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The FRENCH COLONIAL EMPIRE constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward. A distinction is generally made between the "first colonial empire", that existed until 1814, by which time most of it had been lost, and the "second colonial empire", which began with the conquest of Algiers
Algiers
in 1830. The second empire came to an end after the loss of bitter wars in Vietnam
Vietnam
(1955) and Algeria
Algeria
(1962), and peaceful decolonization elsewhere after 1960.

Competing with Spain
Spain
, Portugal
Portugal
, the United Provinces , and later England
England
, France
France
began to establish colonies in North America , the Caribbean
Caribbean
, and India in the 17th century. A series of wars with Great Britain and other European major powers during the 18th century and early 19th century resulted in France
France
losing nearly all of its conquests. France
France
rebuilt a new empire mostly after 1850, concentrating chiefly in Africa, as well as Indochina
Indochina
and the South Pacific. Republicans, at first hostile to empire, only became supportive when Germany started to build her own colonial empire. As it developed, the new empire took on roles of trade with France, especially supplying raw materials and purchasing manufactured items, as well as lending prestige to the motherland and spreading French civilization and language, and the Catholic religion. It also provided manpower in the World Wars.

It became a moral mission to lift the world up to French standards by bringing Christianity and French culture. In 1884, the leading proponent of colonialism, Jules Ferry , declared; "The higher races have a right over the lower races, they have a duty to civilize the inferior races ." Full citizenship rights – _assimilation_ – were offered, although in reality "assimilation was always receding the colonial populations treated like subjects not citizens." France
France
sent small numbers of settlers to its empire, contrary to Great Britain, and previously Spain
Spain
and Portugal, with the only notable exception of Algeria, where the French settlers nonetheless always remained a small minority.

At its apex, it was one of the largest empires in history . Including metropolitan France
France
, the total amount of land under French sovereignty reached 11,500,000 km2 (4,400,000 sq mi) in 1920, with a population of 110 million people in 1939. In World War II, Charles de Gaulle and the Free French used the overseas colonies as bases from which they fought to liberate France. Historian Tony Chafer argues: "In an effort to restore its world-power status after the humiliation of defeat and occupation, France
France
was eager to maintain its overseas empire at the end of the Second World War." However, after 1945 anti-colonial movements began to challenge European authority. The French constitution of October 27, 1946 (Fourth Republic), established the French Union which endured until 1958. Newer remnants of the colonial empire were integrated into France
France
as overseas departments and territories within the French Republic. These now total altogether 119,394 km² (46,098 sq. miles), which amounts to only 1% of the pre-1939 French colonial empire's area, with 2.7 million people living in them in 2013. By the 1970s, says Robert Aldrich, the last "vestiges of empire held little interest for the French." He argues, "Except for the traumatic decolonization of Algeria, however, what is remarkable is how few long-lasting effects on France
France
the giving up of empire entailed."

CONTENTS

* 1 First French Colonial Empire
Empire

* 1.1 The Americas
Americas
* 1.2 Africa and Asia * 1.3 Colonial conflict with Britain

* 2 Second French colonial empire
French colonial empire
(after 1830)

* 2.1 Napoleon III: 1852–70 * 2.2 New Caledonia
New Caledonia
becomes a French possession (1853–54) * 2.3 Colonization of Senegal
Senegal
(1854–65) * 2.4 Intervention in China (1858–60) * 2.5 France
France
in Korea
Korea
and Japan
Japan
(1866–68) * 2.6 France
France
in Indochina
Indochina
and the Pacific (1858–70) * 2.7 Intervention in Syria
Syria
and Lebanon
Lebanon
(1860–61) * 2.8 Algeria
Algeria
* 2.9 French Intervention in Mexico (1862–67) * 2.10 French–British relations * 2.11 French–U.S. relations

* 3 After 1870

* 3.1 Asia * 3.2 Africa * 3.3 Pacific islands * 3.4 Civilising mission * 3.5 World War II
World War II

* 4 Decolonization

* 4.1 Repression

* 5 Demographics

* 5.1 French settlers

* 6 See also * 7 Notes and references

* 8 Further reading

* 8.1 Policies and colonies * 8.2 Decolonization * 8.3 Images and impact on France
France
* 8.4 Historiography and memoir

* 9 External links

FIRST FRENCH COLONIAL EMPIRE

THE AMERICAS

See also: New France
New France
The French colonial empire
French colonial empire
in the Americas comprised New France
New France
(including Canada and Louisiana
Louisiana
), French West Indies (including Saint-Domingue , Guadeloupe , Martinique , Dominica , St. Lucia , Grenada , Tobago and other islands) and French Guyana . French Northern America was known as 'Nouvelle France' or New France
France

During the 16th century, the French colonization of the Americas began. Excursions of Giovanni da Verrazzano and Jacques Cartier
Jacques Cartier
in the early 16th century, as well as the frequent voyages of French boats and fishermen to the Grand Banks off Newfoundland throughout that century, were the precursors to the story of France's colonial expansion. But Spain's jealous protection of its foreign monopoly, and the further distractions caused in France
France
itself in the later 16th century by the French Wars of Religion , prevented any constant efforts by France
France
to settle colonies. Early French attempts to found colonies in Brazil, in 1555 at Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
(" France Antarctique ") and in Florida (including Fort Caroline in 1562), and in 1612 at São Luís (" France Équinoxiale
France Équinoxiale
"), were not successful, due to a lack of official interest and to Portuguese and Spanish vigilance.

The story of France's colonial empire truly began on 27 July 1605, with the foundation of Port Royal in the colony of Acadia in North America, in what is now Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
, Canada. A few years later, in 1608, Samuel De Champlain founded Quebec , which was to become the capital of the enormous, but sparsely settled, fur-trading colony of New France
New France
(also called Canada).

New France
New France
had a rather small population, which resulted from more emphasis being placed on the fur trade rather than agricultural settlements. Due to this emphasis, the French relied heavily on creating friendly contacts with the local First Nations community. Without the appetite of New England
England
for land, and by relying solely on Aboriginals to supply them with fur at the trading posts, the French composed a complex series of military, commercial, and diplomatic connections. These became the most enduring alliances between the French and the First Nation community. The French were, however, under pressure from religious orders to convert them to Catholicism.

Through alliances with various Native American tribes, the French were able to exert a loose control over much of the North American continent. Areas of French settlement were generally limited to the St. Lawrence River Valley. Prior to the establishment of the 1663 Sovereign Council , the territories of New France
New France
were developed as mercantile colonies . It is only after the arrival of intendant Jean Talon in 1665 that France
France
gave its American colonies the proper means to develop population colonies comparable to that of the British. Acadia itself was lost to the British in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. Back in France
France
there was relatively little interest in colonialism, which concentrated rather on dominance within Europe, and for most of its history, New France
New France
was far behind the British North American colonies in both population and economic development.

In 1699, French territorial claims in North America expanded still further, with the foundation of Louisiana
Louisiana
in the basin of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
. The extensive trading network throughout the region connected to Canada through the Great Lakes , was maintained through a vast system of fortifications, many of them centred in the Illinois Country and in present-day Arkansas. _ 1767 Louis XV Colonies Françoises_ (West Indies) 12 Diniers copper Sous (w/1793 "RF" counterstamp)

As the French empire in North America grew, the French also began to build a smaller but more profitable empire in the West Indies
West Indies
. Settlement along the South American coast in what is today French Guiana began in 1624, and a colony was founded on Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
in 1625 (the island had to be shared with the English until the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, when it was ceded outright). The _Compagnie des Îles de l\'Amérique _ founded colonies in Guadeloupe and Martinique in 1635, and a colony was later founded on Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
by (1650). The food-producing plantations of these colonies were built and sustained through slavery, with the supply of slaves dependent on the African slave trade . Local resistance by the indigenous peoples resulted in the Carib Expulsion of 1660. France's most important Caribbean colonial possession was established in 1664, when the colony of Saint-Domingue (today's Haiti
Haiti
) was founded on the western half of the Spanish island of Hispaniola
Hispaniola
. In the 18th century, Saint-Domingue grew to be the richest sugar colony in the Caribbean. The eastern half of Hispaniola
Hispaniola
(today's Dominican Republic ) also came under French rule for a short period, after being given to France
France
by Spain
Spain
in 1695.

AFRICA AND ASIA

See also: Category:French colonisation in Africa . See also: Françafrique Arrival of Marshal
Marshal
Randon in Algiers
Algiers
in 1857

French colonial expansion was not limited to the New World . In Senegal
Senegal
in West Africa, the French began to establish trading posts along the coast in 1624. In 1664, the French East India Company was established to compete for trade in the east. With the decay of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, in 1830 the French seized Algiers
Algiers
, thus beginning the colonization of French North Africa .

During the First World War, after France
France
had suffered heavy casualties on the Western Front, they began to recruit soldiers from their African empire. By 1917, France
France
had recruited 270,000 African soldiers. Their most decorated regiments came from Morocco, but due to the ongoing Zaian War they were only able to recruit 23,000 Moroccans. African soldiers had success in the Battle of Verdun and failure in the Nivelle Offensive , but in general regardless of their usefulness, French generals did not think highly of their African troops.

