HOME
The Info List - French Alphabet





French orthography
French orthography
encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language. It is based on a combination of phonemic and historical principles. The spelling of words is largely based on the pronunciation of Old French
Old French
c. 1100–1200 CE and has stayed more or less the same since then, despite enormous changes to the pronunciation of the language in the intervening years. This has resulted in a complicated relationship between spelling and sound, especially for vowels, a multitude of silent letters, and a large number of homophones (e.g., saint/sein/sain/seing/ceins/ceint (all pronounced [sɛ̃]), sang/sans/cent (all pronounced [sɑ̃])). Later attempts to respell some words in accordance with their Latin etymologies further increased the number of silent letters (e.g., temps vs. older tens – compare English "tense", which reflects the original spelling – and vingt vs. older vint). Nevertheless, there are rules governing French orthography
French orthography
which allow for a reasonable degree of accuracy when pronouncing French words from their written forms. The reverse operation, producing written forms from a pronunciation, is much more ambiguous.

Contents

1 Alphabet 2 Diacritics 3 Ligatures

3.1 Œ 3.2 Æ

4 Digraphs and trigraphs 5 Sound to spelling correspondences

5.1 Consonants and combinations of consonant letters 5.2 Vowels and combinations of vowel letters 5.3 Combinations of vowel and consonant letters

6 Words from Greek 7 History of French
History of French
orthography

7.1 Roman 7.2 Old French 7.3 Middle French 7.4 Classical French 7.5 Modern French

8 Punctuation 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 External links

Alphabet[edit] The French alphabet
French alphabet
is based on the 26 letters of the Latin
Latin
alphabet, uppercase and lowercase, with five diacritics and two orthographic ligatures.

Letter Name Name (IPA) Diacritics and ligatures

A a /a/ Àà, Ââ, Ææ

B bé /be/

C cé /se/ Çç

D dé /de/

E e /ə/ Éé, Èè, Êê, Ëë

F effe /ɛf/

G gé /ʒe/

H ache /aʃ/

I i /i/ Îî, Ïï

J ji /ʒi/

K ka /ka/

L elle /ɛl/

M emme /ɛm/

N enne /ɛn/

O o /o/ Ôô, Œœ

P pé /pe/

Q qu /ky/

R erre /ɛʁ/

S esse /ɛs/

T té /te/

U u /y/ Ùù, Ûû, Üü

V vé /ve/

W double vé /dubləve/

X ixe /iks/

Y i grec /iɡʁɛk/ Ÿÿ

Z zède /zɛd/

The letters ⟨w⟩ and ⟨k⟩ are rarely used except in loanwords and regional words. The phoneme /w/ sound is usually written ⟨ou⟩; the /k/ sound is usually written ⟨c⟩ anywhere but before ⟨e, i, y⟩, ⟨qu⟩ before ⟨e, i, y⟩, and sometimes ⟨que⟩ at the ends of words. However, ⟨k⟩ is common in the metric prefix kilo- (originally from Greek χίλια khilia "a thousand"): kilogramme, kilomètre, kilowatt, kilohertz, etc. Diacritics[edit] The usual diacritics are the acute (⟨´⟩, accent aigu), the grave (⟨`⟩, accent grave), the circumflex (⟨ˆ⟩, accent circonflexe), the diaeresis (⟨¨⟩, tréma), and the cedilla (⟨¸ ⟩, cédille). Diacritics have no effect on the primary alphabetical order.

