FRIEDRICH WILHELM JOSEPH SCHELLING (German: ; 27 January 1775 – 20 August 1854), later (after 1812) VON SCHELLING, was a German philosopher . Standard histories of philosophy make him the midpoint in the development of German idealism , situating him between Johann Gottlieb Fichte , his mentor in his early years, and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel , his former university roommate, early friend, and later rival. Interpreting Schelling's philosophy is regarded as difficult because of its apparently ever-changing nature.
Schelling's thought in the large has been neglected, especially in the English-speaking world, as has been his later work on mythology and revelation, much of which remains untranslated. An important factor was the ascendancy of Hegel, whose mature works portray Schelling as a mere footnote in the development of idealism. Schelling's _ Naturphilosophie _ also has been attacked by scientists for its analogizing tendency and lack of empirical orientation. However, some later philosophers such as Martin Heidegger , Slavoj Žižek and Jason Wirth have shown interest in re-examining Schelling's body of work.
* 1 Life
* 2 Works
* 3 Periodization
* 3.1 _Naturphilosophie_
* 4 Reputation and influence * 5 Quotations * 6 Bibliography * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links
Schelling was born in the town of Leonberg in the Duchy of Württemberg (now Baden-Württemberg ), the son of Joseph Friedrich Schelling and his wife Gottliebin Marie. He attended the monastic school at Bebenhausen , near Tübingen , where his father was chaplain and an Orientalist professor. From 1783 to 1784 Schelling attended a Latin school in Nürtingen and knew Friedrich Hölderlin , who was five years his senior. On 18 October 1790, at the age of 15, he then was granted permission to enroll at the Tübinger Stift (seminary of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Württemberg ), despite not having yet reached the normal enrollment age of 20. At the Stift, he shared a room with Hegel as well as Hölderlin, and the three became good friends.
Schelling studied the Church fathers and ancient Greek philosophers . His interest gradually shifted from Lutheran theology to philosophy. In 1792 he graduated with his master\'s thesis , titled _Antiquissimi de prima malorum humanorum origine philosophematis Genes. III. explicandi tentamen criticum et philosophicum_, and in 1795 he finished his doctoral thesis , titled _De Marcione Paulinarum epistolarum emendatore_ (_On Marcion as emendator of the Pauline letters _) under Gottlob Christian Storr . Meanwhile, he had begun to study Kant and Fichte , who influenced him greatly.
In 1797, while tutoring two youths of an aristocratic family, he visited Leipzig as their escort and had a chance to attend lectures at Leipzig University , where he was fascinated by contemporary physical studies including chemistry and biology. At this time he also visited Dresden , where he saw collections of the Elector of Saxony , to which he referred later in his thinking on art. On a personal level, this Dresden visit of six weeks from August 1797 saw Schelling meet the brothers August Wilhelm Schlegel and Karl Friedrich Schlegel and his future wife Caroline (then married to August Wilhelm), and Novalis .
After two years tutoring, in October 1798, at the age of only 23, Schelling was called to University of Jena as an extraordinary (i.e., unpaid) professor of philosophy. His time at Jena (1798–1803) put Schelling at the center of the intellectual ferment of Romanticism . He was on close terms with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , who appreciated the poetic quality of the _ Naturphilosophie _, reading _ Von der Weltseele_. As the prime minister of the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar , Goethe invited Schelling to Jena. On the other hand, Schelling was unsympathetic to the ethical idealism that animated the work of Friedrich Schiller , the other pillar of Weimar Classicism . Later, in Schelling's _Vorlesung über die Philosophie der Kunst_ (_Lecture on the Philosophy of Art_, 1802/03), Schiller's theory on the sublime was closely reviewed.
In Jena, Schelling was on good terms with Fichte at first, but their different conceptions, about nature in particular, led to increasing divergence in their thought. Fichte advised him to focus on philosophy in its original meaning, that is, transcendental philosophy: specifically, Fichte's own _Wissenschaftlehre_. But Schelling, who was becoming the acknowledged leader of the Romantic school, had begun to reject Fichte's thought as cold and abstract.