After the First World War, France's African war aims were not being decided by her cabinet or the official mind of the colonial ministry, but rather the leaders of the colonial movement in French Africa. The first occasion of this was in 1915–1916, when Francois Georges-Picot (both a diplomat and part of a colonial dynasty) met with the British to discuss the division of Cameroon. Picot proceeded with negotiations with neither the oversight of the French president nor the cabinet. What resulted was Britain giving nine tenths of Cameroon to the French. Picot emphasized the demands of the French colonists over the French cabinet. This policy of French colonial leaders determining France's African war aims can be seen throughout much of France's empire.

Colonies were established in India in Chandernagore
Chandernagore
(1673) and Pondichéry in the south east (1674), and later at Yanam (1723), Mahe (1725), and Karikal (1739) (see French India ). Colonies were also founded in the Indian Ocean, on the Île de Bourbon ( Réunion , 1664), Isle de France
France
( Mauritius
Mauritius
, 1718), and the Seychelles
Seychelles
(1756).

COLONIAL CONFLICT WITH BRITAIN

Further information: France
France
in the Seven Years\' War and France
France
in the American Revolutionary War Carte de L'Indoustan. Bellin, 1770

In the middle of the 18th century, a series of colonial conflicts began between France
France
and Britain , which ultimately resulted in the destruction of most of the first French colonial empire
French colonial empire
and the near complete expulsion of France
France
from the Americas. These wars were the War of the Austrian Succession (1744–1748), the Seven Years\' War (1756–1763), the American Revolution
American Revolution
(1765–1783), the French Revolutionary Wars (1793–1802) and the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815). It may even be seen further back in time to the first of the French and Indian Wars . This cyclic conflict is known as the Second Hundred Years\' War .

Although the War of the Austrian Succession was indecisive – despite French successes in India under the French Governor-General Joseph François Dupleix and Europe under Marshal Saxe – the Seven Years' War, after early French successes in Minorca and North America, saw a French defeat, with the numerically superior British (over one million to about 50 thousand French settlers) conquering not only New France
France
(excluding the small islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon ), but also most of France's West Indian (Caribbean) colonies, and all of the French Indian outposts .

While the peace treaty saw France's Indian outposts, and the Caribbean
Caribbean
islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe restored to France, the competition for influence in India had been won by the British, and North America was entirely lost – most of New France
New France
was taken by Britain (also referred to as British North America ), except Louisiana, which France
France
ceded to Spain
Spain
as payment for Spain's late entrance into the war (and as compensation for Britain's annexation of Spanish Florida). Also ceded to the British were Grenada and Saint Lucia in the West Indies. Although the loss of Canada would cause much regret in future generations, it excited little unhappiness at the time; colonialism was widely regarded as both unimportant to France, and immoral.

Some recovery of the French colonial empire
French colonial empire
was made during the French intervention in the American Revolution
American Revolution
, with Saint Lucia being returned to France
France
by the Treaty of Paris
Paris
in 1783, but not nearly as much as had been hoped for at the time of French intervention. True disaster came to what remained of France's colonial empire in 1791 when Saint Domingue (the Western third of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola
Hispaniola
), France's richest and most important colony, was riven by a massive slave revolt, caused partly by the divisions among the island's elite, which had resulted from the French Revolution of 1789.

The slaves, led eventually by Toussaint L\'Ouverture and then, following his capture by the French in 1801, by Jean-Jacques Dessalines , held their own against French, Spanish, and British opponents, and ultimately achieved independence as Empire
Empire
of Haiti
Haiti
in 1804 ( Haiti
Haiti
became the first black republic in the world, followed by Liberia in 1847).

In the meanwhile, the newly resumed war with Britain by the French, resulted in the British capture of practically all remaining French colonies. These were restored at the Treaty of Amiens in 1802, but when war resumed in 1803, the British soon recaptured them. France's repurchase of Louisiana
Louisiana
in 1800 came to nothing, as the success of the Haitian Revolution
Haitian Revolution
convinced Napoleon that holding Louisiana
Louisiana
would not be worth the cost, leading to its sale to the United States
United States
in 1803. The French attempt to establish a colony in Egypt in 1798–1801 was not successful.

SECOND FRENCH COLONIAL EMPIRE (AFTER 1830)

Animated map showing the growth and decline of the First and Second French colonial empires

At the close of the Napoleonic Wars , most of France's colonies were restored to it by Britain, notably Guadeloupe and Martinique in the West Indies
West Indies
, French Guiana on the coast of South America
South America
, various trading posts in Senegal
Senegal
, the _Île Bourbon_ ( Réunion ) in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
, and France's tiny Indian possessions; however, Britain finally annexed Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
, Tobago , the Seychelles
Seychelles
, and the _Isle de France_ (now Mauritius
Mauritius
).

In 1825 Charles X sent an expedition to Haïti
Haïti
, resulting in the Haiti
Haiti
indemnity controversy .

The beginnings of the second French colonial empire
French colonial empire
were laid in 1830 with the French invasion of Algeria
Algeria
, which was conquered over the next 17 years.

NAPOLEON III: 1852–70

The last photograph of Napoleon III (1872)

Napoleon III doubled the area of the French overseas Empire; he established French rule in New Caledonia
New Caledonia
, and Cochinchina
Cochinchina
, established a protectorate in Cambodia
Cambodia
(1863); and colonized parts of Africa. He joined Britain sending an army to China during Second Opium War and the Taiping Rebellion (1860), but French ventures to establish influence in Japan
Japan
(1867) and Korea
Korea
(1866) were less successful. His attempt to impose a European monarch, Maximilian I of Mexico on the Mexicans ended in a spectacular failure in 1867.

To carry out his new overseas projects, Napoleon III created a new Ministry of the Navy and the Colonies, and appointed an energetic minister, Prosper, Marquis of Chasseloup-Laubat , to head it. A key part of the enterprise was the modernization of the French Navy; he began the construction of fifteen powerful new battle cruisers powered by steam and driven by propellers; and a fleet of steam powered troop transports. The French Navy became the second most powerful in the world, after Britain's. He also created a new force of colonial troops, including elite units of naval infantry, Zouaves , the Chasseurs d'Afrique, and Algerian sharpshooters, and he expanded the Foreign Legion, which had been founded in 1831 and won fame in the Crimea, Italy and Mexico. By the end of Napoleon III's reign the French overseas territories had tripled in area; in 1870 they covered a million square kilometers, with more than five million inhabitants.

NEW CALEDONIA BECOMES A FRENCH POSSESSION (1853–54)

On 24 September 1853, Admiral Febvrier Despointes took formal possession of New Caledonia
New Caledonia
and Port-de-France (Nouméa) was founded 25 June 1854. A few dozen free settlers settled on the west coast in the following years, but New Caledonia
New Caledonia
became a penal colony and, from the 1860s until the end of the transportations in 1897, about 22,000 criminals and political prisoners were sent to New Caledonia
New Caledonia
to be killed.

COLONIZATION OF SENEGAL (1854–65)

Main article: French Senegal
Senegal

At the beginning of Napoleon III's reign, the presence of France
France
in Senegal
Senegal
was limited to a trading post on the island of Goree , a narrow strip on the coast, the town of Saint-Louis , and a handful of trading posts in the interior. The economy had largely been based on the slave trade , carried out by the rulers of the small kingdoms of the interior, until France
France
abolished slavery in its colonies in 1848. In 1854, Napoleon III named an enterprising French officer, Louis Faidherbe , to govern and expand the colony, and to give it the beginning of a modern economy. Faidherbe built a series of forts along the Senegal
Senegal
River, formed alliances with leaders in the interior, and sent expeditions against those who resisted French rule. He built a new port at Dakar
Dakar
, established and protected telegraph lines and roads, followed these with a rail line between Dakar
Dakar
and Saint-Louis and another into the interior . He built schools, bridges, and systems to supply fresh water to the towns. He also introduced the large-scale cultivation of Bambara groundnuts and peanuts as a commercial crop. Reaching into the Niger
Niger
valley, Senegal
Senegal
became the primary French base in West Africa
West Africa
and a model colony. Dakar
Dakar
became one of the most important cities of the French Empire
Empire
and of Africa.

INTERVENTION IN CHINA (1858–60)

In 1857, after the murder of a French priest and the arrest by the Chinese police of the crew of a British merchant ship, Napoleon III joined together with Great Britain
Great Britain
to form a military expedition to punish the Chinese government. The object of his policy was not to take territory, but to assure that the vast and lucrative Chinese market was open to French commerce, and not the exclusive trading partner of Britain. In January 1858 a combined British and French fleet bombarded and occupied Canton , and landed troops at the mouth of the Hai River
Hai River
in northern China. In June 1858 the Chinese government in Peking was forced to sign the Treaty of Tientsin with Britain, France, Russia and the United States. This treaty opened six additional Chinese ports to European merchant ships, allowed Christian missionary activity, and legalized the import of opium into China. The Anglo-French forces pillage China's Summer Palace, October 1860.