Acute accent
Acute accent
or accent aigu (é): over e, indicates uniquely the sound /e/. An é in modern French is often used where a combination of e and a consonant, usually s, would have been used formerly: écouter < escouter. Grave accent or accent grave (à, è, ù): over a or u, used primarily to distinguish homophones: à ("to") vs. a ("has"), ou ("or") vs. où ("where"; the letter ù is used only in this word). Over an e, indicates the sound /ɛ/. Circumflex
Circumflex
or accent circonflexe (â, ê, î, ô, û): over a, e and o, indicates the sound /ɑ/, /ɛ/ and /o/, respectively, but the distinction a /a/ vs. â /ɑ/ tends to disappear in Parisian French, so they are both pronounced [a]. In Belgian French, ê is pronounced [ɛː]. Most often, it indicates the historical deletion of an adjacent letter (usually an s or a vowel): château < castel, fête < feste, sûr < seur, dîner < disner (in medieval manuscripts many letters were often written as diacritical marks: the circumflex for "s" and the tilde for "n" are examples). It has also come to be used to distinguish homophones: du ("of the") vs. dû (past participle of devoir "to have to do something (pertaining to an act)"); however dû is in fact written thus because of a dropped e: deu (see Circumflex
Circumflex
in French). Since the 1990 orthographic changes, the circumflex on most i's and u's may be dropped when it does not serve to distinguish homophones: chaîne becomes chaine but sûr (sure) does not change because of sur (on). Diaeresis or tréma (ë, ï, ü, ÿ): over e, i, u or y, indicates that a vowel is to be pronounced separately from the preceding one: naïve, Noël. A diaeresis on y only occurs in some proper names and in modern editions of old French texts. Some proper names in which ÿ appears include Aÿ (commune in canton de la Marne, formerly Aÿ-Champagne), Rue des Cloÿs (alley in the 18th arrondissement of Paris), Croÿ (family name and hotel on the Boulevard Raspail, Paris), Château du Feÿ (near Joigny), Ghÿs (name of Flemish origin spelt Ghijs where ij in handwriting looked like ÿ to French clerks), L'Haÿ-les-Roses
L'Haÿ-les-Roses
(commune between Paris and Orly airport), Pierre Louÿs (author), Moÿ (place in commune de l'Aisne and family name), and Le Blanc de Nicolaÿ (an insurance company in eastern France). The diaeresis on u appears in the Biblical proper names Archélaüs, Capharnaüm, Emmaüs, Ésaü, and Saül, as well as French names such as Haüy. Nevertheless, since the 1990 orthographic changes, the diaeresis in words containing guë (such as aiguë or ciguë) may be moved onto the u: aigüe, cigüe, and by analogy may be used in verbs such as j'argüe. In addition, words coming from German retain their umlaut (ä, ö and ü) if applicable but use French pronunciation, such as Kärcher (trademark of a pressure washer). Cedilla
Cedilla
or cédille (ç): under c, indicates that it is pronounced /s/ rather than /k/. Thus je lance "I throw" (with c = [s] before e), je lançais "I was throwing" (c would be pronounced [k] before a without the cedilla). The cedilla is only used before the vowels a, o or u, for example, ça /sa/; it is never used before the vowels e, i, or y, since these three vowels always produce a soft /s/ sound (ce, ci, cycle).

The tilde diacritical mark ( ˜ ) above n is occasionally used in French for words and names of Spanish origin that have been incorporated into the language (e.g., cañon, El Niño). Like the other diacritics, the tilde has no impact on the primary alphabetical order. Diacritics are often omitted on capital letters, mainly for technical reasons. It is widely believed that they are not required; however both the Académie française
Académie française
and the Office québécois de la langue française reject this usage and confirm that "in French, the accent has full orthographic value",[1] except for acronyms but not for abbreviations (e.g., CEE, ALENA, but É.-U.).[2] Nevertheless, diacritics are often ignored in word games, including crosswords, Scrabble, and Des chiffres et des lettres. Ligatures[edit] The two ligatures œ and æ have orthographic value. For determining alphabetical order, these ligatures are treated like the sequences oe and ae. Œ[edit] (French: o, e dans l'o or o, e collés/liés) This ligature is a mandatory contraction of ⟨oe⟩ in certain words. Some of these are native French words, with the pronunciation /œ/ or /ø/, e.g., sœur "sister" /sœʁ/, œuvre "work (of art)" /œvʁ/. Note that it usually appears in the combination œu; œil "eye" is an exception. Many of these words were originally written with the digraph eu; the o in the ligature represents a sometimes artificial attempt to imitate the Latin
Latin
spelling: Latin
Latin
bovem > Old French
Old French
buef/beuf > Modern French bœuf. Œ
Œ
is also used in words of Greek origin, as the Latin
Latin
rendering of the Greek diphthong οι, e.g., cœlacanthe "coelacanth". These words used to be pronounced with the vowel /e/, but in recent years a spelling pronunciation with /ø/ has taken hold, e.g., œsophage /ezɔfaʒ/ or /øzɔfaʒ/, Œdipe /edip/ or /ødip/ etc. The pronunciation with /e/ is often seen to be more correct. When œ is found after the letter c, the c can be pronounced /k/ in some cases (cœur), or /s/ in others (cœlacanthe). The ligature œ is not used when both letters contribute different sounds. For example, when ⟨o⟩ is part of a prefix (coexister), or when ⟨e⟩ is part of a suffix (minoen), or in the word moelle and its derivatives.[3] Æ[edit] (French: a, e dans l'a or a, e collés/liés) This ligature is rare, appearing only in some words of Latin
Latin
and Greek origin like tænia, ex æquo, cæcum, æthuse (as named dog’s parsley).[4] It generally represents the vowel /e/, like ⟨é⟩. The sequence ⟨ae⟩ appears in loanwords where both sounds are heard, as in maestro and paella.[5] Digraphs and trigraphs[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2008)