Schelling was especially close to August Wilhelm Schlegel and his wife, Caroline . A marriage between Schelling and Caroline's young daughter, Auguste Böhmer, was contemplated by both. Auguste died of dysentery in 1800, prompting many to blame Schelling, who had overseen her treatment. Robert Richards, however, argues in his book _The Romantic Conception of Life_ that Schelling's interventions were not only appropriate but most likely irrelevant, as the doctors called to the scene assured everyone involved that Auguste's disease was inevitably fatal. Auguste's death drew Schelling and Caroline closer. Schlegel had moved to Berlin, and a divorce was arranged (with Goethe's help). Schelling's time at Jena came to an end, and on 2 June 1803 he and Caroline were married away from Jena. Their marriage ceremony was the last occasion Schelling met his school friend Hölderlin, who was already mentally ill at that time.
In his Jena period, Schelling had a closer relationship with Hegel again. With Schelling's help, Hegel became a private lecturer (_Privatdozent_) at Jena University . Hegel wrote a book titled _Differenz des Fichte'schen und Schelling'schen Systems der Philosophie_ (_Difference between Fichte's and Schelling's Systems of Philosophy_, 1801), and supported Schelling's position against his idealistic predecessors, Fichte and Karl Leonhard Reinhold . Beginning in January 1802, Hegel and Schelling published the _Kritisches Journal der Philosophie_ (_Critical Journal of Philosophy_) as co-editors, publishing papers on the philosophy of nature, but Schelling was too busy to stay involved with the editing and the magazine was mainly Hegel's publication, espousing a thought different from Schelling's. The magazine ceased publication in the spring of 1803 when Schelling moved from Jena to Würzburg .
MOVE TO WüRZBURG AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS
After Jena, Schelling went to Bamberg for a time, to study Brunonian medicine (the theory of John Brown ) with Adalbert Friedrich Marcus and Andreas Röschlaub . From September 1803 until April 1806 Schelling was professor at the new University of Würzburg . This period was marked by considerable flux in his views and by a final breach with Fichte and Hegel.
In Würzburg, a conservative Catholic city, Schelling found many enemies among his colleagues and in the government. He moved then to Munich in 1806, where he found a position as a state official, first as associate of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities and secretary of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts , afterwards as secretary of the Philosophische Klasse (philosophical section) of the Academy of Sciences. 1806 was also the year Schelling published a book in which he criticized Fichte openly by name. In 1807 Schelling received the manuscript of Hegel's _ Phaenomenologie des Geistes _ (_Phenomenology of the Spirit_ or _Mind_), which Hegel had sent to him, asking Schelling to write the foreword. Surprised to find remarks directed at his own philosophical theory, Schelling eventually wrote back, asking Hegel to clarify whether he had intended to mock Schelling's followers who lacked a true understanding of his thought, or Schelling himself. Hegel never replied. In the same year, Schelling gave a speech about the relation between the visual arts and nature at the Academy of Fine Arts; and Hegel wrote a severe criticism of it to one of his friends. After that, they criticized each other in lecture rooms and in books publicly until the end of their lives.
Without resigning his official position in Munich, he lectured for a short time in Stuttgart (_Stuttgarter Privatvorlesungen_ , 1810), and seven years at the University of Erlangen (1820–1827). In 1809 Karoline died, just before he published _Freiheitschrift_ (_Freedom Essay_) the last book published during his life. Three years later, introduced by Goethe, Schelling married one of her closest friends, Pauline Gotter , in whom he found a faithful companion.
During the long stay at Munich (1806–1841) Schelling's literary activity came gradually to a standstill. It is possible that it was the overpowering strength and influence of the Hegelian system that constrained Schelling, for it was only in 1834, after the death of Hegel, that, in a preface to a translation by Hubert Beckers of a work by Victor Cousin , he gave public utterance to the antagonism in which he stood to the Hegelian, and to his own earlier, conception of philosophy. The antagonism certainly was not then a new fact; the Erlangen lectures on the history of philosophy of 1822 express the same in a pointed fashion, and Schelling had already begun the treatment of mythology and religion which in his view constituted the true positive complements to the negative of logical or speculative philosophy.
