Fresnel reflectivity
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The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel coefficients) describe the reflection and transmission of light (or electromagnetic radiation in general) when incident on an interface between different optical medium (optics), media. They were deduced by Augustin-Jean Fresnel () who was the first to understand that light is a transverse wave, even though no one realized that the "vibrations" of the wave were electric and magnetic fields. For the first time, Polarization (waves), polarization could be understood quantitatively, as Fresnel's equations correctly predicted the differing behaviour of waves of the ''s'' and ''p'' polarizations incident upon a material interface.


Overview

When light strikes the interface between a medium with refractive index ''n''1 and a second medium with refractive index ''n''2, both reflection (physics), reflection and refraction of the light may occur. The Fresnel equations give the ratio of the ''reflected'' wave's electric field to the incident wave's electric field, and the ratio of the ''transmitted'' wave's electric field to the incident wave's electric field, for each of two components of polarization. (The ''magnetic'' fields can also be related using similar coefficients.) These ratios are generally complex, describing not only the relative amplitudes but also the Reflection phase change, phase shifts at the interface. The equations assume the interface between the media is flat and that the media are homogeneous and isotropy, isotropic. The incident light is assumed to be a plane wave, which is sufficient to solve any problem since any incident light field can be decomposed into plane waves and polarizations.


S and P polarizations

There are two sets of Fresnel coefficients for two different linear polarization (waves), polarization components of the incident wave. Since any Polarization (waves)#Polarization state, polarization state can be resolved into a combination of two orthogonal linear polarizations, this is sufficient for any problem. Likewise, Polarization (waves)#Unpolarized and partially polarized light, unpolarized (or "randomly polarized") light has an equal amount of power in each of two linear polarizations. The s polarization refers to polarization of a wave's electric field ''Normal vector, normal'' to the plane of incidence (the direction in the derivation below); then the magnetic field is ''in'' the plane of incidence. The p polarization refers to polarization of the electric field ''in'' the plane of incidence (the plane in the derivation below); then the magnetic field is ''normal'' to the plane of incidence. Although the reflection and transmission are dependent on polarization, at normal incidence (''θ'' = 0) there is no distinction between them so all polarization states are governed by a single set of Fresnel coefficients (and another special case is mentioned #Equal refractive indices, below in which that is true).


Power (intensity) reflection and transmission coefficients

In the diagram on the right, an incident plane wave in the direction of the ray IO strikes the interface between two media of refractive indices ''n''1 and ''n''2 at point O. Part of the wave is reflected in the direction OR, and part refracted in the direction OT. The angles that the incident, reflected and refracted rays make to the surface normal, normal of the interface are given as ''θ''i, ''θ''r and ''θ''t, respectively. The relationship between these angles is given by the law of reflection: \theta_\mathrm = \theta_\mathrm, and Snell's law: n_1 \sin \theta_\mathrm = n_2 \sin \theta_\mathrm. The behavior of light striking the interface is solved by considering the electric and magnetic fields that constitute an electromagnetic wave, and the laws of Maxwell's equations, electromagnetism, as shown #Theory, below. The ratio of waves' electric field (or magnetic field) amplitudes are obtained, but in practice one is more often interested in formulae which determine ''power'' coefficients, since power (or irradiance) is what can be directly measured at optical frequencies. The power of a wave is generally proportional to the square of the electric (or magnetic) field amplitude. We call the fraction of the incident Power (physics), power that is reflected from the interface the ''reflectance'' (or reflectivity, or power reflection coefficient) ''R'', and the fraction that is refracted into the second medium is called the ''transmittance'' (or transmissivity, or power transmission coefficient) ''T''. Note that these are what would be measured right ''at'' each side of an interface and do not account for attenuation of a wave in an absorbing medium ''following'' transmission or reflection. The reflectance for s-polarized light is R_\mathrm = \left, \frac\^2, while the reflectance for p-polarized light is R_\mathrm = \left, \frac\^2, where and are the wave impedances of media 1 and 2, respectively. We assume that the media are non-magnetic (i.e., ''μ''1 = ''μ''2 = permeability of free space, ''μ''0), which is typically a good approximation at optical frequencies (and for transparent media at other frequencies). Then the wave impedances are determined solely by the refractive indices ''n''1 and ''n''2: Z_i = \frac\,, where is the impedance of free space and =1,2. Making this substitution, we obtain equations using the refractive indices: R_\mathrm = \left, \frac\^2 = \left, \frac \^2\!, R_\mathrm = \left, \frac\^2 = \left, \frac \^2\!. The second form of each equation is derived from the first by eliminating ''θ''t using Snell's law and trigonometric identity, trigonometric identities. As a consequence of conservation of energy, one can find the transmitted power (or more correctly, irradiance: power per unit area) simply as the portion of the incident power that isn't reflected: T_\mathrm = 1 - R_\mathrm and T_\mathrm = 1 - R_\mathrm Note that all such intensities are measured in terms of a wave's irradiance in the direction normal to the interface; this is also what is measured in typical experiments. That number could be obtained from irradiances ''in the direction of an incident or reflected wave'' (given by the magnitude of a wave's Poynting vector) multiplied by cos''θ'' for a wave at an angle ''θ'' to the normal direction (or equivalently, taking the dot product of the Poynting vector with the unit vector normal to the interface). This complication can be ignored in the case of the reflection coefficient, since cos''θ''i = cos''θ''r, so that the ratio of reflected to incident irradiance in the wave's direction is the same as in the direction normal to the interface. Although these relationships describe the basic physics, in many practical applications one is concerned with "natural light" that can be described as unpolarized. That means that there is an equal amount of power in the ''s'' and ''p'' polarizations, so that the ''effective'' reflectivity of the material is just the average of the two reflectivities: R_\mathrm = \frac\left(R_\mathrm + R_\mathrm\right). For low-precision applications involving unpolarized light, such as computer graphics, rather than rigorously computing the effective reflection coefficient for each angle, Schlick's approximation is often used.


