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Fresco
Fresco
(plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster. Water
Water
is used as the vehicle for the dry-powder pigment to merge with the plaster, and with the setting of the plaster, the painting becomes an integral part of the wall. The word fresco (Italian: affresco) is derived from the Italian adjective fresco meaning "fresh", and may thus be contrasted with fresco-secco or secco mural painting techniques, which are applied to dried plaster, to supplement painting in fresco. The fresco technique has been employed since antiquity and is closely associated with Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
painting.[1][2]

Contents

1 Technology 2 Other types of wall painting 3 History

3.1 Egypt
Egypt
and Ancient Near East 3.2 Aegean civilizations 3.3 Classical antiquity 3.4 India 3.5 Sri Lanka 3.6 Middle Ages 3.7 Early modern Europe 3.8 Mexican muralism

4 Selected examples of frescoes 5 Conservation of frescoes 6 Gallery 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Technology[edit] Buon fresco pigment is mixed with room temperature water and is used on a thin layer of wet, fresh plaster, called the intonaco (after the Italian word for plaster). Because of the chemical makeup of the plaster, a binder is not required, as the pigment mixed solely with the water will sink into the intonaco, which itself becomes the medium holding the pigment. The pigment is absorbed by the wet plaster; after a number of hours, the plaster dries in reaction to air: it is this chemical reaction which fixes the pigment particles in the plaster. The chemical processes are as follows:[3]

calcination of limestone in a lime kiln: CaCO3 → CaO + CO2 slaking of quicklime: CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2 setting of the lime plaster: Ca(OH)2 + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2O

A Roman fresco of a young man from the Villa di Arianna, Stabiae, 1st century AD.

In painting buon fresco, a rough underlayer called the arriccio is added to the whole area to be painted and allowed to dry for some days. Many artists sketched their compositions on this underlayer, which would never be seen, in a red pigment called sinopia, a name also used to refer to these under-paintings. Later,[when?]new techniques for transferring paper drawings to the wall were developed. The main lines of a drawing made on paper were pricked over with a point, the paper held against the wall, and a bag of soot (spolvero) banged on them on produce black dots along the lines. If the painting was to be done over an existing fresco, the surface would be roughened to provide better adhesion. On the day of painting, the intonaco, a thinner, smooth layer of fine plaster was added to the amount of wall that was expected to be completed that day, sometimes matching the contours of the figures or the landscape, but more often just starting from the top of the composition. This area is called the giornata ("day's work"), and the different day stages can usually be seen in a large fresco, by a sort of seam that separates one from the next. Buon frescoes are difficult to create because of the deadline associated with the drying plaster. Generally, a layer of plaster will require ten to twelve hours to dry; ideally, an artist would begin to paint after one hour and continue until two hours before the drying time—giving seven to nine hours' working time. Once a giornata is dried, no more buon fresco can be done, and the unpainted intonaco must be removed with a tool before starting again the next day. If mistakes have been made, it may also be necessary to remove the whole intonaco for that area—or to change them later, a secco. An indispensable component of this process is the carbonatation of the lime, which fixes the colour in the plaster ensuring durability of the fresco for future generations.[4] A technique used in the popular frescoes of Michelangelo
Michelangelo
and Raphael was to scrape indentations into certain areas of the plaster while still wet to increase the illusion of depth and to accent certain areas over others. The eyes of the people of the School of Athens
School of Athens
are sunken-in using this technique which causes the eyes to seem deeper and more pensive. Michelangelo
Michelangelo
used this technique as part of his trademark 'outlining' of his central figures within his frescoes. In a wall-sized fresco, there may be ten to twenty or even more giornate, or separate areas of plaster. After five centuries, the giornate, which were originally nearly invisible, have sometimes become visible, and in many large-scale frescoes, these divisions may be seen from the ground. Additionally, the border between giornate was often covered by an a secco painting, which has since fallen off. One of the first painters in the post-classical period to use this technique was the Isaac Master (or Master of the Isaac fresco, and thus a name used to refer to the unknown master of a particular painting) in the Upper Basilica of Saint Francis in Assisi. A person who creates fresco is called a frescoist. Other types of wall painting[edit]