French digraphs and trigraphs have both historical and phonological origins. In the first case, it is a vestige of the spelling in the word's original language (usually Latin
Latin
or Greek) maintained in modern French, for example, the use of ⟨ph⟩ in words like téléphone, ⟨th⟩ in words like théorème, or ⟨ch⟩ in chaotique. In the second case, a digraph is due to an archaic pronunciation, such as ⟨eu⟩, ⟨au⟩, ⟨oi⟩, ⟨ai⟩, and ⟨œu⟩, or is merely a convenient way to expand the twenty-six-letter alphabet to cover all relevant phonemes, as in ⟨ch⟩, ⟨on⟩, ⟨an⟩, ⟨ou⟩, ⟨un⟩, and ⟨in⟩. Some cases are a mixture of these or are used for purely pragmatic reasons, such as ⟨ge⟩ for /ʒ/ in il mangeait ('he ate'), where the ⟨e⟩ serves to indicate a "soft" ⟨g⟩ inherent in the verb's root. Sound to spelling correspondences[edit] Note: Some exceptions apply to the rules governing the pronunciation of word-final consonants. See Liaison (French)
Liaison (French)
for details.

This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (April 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Consonants and combinations of consonant letters[edit]

Spelling Major value (IPA) Examples of major value Minor values (IPA) Examples of minor value Exceptions

-bs, -cs (in the plural of words ending in silent b or c), -ds, -fs (in œufs and bœufs, and words ending with silent -f in the singular), ‑gs, -ps, -ts Ø plombs, blancs, prends, œufs, cerfs, longs, draps, achats

b, bb elsewhere /b/ ballon, abbé

before a voiceless consonant /p/ absolu, observer, subtile

finally Ø plomb, Colomb /b/ Jacob

ç /s/ ça, garçon, reçu

c before e, i, y /s/ cyclone, loquace, douce, ciel, ceux

initially/medially elsewhere /k/ cabas, crasse, cœur, sacré /s/ cœlacanthe /ɡ/ second

finally /k/ lac, donc Ø tabac, blanc, caoutchouc /ɡ/ zinc

cc before e, i, y /ks/ accès

elsewhere /k/ accord

ch /ʃ/ chat, douche /k/ (in words of Greek origin[6]) chaotique, chlore, varech Ø yacht, almanach /t͡ʃ/ cheap

-ct elsewhere /kt/ direct, correct

Ø respect, suspect

after a nasal vowel Ø instinct, succinct

d, dd elsewhere /d/ doux, adresse, addition

finally Ø pied, accord /d/ David, sud

f, ff /f/ fait, affoler, soif

Ø clef, cerf, nerf

g before e, i, y /ʒ/ gens, manger

initially/medially elsewhere /ɡ/ gain, glacier

finally Ø joug, long, sang /ɡ/ zigzag

gg before e, i, y /ɡʒ/ suggérer

elsewhere /ɡ/ aggraver

gn /ɲ/ montagne, agneau

/ɡn/ cognitif, gnose, gnou

h Ø habite, hiver

/x/ Hainan /h/ ahaner (also Ø)