Special cases


Normal incidence

For the case of normal incidence, and there is no distinction between s and p polarization. Thus, the reflectance simplifies to R = \left, \frac\^2\,. For common glass (''n''2 ≈ 1.5) surrounded by air (''n''1=1), the power reflectance at normal incidence can be seen to be about 4%, or 8% accounting for both sides of a glass pane.


Brewster's angle

At a dielectric interface from to , there is a particular angle of incidence at which goes to zero and a p-polarised incident wave is purely refracted, thus all reflected light is s-polarised. This angle is known as Brewster's angle, and is around 56° for ''n''1=1 and ''n''2=1.5 (typical glass).


Total internal reflection

When light travelling in a denser medium strikes the surface of a less dense medium (i.e., ), beyond a particular incidence angle known as the ''critical angle'', all light is reflected and . This phenomenon, known as total internal reflection, occurs at incidence angles for which Snell's law predicts that the sine of the angle of refraction would exceed unity (whereas in fact sin''θ'' ≤ 1 for all real ''θ''). For glass with ''n''=1.5 surrounded by air, the critical angle is approximately 41°.


Complex amplitude reflection and transmission coefficients

The above equations relating powers (which could be measured with a photometer for instance) are derived from the Fresnel equations which solve the physical problem in terms of electromagnetic field complex amplitudes, i.e., considering phase (waves), phase shifts in addition to their Absolute value#Complex numbers, amplitudes. Those underlying equations supply generally complex-valued ratios of those EM fields and may take several different forms, depending on the formalism used. The complex amplitude coefficients for reflection and transmission are usually represented by lower case ''r'' and ''t'' (whereas the power coefficients are capitalized). As before, we are assuming the magnetic permeability, of both media to be equal to the permeability of free space as is essentially true of all dielectrics at optical frequencies. In the following equations and graphs, we adopt the following conventions. For ''s'' polarization, the reflection coefficient is defined as the ratio of the reflected wave's complex electric field amplitude to that of the incident wave, whereas for ''p'' polarization is the ratio of the waves complex ''magnetic'' field amplitudes (or equivalently, the ''negative'' of the ratio of their electric field amplitudes). The transmission coefficient is the ratio of the transmitted wave's complex electric field amplitude to that of the incident wave, for either polarization. The coefficients and are generally different between the ''s'' and ''p'' polarizations, and even at normal incidence (where the designations ''s'' and ''p'' do not even apply!) the sign of is reversed depending on whether the wave is considered to be ''s'' or ''p'' polarized, an artifact of the adopted sign convention (see graph for an air-glass interface at 0° incidence). The equations consider a plane wave incident on a plane interface at Angle of incidence (optics), angle of incidence a wave reflected at angle and a wave transmitted at angle In the case of an interface into an absorbing material (where ''n'' is complex) or total internal reflection, the angle of transmission does not generally evaluate to a real number. In that case, however, meaningful results can be obtained using formulations of these relationships in which trigonometric functions and geometric angles are avoided; the inhomogeneous waves launched into the second medium cannot be described using a single propagation angle. Using this convention,Lecture notes by Bo Sernelius