Public attention was powerfully attracted by these vague hints of a new system which promised something more positive, especially in its treatment of religion, than the apparent results of Hegel's teaching. The appearance of critical writings by David Friedrich Strauss , Feuerbach , and Bruno Bauer , and the evident disunion in the Hegelian school itself, express a growing alienation from the then dominant philosophy. In Berlin, the headquarters of the Hegelians, this found expression in attempts to obtain officially from Schelling a treatment of the new system which he was understood to have in reserve. The realization of the desire did not come about till 1841, when the appointment of Schelling as Prussian privy councillor and member of the Berlin Academy, gave him the right, a right he was requested to exercise, to deliver lectures in the university. Among those in attendance at his lectures were Søren Kierkegaard (who said Schelling talked "quite insufferable nonsense" and complained that he did not end his lectures on time), Mikhail Bakunin (who called them "interesting but rather insignificant"), Jacob Burckhardt , Alexander von Humboldt (who never accepted Schelling's natural philosophy ), and Friedrich Engels (who, as a partisan of Hegel, attended to "shield the great man's grave from abuse"). The opening lecture of his course was listened to by a large and appreciative audience. The enmity of his old foe, H. E. G. Paulus , sharpened by Schelling's apparent success, led to the surreptitious publication of a verbatim report of the lectures on the philosophy of revelation, and, as Schelling did not succeed in obtaining legal condemnation and suppression of this piracy, he in 1845 ceased the delivery of any public courses.
In 1793 Schelling contributed to Heinrich Eberhard Gottlob Paulus 's periodical _Memorabilien_. His 1795 dissertation was _De Marcione Paullinarum epistolarum emendatore_ (_On Marcion as emendator of the Pauline letters _). In 1794, Schelling published an exposition of Fichte's thought entitled _Ueber die Möglichkeit einer Form der Philosophie überhaupt_ (_On the Possibility of a Form of Philosophy in General_). This work was acknowledged by Fichte himself and immediately earned Schelling a reputation among philosophers. His more elaborate work, _Vom Ich als Prinzip der Philosophie, oder über das Unbedingte im menschlichen Wissen_ (_On Self as Principle of Philosophy, or on the Unrestricted in Human Knowledge_, 1795), while still remaining within the limits of the Fichtean idealism, showed a tendency to give the Fichtean method a more objective application, and to amalgamate Spinoza 's views with it. He contributed articles and reviews to the _Philosophisches Journal_ of Fichte and Friedrich Immanuel Niethammer , and threw himself into the study of physical and medical science. In 1795 Schelling published _Philosophische Briefe über Dogmatismus und Kritizismus_ (_Philosophical Letters on Dogmatism and Criticism_), consisting of 10 letters addressed to an unknown interlocutor that presented both a defense and critique of the Kantian system.
In the period 1796/97 there was written the seminal manuscript now known as the _Das älteste Systemprogramm des deutschen Idealismus_ (" The Oldest Systematic Program of German Idealism "). It survives in Hegel's handwriting. On its first publication (1916) by Franz Rosenzweig , it was attributed to Schelling. It has also been claimed for Hegel and Hölderlin.
In 1797 Schelling published the essay _Neue Deduction des Naturrechts_ ("New Deduction of Natural Law"), which anticipated Fichte's treatment of the topic in the _Grundlage des Naturrechts_ (_Foundations of Natural Law_). His studies of physical science bore fruit in the _Ideen zu einer Philosophie der Natur_ (_Ideas Concerning a Philosophy of Nature_, 1797), and the treatise _ Von der Weltseele_ (_On the World-Soul_, 1798). In _Ideen_ Schelling referred to Leibniz and quoted from his _ Monadology _. He held Leibniz in high regard because of his view of nature during his natural philosophy period.
In 1800 Schelling published _System des transcendentalen Idealismus_ (_ System of Transcendental Idealism _). In this book Schelling described transcendental philosophy and nature philosophy as complementary to one another. Fichte reacted by stating that Schelling was working on the basis of a false philosophical principle: in Fichte's theory nature as Not-Self (_Nicht-Ich_ = object) could not be a subject of philosophy, whose essential content is the subjective activity of the human intellect. The breach became unrecoverable in 1801, after Schelling published _Darstellung des Systems meiner Philosophie_ ("Presentation of My System of Philosophy"). Fichte thought this title absurd, since in his opinion philosophy could not be personalized. Moreover, in this book Schelling publicly expressed his estimation of Spinoza, whose work Fichte had repudiated as dogmatism, and declared that nature and spirit differ only in their quantity, but are essentially identical (_Identität_). According to Schelling, the absolute was the indifference or identity, which he considered to be an essential subject of philosophy.