j /ʒ/ joue, jeter

/dʒ/ jean, jazz /x/ jota /j/ fjord

k /k/ alkyler, kilomètre, bifteck

Ø skunks

l, ll /l/ lait, allier, il, royal, matériel Ø (occasionally finally) cul, fusil, saoul Ø fils, aulne, aulx (see also -il)

m, mm /m/ mou, pomme

Ø automne, condamner

n, nn /n/ nouvel, panne

ng (in loanwords) /ŋ/ parking, camping

p, pp elsewhere /p/ pain, appel

finally Ø coup, trop /p/ cap, cep

ph /f/ téléphone, photo

-pt /pt/ concept

/t/ sept, compter, baptême

q (see qu) /k/ coq, cinq, piqûre, Qatar

r, rr /ʁ/ rat, barre

Ø monsieur (see also -er)

s initially medially next to a consonant or after a nasal vowel /s/ sacre, estime, penser, instituer

/z/ Alsace, transat, transiter /ʃ/ esque

elsewhere between two vowels /z/ rose, paysage

/s/ antisèche, parasol, vraisemblable

finally Ø dans, repas /s/ fils, sens (noun), os (singular), ours

sc before e, i, y /s/ science

elsewhere /sk/ script

sch /ʃ/ schlague, haschisch, esche /sk/ schizoïde, ischion, æschne

ss /s/ baisser, passer

t, tt elsewhere /t/ tout, attente /s/ nation (see ti + vowel)

finally Ø tant, raffut /t/ est (direction), brut, yaourt

tch /t͡ʃ/ tchat, match

th /t/ thème, thermique, aneth

Ø asthme, bizuth /s/ thread

v /v/ ville, vanne

w /w/ kiwi, week-end, whisky /v/ wagon, schwa /s/ Law (see also ow)

x initially next to a voiceless consonant phonologically finally /ks/ xylophone, expansion, connexe /ɡz/ xénophobie /k/ or /ks/ xérès, xhosa

medially elsewhere /ɡz/ exigence, exulter /s/ /z/ /ks/ soixante, Bruxelles deuxième galaxie, maximum

finally Ø paix, deux /ks/ index, pharynx /s/ six, dix, coccyx

xc before e, i, y /ks/ exciter

elsewhere /ksk/ excavation

z elsewhere /z/ zain, gazette

finally Ø chez

/z/ gaz /s/ quartz

Vowels and combinations of vowel letters[edit]

Spelling Major value (IPA) Examples of major value Minor values (IPA) Examples of minor value Exceptions

a, à /a/ patte, arable, là, déjà /ɑ/ araser, base /ɔ/ yacht /o/ football /e/ lady

â /ɑ/ château, pâté /a/ trouvâmes, dégât (also /ɑ/)

ae, æ /e/ ex-æquo, cæcum, reggae

/aɛ/ maestro /ae/ paella

ai /ɛ/ /e/ vrai, faite baisser, aiguille

/ə/ faisons,[7] and all other conjugated forms of faire which are spelt fais- and followed by a pronounced vowel.

aî /ɛ/ maître, chaîne

aï /a.i/ naïf, haïr /aj/ aïe, aïeul, haïe, païen

aie /ɛ/ baie, monnaie /ɛj/ paie

ao elsewhere /a.ɔ/ aorte, extraordinaire (also /ɔ/) /a.o/ baobab /a/ faonne, paonneau

phonologically finally /a.o/ cacao, chaos

/o/ curaçao

aou, aoû /a.u/ caoutchouc, aoûtien, yaourt /u/ saoul, août

au /o/ haut, augure /ɔ/ dinosaure

ay elsewhere /ɛj/ ayons, essayer (also /ej/)