The Chinese government was reluctant to observe the treaty, so Napoleon III and the British Prime Minister Lord Palmerston decided to take more forceful action, in what became known in history as the second phase of the Second Opium War . A joint French-British expeditionary force of 8,000 men was created under a French general, Charles Cousin-Montauban , who had commanded French forces in Algeria. At the beginning of 1860 the French-British fleet sailed from Europe, and in the spring of 1860 landed the army in China. The Anglo-French army force, led by Cousin-Montauban, captured Tientsin, and then marched on the capital. On 21 September 1860 it defeated the army of the Chinese emperor at the Battle of Palikao and seized the capital Beijing. At the orders of the British commander Lord Elgin , the British and French forces burned and pillaged the Old Summer Palace of the Chinese Emperor. On 25 October 1860, the Chinese Emperor was obliged to accept a second treaty of Tientsin, opening an additional eleven new ports to European trade, making westerners immune to prosecution by Chinese courts, and establishing western diplomatic missions in Beijing. Some of the art objects taken from the looted Summer Palace were carried to France, where the Empress used them to decorate a Chinese-themed salon at the Palace of Fontainebleau , where they can be seen today.

FRANCE IN KOREA AND JAPAN (1866–68)

Main article: French campaign against Korea
Korea
(1866)

In 1866, French diplomats in China learned that French priests had been arrested and executed in Korea
Korea
, a country which had had no diplomatic or commercial contact with Europe or America. Twelve Catholic priests at the time were living in Korea, with an estimated 23,000 Korean converts, belonging to churches founded by French missionaries in the 18th century. In January 1866, King Gojong and his father, the regent, ordered the execution of most of the French priests, and ten thousand converts. A squadron of French ships, carrying eight hundred naval infantry, attempted retaliation but made little headway.

In Japan
Japan
the Meiji Emperor, and his enemies, the Tokugawa Shogunate , both sought French military training and technology in their battle for power, known as the Boshin War
Boshin War
. In 1867, a military mission to Japan
Japan
played a key role in modernizing the troops of the Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu , and even participated on his side against Imperial troops during the Boshin war
Boshin war
. The European representative of the Shogunate, Shibata Takenaka , approached both Britain and France, asking assistance to build a modern shipyard and to train the Shogunate army in modern western warfare. The shipyard, which became the naval base of Yokosuka
Yokosuka
, was designed by the French engineer Leonce Verny . The British, who supported the imperial faction, declined to provide trainers, but Napoleon III agreed, and in 1867 dispatched a delegation of nineteen French military experts in the fields of infantry, cavalry and artillery to Japan. They trained an elite corps, called the Denshutai , to fight on the side of the Shogun.

On the other side, the Emperor purchased from the United States
United States
a French-built ironclad warship, renamed the Kotetsu (literally "ironclad"). It played an important role in the first modern naval battle fought in Japan. By 1868, the Imperial forces had won a decisive victory. French influence in the Japanese navy remained strong.

FRANCE IN INDOCHINA AND THE PACIFIC (1858–70)

Napoleon III also acted to increase the French presence in Indochina. An important factor in his decision was the belief that France
France
risked becoming a second-rate power by not expanding its influence in East Asia. Deeper down was the sense that France
France
owed the world a civilizing mission.

French missionaries had been active in Vietnam
Vietnam
since the 17th century, when the Jesuit priest Alexandre de Rhodes opened a mission there. In 1858 the Vietnamese emperor of the Nguyen Dynasty felt threatened by the French influence and tried to expel the missionaries. Napoleon III sent a naval force of fourteen gunships, carrying three thousand French and three thousand Filipino troops provided by Spain, under Charles Rigault de Genouilly , to compel the government to accept the missionaries and to stop the persecution of Catholics. In September 1858 the expeditionary force captured and occupied the port of Da Nang
Da Nang
, and then in February 1859 moved south and captured Saigon
Saigon
. The Vietnamese ruler was compelled to cede three provinces to France, and to offer protection to the Catholics. The French troops departed for a time to take part in the expedition to China, but in 1862, when the agreements were not fully followed by the Vietnamese emperor, they returned. The Emperor was forced to open treaty ports in Annam and Tonkin
Tonkin
, and all of Cochinchina
Cochinchina
became a French territory in 1864.

In 1863, the ruler of Cambodia
Cambodia
, King Norodom
Norodom
, who had been placed in power by the government of Thailand
Thailand
, rebelled against his sponsors and sought the protection of France. The Thai Emperor granted authority over Cambodia
Cambodia
to France, in exchange for two provinces of Laos
Laos
, which were ceded by Cambodia
Cambodia
to Thailand. In 1867, Cambodia formally became a protectorate of France.

*

Capture of Saigon
Saigon
by Charles Rigault de Genouilly on 18 February 1859, painted by Antoine Morel-Fatio *

Napoleon III receiving the Siamese embassy at the palace of Fontainebleau in 1864

INTERVENTION IN SYRIA AND LEBANON (1860–61)

French expedition in Syria
Syria
led by General Beaufort d\'Hautpoul , landing in Beyrouth on 16 August 1860

In the spring of 1860, a war broke out in Lebanon
Lebanon
, then part of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, between the quasi-Muslim Druze
Druze
population and the Maronite Christians . The Ottoman authorities in Lebanon
Lebanon
could not stop the violence, and it spread into neighboring Syria
Syria
, with the massacre of many Christians. In Damascus
Damascus
, the Emir Abd-el-Kadr protected the Christians there against the Muslim rioters. Napoleon III felt obliged to intervene on behalf of the Christians, despite the opposition of London, which feared it would lead to a wider French presence in the Middle East. After long and difficult negotiations to obtain the approval of the British government, Napoleon III sent a French contingent of seven thousand men for a period of six months. The troops arrived in Beirut in August 1860, and took positions in the mountains between the Christian and Muslim communities. Napoleon III organized an international conference in Paris, where the country was placed under the rule of a Christian governor named by the Ottoman Sultan, which restored a fragile peace. The French troops departed in June 1861, after just under one year. The French intervention alarmed the British, but was highly popular with the powerful Catholic political faction in France, which had been alarmed by Napoleon's dispute with the Pope over his territories in Italy.

ALGERIA

French conquest of Algeria

Algeria
Algeria
had been formally under French rule since 1830, but only in 1852 was the country entirely conquered. There were about a hundred thousand European settlers in the country, at that time, about half of them French. Under the Second Republic the country was ruled by a civilian government, but Louis Napoleon re-established a military government, much to the annoyance of the colonists. By 1857 the army had conquered Kabyle Province, and pacified the country. By 1860 the European population had grown to two hundred thousand, and the land of the Algerians was being rapidly bought and farmed by the new arrivals.

In the first eight years of his rule Napoleon III paid little attention to Algeria. In September 1860, however, he and the Empress Eugénie visited Algeria, and the trip made a deep impression upon them. Eugénie was invited to attend a traditional Arab wedding, and the Emperor met many of the local leaders. The Emperor gradually conceived the idea that Algeria
Algeria
should be governed differently from other colonies. in February 1863, he wrote a public letter to Pelissier, the Military Governor, saying: " Algeria
Algeria
is not a colony in the traditional sense, but an Arab kingdom; the local people have, like the colonists, a legal right to my protection. I am just as much the Emperor of the Arabs of Algeria
Algeria
as I am of the French." He intended to rule Algeria
Algeria
through a government of Arab aristocrats. Toward this end he invited the chiefs of main Algerian tribal groups to his chateau at Compiegne for hunting and festivities.

Compared to previous administrations, Napoleon III was far more sympathetic to the native Algerians. He halted European migration inland, restricting them to the coastal zone. He also freed the Algerian rebel leader Abd al Qadir (who had been promised freedom on surrender but was imprisoned by the previous administration) and gave him a stipend of 150,000 francs. He allowed Muslims to serve in the military and civil service on theoretically equal terms and allowed them to migrate to France. In addition, he gave the option of citizenship; however, for Muslims to take this option they had to accept all of the French civil code, including parts governing inheritance and marriage which might conflict with the Muslim tradition, and they had to reject the competence of religious Sharia courts. This was interpreted by some Muslims as requiring them to give up parts of their religion to obtain citizenship and was resented.

More importantly, Napoleon III changed the system of land tenure. While ostensibly well-intentioned, in effect this move destroyed the traditional system of land management and deprived many Algerians of land. While Napoleon did renounce state claims to tribal lands, he also began a process of dismantling tribal land ownership in favour of individual land ownership. This process was corrupted by French officials sympathetic to the French in Algeria
Algeria
who took much of the land they surveyed into public domain. In addition, many tribal leaders, chosen for loyalty to the French rather than influence in their tribe, immediately sold communal land for cash.