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Lecture 12
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Born & Wolf, 1970, p.40, eqs.(20),(21). \begin r_\text &= \frac, \\[3pt] t_\text &= \frac , \\[3pt] r_\text &= \frac, \\[3pt] t_\text &= \frac . \end One can see that and . One can write very similar equations applying to the ratio of the waves' magnetic fields, but comparison of the electric fields is more conventional. Because the reflected and incident waves propagate in the same medium and make the same angle with the normal to the surface, the power reflection coefficient R is just the squared magnitude of ''r'': R = , r, ^2. On the other hand, calculation of the power transmission coefficient is less straightforward, since the light travels in different directions in the two media. What's more, the wave impedances in the two media differ; power (irradiance) is given by the square of the electric field amplitude ''divided by'' the wave impedance, characteristic impedance of the medium (or by the square of the magnetic field ''multiplied by'' the characteristic impedance). This results in: T = \frac , t, ^2 using the above definition of . The introduced factor of is the reciprocal of the ratio of the media's wave impedances. The factors adjust the waves' powers so they are reckoned ''in the direction'' normal to the interface, for both the incident and transmitted waves, so that full power transmission corresponds to ''T''=1. In the case of total internal reflection where the power transmission is zero, nevertheless describes the electric field (including its phase) just beyond the interface. This is an evanescent field which does not propagate as a wave (thus =0) but has nonzero values very close to the interface. The phase shift of the reflected wave on total internal reflection can similarly be obtained from the Argument (complex analysis), phase angles of and (whose magnitudes are unity in this case). These phase shifts are different for ''s'' and ''p'' waves, which is the well-known principle by which total internal reflection is used to effect Fresnel rhomb, polarization transformations.


Alternative forms

In the above formula for , if we put n_2=n_1\sin\theta_\text/\sin\theta_\text (Snell's law) and multiply the numerator and denominator by , we obtain r_\text=-\frac. If we do likewise with the formula for , the result is easily shown to be equivalent to r_\text=\frac. These formulas are known respectively as ''Fresnel's sine law'' and ''Fresnel's tangent law''. Although at normal incidence these expressions reduce to 0/0, one can see that they yield the correct results in the Limit (mathematics), limit as .


Multiple surfaces

When light makes multiple reflections between two or more parallel surfaces, the multiple beams of light generally Interference (wave propagation), interfere with one another, resulting in net transmission and reflection amplitudes that depend on the light's wavelength. The interference, however, is seen only when the surfaces are at distances comparable to or smaller than the light's coherence length, which for ordinary white light is few micrometers; it can be much larger for light from a laser. An example of interference between reflections is the iridescence, iridescent colours seen in a soap bubble or in thin oil films on water. Applications include Fabry–Pérot interferometers, antireflection coatings, and optical filters. A quantitative analysis of these effects is based on the Fresnel equations, but with additional calculations to account for interference. The transfer-matrix method (optics), transfer-matrix method, or the recursive Rouard method can be used to solve multiple-surface problems.