/ei/ pays (also /ɛi/) /aj/ mayonnaise, papaye, ayoye

finally /ɛ/ Gamay, margay, railway

/e/ okay

-aye /ɛ.i/ abbaye /ɛj/ paye /ɛ/ La Haye /aj/ baye

e elsewhere /ə/ repeser, genoux

/i/ because

before two or more consonants (including double consonants), x (in all cases), or a final consonant (silent or pronounced) /ɛ/ est, estival, voyelle, examiner, exécuter, quel, chalet /e/ /ə/ essence, effet, henné recherche, secrète, repli (before ch+vowel or 2 different consonants and second one is l or r) /e/ mangez, and any form of a verb in the second person plural that ends in -ez. /a/ femme, fréquemment (and other adverbs ending in -emment),[8] solennel

in monosyllabic words before a silent consonant /e/ et, les, nez, clef

/ɛ/ es

finally in a position where it can be easily elided Ø caisse, unique, acheter (also /ə/), franchement /ə/ (finally in monosyllabic words) que, de, je

é, ée /e/ clé, échapper, idée /ɛ/ événement, céderai, vénerie

è /ɛ/ relève, zèle

ê /ɛ/ tête, crêpe, forêt, prêt /e/ bêtise

ee /i/ week-end, spleen

/e/ pedigree

eau /o/ eau, oiseaux

ei /ɛ/ neige, reine

/e/ geisha (also /ɛj/) /aj/ leitmotiv

eî /ɛ/ reître

eoi /wa/ asseoir

eu initially phonologically finally before /z/ /ø/ Europe, heureux, peu, chanteuse

/y/ eu, and any conjugated form of avoir spelt with eu-.

elsewhere /œ/ beurre, jeune /ø/ feutre, neutre, maïeutique

eû /ø/ jeûne

/y/, eûmes, eûtes, and eût (conjugated forms of avoir spelt with eû-).

i elsewhere /i/ ici, proscrire

Ø businessman

before vowel /j/ fief, ionique, rien /i/ (in compound words) antioxydant

î /i/ gîte, épître

ï (initially or between vowels) /j/ ïambe, aïeul, païen

/i/ ouïe

-ie /i/ régie

o phonologically finally before /z/ /o/ pro, mot, chose, déposes

/ɔ/ sosie

elsewhere /ɔ/ carotte, offre /o/ cyclone, fosse, tome

ô /o/ tôt, cône

/ɔ/ hôpital (also /o/)

œ /œ/ œil /e/ œsophage, fœtus /ø/ lœss

oe /ɔ.e/ coefficient

/wa/ moelle, moellon /wɛ/ moelleux /ø/ foehn

oê /wa/ poêle

oë /ɔ.ɛ/ Noël

/ɔ.e/ canoë, goëmon /wɛ/ foëne

œu phonologically finally /ø/ nœud, œufs, bœufs, vœu

elsewhere /œ/ sœur, cœur, œuf, bœuf

oi, oie /wa/ roi, oiseau, foie, trois, noix

/ɔ/ oignon /ɔj/ séquoia /o.i/ autoimmuniser

oî /wa/ croîs, Benoît

oï /ɔ.i/ coït, astéroïde /ɔj/ troïka

oo /ɔ.ɔ/ coopération, oocyte, zoologie /u/ bazooka, cool, football /ɔ/ alcool, Boskoop, rooibos /o/ spéculoos, mooré, zoo /w/ shampooing

ou, où elsewhere /u/ ouvrir, sous, où

/o.y/ pseudouridimycine

before vowel /w/ ouest, couiner, oui

oû /u/ coût, goût

-oue /u/ roue

oy /waj/ moyen, royaume

/ɔj/ goyave, cow-boy, ayoye

u elsewhere /y/ tu, juge

/u/ tofu /i/ business

before vowel /ɥ/ huit, tuer /y/ pollueur /w/ cacahuète

û /y/ sûr, flûte

ue elsewhere /ɥɛ/ actuel /œ/ (see below) orgueil, cueillir

finally /y/ rue Ø clique

y elsewhere /i/ cyclone, style

/aj/ sky

before vowel /j/ yeux, yole /i/ polyester, Libye

ÿ (used only in proper nouns) /i/ L'Haÿ-les-Roses, Freÿr

Combinations of vowel and consonant letters[edit]

