dieser Wissenschaft (Ideas for a Philosophy of Nature: as
Introduction to the Study of this Science), Vol. 1, P. Krüll, 1803
, p. 80.
^ Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling by Saitya Brata Das in
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2011.
^ Joseph B. Maier, Judith Marcus, and Zoltán Tarrp (ed.), German
Jewry: Its History and Sociology: Selected Essays by Werner J.
Cahnman, Transaction Publishers, 1989, p. 212.
^ a b Robert J. Richards, The Romantic Conception of Life: Science and
Philosophy in the Age of Goethe, University of Chicago Press,, 2002,
^ Bowie, Andrew (19 July 2012). "Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von
Schelling". In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia of
^ Richard H. Popkin, ed. (31 December 2005). The Columbia History of
Western Philosophy. Columbia University Press. p. 529.
ISBN 978-0-231-10129-5. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
^ a b c Adamson & Mitchell 1911, p. 316.
John Morley (ed.), The Fortnightly Review, Voll. 10, 12, London:
Chapman & Hall, 1870, p. 500.
^ Frederick C. Beiser, ed. (1993). The Cambridge Companion to Hegel.
Cambridge University Press. p. 419. ISBN 978-1-139-82495-8.
^ History of Philosophy: From Thales to the Present Time, Volume 2, C.
Scribner's Sons, 1874, p. 214.
^ The thesis is available online at the
Munich Digitization Center.
^ Adamson & Mitchell 1911, p. 316–318.
^ Robert J. Richards, The Romantic Conception of Life: Science and
Philosophy in the Age of Goethe (2002), p. 149.
^ Richards, p. 171 note 141.
^ Wallen, Martin (2004). City of Health, Fields of Disease:
Revolutions in the Poetry, Medicine, and Philosophy of Romanticism.
Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 123. ISBN 978-0-7546-3542-0.
Retrieved 22 July 2012.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Adamson & Mitchell 1911, p. 317.
On the Concept of Irony with Continual Reference to Socrates
On the Concept of Irony with Continual Reference to Socrates by
Søren Kierkegaard, 1841
^ Lara Ostaric, Interpreting Schelling: Critical Essays, Cambridge
University Press, 2014, p. 218.
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling - Biography" at egs.edu
^ Nicolaas A. Rupke, Alexander von Humboldt: A Metabiography,
University of Chicago Press, p. 116.
^ Tristram Hunt, Marx's General: The Revolutionary Life of Friedrich
Engels (Henry Holt and Co., 2009: ISBN 0-8050-8025-2), pp.
^ a b Adamson & Mitchell 1911, p. 319.
^ Shaw, Devin Zane (10 February 2011). Freedom and Nature in
Schelling's Philosophy of Art. Continuum International Publishing
Group. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-4411-5624-2. Retrieved 22 July
^ Kai Hammermeister, The German Aesthetic Tradition, Cambridge
University Press, 2002, p. 76.
^ John Laughland, Schelling Versus Hegel: From German Idealism to
Metaphysics (Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007:
ISBN 0-7546-6118-0), p. 119.
^ Christopher John Murray, Encyclopedia of the Romantic Era, 1760-1850
(Taylor & Francis, 2004: ISBN 1-57958-422-5), pp. 1001–02.
^ "The briefest and best account in Schelling himself of
Naturphilosophie is that contained in the Einleitung zu dem Ersten
Entwurf (S.W. iii.). A full and lucid statement of
that given by K. Fischer in his Gesch. d. n. Phil., vi. 433-692"
(Adamson & Mitchell 1911, p. 318).
^ Bowie, Andrew (1990).
Aesthetics and Subjectivity: From Kant to
Nietzsche. Manchester University Press ND. p. 265.
^ Paul Tillich, A History of Christian Thought 438 Simon and Schuster,
^ Žižek, Slavoj (1996). The indivisible remainder: An essay on
Schelling and related matters. London: Verso.
^ Žižek, Slavoj (2009). The parallax view (1st paperback ed.).
Cambridge, Mass.: MIT. ISBN 0-26251268-8.
^ Braidotti, Rosi (2014). After Poststructuralism. Transitions and
Transformations. Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge. p. 105.
ISBN 978-1-317-54681-8. ISBN 1-31754681-4.
^ Distaso, Leonardo V. (2004). The Paradox of Existence. Philosophy
Aesthetics in the Young Schelling. Springer Science+Business
Media. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-402-02490-0.
^ Pagano, Maurizio (2007). "Introduction. The Confrontation between
Religious and Secular Thought" (PDF). In Benso, Silvia; Schroeder,
Brian. Contemporary Italian Philosophy. Crossing the Borders of
Ethics, Politics, and Religion. Albany, New York: SUNY Press.
pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-0-791-47135-7.
^ See Ken Wilber's A Brief History of Everything (1996), chap. 17 (pp.
^ For a more complete listing, see Stanford bibliography.
^ Available online at Google Books.
^ Adamson & Mitchell 1911, p. 317 fn. 1.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Adamson, Robert; Mitchell, John Malcolm
(1911). "Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von". In Chisholm, Hugh.
Encyclopædia Britannica. 24 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Bowie, Andrew (1993). Schelling and Modern European Philosophy: an
Introduction. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415756-35-9.
Gare, Arran (2011). "From Kant to Schelling and Process Metaphysics".
Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy.
Melbourne. 7 (2): 26–69.
Golan, Zev (2007), God, Man and Nietzsche, NY: iUniverse. (The second
chapter, listed as "A dialogue between Schelling, Luria and
Maimonides", examines the similarities between Schelling's texts and
the Kabbalah; it also offers a religious interpretation of Schelling's
Grant, Iain Hamilton (2008). Philosophies of Nature after Schelling.
New York: Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 1-847064-32-9.
Hendrix, John Shannon (2005).
Aesthetics & the Philosophy of
Spirit: From Plotinus to Schelling and Hegel. New York: Peter Lang.
Tilliette, Xavier (1970), Schelling: une philosophie en devenir, two
volumes, Paris: Vrin. (Encyclopedic historical account of the
development of Schelling's work: stronger on general exposition and on
theology than on Schelling's philosophical arguments.)
Tilliette, Xavier (1999), Schelling, biographie, Calmann-Lévy,
collection "La vie des philosophes".
Wirth, Jason M. (2005). Schelling Now: Contemporary Readings.
Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press.
Žižek, Slavoj (1996). The Indivisible Remainder: an Essay on
Schelling and Related Matters. London: Verso.
Wirth, Jason (2015). Schelling's Practice of the Wild. New York: SUNY.
ISBN 978 -1-4384-5679-9.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Friedrich Wilhelm Schelling.
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Works by or about
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling
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LibriVox (public domain
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling, 1807 "On the Relation of the
Plastic Arts to Nature". Retrieved 24 September 2010.
Martin Arndt (1995). "Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm (von) Joseph". In
Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL)
(in German). 9. Herzberg: Bautz. cols. 104–138.
Friedrich Jodl (1890), "Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von",
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) (in German), 31, Leipzig: Duncker
& Humblot, pp. 6–27
Watson, John, 1847–1939, 1882 "Schelling's Transcendental Idealism".
Retrieved 28 September 2010.
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling by Saitya Brata Das in Internet
Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2011
Links to texts
Biography of Schelling at NNDB
A History of Philosophy: 18th and 19th century German Philosophy, By
Frederick Charles Copleston, Continuum International Publishing Group,
2003 pp. 94ff
Böhme, Traugott (1920). "Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph
von". Encyclopedia Americana.
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