The "Aphorisms on _Naturphilosophie_" published in the _Jahrbücher der Medicin als Wissenschaft_ (1806–1808) are for the most part extracts from the Würzburg lectures, and the _Denkmal der Schrift von den göttlichen Dingen des Herrn Jacobi_ was a response to an attack by Jacobi (the two accused each other of atheism ). A work of significance is the 1809 _Philosophische Untersuchungen über das Wesen der menschlichen Freiheit und die damit zusammenhängenden Gegenstände_ (_Philosophical Inquiries into the Essence of Human Freedom _), which carries out, with increasing tendency to mysticism , the thoughts of the previous work, _Philosophie und Religion_ (_Philosophy and Religion_, 1804). However, in a change from the Jena period works, now evil is not an appearance coming from the quantitative differences between the real and the ideal, but something substantial. This work clearly paraphrased Kant's distinction between intelligible and empirical character. Otherwise, Schelling himself called freedom "a capacity for good and evil".
The tract _Ueber die Gottheiten zu Samothrake_ ("On the Divinities of Samothrace ") appeared in 1815, ostensibly a portion of a greater work, _ Weltalter _ ("The ages of the world"), frequently announced as ready for publication, but of which little was ever written. Schelling planned _Weltalter_ as a book in three parts, describing the past, present, and future of the world; however, he began only the first part, rewriting it several times and at last keeping it unpublished. The other two parts were left only in planning. Christopher John Murray describes the work as follows:
Building on the premise that philosophy cannot ultimately explain existence, he merges the earlier philosophies of Nature and identity with his newfound belief in a fundamental conflict between a dark unconscious principle and a conscious principle in God. God makes the universe intelligible by relating to the ground of the real but, insofar as nature is not complete intelligence, the real exists as a lack within the ideal and not as reflective of the ideal itself. The three universal ages — distinct only to us but not in the eternal God — therefore comprise a beginning where the principle of God before God is divine will striving for being, the present age, which is still part of this growth and hence a mediated fulfillment, and a finality where God is consciously and consummately Himself to Himself.
No authentic information on the new positive philosophy (_positive Philosophie_) of Schelling was available until after his death (at Bad Ragatz , on 20 August 1854). His sons then began the issue of his collected writings with the four volumes of Berlin lectures: vol. i. _Introduction to the Philosophy of Mythology_ (1856); ii. _Philosophy of Mythology_ (1857); iii. and iv. _Philosophy of Revelation_ (1858).
Schelling at all stages of his thought called to his aid outward forms of some other system. Fichte, Spinoza, Jakob Boehme and the mystics, and finally, major Greek thinkers with their Neoplatonic , Gnostic , and Scholastic commentators, give colouring to particular works. In Schelling's own view, his philosophy fell into three stages. These were:
* the transition from Fichte's method to the more objective conception of nature i.e. the advance to _Naturphilosophie_ * the definite formulation of that which implicitly, as Schelling claims, was involved in the idea of _Naturphilosophie_, that is, the thought of the identical, indifferent, absolute substratum of both nature and spirit, the advance to _Identitätsphilosophie_ * the opposition of negative and positive philosophy, an opposition which is the theme of his Berlin lectures, though its germs may be traced back to 1804.
Main article: Naturphilosophie
The function of Schelling's _Naturphilosophie_ is to exhibit the ideal as springing from the real. The change which experience brings before us leads to the conception of duality, the polar opposition through which nature expresses itself. The dynamical series of stages in nature are matter, as the equilibrium of the fundamental expansive and contractive forces; light, with its subordinate processes (magnetism, electricity, and chemical action); organism, with its component phases of reproduction, irritability and sensibility.
REPUTATION AND INFLUENCE
Some scholars characterize Schelling as a protean thinker who, although brilliant, jumped from one subject to another and lacked the synthesizing power needed to arrive at a complete philosophical system. Others challenge the notion that Schelling's thought is marked by profound breaks, instead arguing that his philosophy always focused on a few common themes, especially human freedom, the absolute, and the relationship between spirit and nature. Unlike Hegel, Schelling did not believe that the absolute could be known in its true character through rational inquiry alone.