His attempted reforms were interrupted in 1864 by an Arab insurrection, which required more than a year and an army of 85,000 soldiers to suppress. Nonetheless, he did not give up his idea of making Algeria
Algeria
a model where French colonists and Arabs could live and work together as equals. He traveled to Algiers
Algiers
for a second time on 3 May 1865, and this time he remained for a month, meeting with tribal leaders and local officials. He offered a wide amnesty to participants of the insurrection, and promised to name Arabs to high positions in his government. He also promised a large public works program of new ports, railroads, and roads. However, once again his plans met a major natural obstacle' in 1866 and 1867, Algeria
Algeria
was struck by an epidemic of cholera, clouds of locusts, draught and famine, and his reforms were hindered by the French colonists, who voted massively against him in the plebiscites of his late reign.

FRENCH INTERVENTION IN MEXICO (1862–67)

Main articles: French intervention in Mexico and Second Mexican Empire
Empire
Napoleon III tried unsuccessfully to place Maximilian I , brother of the Austrian Emperor, on the throne of Mexico.

In December 1862, the conservative Mexican government was overthrown by Benito Juarez , who established a secular state and refused to pay the internal and external debts of the old government. France
France
was the largest owner of the debt, owed 135 million gold francs of the 260 million francs total. The rest of the debt was owed to Britain (85 million francs) and Spain
Spain
(40 million). Under an 1861 agreement, France, Britain and Spain
Spain
organized a joint military force to compel the Mexican government to pay. A British-French flotilla of ships arrived at VeraCruz in December 1861 and landed 7500 French soldiers and 700 British soldiers, joined later by 6000 Spanish soldiers from Cuba
Cuba
.

Juarez opened negotiations with the international force, but it soon became evident that the French expedition had a more ambitious objective than debt repayment. Napoleon III and the Empress had been intensively lobbied by Mexican émigrés in Europe, who proposed that France
France
establish a new conservative and Catholic government in Mexico, under a European monarch. Napoleon III was told that the new monarch would be welcomed by the entire Mexican population. He consented to launch the operation if the new monarch would be approved by a national plebiscite, as he had been. The monarch selected for this task was the Archduke Maximilian , the brother of the Austrian Emperor Franz-Joseph II, and husband of Charlotte, daughter of the King of Belgium.

When the British and Spanish realized the French goals, they withdrew from the expedition, but the French marched on Mexico City. The first attempt by General Lorencez was repulsed by the forces of General Ignacio Zaragoza at Puebla
Puebla
on 5 May 1862, the first defeat of a French Army since Waterloo. Napoleon III appointed a new commander, General Forey, one of the victors of Solferino, and sent 23,000 fresh soldiers. Napoleon III believed that the Mexican people would embrace the new government. He also knew that the government of the United States would be unable to prevent it, even though it was in contravention of the Monroe Doctrine
Monroe Doctrine
, because of the American Civil War then underway, and the implicit support provided by the neighboring Confederate States of America.

The reinforced French army under Forey launched a new offensive from March to June 1863. After bitter resistance, the defenders of Mexico City surrendered on 7 June 1863. Forey, disregarding Napoleon III's instructions not to install a monarch without a popular plebiscite, organized an assembly of Mexican notables who proclaimed the Mexican Empire
Empire
and invited Maximilian I of Mexico to rule. Ruling President Benito Juárez and his Republican forces retreated to the countryside and fought against the French troops and the Mexican monarchists. French chasseurs d\'Afrique taking the standard of the Durango lancers at the Battle of San Pablo del Monte

Maximilian was a reluctant Emperor, not arriving in Mexico until June 1864. One of his first acts was to sign an agreement that Mexico would repay France
France
the entire cost of the war. The combined Mexican monarchist and French forces won victories up until 1865, but then the tide began to turn against them, in part because the American Civil War had ended. The U.S. government demanded that France
France
withdraw its soldiers from Mexico. Facing a guerilla war and a financial catastrophe, the Emperor Maximilian became more and more depressed, leaving the capital for long periods and allowing the Empress Carlotta to reign. Not willing to have a war with the United States, Napoleon III decided at the beginning of 1866 to withdraw French troops from Mexico. In 1863 Maximilian had sent Carlotta to Europe to appeal for funds and support. She appealed to Napoleon III, but he refused to provide more troops or money. During her tour of European courts, she lost and never regained her sanity. Maximilian refused pleas that he depart, and fought against the growing partisan army of Juarez. He was captured, judged, and shot on 19 June 1867.

The misadventure in Mexico cost the lives of six thousand French soldiers and 336 million francs, in a campaign originally designed to collect 60 million francs. It also aroused the hostility of both the United States
United States
and Austria, which had lost a member of its royal family. It was also a distraction to Napoleon III, on the eve of his coming confrontation with Prussia.

*

Siege of Puebla
Puebla
, Mexico by the French Army *

The execution of Maximilian I on 19 June 1867, as painted by Edouard Manet . The intervention in Mexico was a disaster for French foreign policy.

FRENCH–BRITISH RELATIONS

Despite the signing of the 1860 Cobden–Chevalier Treaty , a historic free trade agreement between Britain and France, and the joint operations conducted by France
France
and Britain in the Crimea, China and Mexico, diplomatic relations between Britain and France
France
never became close. Lord Palmerston , the British foreign minister from 1846 to 1851 and prime minister from 1855 to 1865, sought to maintain the balance of power in Europe; this rarely involved an alignment with France. In 1859 there were even briefly fears that France
France
might try to invade Britain. Palmerston was suspicious of France's interventions in Lebanon, Southeast Asia and Mexico. Palmerston was also concerned that France
France
might intervene in the American Civil War (1861–65). on the side of the South. The British also felt threatened by the construction of the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
(1859–1869) by Ferdinand de Lesseps in Egypt. They tried to oppose its completion by diplomatic pressures and by promoting revolts among workers.

The Suez Canal
Suez Canal
was successfully built by the French, but became a joint British-French project in 1875. Both nations saw it as vital to maintaining their influence and empires in Asia. In 1882, ongoing civil disturbances in Egypt prompted Britain to intervene, extending a hand to France. France's leading expansionist Jules Ferry was out of office, and Paris
Paris
allowed London to take effective control of Egypt.

FRENCH–U.S. RELATIONS

Main article: France
France
in the American Civil War

During 1861 to 1862, at the beginning of the American Civil War , Napoleon III considered recognizing the Confederacy in order to protect his operations in Mexico. Washington repeatedly warned that this meant war but the emperor kept this option open, hoping to get Britain as an ally. The Union blockade of southern ports stopped the supply of cotton to textile mills in France, and caused unemployment. The Confederacy had put their faith in "King Cotton" diplomacy , expecting that the cutoff of cotton supplies would cause Britain and France
France
to declare war to reopen the trade. Through 1862, Napoleon III met unofficially with Confederate diplomats, raising their hopes that he would unilaterally recognize the Confederacy. France
France
was too weak to act without collaboration with the British, who after much wavering finally rejected intervention as not worth the heavy risk of losing American food exports. Napoleon realized that a war with the U.S. without allies "would spell disaster" for France. In 1863 the Confederacy realized there was no longer any chance of intervention, and expelled the French and British consuls, who were advising their citizens not to enlist in the Confederate Army. In 1865, the United States stationed a large combat Army near the Mexican border as a warning sign. Napoleon III pulled the French troops out, and the "emperor" he had imposed on Mexico was captured and shot.

AFTER 1870

Most Frenchmen ignored foreign affairs and colonial issues. In 1914 the chief pressure group was the _Parti colonial_, a coalition of 50 organizations with a combined total of 5000 members.

ASIA

It was only after its defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871 and the founding of the Third Republic (1871–1940) that most of France's later colonial possessions were acquired. From their base in Cochinchina, the French took over Tonkin
Tonkin
(in modern northern Vietnam
Vietnam
) and Annam (in modern central Vietnam
Vietnam
) in 1884–1885. These, together with Cambodia
Cambodia
and Cochinchina, formed French Indochina in 1887 (to which Laos
Laos
was added in 1893 and Guangzhouwan
Guangzhouwan
in 1900). In 1849, the French concession in Shanghai
Shanghai
was established, lasting until 1946. The French also had concessions in Guangzhou
Guangzhou
and Hankou (now part of Wuhan
Wuhan
). _ French colonies in 1891 (from Le Monde illustré _). 1. Panorama of _Lac-Kaï_, French outpost in China. 2. _Yun-nan_, in the quay of Hanoi
Hanoi
. 3. Flooded street of Hanoi. 4. Landing stage of Hanoi
Hanoi

AFRICA

France
France
also extended its influence in North Africa
North Africa
after 1870, establishing a protectorate in Tunisia
Tunisia
in 1881 with the Bardo Treaty . Gradually, French control crystallised over much of North, West , and Central Africa
Central Africa
by around the start of the 20th century (including the modern states of Mauritania
Mauritania
, Senegal
Senegal
, Guinea
Guinea
, Mali
Mali
, Ivory Coast , Benin
Benin
, Niger
Niger
, Chad
Chad
, Central African Republic , Republic of the Congo , Gabon
Gabon
, the east African coastal enclave of Djibouti (French Somaliland ) and the island of Madagascar
Madagascar
.

Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza helped to formalise French control in Gabon
Gabon
and on the northern banks of the Congo River from the early 1880s. The explorer Colonel Parfait-Louis Monteil traveled from Senegal
Senegal
to Lake Chad
Chad
in 1890–1892, signing treaties of friendship and protection with the rulers of several of the countries he passed through, and gaining much knowledge of the geography and politics of the region.

The Voulet–Chanoine Mission , a military expedition, set out from Senegal
Senegal
in 1898 to conquer the Chad
Chad
Basin and to unify all French territories in West Africa
West Africa
. This expedition operated jointly with two other expeditions, the Foureau-Lamy and Gentil Missions , which advanced from Algeria
Algeria
and Middle Congo respectively. With the death (April 1900) of the Muslim warlord Rabih az-Zubayr , the greatest ruler in the region, and the creation of the Military Territory of Chad
Chad
(September 1900), the Voulet-Chanoine Mission had accomplished all its goals. The ruthlessness of the mission provoked a scandal in Paris. Central and east Africa, 1898, during the Fashoda Incident

As a part of the Scramble for Africa , France
France
aimed to establish a continuous west-east axis across the continent, in contrast with the proposed British north-south axis . Tensions between Britain and France
France
heightened in Africa. At several points war seemed possible, but no outbreak occurred. The most serious episode was the Fashoda Incident of 1898. French troops tried to claim an area in the Southern Sudan, and a British force purporting to act in the interests of the Khedive of Egypt arrived to confront them. Under heavy pressure the French withdrew, implicitly acknowledging Anglo-Egyptian control over the area. An agreement between the two states recognised the _status quo_: acknowledging British control over Egypt while France
France
became the dominant power in Morocco
Morocco
, but France
France
suffered a humiliating defeat overall.

During the Agadir Crisis in 1911 Britain supported France
France
against Germany , and Morocco
Morocco
became a French protectorate.

PACIFIC ISLANDS

At this time, the French also established colonies in the South Pacific , including New Caledonia
New Caledonia
, the various island groups which make up French Polynesia (including the Society Islands , the Marquesas , and the Tuamotus
Tuamotus
), and established joint control of the New Hebrides with Britain.

The French made their last major colonial gains after World War I
World War I
, when they gained mandates over the former territories of the Ottoman Empire
Empire
that make up what is now Syria
Syria
and Lebanon
Lebanon
, as well as most of the former German colonies of Togo
Togo
and Cameroon
Cameroon
.

CIVILISING MISSION

A hallmark of the French colonial project in the late 19th century and early 20th century was the civilising mission (_mission civilisatrice_), the principle that it was Europe's duty to bring civilisation to benighted peoples. As such, colonial officials undertook a policy of Franco-Europeanisation in French colonies, most notably French West Africa and Madagascar
Madagascar
. During the 19th century, French citizenship along with the right to elect a deputy to the French Chamber of Deputies was granted to the four old colonies of Guadeloupe, Martinique, Guyanne and Réunion as well as to the residents of the " Four Communes " in Senegal. In most cases, the elected deputies were white Frenchmen, although there were some blacks, such as the Senegalese Blaise Diagne , who was elected in 1914. Elsewhere, in the largest and most populous colonies, a strict separation between "sujets français" (all the natives) and "citoyens français" (all males of European extraction) with different rights and duties was maintained until 1946. As was pointed out in a 1927 treatise on French colonial law, the granting of French citizenship to natives "was not a right, but rather a privilege". Two 1912 decrees dealing with French West Africa and French Equatorial Africa enumerated the conditions that a native had to meet in order to be granted French citizenship (they included speaking and writing French, earning a decent living and displaying good moral standards). From 1830 to 1946, only between 3,000 and 6,000 native Algerians were granted French citizenship. In French West Africa, outside of the Four Communes, there were 2,500 "citoyens indigènes" out of a total population of 15 million. French colonial troops, led by Colonel Alfred-Amédée Dodds , a Senegalese mulatto, conquered and annexed Dahomey in 1894

French conservatives had been denouncing the assimilationist policies as products of a dangerous liberal fantasy. In the Protectorate of Morocco, the French administration attempted to use urban planning and colonial education to prevent cultural mixing and to uphold the traditional society upon which the French depended for collaboration, with mixed results. After World War II, the segregationist approach modeled in Morocco
Morocco
had been discredited by its connections to Vichyism, and assimilationism enjoyed a brief renaissance.

In 1905, the French abolished slavery in most of French West Africa. David P. Forsythe wrote: "From Senegal
Senegal
and Mauritania
Mauritania
in the west to Niger
Niger
in the east (what became French Africa), there was a parallel series of ruinous wars, resulting in tremendous numbers of people being violently enslaved. At the beginning of the twentieth century there may have been between 3 and 3.5 million slaves, representing over 30 percent of the total population, within this sparsely populated region."

Critics of French colonialism gained an international audience in the 1920s, and often used documentary reportage and access to agencies such as the League of Nations and the International Labour Organization to make their protests heard. The main criticism was the high level of violence and suffering among the natives. Major critics included Albert Londres , Félicien Challaye, and Paul Monet, whose books and articles were widely read.

While the first stages of a takeover often involved the destruction of historic buildings in order to use the site for French headquarters, archaeologists and art historians soon engaged in systematic effort to identify, map and preserve historic sites, especially temples such as Angkor Wat, Champa ruins and the temples of Luang Prabang. Many French museums have collections of colonial materials. Since the 1980s the French government has opened new museums of colonial artifacts including the Musée du Quai Branly and the Cité Nationale de l’Histoire de l’Immigration, in Paris; the Centre Culturel Tjibaou in New Caledonia; and the Maison des Civilisations et de l’Unité Réunionnaise in Réunion.

WORLD WAR II

* v * t * e

Free French military campaigns of World War II
World War II

* Dakar
Dakar
* Gabon
Gabon
* Keren * _Exporter_ * Kufra * Bir Hakeim * Run for Tunis * _Torch_ * Réunion * Tunisia
Tunisia
* _Husky_ * Corsica * Monte Cassino * Glières * Ist * Mont Mouchet * _Overlord_ * Elba * Saint-Marcel * Vercors * _Dragoon_ * Marseilles * Paris
Paris
* Strasbourg * _Nordwind_ * Colmar Pocket * Authion * Indochina
Indochina
(1945) * Crimson

-------------------------

* French Liberation Army * I Armée * Army of Africa * I Corps * XIX Corps * 1re DFL * 1reDB * 2e DB * 5e DB * 3e DIA * 13e DBLE * FFF * FFI * FEC * FEFEO * CLI * SAS * Résistance * Free French Navy
Free French Navy
* Free French Air Force * Normandie-Niemen

_ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (July 2014)_

_ The gradual loss of all Vichy territory to Free France and the Axis by 1943. Legend.

* v * t * e

Military actions of Vichy France during World War II
World War II

* Mers-el-Kébir * Gibraltar * Dakar
Dakar
* Gabon
Gabon
* Saint Pierre and Miquelon * Indochina
Indochina
(1940) * Franco-Thai War (Ko Chang ) * Syria– Lebanon
Lebanon
* Madagascar
Madagascar
* Réunion * Torch_ * _Anton_ * Toulon

During World War II
World War II
, allied Free France , often with British support, and Axis-aligned Vichy France struggled for control of the colonies, sometimes with outright military combat. By 1943, all of the colonies, except for Indochina
Indochina
under Japanese control, had joined the Free French cause.

The overseas empire helped liberate France
France
as 300,000 North African Arabs fought in the ranks of the Free French. However Charles de Gaulle had no intention of liberating the colonies. He assembled the conference of colonial governors (excluding the nationalist leaders) Brazzaville in January 1944 to announce plans for postwar Union that would replace the Empire. The Brazzaville manifesto proclaimed: the goals of the work of civilization undertaken by France
France
in the colonies exclude all idea of autonomy, all possibility of development outside the French block of the Empire; the possible constitutional self-government in the colonies is to be dismissed.

The manifesto angered nationalists across the Empire
Empire
and set the stage for long-term wars in Indochina
Indochina
and Algeria
Algeria
that France
France
would lose in humiliating fashion.

DECOLONIZATION

French soldiers with suspected Algerian rebels

The French colonial empire
French colonial empire
began to fall during the Second World War , when various parts were occupied by foreign powers ( Japan
Japan
in Indochina, Britain in Syria
Syria
, Lebanon, and Madagascar
Madagascar
, the USA and Britain in Morocco
Morocco
and Algeria
Algeria
, and Germany and Italy in Tunisia
Tunisia
). However, control was gradually reestablished by Charles de Gaulle . The French Union , included in the Constitution of 1946 , nominally replaced the former colonial empire, but officials in Paris
Paris
remained in full control. The colonies were given local assemblies with only limited local power and budgets. There emerged a group of elites, known as evolués, who were natives of the overseas territories but lived in metropolitan France.