History

In 1808, Étienne-Louis Malus discovered that when a ray of light was reflected off a non-metallic surface at the appropriate angle, it behaved like ''one'' of the two rays emerging from a birefringence, doubly-refractive calcite crystal. He later coined the term ''polarization'' to describe this behavior.  In 1815, the dependence of the polarizing angle on the refractive index was determined experimentally by David Brewster.D. Brewster
"On the laws which regulate the polarisation of light by reflexion from transparent bodies"
''Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society'', vol.105, pp.125–59, read 16 March 1815.
But the ''reason'' for that dependence was such a deep mystery that in late 1817, Thomas Young (scientist), Thomas Young was moved to write: In 1821, however, Augustin-Jean Fresnel derived results equivalent to his sine and tangent laws (above), by modeling light waves as S-wave, transverse elastic waves with vibrations perpendicular to what had previously been called the plane of polarization. Fresnel promptly confirmed by experiment that the equations correctly predicted the direction of polarization of the reflected beam when the incident beam was polarized at 45° to the plane of incidence, for light incident from air onto glass or water; in particular, the equations gave the correct polarization at Brewster's angle. The experimental confirmation was reported in a "postscript" to the work in which Fresnel first revealed his theory that light waves, including "unpolarized" waves, were ''purely'' transverse.A. Fresnel, "Note sur le calcul des teintes que la polarisation développe dans les lames cristallisées" et seq., ''Annales de Chimie et de Physique'', vol.17, pp.102–11 (May 1821), 167–96 (June 1821), 312–15 ("Postscript", July 1821); reprinted in Fresnel, 1866, pp.609–48; translated as "On the calculation of the tints that polarization develops in crystalline plates, &postscript", / , 2021. Details of Fresnel's derivation, including the modern forms of the sine law and tangent law, were given later, in a memoir read to the French Academy of Sciences in January 1823.A. Fresnel, "Mémoire sur la loi des modifications que la réflexion imprime à la lumière polarisée" ("Memoir on the law of the modifications that reflection impresses on polarized light"), read 7 January 1823; reprinted in Fresnel, 1866, pp.767–99 (full text, published 1831), pp.753–62 (extract, published 1823). See especially pp.773 (sine law), 757 (tangent law), 760–61 and 792–6 (angles of total internal reflection for given phase differences). That derivation combined conservation of energy with continuity of the ''tangential'' vibration at the interface, but failed to allow for any condition on the ''normal'' component of vibration. The first derivation from ''electromagnetic'' principles was given by Hendrik Lorentz in 1875. In the same memoir of January 1823, Fresnel found that for angles of incidence greater than the critical angle, his formulas for the reflection coefficients ( and ) gave complex values with unit magnitudes. Noting that the magnitude, as usual, represented the ratio of peak amplitudes, he guessed that the argument (complex analysis), argument represented the phase shift, and verified the hypothesis experimentally. The verification involved * calculating the angle of incidence that would introduce a total phase difference of 90° between the s and p components, for various numbers of total internal reflections at that angle (generally there were two solutions), * subjecting light to that number of total internal reflections at that angle of incidence, with an initial linear polarization at 45° to the plane of incidence, and * checking that the final polarization was circular polarization, circular. Thus he finally had a quantitative theory for what we now call the ''Fresnel rhomb'' — a device that he had been using in experiments, in one form or another, since 1817 (see ''Fresnel rhomb#History, Fresnel rhomb §History''). The success of the complex reflection coefficient inspired James MacCullagh and Augustin-Louis Cauchy, beginning in 1836, to analyze reflection from metals by using the Fresnel equations with a refractive index#Complex refractive index, complex refractive index. Four weeks before he presented his completed theory of total internal reflection and the rhomb, Fresnel submitted a memoirA. Fresnel, "Mémoire sur la double réfraction que les rayons lumineux éprouvent en traversant les aiguilles de cristal de roche suivant les directions parallèles à l'axe" ("Memoir on the double refraction that light rays undergo in traversing the needles of quartz in the directions parallel to the axis"), read 9 December 1822; printed in Fresnel, 1866, pp.731–51 (full text), pp.719–29 (''extrait'', first published in ''Bulletin de la Société philomathique'' for 1822, pp. 191–8). in which he introduced the needed terms ''linear polarization'', ''circular polarization'', and ''elliptical polarization'', and in which he explained optical rotation as a species of birefringence: linearly-polarized light can be resolved into two circularly-polarized components rotating in opposite directions, and if these propagate at different speeds, the phase difference between them — hence the orientation of their linearly-polarized resultant — will vary continuously with distance. Thus Fresnel's interpretation of the complex values of his reflection coefficients marked the confluence of several streams of his research and, arguably, the essential completion of his reconstruction of physical optics on the transverse-wave hypothesis (see ''Augustin-Jean Fresnel'').


Theory

Here we systematically derive the above relations from electromagnetic premises.