An ancient Roman fresco with a banquet scene from the Casa dei Casti Amanti, Pompeii

A secco or fresco-secco painting is done on dry plaster (secco meaning "dry" in Italian). The pigments thus require a binding medium, such as egg (tempera), glue or oil to attach the pigment to the wall. It is important to distinguish between a secco work done on top of buon fresco, which according to most authorities was in fact standard from the Middle Ages onwards, and work done entirely a secco on a blank wall. Generally, buon fresco works are more durable than any a secco work added on top of them, because a secco work lasts better with a roughened plaster surface, whilst true fresco should have a smooth one. The additional a secco work would be done to make changes, and sometimes to add small details, but also because not all colours can be achieved in true fresco, because only some pigments work chemically in the very alkaline environment of fresh lime-based plaster. Blue was a particular problem, and skies and blue robes were often added a secco, because neither azurite blue nor lapis lazuli, the only two blue pigments then available, works well in wet fresco.[5] It has also become increasingly clear, thanks to modern analytical techniques, that even in the early Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
painters quite frequently employed a secco techniques so as to allow the use of a broader range of pigments. In most early examples this work has now entirely vanished, but a whole painting done a secco on a surface roughened to give a key for the paint may survive very well, although damp is more threatening to it than to buon fresco. A third type called a mezzo-fresco is painted on nearly dry intonaco—firm enough not to take a thumb-print, says the sixteenth-century author Ignazio Pozzo—so that the pigment only penetrates slightly into the plaster. By the end of the sixteenth century this had largely displaced buon fresco, and was used by painters such as Gianbattista Tiepolo
Gianbattista Tiepolo
or Michelangelo. This technique had, in reduced form, the advantages of a secco work. The three key advantages of work done entirely a secco were that it was quicker, mistakes could be corrected, and the colours varied less from when applied to when fully dry—in wet fresco there was a considerable change. For wholly a secco work, the intonaco is laid with a rougher finish, allowed to dry completely and then usually given a key by rubbing with sand. The painter then proceeds much as he would on a canvas or wood panel. History[edit]

Old Egyptian fresco from the Fourth Dynasty Period (2613–2498 BCE) of the Old Kingdom (c. 2686 BC–c. 2181 BC)

Investiture of Zimri-Lim, Syria, fresco painted c. 1770 BCE

The Fisherman, Minoan Bronze Age
Bronze Age
fresco from Akrotiri, on the Aegean island of Santorini
Santorini
(classically Thera), dated to the Neo-Palatial period (c. 1640–1600 BC). The settlement of Akrotiri was buried in volcanic ash (dated by radiocarbon dating to c. 1627 BC) by the Minoan eruption on the island, which preserved many Minoan frescoes like this

Etruscan fresco of Velia Velcha from the Tomb
Tomb
of Orcus, Tarquinia

Egypt
Egypt
and Ancient Near East[edit] The earliest known examples of frescoes date from the Fourth Dynasty of Egypt
Egypt
(2613–2498 BCE) of the Old Kingdom of Egypt
Old Kingdom of Egypt
(c. 2686 BC–c. 2181 BC). Another old fresco is the Investiture of Zimri-Lim from Syria, dating from the early 18th century. Aegean civilizations[edit] The oldest frescoes done in the Buon Fresco
Fresco
method date from the first half of the second millennium BCE during the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and are to be found among Aegean civilizations, more precisely the Minoan culture from the island of Crete
Crete
and other islands of the Aegean Sea. The most famous of these, The Toreador, depicts a sacred ceremony in which individuals jump over the backs of large bulls. The oldest surviving Minoan frescoes are found on the island of Santorini
Santorini
(classically known as Thera), dated to the Neo-Palatial period (c. 1640–1600 BC). While some similar frescoes have been found in other locations around the Mediterranean basin, particularly in Egypt
Egypt
and Morocco, their origins are subject to speculation. Some art historians believe that fresco artists from Crete
Crete
may have been sent to various locations as part of a trade exchange, a possibility which raises to the fore the importance of this art form within the society of the times. The most common form of fresco was Egyptian wall paintings in tombs, usually using the a secco technique. Classical antiquity[edit]