REPRESSION

France
France
was immediately confronted with the beginnings of the decolonisation movement. In Algeria
Algeria
demonstrations in May 1945 were repressed with an estimated 6,000 Algerians killed. In late May, a general strike in Syria
Syria
was met by a French warship shelling Damascus for three days. Unrest in Haiphong, Indochina, in November 1945 was met by another warship bombarding the city. Paul Ramadier 's (SFIO ) cabinet repressed the Malagasy Uprising in Madagascar
Madagascar
in 1947. French officials estimated the number of Malagasy killed from a low of 11,000 to a French Army estimate of 89,000.

In Asia, Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
's Vietminh declared Vietnam
Vietnam
's independence, starting the First Indochina War . In Cameroun , the Union of the Peoples of Cameroon
Cameroon
's insurrection, started in 1955 and headed by Ruben Um Nyobé , was violently repressed over a two-year period, with at the most 100 people killed.

When the Indochina
Indochina
War ended with defeat and withdrawal in 1954, France
France
became almost immediately involved in a new, and even harsher conflict in Algeria
Algeria
, the oldest major colony, and later département. Ferhat Abbas
Ferhat Abbas
and Messali Hadj 's movements had marked the period between the two wars, but both sides radicalised after the Second World War. In 1945, the Sétif massacre was carried out by the French army.

The Algerian War started in 1954. Algeria
Algeria
was particularly problematic, due to the large number of Europeans who had settled there in the 125 years of French rule . Charles de Gaulle's accession to power in 1958 in the middle of the crisis ultimately led to the independence of Algeria
Algeria
with the 1962 Evian Accords .

The French Union was replaced in the new 1958 Constitution of 1958 by the French Community . Only Guinea
Guinea
refused by referendum to take part in the new colonial organisation. However, the French Community dissolved itself in the midst of the Algerian War; almost all of the other African colonies were granted independence in 1960, following local referendums . Some few colonies chose instead to remain part of France, under the status of overseas _départements_ (territories) . Critics of neocolonialism claimed that the _ Françafrique _ had replaced formal direct rule. They argued that while de Gaulle was granting independence on one hand, he was creating new ties with the help of Jacques Foccart , his counsellor for African matters. Foccart supported in particular the Nigerian Civil War
Nigerian Civil War
during the late 1960s.

Robert Aldrich argues that with Algerian independence in 1962, it appeared that the Empire
Empire
practically had come to an end, as the remaining colonies were quite small and lacked active nationalist movements. However, there was trouble in French Somaliland (Djibouti ), which became independent in 1977. There also were complications and delays in the New Hebrides Vanuatu
Vanuatu
, which was the last to gain independence in 1980. New Caledonia
New Caledonia
remains a special case under French control. The Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
island of Mayotte voted in referendum in 1974 to retain its link with France
France
and forgo independence.

DEMOGRAPHICS

French census statistics from 1931 show an imperial population, outside of France
France
itself, of 64.3 million people living on 11.9 million square kilometers. Of the total population, 39.1 million lived in Africa and 24.5 million lived in Asia; 700,000 lived in the Caribbean
Caribbean
area or islands in the South Pacific. The largest colonies were Indochina
Indochina
with 21.5 million (in five separate colonies), Algeria with 6.6 million, Morocco, with 5.4 million, and West Africa
West Africa
with 14.6 million in nine colonies. The total includes 1.9 million Europeans, and 350,000 "assimilated" natives.

Population of the French Empire
Empire
between 1919 and 1939

1921 1926 1931 1936

Metropolitan France 39,140,000 40,710,000 41,550,000 41,500,000

Colonies, protectorates, and mandates 55,556,000 59,474,000 64,293,000 69,131,000

TOTAL 94,696,000 100,184,000 105,843,000 110,631,000

Percentage of the world population 5.02% 5.01% 5.11% 5.15%

Sources: INSEE, SGF

FRENCH SETTLERS

The deportation order is read to a group of Acadians
Acadians
in 1755.

Unlike elsewhere in Europe, France
France
experienced relatively low levels of emigration to the Americas, with the exception of the Huguenots
Huguenots
in British or Dutch colonies. France
France
generally had close to the slowest natural population growth in Europe, and emigration pressures were therefore quite small. A small but significant emigration, numbering only in the tens of thousands, of mainly Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
French populations led to the settlement of the provinces of Acadia , Canada and Louisiana
Louisiana
, both (at the time) French possessions, as well as colonies in the West Indies
West Indies
, Mascarene islands and Africa. In New France, Huguenots
Huguenots
were banned from settling in the territory, and Quebec was one of the most staunchly Catholic areas in the world until the Quiet Revolution . The current French Canadian population, which numbers in the millions, is descended almost entirely from New France's small settler population.

On 31 December 1687 a community of French Huguenots
Huguenots
settled in South Africa. Most of these originally settled in the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
, but have since been quickly absorbed into the Afrikaner population. After Champlain's founding of Quebec City in 1608, it became the capital of New France
New France
. Encouraging settlement was difficult, and while some immigration did occur, by 1763 New France
New France
only had a population of some 65,000.

In 1787, there were 30,000 white colonists on France's colony of Saint-Domingue . In 1804 Dessalines , the first ruler of an independent Haiti
Haiti
(St. Domingue), ordered the massacre of whites remaining on the island. Out of the 40,000 inhabitants on Guadeloupe , at the end of the 17th century, there were more than 26,000 blacks and 9,000 whites. Bill Marshall wrote, "The first French effort to colonize Guiana , in 1763, failed utterly when tropical diseases and climate killed all but 2,000 of the initial 12,000 settlers."

French law made it easy for thousands of _colons_, ethnic or national French from former colonies of North and West Africa, India and Indochina
Indochina
to live in mainland France. It is estimated that 20,000 _colons_ were living in Saigon
Saigon
in 1945. 1.6 million European _pieds noirs _ migrated from Algeria
Algeria
, Tunisia
Tunisia
and Morocco
Morocco
. In just a few months in 1962, 900,000 French Algerians left Algeria
Algeria
in the largest relocation of population in Europe since World War II
World War II
. In the 1970s, over 30,000 French _colons_ left Cambodia
Cambodia
during the Khmer Rouge regime as the Pol Pot government confiscated their farms and land properties. In November 2004, several thousand of the estimated 14,000 French nationals in Ivory Coast left the country after days of anti-white violence.

Apart from French-Canadians (Québécois and Acadians
Acadians
), Cajuns , and Métis other populations of French ancestry outside metropolitan France
France
include the _Caldoches _ of New Caledonia
New Caledonia
, the so-called _ Zoreilles _, _Petits-blancs_ with the Franco-Mauritian of various Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
islands and the Beke people of the French West Indies.

SEE ALSO

* History portal * France
France
portal * French language and French-speaking world portal

* Army of the Levant
Army of the Levant
* Colonialism * Decolonization * Evolution of the French Empire * Francization

* French Army units with a tradition of service overseas

* 1900–1958: Troupes de marine * 1900–1958: Troupes coloniales * Tirailleurs * Spahis * Zouaves

* French colonial flags * French colonisation of the Americas
Americas
* French law on colonialism (for teachers, 2005) * History of France * International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919) * List of French possessions and colonies
List of French possessions and colonies
* New France
New France
* Organisation internationale de la Francophonie * Postage stamps of the French colonies * Scramble for Africa * Timeline of imperialism