Material parameters

In order to compute meaningful Fresnel coefficients, we must assume that the medium is (approximately) linearity, linear and homogeneity (physics), homogeneous. If the medium is also isotropy, isotropic, the four field vectors are Constitutive equation#Electromagnetism, related by \begin \mathbf &= \epsilon \mathbf \\ \mathbf &= \mu \mathbf\,, \end where ''ϵ'' and ''μ'' are scalars, known respectively as the (electric) ''permittivity'' and the (magnetic) ''permeability (electromagnetism), permeability'' of the medium. For a vacuum, these have the values ''ϵ''0 and ''μ''0, respectively. Hence we define the ''relative'' permittivity (or dielectric constant) , and the ''relative'' permeability . In optics it is common to assume that the medium is non-magnetic, so that ''μ''rel=1. For ferromagnetic materials at radio/microwave frequencies, larger values of ''μ''rel must be taken into account. But, for optically transparent media, and for all other materials at optical frequencies (except possible metamaterials), ''μ''rel is indeed very close to 1; that is, ''μ''≈''μ''0. In optics, one usually knows the refractive index ''n'' of the medium, which is the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum () to the speed of light in the medium. In the analysis of partial reflection and transmission, one is also interested in the electromagnetic wave impedance , which is the ratio of the amplitude of to the amplitude of . It is therefore desirable to express ''n'' and in terms of ''ϵ'' and ''μ'', and thence to relate to ''n''. The last-mentioned relation, however, will make it convenient to derive the reflection coefficients in terms of the wave ''admittance'' , which is the reciprocal of the wave impedance . In the case of ''uniform plane wave, plane sine wave, sinusoidal'' waves, the wave impedance or admittance is known as the ''intrinsic'' impedance or admittance of the medium. This case is the one for which the Fresnel coefficients are to be derived.


Electromagnetic plane waves

In a uniform plane sinusoidal electromagnetic radiation, electromagnetic wave, the electric field has the form where is the (constant) complex amplitude vector,  is the imaginary unit,  is the wave vector (whose magnitude is the angular wavenumber),  is the position (vector), position vector,  ''ω'' is the angular frequency,  is time, and it is understood that the ''real part'' of the expression is the physical field.The above form () is typically used by physicists. electrical engineering, Electrical engineers typically prefer the form that is, they not only use instead of for the imaginary unit, but also change the sign of the exponent, with the result that the whole expression is replaced by its complex conjugate, leaving the real part unchanged . The electrical engineers' form and the formulas derived therefrom may be converted to the physicists' convention by substituting for .  The value of the expression is unchanged if the position varies in a direction normal to ; hence ''is normal to the wavefronts''. To advance the phase (waves), phase by the angle ''ϕ'', we replace by (that is, we replace by ), with the result that the (complex) field is multiplied by . So a phase ''advance'' is equivalent to multiplication by a complex constant with a ''negative'' argument (complex analysis), argument. This becomes more obvious when the field () is factored as where the last factor contains the time-dependence. That factor also implies that differentiation w.r.t. time corresponds to multiplication by .In the electrical engineering convention, the time-dependent factor is so that a phase advance corresponds to multiplication by a complex constant with a ''positive'' argument, and differentiation w.r.t. time corresponds to multiplication by . This article, however, uses the physics convention, whose time-dependent factor is . Although the imaginary unit does not appear explicitly in the results given here, the time-dependent factor affects the interpretation of any results that turn out to be complex. If ''ℓ'' is the component of in the direction of the field () can be written .  If the argument of is to be constant,  ''ℓ'' must increase at the velocity \omega/k\,,\, known as the ''phase velocity'' . This in turn is equal to Solving for gives As usual, we drop the time-dependent factor which is understood to multiply every complex field quantity. The electric field for a uniform plane sine wave will then be represented by the location-dependent ''phasor'' For fields of that form, Faraday's law of induction, Faraday's law and the Ampère's circuital law, Maxwell-Ampère law respectively reduce toCompare M.V. Berry and M.R. Jeffrey, "Conical diffraction: Hamilton's diabolical point at the heart of crystal optics", in E. Wolf (ed.), ''Progress in Optics'', vol.50, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2007, pp.13–50, , at p.18, eq.(2.2). \begin \omega\mathbf &= \mathbf\times\mathbf\\ \omega\mathbf &= -\mathbf\times\mathbf\,. \end Putting and as above, we can eliminate and to obtain equations in only and : \begin \omega\mu\mathbf &= \mathbf\times\mathbf\\ \omega\epsilon\mathbf &= -\mathbf\times\mathbf\,. \end If the material parameters ''ϵ'' and ''μ'' are real (as in a lossless dielectric), these equations show that form a ''right-handed orthogonal triad'', so that the same equations apply to the magnitudes of the respective vectors. Taking the magnitude equations and substituting from (), we obtain \begin \mu cH &= nE\\ \epsilon cE &= nH\,, \end where and are the magnitudes of and . Multiplying the last two equations gives Dividing (or cross-multiplying) the same two equations gives where This is the ''intrinsic admittance''. From () we obtain the phase velocity For a vacuum this reduces to Dividing the second result by the first gives n=\sqrt\,. For a ''non-magnetic'' medium (the usual case), this becomes Taking the reciprocal of (), we find that the intrinsic ''impedance'' is In a vacuum this takes the value Z_0=\sqrt\,\approx 377\,\Omega\,, known as the impedance of free space. By division, For a ''non-magnetic'' medium, this becomes Z=Z_0\big/\!\sqrt=Z_0/n.