Fresco
Fresco
of "Sappho" from Pompeii, c. 50 CE

Frescoes were also painted in ancient Greece, but few of these works have survived. In southern Italy, at Paestum, which was a Greek colony of the Magna Graecia, a tomb containing frescoes dating back to 470 BC, the so-called Tomb
Tomb
of the Diver was discovered on June 1968. These frescoes depict scenes of the life and society of ancient Greece, and constitute valuable historical testimonials. One shows a group of men reclining at a symposium while another shows a young man diving into the sea. Etruscan frescoes, dating from the 4th century BCE, have been found in the Tomb of Orcus
Tomb of Orcus
near Veii, Italy. Roman wall paintings, such as those at the magnificent Villa dei Misteri (1st century B.C.) in the ruins of Pompeii, and others at Herculaneum, were completed in buon fresco. Late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(Christian) 1st-2nd-century frescoes were found in catacombs beneath Rome, and Byzantine
Byzantine
Icons were also found in Cyprus, Crete, Ephesus, Cappadocia, and Antioch. Roman frescoes were done by the artist painting the artwork on the still damp plaster of the wall, so that the painting is part of the wall, actually colored plaster. Also a historical collection of Ancient Christian frescoes can be found in the Churches of Goreme Turkey. India[edit]

Fresco
Fresco
from the Ajanta caves
Ajanta caves
built and painted during the Gupta Empire in the 6th century AD

Thanks to large number of ancient rock-cut cave temples, valuable ancient and early medieval frescoes have been preserved in more than 20 locations of India.[6] The frescoes on the ceilings and walls of the Ajanta Caves
Ajanta Caves
were painted between c. 200 BC and 600 and are the oldest known frescoes in India. They depict the Jataka
Jataka
tales that are stories of the Buddha's life in former existences as Bodhisattva. The narrative episodes are depicted one after another although not in a linear order. Their identification has been a core area of research on the subject since the time of the site's rediscovery in 1819. Other locations with valuable preserved ancient and early medieval frescoes include Bagh Caves, Ellora Caves, Sittanavasal, Armamalai Cave, Badami Cave Temples and other locations. Frescoes have been made in several techniques, including tempera technique. The later Chola
Chola
paintings were discovered in 1931 within the circumambulatory passage of the Brihadisvara Temple
Brihadisvara Temple
in India
India
and are the first Chola
Chola
specimens discovered. Researchers have discovered the technique used in these frescos. A smooth batter of limestone mixture was applied over the stones, which took two to three days to set. Within that short span, such large paintings were painted with natural organic pigments. During the Nayak period, the Chola
Chola
paintings were painted over. The Chola
Chola
frescos lying underneath have an ardent spirit of saivism expressed in them. They probably synchronised with the completion of the temple by Rajaraja Cholan
Rajaraja Cholan
the Great. The frescoes in Dogra/ Pahari style paintings exist in their unique form at Sheesh Mahal of Ramnagar (105 km from Jammu
Jammu
and 35 km west of Udhampur). Scenes from epics of Mahabharat
Mahabharat
and Ramayan
Ramayan
along with portraits of local lords form the subject matter of these wall paintings. Rang Mahal of Chamba (Himachal Pradesh) is another site of historic Dogri
Dogri
fresco with wall paintings depicting scenes of Draupti Cheer Haran, and Radha- Krishna Leela. This can be seen preserved at National Museum at New Delhi in a chamber called Chamba Rang Mahal. Sri Lanka[edit]