Schelling's thought is still studied, although his reputation has varied over time. His work impressed the English romantic poet and critic Samuel Taylor Coleridge , who introduced his ideas into English-speaking culture, sometimes without full acknowledgment, as in the _ Biographia Literaria _. Coleridge's critical work was itself influential, and it was he who introduced into English literature Schelling's concept of the unconscious. Schelling's _System of Transcendental Idealism _ has been seen as a precursor of Sigmund Freud 's _ Interpretation of Dreams _ (1899).
By the 1950s, Schelling was almost a forgotten philosopher even in Germany. In the 1910s and 1920s, philosophers of neo- Kantianism and neo-Hegelianism, like Wilhelm Windelband or Richard Kroner , tended to describe Schelling as an episode connecting Fichte and Hegel. His late period tended to be ignored, and his philosophies of nature and of art in the 1790s and first decade of the 19th century were the main focus. In this context Kuno Fischer characterized Schelling's early philosophy as "aesthetic idealism", focusing on the argument where he ranked art as "the sole document and the eternal organ of philosophy" (_das einzige wahre und ewige Organon zugleich und Dokument der Philosophie_). From socialist philosophers like György Lukács , he received criticism as anachronistic. An exception was Martin Heidegger , who treated Schelling's _ On Human Freedom _ in his lectures in 1936. Heidegger found there central themes of Western ontology: the issues of being, existence, and freedom.
In the 1950s, the situation began to change. In 1954, the centennial of his death, an international conference on Schelling was held. Several philosophers including Karl Jaspers gave presentations about the uniqueness and relevance of his thought, the interest shifting toward his later work on being and existence, or, more precisely, the origin of existence. Schelling was the subject of the 1954 dissertation of Jürgen Habermas . In 1955 Jaspers published a book titled _Schelling_, representing him as a forerunner of the existentialists . Walter Schulz , one of organizers of the 1954 conference, published a book claiming that Schelling had made German idealism complete with his late philosophy, particularly with his Berlin lectures in the 1840s. Schulz presented Schelling as the person who resolved the philosophical problems which Hegel had left incomplete, in contrast to the contemporary idea that Schelling had been surpassed by Hegel much earlier. Theologian Paul Tillich wrote: "what I learned from Schelling became determinative of my own philosophical and theological development". Maurice Merleau-Ponty likened his own project of natural ontology to Schelling's in his 1957-58 Course on Nature.
In the 1970s nature was again of interest to philosophers in relation to environmental issues. Schelling's philosophy of nature, particularly his intention to construct a program which covers both nature and the intellectual life in a single system and method, and restore nature as a central theme of philosophy, has been reevaluated in the contemporary context. His influence and relation to the German art scene, particularly to Romantic literature and visual art, has been an interest since the late 1960s, from Philipp Otto Runge to Gerhard Richter and Joseph Beuys .
In relation to psychology, Schelling was considered to have coined the term "unconsciousness ". Slavoj Žižek has written two books attempting to integrate Schelling's philosophy, mainly his middle period works including _Weltalter_, with the work of Jacques Lacan . The opposition and division in God and thus the problem of evil in God faced by the later Schelling influenced Luigi Pareyson 's thought. Ken Wilber places Schelling as one of two philosophers who "after Plato, had the broadest impact on the Western mind".