The wave vectors

In Cartesian coordinates , let the region have refractive index intrinsic admittance etc., and let the region have refractive index intrinsic admittance etc. Then the plane is the interface, and the axis is normal to the interface (see diagram). Let and (in bold roman type) be the unit vectors in the and directions, respectively. Let the plane of incidence be the plane (the plane of the page), with the angle of incidence measured from towards . Let the angle of refraction, measured in the same sense, be where the subscript stands for ''transmitted'' (reserving for ''reflected''). In the absence of Doppler effect, Doppler shifts, ''ω'' does not change on reflection or refraction. Hence, by (), the magnitude of the wave vector is proportional to the refractive index. So, for a given ''ω'', if we ''redefine'' as the magnitude of the wave vector in the ''reference'' medium (for which ), then the wave vector has magnitude in the first medium (region in the diagram) and magnitude in the second medium. From the magnitudes and the geometry, we find that the wave vectors are \begin \mathbf_\text &= n_1 k(\mathbf\sin\theta_\text + \mathbf\cos\theta_\text)\\[.5ex] \mathbf_\text &= n_1 k(\mathbf\sin\theta_\text - \mathbf\cos\theta_\text)\\[.5ex] \mathbf_\text &= n_2 k(\mathbf\sin\theta_\text + \mathbf\cos\theta_\text)\\ &= k(\mathbf\,n_1\sin\theta_\text + \mathbf\,n_2\cos\theta_\text)\,, \end where the last step uses Snell's law. The corresponding dot products in the phasor form () are Hence:


The ''s'' components

For the ''s'' polarization, the field is parallel to the axis and may therefore be described by its component in the  direction. Let the reflection and transmission coefficients be and respectively. Then, if the incident field is taken to have unit amplitude, the phasor form () of its  component is and the reflected and transmitted fields, in the same form, are Under the sign convention used in this article, a positive reflection or transmission coefficient is one that preserves the direction of the ''transverse'' field, meaning (in this context) the field normal to the plane of incidence. For the ''s'' polarization, that means the field. If the incident, reflected, and transmitted fields (in the above equations) are in the  direction ("out of the page"), then the respective fields are in the directions of the red arrows, since form a right-handed orthogonal triad. The fields may therefore be described by their components in the directions of those arrows, denoted by .  Then, since At the interface, by the usual interface conditions for electromagnetic fields, the tangential components of the and fields must be continuous; that is, } When we substitute from equations () to () and then from (), the exponential factors cancel out, so that the interface conditions reduce to the simultaneous equations which are easily solved for and yielding and At ''normal incidence'' indicated by an additional subscript 0, these results become and At ''grazing incidence'' , we have hence and .