Sigiriya
Sigiriya
Fresco, Sri Lanka. c. 477 – 495 AD

Frescos in the Monastery of Saint Moses the Abyssinian, Syria

The Sigiriya
Sigiriya
Frescoes are found in Sigiriya
Sigiriya
in Sri Lanka. Painted during the reign of King Kashyapa I (ruled 477 — 495 AD). The generally accepted view is that they are portrayals of women of the royal court of the king depicted as celestial nymphs showering flowers upon the humans below. They bear some resemblance to the Gupta style of painting found in the Ajanta Caves
Ajanta Caves
in India. They are, however, far more enlivened and colorful and uniquely Sri Lankan in character. They are the only surviving secular art from antiquity found in Sri Lanka today.[7] The painting technique used on the Sigiriya
Sigiriya
paintings is "fresco lustro." It varies slightly from the pure fresco technique in that it also contains a mild binding agent or glue. This gives the painting added durability, as clearly demonstrated by the fact that they have survived, exposed to the elements, for over 1,500 years.[8] Located in a small sheltered depression a hundred meters above ground only 19 survive today. Ancient references, however, refer to the existence of as many as five hundred of these frescoes. Middle Ages[edit]

Pantocrator
Pantocrator
from Sant Climent de Taüll, in MNAC Barcelona

Myrrhbearers
Myrrhbearers
on Christ's Grave, c 1235 AD, Mileševa monastery
Mileševa monastery
in Serbian

The late Medieval
Medieval
period and the Renaissance
Renaissance
saw the most prominent use of fresco, particularly in Italy, where most churches and many government buildings still feature fresco decoration. This change coincided with the reevaluation of murals in the liturgy.[9] Romanesque churches in Catalonia
Catalonia
were richly painted in 12th and 13th century, with both decorative and educational—for the illiterate faithfuls—roles, as can be seen in the MNAC in Barcelona, where is kept a large collection of Catalan romanesque art.[10] In Denmark too, church wall paintings or kalkmalerier were widely used in the Middle Ages (first Romanesque, then Gothic) and can be seen in some 600 Danish churches as well as in churches in the south of Sweden, which was Danish at the time.[11] One of the rare examples of Islamic
Islamic
fresco painting can be seen in Qasr Amra, the desert palace of the Umayyads in the 8th century Magotez. Early modern Europe[edit] Northern Romania
Romania
(historical region of Moldavia) boasts about a dozen painted monasteries, completely covered with frescos inside and out, that date from the last quarter of the 15th century to the second quarter of the 16th century. The most remarkable are the monastic foundations at Voroneţ (vo ro nets) (1487), Arbore
Arbore
(are' bo ray) (1503), Humor (hoo mor) (1530), and Moldoviţa (mol do vee' tsa) (1532). Suceviţa (sue che vee' tsa), dating from 1600, represents a late return to the style developed some 70 years earlier. The tradition of painted churches continued into the 19th century in other parts of Romania, although never to the same extent.[12] Andrea Palladio, the famous Italian architect of the 16th century, built many mansions with plain exteriors and stunning interiors filled with frescoes. Henri Clément Serveau
Clément Serveau
produced several frescos including a three by six meter painting for the Lycée de Meaux, where he was once a student. He directed the École de fresques at l'École nationale supérieure des beaux-arts, and decorated the Pavillon du Tourisme at the 1937 Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne (Paris), Pavillon de la Ville de Paris; now at Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris.[13] In 1954 he realized a fresco for the Cité Ouvrière du Laboratoire Débat, Garches.[14] He also executed mural decorations for the Plan des anciennes enceintes de Paris in the Musée Carnavalet.[15] The Foujita chapel
Foujita chapel
in Reims
Reims
completed in 1966, is an example of modern frescos, the interior being painted with religious scenes by the School of Paris
School of Paris
painter Tsuguharu Foujita. In 1996, it was designated an historic monument by the French government. Mexican muralism[edit] José Clemente Orozco, Fernando Leal, David Siqueiros
David Siqueiros
and Diego Rivera the famous Mexican artists, renewed the art of fresco painting in the 20th century. Orozco, Siqueiros, Rivera and his wife Frida Kahlo contributed more to the history of Mexican fine arts and to the reputation of Mexican art in general than anybody else. Together with works by Orozco, Siqueiros, and others, Fernando Leal and Rivera's large wall works in fresco established the art movement known as Mexican Muralism. Selected examples of frescoes[edit]