NOTES AND REFERENCES

* ^ Robert Aldrich, _Greater France: A History of French Overseas Expansion_ (1996) p 304 * ^ Melvin E. Page, ed. (2003). _Colonialism: An International Social, Cultural, and Political Encyclopedia_. ABC-CLIO. p. 218. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Rein Taagepera (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". _International Studies Quarterly _. 41 (3): 501. doi :10.1111/0020-8833.00053 . Retrieved 16 September 2016. * ^ Rein Taagepera (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". _International Studies Quarterly _. 41 (3): 502. doi :10.1111/0020-8833.00053 . Retrieved 16 September 2016. * ^ Tony Chafer (2002). _The End of Empire
Empire
in French West Africa: France\'s Successful Decolonization?_. Berg. pp. 84–85. * ^ Julian Jackson, _The Other Empire_, Radio 3 * ^ Tony Chafer, _The end of empire in French West Africa: France's successful decolonisation?_ (2002)see Chafer abstract * ^ Robert Aldrich, _Greater France: A History of French Overseas Expansion_ (1996) p 305. His section on "Ending the Empire" closes in 1980 with the independence of New Hebrides, p. 304. * ^ Singer, Barnett & Langdon, John (2008). _Cultured Force: Makers and Defenders of the French Colonial Empire_. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 24. ISBN 9780299199043 . CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ Steven R. Pendery, "A Survey Of French Fortifications In The New World, 1530–1650." in _First Forts: Essays on the Archaeology of Proto-colonial Fortifications_ ed by Eric Klingelhofer (Brill 2010) pp. 41-64. * ^ Marcel Trudel, _The Beginnings of New France, 1524-1663_ (McClelland & Stewart, 1973). * ^ James R. Miller, _Skyscrapers hide the heavens: A history of Indian-white relations in Canada_ (University of Toronto Press, 2000). * ^ Edward Robert Adair, " France
France
and the Beginnings of New France." _Canadian Historical Review_ 25.3 (1944): 246-278. * ^ Helen Dewar, "Canada or Guadeloupe?: French and British Perceptions of Empire, 1760-1763." _Canadian Historical Review_ 91.4 (2010): 637-660. * ^ Carl J. Ekberg, _French roots in the Illinois country: The Mississippi frontier in colonial times_ (U of Illinois Press, 2000). * ^ Paul Cheney, _Revolutionary Commerce: Globalization and the French Monarchy_ (2010) * ^ H.P.Davis, _Black Democracy The Story of Haiti_ (1928) pp 16-86 online free * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Andrew, C. M. * ^ Andrew, C. M., and A. S. . KANYA-FORSTNER. "FRANCE, AFRICA, AND THE FIRST WORLD WAR." _The Journal of African History_ 19.1 (1978): 11–23. Print. * ^ Colin Gordon Calloway, _The scratch of a pen: 1763 and the transformation of North America_ (2006). pp 165-69 * ^ Mimi Sheller, "The 'Haytian Fear': Racial Projects and Competing Reactions to the First Black Republic." _Research in Politics and Society_ 6 (1999): 285-304. * ^ David Patrick Geggus (2002). _Haitian Revolutionary Studies_. Indiana University Press. p. 28. ISBN 9780253109262 . * ^ Pierre Milza, _Napoléon III_ (in French, Paris: 2006), pp. 626–636 * ^ Robert Aldrich; John Connell (2006). _France\'s Overseas Frontier: Départements et territoires d\'outre-mer_. Cambridge University Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-521-03036-6 . * ^ G. Wesley Johnson, _Double Impact: France
France
and Africa in the age of imperialism_ (Greenwood 1985). * ^ H. M. Cole, "Origins of the French Protectorate Over Catholic Missions in China." _American Journal of International Law_ (1940): 473–491. * ^ Daniel C. Kane, "Bellonet and Roze: Overzealous Servants of Empire
Empire
and the 1866 French Attack on Korea," _Korean Studies_ (1999) Vol. 23, pp 1–23. * ^ Ryōtarō Shiba, _The last shogun: the life of Tokugawa Yoshinobu_ (1998) pp. 169–72 * ^ Arthur J. Dommen, _The Indochinese experience of the French and the Americans_ (2001) p. 4 * ^ Girard, 1986, p. 313 * ^ Girard, 1986, p. 320 * ^ Girard, 1986, p. 321-322 * ^ Abun-Nasr, Jamil M. (1987). _A History of the Maghrib in the Islamic period_. Cambridge University Press. p. 264. ISBN 0-521-33767-4 . Retrieved 10 November 2010. * ^ Jamil M. Abun-Nasr (1987). _A History of the Maghrib in the Islamic Period_. Cambridge U.P. p. 264. * ^ Girard, 1986, p. 322-23 * ^ Charles M. Hubbard (2000). _The Burden of Confederate Diplomacy_. Univ. of Tennessee Press. p. 163. * ^ Jasper Ridley, _Maximilian and Juárez_ (1992). * ^ Desmond Gregory (1999). _No Ordinary General: Lt. General Sir Henry Bunbury (1778–1860) : the Best Soldier Historian_. Fairleigh Dickinson U.P. p. 103. * ^ David Brown, "Palmerston and Anglo–French Relations, 1846–1865", _Diplomacy & Statecraft_ (2006) 17#4 pp. 675–692 * ^ K. Bell, "British Policy towards the Construction of the Suez Canal, 1859–65," _Transactions of the Royal Historical Society_ (1965) Vol. 15, pp 121–143. * ^ A.J.P. Taylor, _The Struggle for Mastery in Europe, 1848–1918_ (1954) pp 286–92 * ^ Howard Jones (1999). _Abraham Lincoln and a New Birth of Freedom: The Union and Slavery in the Diplomacy of the Civil War_. U of Nebraska Press. p. 183. * ^ Lynn M. Case and Warren F. Spencer, _The United States
United States
and France: Civil War Diplomacy_ (1970) pp 424–6 * ^ Frank L. Owsley Sr., _King Cotton Diplomacy: Foreign Relations of the Confederate States of America_ (3rd ed. 2008) ch 10 * ^ Kristine Ibsen, _Maximilian, Mexico, and the Invention of Empire_ (2010) * ^ Anthony Adamthwaite, _Grandeur And Misery: France's Bid for Power in Europe, 1914-1940_ (1995) p 6 * ^ Foreign Concessions and Colonies * ^ Paul French (2011). _The Old Shanghai
Shanghai
A-Z_. Hong Kong University Press. p. 215. ISBN 9789888028894 . * ^ _Greater France: A History of French Overseas Expansion_, Google Print, p. 83, Robert Aldrich, Palgrave Macmillan, 1996, ISBN 0-312-16000-3 * ^ Claire Hirshfield (1979). _The diplomacy of partition: Britain, France, and the creation of Nigeria, 1890–1898_. Springer. p. 37ff. ISBN 90-247-2099-0 . Retrieved 10 October 2010. * ^ Bertrand Taithe, _The Killer Trail: A Colonial Scandal in the Heart of Africa_ (2009) * ^ T. G. Otte, "From 'War-in-Sight' to Nearly War: Anglo–French Relations in the Age of High Imperialism, 1875–1898," _Diplomacy & Statecraft_ (2006) 17#4 pp 693–714. * ^ D. W. Brogan, _ France
France
under the Republic: The Development of Modern France
France
(1870–1930)_ (1940) pp 321–26 * ^ William L. Langer, _The diplomacy of imperialism: 1890–1902_ (1951) pp 537–80 * ^ Betts, Raymond F. (2005). _Assimilation and Association in French Colonial Theory, 1890–1914_. University of Nebraska Press. p. 10. ISBN 9780803262478 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Segalla, Spencer. 2009, _The Moroccan Soul: French Education, Colonial Ethnology, and Muslim Resistance, 1912–1956_. Nebraska University Press * ^ Olivier Le Cour Grandmaison, _De l'Indigénat. Anatomie d'un monstre juridique: Le Droit colonial en Algérie et dans l'Empire français_, Éditions La Découverte, Paris, 2010, p. 59. * ^ Le Cour Grandmaison, p. 60, note 9. * ^ "Slave Emancipation and the Expansion of Islam, 1905–1914 Archived 2 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine .". p.11. * ^ David P. Forsythe (2009). "_Encyclopedia of Human Rights, Volume 1_". Oxford University Press. p. 464. ISBN 0195334027 * ^ J.P. Daughton, "Behind the Imperial Curtain: International Humanitarian Efforts and the Critique of French Colonialism in the Interwar Years," _French Historical Studies,_ (2011) 34#3 pp 503–528 * ^ Robert Aldrich, " France
France
and the Patrimoine of the Empire: Heritage Policy under Colonial Rule," _French History and Civilisation_ (2011), Vol. 4, pp 200–209 * ^ Caroline Ford, "Museums after Empire
Empire
in Metropolitan and Overseas France," _Journal of Modern History,_ (Sept 2010), 82#3 pp 625–661, * ^ Martin Thomas, _The French Empire
Empire
at War, 1940–1945_ (Manchester University Press, 2007) * ^ Robert Gildea, _ France
France
since 1945_ (1996) p 17 * ^ Joseph R. De Benoist, "The Brazzaville Conference, or Involuntary Decolonization." _Africana Journal_ 15 (1990) pp: 39-58. * ^ Gildea, _ France
France
since 1945_ (1996) p 16 * ^ Simpson, Alfred William Brian (2004). _Human Rights and the End of Empire: Britain and the Genesis of the European Convention_. Oxford University Press. pp. 285–86. ISBN 0199267898 . * ^ Horne, Alistair (1977). _A Savage War of Peace: Algeria 1954–1962_. New York: The Viking Press. p. 27. * ^ J.F,V. Keiger, _ France
France
and the World since 1870_ (Arnold, 2001) p 207. * ^ Anthony Clayton, _The Wars of French Decolonization_ (1994) p 85 * ^ Robert Aldrich, _Greater France: A history of French overseas expansion_ (1996) pp 303-6 * ^ " Mayotte votes to become France\'s 101st département". _The Daily Telegraph _. March 29, 2009. * ^ Herbert Ingram Priestley, _ France
France
overseas: a study of modern imperialism_ (1938) pp 440-41. * ^ INSEE
INSEE
. "TABLEAU 1 – ÉVOLUTION GÉNÉRALE DE LA SITUATION DÉMOGRAPHIQUE" (in French). Retrieved 3 November 2010. * ^ Statistique générale de la France. "Code Officiel Géographique – La IIIe République (1919–1940)" (in French). Retrieved 3 November 2010. * ^ "British North America: 1763–1841". Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. * ^ Girard, Philippe R. (2011), _The Slaves Who Defeated Napoleon: Toussaint Louverture and the Haitian War of Independence 1801–1804_, Tuscaloosa, Alabama: The University of Alabama Press, pp. 319–322., ISBN 978-0-8173-1732-4 * ^ Guadeloupe : the mosaic island * ^ Bill Marshall (2005). _ France
France
and the Americas: culture, politics, and history : a multidisciplinary encyclopedia. N – Z, index_. ABC-CLIO. Pp. 372–373. ISBN 1851094113 . * ^ "For Pieds-Noirs, the Anger Endures". _nytimes.com_. 6 April 1988. Retrieved 2 April 2016. * ^ France, U.N. Start Ivory Coast Evacuation, FOXNews.com