The ''p'' components

For the ''p'' polarization, the incident, reflected, and transmitted fields are parallel to the red arrows and may therefore be described by their components in the directions of those arrows. Let those components be (redefining the symbols for the new context). Let the reflection and transmission coefficients be and . Then, if the incident field is taken to have unit amplitude, we have If the fields are in the directions of the red arrows, then, in order for to form a right-handed orthogonal triad, the respective fields must be in the  direction ("into the page") and may therefore be described by their components in that direction. This is consistent with the adopted sign convention, namely that a positive reflection or transmission coefficient is one that preserves the direction of the transverse field the field in the case of the ''p'' polarization. The agreement of the ''other'' field with the red arrows reveals an alternative definition of the sign convention: that a positive reflection or transmission coefficient is one for which the field vector in the plane of incidence points towards the same medium before and after reflection or transmission. So, for the incident, reflected, and transmitted fields, let the respective components in the  direction be .  Then, since At the interface, the tangential components of the and fields must be continuous; that is, } When we substitute from equations () and () and then from (), the exponential factors again cancel out, so that the interface conditions reduce to Solving for and we find and At ''normal incidence'' indicated by an additional subscript 0, these results become and At ''grazing incidence'' , we again have hence and . Comparing () and () with () and (), we see that at ''normal'' incidence, under the adopted sign convention, the transmission coefficients for the two polarizations are equal, whereas the reflection coefficients have equal magnitudes but opposite signs. While this clash of signs is a disadvantage of the convention, the attendant advantage is that the signs agree at ''grazing'' incidence.


Power ratios (reflectivity and transmissivity)

The ''Poynting vector'' for a wave is a vector whose component in any direction is the ''irradiance'' (power per unit area) of that wave on a surface perpendicular to that direction. For a plane sinusoidal wave the Poynting vector is where and are due ''only'' to the wave in question, and the asterisk denotes complex conjugation. Inside a lossless dielectric (the usual case), and are in phase, and at right angles to each other and to the wave vector ; so, for s polarization, using the and components of and respectively (or for p polarization, using the and components of and ), the irradiance in the direction of is given simply by which is in a medium of intrinsic impedance . To compute the irradiance in the direction normal to the interface, as we shall require in the definition of the power transmission coefficient, we could use only the component (rather than the full component) of or or, equivalently, simply multiply by the proper geometric factor, obtaining . From equations () and (), taking squared magnitudes, we find that the ''reflectivity'' (ratio of reflected power to incident power) is for the s polarization, and for the p polarization. Note that when comparing the powers of two such waves in the same medium and with the same cos''θ'', the impedance and geometric factors mentioned above are identical and cancel out. But in computing the power ''transmission'' (below), these factors must be taken into account. The simplest way to obtain the power transmission coefficient (''transmittance, transmissivity'', the ratio of transmitted power to incident power ''in the direction normal to the interface'', i.e. the direction) is to use (conservation of energy). In this way we find for the s polarization, and for the p polarization. In the case of an interface between two lossless media (for which ϵ and μ are ''real'' and positive), one can obtain these results directly using the squared magnitudes of the amplitude transmission coefficients that we found earlier in equations () and (). But, for given amplitude (as noted above), the component of the Poynting vector in the direction is proportional to the geometric factor and inversely proportional to the wave impedance . Applying these corrections to each wave, we obtain two ratios multiplying the square of the amplitude transmission coefficient: for the s polarization, and for the p polarization. The last two equations apply only to lossless dielectrics, and only at incidence angles smaller than the critical angle (beyond which, of course, ).


Equal refractive indices

From equations () and (), we see that two dissimilar media will have the same refractive index, but different admittances, if the ratio of their permeabilities is the inverse of the ratio of their permittivities. In that unusual situation we have (that is, the transmitted ray is undeviated), so that the cosines in equations (), (), (), (), and () to () cancel out, and all the reflection and transmission ratios become independent of the angle of incidence; in other words, the ratios for normal incidence become applicable to all angles of incidence. When extended to spherical reflection or scattering, this results in the Kerker effect for Mie scattering.


Non-magnetic media

Since the Fresnel equations were developed for optics, they are usually given for non-magnetic materials. Dividing () by ()) yields Y=\frac\,. For non-magnetic media we can substitute the vacuum permeability ''μ''0 for ''μ'', so that Y_1=\frac ~~;~~~ Y_2=\frac\,; that is, the admittances are simply proportional to the corresponding refractive indices. When we make these substitutions in equations () to () and equations () to (), the factor ''cμ''0 cancels out. For the amplitude coefficients we obtain: For the case of normal incidence these reduce to: The power reflection coefficients become: The power transmissions can then be found from .


Brewster's angle

For equal permeabilities (e.g., non-magnetic media), if and are ''complementary angles, complementary'', we can substitute for and for so that the numerator in equation () becomes which is zero (by Snell's law). Hence and only the s-polarized component is reflected. This is what happens at the Brewster angle. Substituting for in Snell's law, we readily obtain for Brewster's angle.