Spelling Major value (IPA) Examples of major value Minor values (IPA) Examples of minor value Exceptions

am, an (before consonant or finally) /ɑ̃/ ambiance, France

/am/ Viêt-Nam /an/ tennisman

aen (before consonant or finally) /ɑ̃/ Caen

aim, ain (before consonant or finally) /ɛ̃/ faim, saint, bains

aon (before consonant or finally) /ɑ̃/ paon, faon /a.ɔ̃/ pharaon

cqu /k/ acquit, acquéreur

-cte (as the feminine adjective ending for words ending in a silent "ct" (see above)) /t/ succincte

em, en (before consonant or finally elsewhere) /ɑ̃/ embaucher, vent /ɛ̃/ examen, ben, pensum /ɛn/ week-end, lichen /ɛm/ totem

em, en (before consonant or finally after é, i, or y) /ɛ̃/ européen, bien, doyen /ɑ̃/ (before t or soft c) patient, quotient, science, audience

ein (before consonant or finally) /ɛ̃/ plein, sein

-ent (3rd person plural ending) Ø parlent, finissaient

-er /e/ aller, transporter /ɛʁ/ hiver, super, éther, fier

-es Ø Nantes, faites /e/, /ɛ/ les, des, ces, es

eun (before consonant or finally) /œ̃/ jeun

ge (before a, o, u) /ʒ/ geai, mangea

gu (before e, i, y) /ɡ/ guerre, dingue /ɡy/, /ɡɥ/ argue, aiguille, linguistique, ambiguïté

-il (after some vowels)1 /j/ ail, conseil

-il (not after vowel) /il/ il, fil /i/ outil, fils, fusil

-ill- (after some vowels)1 /j/ paille, nouille

-ill- (not after vowel) /ij/ grillage, bille /il/ mille, million, billion, ville, villa, village, tranquille[9]

im, in, în (before consonant or finally) /ɛ̃/ importer, vin, vînt

/in/ sprint

oin (before consonant or finally) /wɛ̃/ point

om, on (before consonant or finally) /ɔ̃/ ombre, bon

/ɔn/ canyon /ə/ monsieur

ow /o/ cow-boy, show

/u/ clown /o.w/ Koweït

qu /k/ quand, pourquoi, loquace /kɥ/ /kw/ équilatéral aquarium, loquace, quatuor /ky/ piqure, qu

ti + vowel (initially or after s or x) /tj/ bastion, gestionnaire, tiens, aquae-sextien

ti + vowel (elsewhere) /sj/, /si/ fonctionnaire, initiation, Croatie, haïtien /tj/, /ti/ the suffix -tié, all conjugated forms of verbs with a radical ending in -t (augmentions, partiez, etc.) or derived from tenir, and all nouns and past participles derived from such verbs and ending in -ie (sortie, divertie, etc.)

um, un (before consonant or finally) /œ̃/ parfum, brun /ɔm/ album, maximum /ɔ̃/ punch

ym, yn (before consonant or finally) /ɛ̃/ sympa, syndrome /im/ gymnase, hymne

^1 These combinations are pronounced /j/ after a, e, eu, œ, ou, and ue, all but the last of which are pronounced normally and are not influenced by the i. For example, in rail, the a is pronounced /a/; in mouiller, the ou is pronounced /u/. Ue, however, which only occurs in such combinations after c and g, is pronounced /œ/ as opposed to /ɥɛ/: orgueil, cueillir, accueil, etc. These combinations are never pronounced /j/ after o or u (except -uill-, which is /ɥij/: aiguille, juillet); in that case, the vowel + i combination as well as the l is pronounced normally, although as usual, the pronunciation of u after g and q is somewhat unpredictable: poil, huile, équilibre [ekilibʁ] but équilatéral [ekɥilateʁal], etc.