FURTHER READING

* Hutton, Patrick H. ed. _Historical Dictionary of the Third French Republic, 1870–1940_ (2 vol 1986) * Northcutt, Wayne, ed. _Historical Dictionary of the French Fourth and Fifth Republics, 1946- 1991_ (1992)

POLICIES AND COLONIES

* Aldrich, Robert. _Greater France: A History of French Overseas Expansion_ (1996) * Anderson, Fred. _Crucible of War: The Seven Years' War and the Fate of Empire
Empire
in British North America, 1754–1766_ (2001) * Baumgart, Winfried. _Imperialism: The Idea and Reality of British and French Colonial Expansion, 1880–1914_ (1982) * Betts, Raymond. _Tricouleur: The French Overseas Empire_ (1978), 174pp * Betts, Raymond. _Assimilation and Association in French Colonial Theory, 1890–1914_ (2005) excerpt and text search * Burrows, Mathew (1986). "'Mission civilisatrice': French Cultural Policy in the Middle East, 1860–1914". _The Historical Journal_. 29 (1): 109–135. doi :10.1017/S0018246X00018641 . . * Chafer, Tony (2002). _The End of Empire
Empire
in French West Africa: France\'s Successful Decolonization?_. Berg. * Clayton, Anthony. _The Wars of French Decolonization_ (1995) * Conklin, Alice L. _A Mission to Civilize: The Republican Idea of Empire
Empire
in France
France
and West Africa, 1895-1930_ (1997) online * Evans, Martin. "From colonialism to post-colonialism: the French empire since Napoleon." in Martin S. Alexander, ed., _French History since Napoleon_ (1999) pp: 391-415. * Jennings, Eric T. _Imperial Heights: Dalat and the Making and Undoing of French Indochina_ (2010). * Lawrence, Adria. _Imperial rule and the politics of nationalism: anti-colonial protest in the French empire_ (Cambridge UP, 2013). * Newbury, C. W.; Kanya-Forstner, A. S. (1969). "French Policy and the Origins of the Scramble for West Africa". _The Journal of African History_. 10 (2): 253–276. doi :10.2307/179514 . . * Klein, Martin A. _Slavery and colonial rule in French West Africa_ (Cambridge University Press, 1998) * Manning, Patrick. _Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa 1880-1995_ (Cambridge UP, 1998). online * Neres, Philip. _French-speaking West Africa: From Colonial Status to Independence_ (1962) online * Priestley, Herbert Ingram. _ France
France
overseas: a study of modern imperialism_ (1938) 464pp. * Quinn, Frederick. _The French Overseas Empire_ (2000) online * Pakenham, Thomas (1991). _The Scramble for Africa, 1876–1912_. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-394-51576-5 . . * Petringa, Maria (2006). _Brazza, A Life for Africa_. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse. ISBN 1-4259-1198-6 . . * Priestley, Herbert Ingram. (1938) _ France
France
overseas;: A study of modern imperialism_ 463pp; encyclopedic coverage as of late 1930s * Segalla, Spencer (2009). _The Moroccan Soul: French Education, Colonial Ethnology, and Muslim Resistance, 1912–1956_. Lincoln: Nebraska University Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-1778-2 . . * Strother, Christian. "Waging War on Mosquitoes: Scientific Research and the Formation of Mosquito Brigades in French West Africa, 1899–1920." _Journal of the history of medicine and allied sciences_ (2016): jrw005. * Thomas, Martin. _The French Empire
Empire
Between the Wars: Imperialism, Politics and Society_ (2007) 1919–1939 * Thompson, Virginia, and Richard Adloff. _French West Africa_ (Stanford UP, 1958). * Wellington, Donald C. _French East India companies: A historical account and record of trade_ (Hamilton Books, 2006) * Wesseling, H.L. and Arnold J. Pomerans . _Divide and rule: The partition of Africa, 1880–1914_ (Praeger, 1996.) online * Wesseling, H.L. _The European Colonial Empires: 1815-1919_ (Routledge, 2015).

DECOLONIZATION

* Cooper, Frederick. "French Africa, 1947–48: Reform, Violence, and Uncertainty in a Colonial Situation." _Critical Inquiry_ (2014) 40#4 pp: 466-478. in JSTOR * Lawrence, Adria K. _Imperial Rule and the Politics of Nationalism: Anti-Colonial Protest in the French Empire_ (Cambridge UP, 2013) online reviews * Simpson, Alfred William Brian. _Human Rights and the End of Empire: Britain and the Genesis of the European Convention_ (Oxford University Press, 2004). * Smith, Tony. "A comparative study of French and British decolonization." _Comparative Studies in Society and History_ (1978) 20#1 pp: 70-102. online * Smith, Tony. "The French Colonial Consensus and People's War, 1946-58." _Journal of Contemporary History_ (1974): 217-247. in JSTOR * Thomas, Martin, Bob Moore, and Lawrence J. Butler. _Crises of Empire: Decolonization and Europe's imperial states_ (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2015)

IMAGES AND IMPACT ON FRANCE

* Andrew, C. M.; Kanya-Forstner, A. S. (1976). "French Business and the French Colonialists". _The Historical Journal_. 19 (4): 981–1000. doi :10.1017/S0018246X00010803 . . * August, Thomas G. _The Selling of the Empire: British and French Imperialist Propaganda, 1890–1940_ (1985) * Chafer, Tony, and Amanda Sackur. _Promoting the Colonial Idea: Propaganda and Visions of Empire
Empire
in France_ (2002) online * Confer, Vincent (1964). "French Colonial Ideas before 1789". _French Historical Studies_. 3 (3): 338–359. doi :10.2307/285947 . . * Conkin, Alice L. _A Mission to Civilize: The Republican Idea of Empire
Empire
in France
France
and West Africa, 1895-1930_ (1997) online * Dobie, Madeleine. _Trading Places: Colonization & Slavery in 18th-Century French Culture_ (2010) * Freundschuh, Aaron. _The Courtesan and the Gigolo: The Murders in the Rue Montaigne and the Dark Side of Empire
Empire
in Nineteenth-Century Paris_, Stanford University Press (2017). ISBN 1-50360-082-3 * Martin, Guy (1985). "The Historical, Economic, and Political Bases of France's African Policy". _The Journal of Modern African Studies_. 23 (2): 189–208. doi :10.1017/S0022278X00000148 . . * Rosenblum, Mort. _Mission to Civilize: The French Way_ (1986) online review * Rothermund, Dietmar. _Memories of Post-Imperial Nations: The Aftermath of Decolonization, 1945-2013_ (2015) excerpt; Compares the impact on Great Britain, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Portugal, Italy and Japan * Singer, Barnett, and John Langdon. _Cultured Force: Makers and Defenders of the French Colonial Empire_ (2008) * Thomas, Martin, ed. _The French Colonial Mind, Volume 1: Mental Maps of Empire
Empire
and Colonial Encounters_ ( France
France
Overseas: Studies in Empire
Empire
and D) (2012); _The French Colonial Mind, Volume 2: Violence, Military Encounters, and Colonialism_ (2012)

HISTORIOGRAPHY AND MEMOIR

* Bennington, Alice. "Writing Empire? The Reception of Post-Colonial Studies in France." _Historical Journal_ (2016) 59#4: 1157-1186. abstract * Dubois, Laurent. "The French Atlantic," in _Atlantic History: A Critical Appraisal,_ ed. by Jack P. Greene and Philip D. Morgan, (Oxford UP, 2009) pp 137–61 * Dwyer, Philip. "Remembering and Forgetting in Contemporary France: Napoleon, Slavery, and the French History Wars," _French Politics, Culture & Society_ (2008) 26#3 pp 110–122. * Emerson, Rupert (1969). "Colonialism". _Journal of Contemporary History_. 4 (1): 3–16. doi :10.1177/002200946900400101 . . * Greer, Allan. "National, Transnational, and Hypernational Historiographies: New France
New France
Meets Early American History," _Canadian Historical Review,_ (2010) 91#4 pp 695–724, in Project MUSE * Hodson, Christopher, and Brett Rushforth, "Absolutely Atlantic: Colonialism and the Early Modern French State in Recent Historiography," _History Compass,_ (January 2010) 8#1 pp 101–117 * Lawrence, Adria K. _Imperial Rule and the Politics of Nationalism: Anti-Colonial Protest in the French Empire_ (Cambridge UP, 2013) online reviews

EXTERNAL LINKS

* French Colonial Historical Society * H-FRANCE, daily discussions and book reviews * French Colonial Historical Society * _French Colonial History_ an annual volume of refereed, scholarly articles * French Colonialism, lecture on the colonial period 1871 to