Equal permittivities

Although it is not encountered in practice, the equations can also apply to the case of two media with a common permittivity but different refractive indices due to different permeabilities. From equations () and (), if ''ϵ'' is fixed instead of ''μ'', then becomes ''inversely'' proportional to , with the result that the subscripts 1 and 2 in equations () to () are interchanged (due to the additional step of multiplying the numerator and denominator by ). Hence, in () and (), the expressions for and in terms of refractive indices will be interchanged, so that Brewster's angle () will give instead of and any beam reflected at that angle will be p-polarized instead of s-polarized. Similarly, Fresnel's sine law will apply to the p polarization instead of the s polarization, and his tangent law to the s polarization instead of the p polarization. This switch of polarizations has an analog in the old mechanical theory of light waves (see ''#History, §History'', above). One could predict reflection coefficients that agreed with observation by supposing (like Fresnel) that different refractive indices were due to different ''densities'' and that the vibrations were ''normal'' to what was then called the plane of polarization, or by supposing (like James MacCullagh, MacCullagh and Franz Ernst Neumann, Neumann) that different refractive indices were due to different ''elasticities'' and that the vibrations were ''parallel'' to that plane.Whittaker, 1910, pp.133,148–9; Darrigol, 2012, pp.212,229–31. Thus the condition of equal permittivities and unequal permeabilities, although not realistic, is of some historical interest.


See also

*Jones calculus *Polarization mixing *Index-matching material *Field and power quantities *Fresnel rhomb, Fresnel's apparatus to produce circularly polarised light *Specular reflection *Schlick's approximation *Snell's window *X-ray reflectivity *Plane of incidence *Reflections of signals on conducting lines


Notes


References


Sources

* M. Born and E. Wolf, 1970, ''Principles of Optics'', 4th Ed., Oxford: Pergamon Press. * J.Z. Buchwald, 1989, ''The Rise of the Wave Theory of Light: Optical Theory and Experiment in the Early Nineteenth Century'', University of Chicago Press, . * R.E. Collin, 1966, ''Foundations for Microwave Engineering'', Tokyo: McGraw-Hill. * O. Darrigol, 2012, ''A History of Optics: From Greek Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century'', Oxford, . * A. Fresnel, 1866 (ed. H. de Senarmont, E. Verdet, and L. Fresnel), ''Oeuvres complètes d'Augustin Fresnel'', Paris: Imprimerie Impériale (3 vols., 1866–70)
vol.1 (1866)
* E. Hecht, 1987, ''Optics'', 2nd Ed., Addison Wesley, . * E. Hecht, 2002, ''Optics'', 4th Ed., Addison Wesley, . * F.A. Jenkins and H.E. White, 1976, ''Fundamentals of Optics'', 4th Ed., New York: McGraw-Hill, . * H. Lloyd, 1834
"Report on the progress and present state of physical optics"
''Report of the Fourth Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science'' (held at Edinburgh in 1834), London: J. Murray, 1835, pp.295–413. * W. Whewell, 1857, ''History of the Inductive Sciences: From the Earliest to the Present Time'', 3rd Ed., London: J.W. Parker & Son
vol.2
* E. T. Whittaker, 1910, A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity, ''A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity: From the Age of Descartes to the Close of the Nineteenth Century'', London: Longmans, Green, & Co.


Further reading

* * * * *''Encyclopaedia of Physics (2nd Edition)'', Rita G. Lerner, R.G. Lerner, G.L. Trigg, VHC publishers, 1991, ISBN (Verlagsgesellschaft) 3-527-26954-1, ISBN (VHC Inc.) 0-89573-752-3 *''McGraw Hill Encyclopaedia of Physics (2nd Edition)'', C.B. Parker, 1994,


External links


Fresnel Equations
– Wolfram.
Fresnel equations calculatorFreeSnell
– Free software computes the optical properties of multilayer materials.
Thinfilm
– Web interface for calculating optical properties of thin films and multilayer materials (reflection & transmission coefficients, ellipsometric parameters Psi & Delta).
Simple web interface for calculating single-interface reflection and refraction angles and strengths

Reflection and transmittance for two dielectrics
– Mathematica interactive webpage that shows the relations between index of refraction and reflection.
A self-contained first-principles derivation
of the transmission and reflection probabilities from a multilayer with complex indices of refraction. {{Portal bar, Physics Light Geometrical optics Physical optics Polarization (waves) Equations of physics History of physics