A young Lady and a Unicorn, Palazzo Farnese
Palazzo Farnese
by Domenichino (1581–1641)

Fernando Leal, Miracles of the Virgin of Guadalupe, Fresco
Fresco
Mexico City

Italian Early Medieval

Castelseprio

Italian Late Medieval-Quattrocento

Panels (including Giotto(?), Lorenzetti, Martini and others) in upper and lower Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi Giotto, Cappella degli Scrovegni
Cappella degli Scrovegni
(Arena Chapel), Padua Camposanto, Pisa Masaccio, Brancacci Chapel, Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena Piero della Francesca, Chiesa di San Francesco, Arezzo Ghirlandaio, Cappella Tornabuoni, Santa Maria Novella, Florence The Last Supper, Leonardo da Vinci, Milan (technically a tempera on plaster and stone, not a true fresco[16]) Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel
Wall series: Botticelli, Perugino, Rossellini, Signorelli, and Ghirlandaio Luca Signorelli, Chapel of San Brizio, Duomo, Orvieto

Italian "High Renaissance"

Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel
ceiling Raphael's Vatican Stanza Raphael's Villa Farnesina Giulio Romano's Palazzo del Tè, Mantua Mantegna, Camera degli Sposi, Palazzo Ducale, Mantua The dome of the Cathedral Santa Maria del Fiore
Santa Maria del Fiore
of Florence

Italy

The Loves of the Gods, Annibale Carracci, Palazzo Farnese Allegory of Divine Providence and Barberini Power, Pietro da Cortona, Palazzo Barberini Ceilings, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, (New Residenz) Würzburg, (Royal Palace) Madrid, (Villa Pisani) Stra, and others; Wall scenes (Villa Valmarana and Palazzo Labia) Nave ceiling, Andrea Pozzo, Sant'Ignazio, Rome

Serbian Medieval

Visoki Dečani Gračanica monastery Studenica monastery Mileševa monastery

Czech Republic

The Ducal Rotunda of the Virgin Mary and St Catherine
The Ducal Rotunda of the Virgin Mary and St Catherine
in Znojmo

Mexico

Fresco
Fresco
Cycle of The Miracles of the Virgin of Guadalupe by Fernando Leal, at Basilica of Guadalupe, Mexico City Fresco
Fresco
Cycle of Bolivar's Epic by Fernando Leal, at Colegio de San Ildefonso, Mexico City

Colombia Santiago Martinez Delgado
Santiago Martinez Delgado
frescoed a mural in the Colombian Congress Building, and also in the Colombian National Building. Conservation of frescoes[edit] Main article: Conservation and restoration of frescos The climate and environment of Venice
Venice
has proved to be a problem for frescoes and other works of art in the city for centuries. The city is built on a lagoon in northern Italy. The humidity and the rise of water over the centuries have created a phenomenon known as rising damp. As the lagoon water rises and seeps into the foundation of a building, the water is absorbed and rises up through the walls often causing damage to frescoes. Venetians have become quite adept in the conservation methods of frescoes. The mold aspergillus versicolor can grow after flooding, to consume nutrients from frescoes.[17][18] The following is the process that was used when rescuing frescoes in La Fenice, a Venetian opera house, but the same process can be used for similarly damaged frescoes. First, a protection and support bandage of cotton gauze and polyvinyl alcohol is applied. Difficult sections are removed with soft brushes and localized vacuuming. The other areas that are easier to remove (because they had been damaged by less water) are removed with a paper pulp compress saturated with bicarbonate of ammonia solutions and removed with deionized water. These sections are strengthened and reattached then cleansed with base exchange resin compresses and the wall and pictorial layer were strengthened with barium hydrate. The cracks and detachments are stopped with lime putty and injected with an epoxy resin loaded with micronized silica.[19] Gallery[edit]

''Frescos''

Chola
Chola
Fresco
Fresco
of Dancing girls. Brihadisvara Temple
Brihadisvara Temple
c. 1100

The 18th-century BC fresco of the Investiture of Zimrilim
Investiture of Zimrilim
discovered at the Royal Palace of ancient Mari in Syria

The Chapel of the Holy Cross in Wawel Cathedral
Wawel Cathedral
in Kraków
Kraków
is decorated with Byzantine
Byzantine
Frescoes.