Words from Greek[edit] The spelling of French words of Greek origin is complicated by a number of digraphs which originated in the Latin
Latin
transcriptions. The digraphs ⟨ph⟩, ⟨th⟩, and ⟨ch⟩ normally represent /f/, /t/, and /k/ in Greek loanwords, respectively; and the ligatures ⟨æ⟩ and ⟨œ⟩ in Greek loanwords represent the same vowel as ⟨é⟩ (/e/). Further, many words in the international scientific vocabulary were constructed in French from Greek roots and have kept their digraphs (e.g., stratosphère, photographie). History of French
History of French
orthography[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2008)

The Oaths of Strasbourg
Oaths of Strasbourg
from 842 is the earliest text written in the early form of French called Romance or Gallo-Romance. Roman[edit] The Gaulish language
Gaulish language
of the inhabitants of Gaul
Gaul
disappeared progressively over the course of the Roman conquest as the Latin languages began to replace them: written (Classical) Latin
Latin
and spoken (vulgar) Latin. Classical Latin, taught in schools, remained the language of religious services, of scientific works, of legislative acts and of certain literary works. Vulgar Latin, spoken by the Roman soldiers and merchants, and adopted by the natives, evolved slowly, taking the forms of different spoken Roman vernaculars according to the region of the country. These vernaculars divided into two branches in the Gallo-Romance language family, the langues d'oïl north of the Loire
Loire
and the langues d'oc in the south.[10] Old French[edit] In the 9th century, the Romance vernaculars were already quite far from Latin. For example, to understand the Bible, written in Latin, footnotes were necessary. With consolidation of royal power, beginning in the 13th century, the Francien vernacular, in usage then on the Île-de-France, brought it little by little to the other languages and evolved toward Classic French. The languages found in the manuscripts dating from the 9th century to the 13th century form what is known as Old French
Old French
or ancien français. These languages continued to evolve until, in the 14th century to the 16th century, Middle French (moyen français) emerged.[10] Middle French[edit]

Romant de la Rose, 14th century

During the Middle French period (c. 1300–1600), modern spelling practices were largely established. This happened especially during the 16th century, under the influence of printers. The overall trend was towards continuity with Old French
Old French
spelling, although some changes were made under the influence of changed pronunciation habits; for example, the Old French
Old French
distinction between the diphthongs eu and ue was eliminated in favor of consistent eu,[a] as both diphthongs had come to be pronounced /ø/ or /œ/ (depending on the surrounding sounds). However, many other distinctions that had become equally superfluous were maintained, e.g. between s and soft c or between ai and ei. It is likely that etymology was the guiding factor here: the distinction between s/c and ai/ei reflects corresponding distinctions in the spelling of the underlying Latin
Latin
words, whereas no such distinction exists in the case of eu/ue. This period also saw the development of some explicitly etymological spellings, e.g. temps ("time"), vingt ("twenty") and poids ("weight") (note that in many cases, the etymologizing was sloppy or occasionally completely incorrect; vingt reflects Latin
Latin
viginti, with the g in the wrong place, and poids actually reflects Latin
Latin
pensum, with no d at all; the spelling poids is due to an incorrect derivation from Latin pondus). The trend towards etymologizing sometimes produced absurd (and generally rejected) spellings such as sçapvoir for normal savoir ("to know"), which attempted to combine Latin
Latin
sapere ("to be wise", the correct origin of savoir) with scire ("to know"). Classical French[edit] Main article: Reforms of French orthography Modern French spelling was codified in the late 17th century by the Académie française, based largely on previously established spelling conventions. Some reforms have occurred since then, but most have been fairly minor. The most significant changes have been:

Adoption of j and v to represent consonants, in place of former i and u. Addition of a circumflex accent to reflect historical vowel length. During the Middle French period, a distinction developed between long and short vowels, with long vowels largely stemming from a lost /s/ before a consonant, as in même (cf. Spanish mismo), but sometimes from the coalescence of similar vowels, as in âge from earlier aage, eage (early Old French
Old French
*edage < Vulgar Latin
Latin
*aetaticum, cf. Spanish edad < *aetate). Prior to this, such words continued to be spelled historically (e.g. mesme and age). Ironically, by the time this convention was adopted in the 19th century, the former distinction between short and long vowels had largely disappeared in all but the most conservative pronunciations, with vowels automatically pronounced long or short depending on the phonological context (see French phonology). Use of ai in place of oi where pronounced /ɛ/ rather than /wa/. The most significant effect of this was to change the spelling of all imperfect verbs (formerly spelled -ois, -oit, -oient rather than -ais, -ait, -aient).