* "Nature is visible Spirit; Spirit is invisible Nature." (_Ideen_, "Introduction") * "History as a whole is a progressive, gradually self-disclosing revelation of the Absolute." (_System of Transcendental Idealism_, 1800) * "Now if the appearance of _freedom_ is necessarily infinite, the total evolution of the Absolute is also an infinite process, and history itself a never wholly completed revelation of that Absolute which, for the sake of consciousness, and thus merely for the sake of appearance, separates itself into conscious and unconscious, the free and the intuitant; but which _itself_, however, in the inaccessible light wherein it dwells, is Eternal Identity and the everlasting ground of harmony between the two." (_System of Transcendental Idealism_, 1800) * "Has creation a final goal? And if so, why was it not reached at once? Why was the consummation not realized from the beginning? To these questions there is but one answer: Because God is _Life_, and not merely Being." (_Philosophical Inquiries into the Nature of Human Freedom _, 1809) * "Only he who has tasted freedom can feel the desire to make over everything in its image, to spread it throughout the whole universe." (_Philosophical Inquiries into the Nature of Human Freedom_, 1809) * "As there is nothing before or outside of God he must contain within himself the ground of his existence. All philosophies say this, but they speak of this ground as a mere concept without making it something real and actual." (_Philosophical Inquiries into the Nature of Human Freedom_, 1809) * " is not divine nature or substance, but the devouring ferocity of purity that a person is able to approach only with an equal purity. Since all Being goes up in it as if in flames, it is necessarily unapproachable to anyone still embroiled in Being." (_The Ages of the World_, c. 1815) * "God then has no beginning only insofar as there is no beginning of his beginning. The beginning in God is eternal beginning, that is, such a one as was beginning from all eternity, and still is, and also never ceases to be beginning." (Quoted in Hartshorne published 1859) as _The Philosophy of Art_ (1989) Minnesota: Minnesota University Press. * _Vorlesungen über die Methode des akademischen Studiums_ (delivered 1802; published 1803) as _On University Studies_, translated E. S. Morgan, edited N. Guterman, Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press (1966). * _System der gesamten Philosophie und der Naturphilosophie insbesondere_ (_ Nachlass _) (1804). * _Philosophische Untersuchungen über das Wesen der menschlichen Freiheit und die damit zusammenhängenden Gegenstände _ (1809) as _Of Human Freedom_, a translation with critical introduction and notes by J. Gutmann, Chicago: Open Court (1936); also as _Philosophical Investigations into the Essence of Human Freedom_, trans. Jeff Love and Johannes Schmidt, SUNY Press (2006). * _Clara. Oder über den Zusammenhang der Natur- mit der Geisterwelt_ (_Nachlass_) (1810) as _Clara: or On Nature's Connection to the Spirit World_ trans. Fiona Steinkamp, Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002. * _Weltalter_ (1811–15) as _The Ages of the World_, translated with introduction and notes by F. de W. Bolman, jr., New York: Columbia University Press (1967); also in _The Abyss of Freedom/Ages of the World_, trans. Judith Norman, with an essay by Slavoj Žižek , Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press (1997). * "Ueber die Gottheiten von Samothrake" (1815) as _Schelling's Treatise on 'The Deities of Samothrace'_, a translation and introduction by R. F. Brown, Missoula, Mont.: Scholars Press (1977). * _Darstellung des philosophischen Empirismus_ (_Nachlass_) (1830). * _Philosophie der Mythologie_ (lecture) (1842). * _Philosophie der Offenbarung_ (lecture) (1854). * _Zur Geschichte der neueren Philosophie_ (probably 1833–4) as _On the History of Modern Philosophy_, translation and introduction by A. Bowie, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1994).
Collected works in German
_AA_ _Historisch-kritische Schelling-Ausgabe der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften_. Edited by Hans Michael Baumgartner, Wilhelm G. Jacobs, Jörg Jantzen, Hermann Krings and Hermann Zeltner, Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt: Frommann-Holzboog, 1976 ff.
_SW_ _Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schellings sämmtliche Werke_. Edited by K. F. A. Schelling. 1st division (_Abteilung_): 10 vols. (= I–X); 2nd division: 4 vols. (= XI–XIV), Stuttgart/Augsburg 1856–1861. The original edition in new arrangement edited by M. Schröter, 6 main volumes (_Hauptbände_), 6 supplementary volumes (_Ergänzungsbände_), Munich, 1927 ff., 2nd edition 1958 ff.