Fresco
Fresco
by Dionisius
Dionisius
representing Saint Nicholas
Saint Nicholas
in a Ferapontov Monastery

Dante
Dante
in Domenico di Michelino's Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy
in Duomo
Duomo
of Florence

See also[edit]

Visual arts portal

Ajanta caves Gambier Parry process Churches of Moldavia Haveli Church frescos in Denmark Church frescos in Sweden Sigiriya Kandyan Era Frescoes

References[edit]

^ Mora, Paolo; Mora, Laura; Philippot, Paul (1984). Conservation of Wall Paintings. Butterworths. pp. 34–54. ISBN 0-408-10812-6.  ^ Ward, Gerald W. R., ed. (2008). The GroveEncyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art. Oxford University Press. pp. 223–5. ISBN 978-0-19-531391-8.  ^ Mora, Paolo; Mora, Laura; Philippot, Paul (1984). Conservation of Wall Paintings. Butterworths. pp. 47–54. ISBN 0-408-10812-6.  ^ How is a fresco made? - Fresco
Fresco
Blog by Italian Fresco
Fresco
Blog. ^ All this section - Ugo Procacci, in Frescoes from Florence, pp. 15-25 1969, Arts Council, London. ^ Ancient and medieval Indian cave paintings - Internet encyclopedia by Wondermondo. Retrieved 4 June 2010. ^ Ponnamperuma, Senani. " Sigiriya
Sigiriya
Frescoes".  ^ Ponnamperuma, Senani (2013). Story of Sigiriya. Melbourne: Panique Pty Ltd. ISBN 9780987345110.  ^ Péter Bokody, Mural
Mural
Painting as a Medium: Technique, Representation and Liturgy, Image and Christianity: Visual Media in the Middle Ages, Pannonhalma Abbey, 2014, 136-151 ^ Español, Francesca; Yarza, Joaquín; fotografies de Ramon Manent, Pere Pascual i Rosina Ramírez (2007). El romànic català (in Catalan) (1. ed.). Barcelona: Angle Editorial. ISBN 9788496970090.  ^ Kirsten Trampedach, "Introduction to Danish wall paintings - Conservation ethics and methods of treatment from the National Museum of Denmark" Archived 24 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 2 March 2010. ^ Anca Vasiliu, "Monastères de Moldavie (XIVème-XVIème siècles)", Paris Mediterranée, 1998 ^ Ministère de la Culture (France) - Médiathèque de l'architecture et du patrimoine, Exposition internationale des arts et techniques de 1937 ^ Conseil régional d'Ile-De-France - Service de l'Inventaire général du patrimoine culturel ^ Waterhouse & Dodd Fine Art 1850-2000 ^ Restoration of the Last Supper 1498 - Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
1452-1519 - The Last Supper St. Apostle John Comparison ^ Bennett JW (2010). "An Overview of the Genus Aspergillus" (PDF). Aspergillus: Molecular Biology and Genomics. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-53-0.  ^ Orio Ciferri (March 1999). "Microbial Degradation of Paintings". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 65 (3): 879–885. PMC 91117 . PMID 10049836.  ^ Ciacci, Leonardo., ed, La Fenice
La Fenice
Reconstructed 1996–2003: a building site in the city, (Venezia: Marsilio, 2003),118.

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Museum of Ancient Inventions: Roman-Style Fresco, Italy, 50 AD Sigiriya
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Fresco
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Fresco
by Donald A. Jusko Fresco
Fresco
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Fresco
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