Modern French[edit] Main article: Reforms of French orthography
Reforms of French orthography
§ The rectifications of 1990 In October 1989, Michel Rocard, then-Prime Minister of France, established the High Council of the French Language (Conseil supérieur de la langue française) in Paris. He designated experts — among them linguists, representatives of the Académie française and lexicographers — to propose standardizing several points, a few of those points being:

The uniting hyphen in all compound numerals

i.e. trente-et-un

The plural of compound words, the second element of which always takes the plural s

For example un après-midi, des après-midis

The circumflex accent ⟨ˆ⟩ disappears on all u's and i's except for words in which it is needed for differentiation

As in coût (cost) → cout, abîme (abyss) → abime but sûr (sure) because of sur (on)

The past participle of laisser followed by an infinitive verb is invariable (now works the same way as the verb faire)

elle s'est laissée mourir → elle s'est laissé mourir

Quickly, the experts set to work. Their conclusions were submitted to Belgian and Québécois linguistic political organizations. They were likewise submitted to the Académie française, which endorsed them unanimously, saying: "Current orthography remains that of usage, and the 'recommendations' of the High Council of the French language
French language
only enter into play with words that may be written in a different manner without being considered as incorrect or as faults."[citation needed] The changes were published in the Journal officiel de la République française in December 1990. At the time the proposed changes were considered to be suggestions. In 2016, schoolbooks in France began to use the newer recommended spellings, with instruction to teachers that both old and new spellings be deemed correct.[11] Punctuation[edit] In France, the exclamation mark, question mark, semicolon, colon, percentage mark, currency symbols, hash, the guillemet all require a non breaking space before and after the punctuation mark. Outside of France this rule is often ignored. Computer software may aid or hinder the application of this rule, depending on the degree of localisation, as it is marked differently from most other Western punctuation. See also[edit]

Punctuation in French Elision (French) French phonology French braille French manual alphabet Circumflex
Circumflex
in French

Notes[edit]

^ Except in a few words such as accueil, where the ue spelling was necessary to retain the hard /k/ pronunciation of the c.

References[edit]

^ Académie française, accentuation Archived 2011-05-14 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Banque de dépannage linguistique - Accents sur les majuscules". 66.46.185.79. Retrieved 10 October 2017.  ^ See wikt:fr:Catégorie:oe non ligaturé en français ^ Didier, Dominique. "La ligature æ". Monsu.desiderio.free.fr. Retrieved 10 October 2017.  ^ wikt:fr:Catégorie:ae non ligaturé en français ^ See Ch (digraph)#French ^ "French Pronuncation: Vowel Sounds I -LanguageGuide". Languageguide.org. Retrieved 10 October 2017.  ^ "French Pronuncation: Vowel Sounds II -LanguageGuide". Languageguide.org. Retrieved 10 October 2017.  ^ "Is LL Pronounced Like an L or like a Y in French?". French.about.com. Retrieved 10 October 2017.  ^ a b Translation of Évolution de la langue française du Ve au XVe siècle. See also Langue romane (French) and Romance languages (English). ^ "End of the circumflex? Changes in French spelling cause uproar". BBC News. 2016-02-05. Retrieved 2017-07-30. 

Bibliography[edit]

Fouché, Pierre (1956). Traité de prononciation française. Paris: Klincksieck.  Tranel, Bernard (1987). The Sounds of French: An Introduction. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-31510-7. 

External links[edit]

Alternate French spelling Recording of 3 different voices pronouncing the French alphabet French alphabet
French alphabet
pronounced by a native speaker (Youtube)

v t e

Orthographies of the world's languages

Arabic Bulgarian Catalan Chinese Czech Danish Dutch English Esperanto Estonian Faroese Filipino Finnish French German Greek Hebrew

Biblical

Hindustani Hungarian Icelandic Irish Italian Japanese Korean Kurdish Latin Latvian Lithuanian Macedonian Norwegian Occitan Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Scottish Gaelic Slovak Slovene Somali Sotho Spanish Swedish Tamil Turkish Ukrainian Vietnamese W

.