* ^ Nectarios G. Limnatis, _German Idealism and the Problem of Knowledge: Kant, Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel_, Springer, 2008, pp. 166, 177. * ^ Frederick Beiser , _German Idealism: The Struggle Against Subjectivism, 1781-1801_, Harvard University Press, 2002, p. 470. * ^ _Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling_ by Saitya Brata Das in Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy , 2011. * ^ The term _absoluter Idealismus_ occurs for the first time in Schelling's _Ideen zu einer Philosophie der Natur als Einleitung in das Studium dieser Wissenschaft_ (_Ideas for a Philosophy of Nature: as Introduction to the Study of this Science_), Vol. 1, P. Krüll, 1803 , p. 80. * ^ Joseph B. Maier, Judith Marcus, and Zoltán Tarrp (ed.), _German Jewry: Its History and Sociology: Selected Essays by Werner J. Cahnman_, Transaction Publishers, 1989, p. 212. * ^ _A_ _B_ Robert J. Richards, _The Romantic Conception of Life: Science and Philosophy in the Age of Goethe_, University of Chicago Press,, 2002, p. 129. * ^ Bowie, Andrew (19 July 2012). "Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling". _ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy _. * ^ Richard H. Popkin , ed. (31 December 2005). _The Columbia History of Western Philosophy_. Columbia University Press. p. 529. ISBN 978-0-231-10129-5 . Retrieved 22 July 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Adamson & Mitchell 1911 , p. 316. * ^ John Morley (ed.), _ The Fortnightly Review _, Voll. 10, 12, London: Chapman & Hall , 1870, p. 500. * ^ Frederick C. Beiser , ed. (1993). _The Cambridge Companion to Hegel_. Cambridge University Press . p. 419. ISBN 978-1-139-82495-8 . ISBN 1-13982495-3 . * ^ _History of Philosophy: From Thales to the Present Time_, Volume 2, C. Scribner's Sons, 1874, p. 214. * ^ The thesis is available online at the Munich Digitization Center. * ^ Adamson & Mitchell 1911 , p. 316–318. * ^ Robert J. Richards , _The Romantic Conception of Life: Science and Philosophy in the Age of Goethe_ (2002), p. 149. * ^ Richards, p. 171 note 141. * ^ Wallen, Martin (2004). _City of Health, Fields of Disease: Revolutions in the Poetry, Medicine, and Philosophy of Romanticism_. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 123. ISBN 978-0-7546-3542-0 . Retrieved 22 July 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ Adamson & Mitchell 1911 , p. 317. * ^ See On the Concept of Irony with Continual Reference to Socrates by Søren Kierkegaard, 1841 * ^ Lara Ostaric, _Interpreting Schelling: Critical Essays_, Cambridge University Press, 2014, p. 218. * ^ " Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling - Biography" at egs.edu * ^ Nicolaas A. Rupke, _Alexander von Humboldt: A Metabiography_, University of Chicago Press, p. 116. * ^ Tristram Hunt, _Marx's General: The Revolutionary Life of Friedrich Engels_ (Henry Holt and Co., 2009: ISBN 0-8050-8025-2 ), pp. 45–46. * ^ _A_ _B_ Adamson & Mitchell 1911 , p. 319. * ^ Shaw, Devin Zane (10 February 2011). _Freedom and Nature in Schelling\'s Philosophy of Art_. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-4411-5624-2 . Retrieved 22 July 2012. * ^ Kai Hammermeister, _The German Aesthetic Tradition_, Cambridge University Press, 2002, p. 76. * ^ John Laughland, _Schelling Versus Hegel: From German Idealism to Christian Metaphysics_ (Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007: ISBN 0-7546-6118-0 ), p. 119. * ^ Christopher John Murray, _Encyclopedia of the Romantic Era, 1760-1850_ (Taylor & Francis, 2004: ISBN 1-57958-422-5 ), pp. 1001–02. * ^ "The briefest and best account in Schelling himself of Naturphilosophie is that contained in the _Einleitung zu dem Ersten Entwurf_ (S.W. iii.). A full and lucid statement of Naturphilosophie is that given by K. Fischer in his Gesch. d. n. Phil., vi. 433-692" (Adamson & Mitchell 1911 , p. 318). * ^ Bowie, Andrew (1990). _ Aesthetics and Subjectivity: From Kant to Nietzsche_. Manchester University Press ND. p. 265. ISBN 978-0-719-04011-5 . * ^ Paul Tillich, _A History of Christian Thought_ 438 Simon and Schuster, 1972. * ^ Žižek, Slavoj (1996). _The indivisible remainder: An essay on Schelling and related matters_. London: Verso. ISBN 978-1-859-84094-8 . * ^ Žižek, Slavoj (2009). _The parallax view_ (1st paperback ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT. ISBN 0-26251268-8 . * ^ Braidotti, Rosi (2014). _After Poststructuralism. Transitions and Transformations_. Abingdon-on-Thames : Routledge . p. 105. ISBN 978-1-317-54681-8 . ISBN 1-31754681-4 . * ^ Distaso, Leonardo V. (2004). _The Paradox of Existence. Philosophy and