French States-General
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In
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overseas France, several overseas regions and territories. The metro ...

France
under the
Ancien Régime The '' Storming of the Bastille'' on 14 July 1789, later taken to mark the end of the ''Ancien Régime''; watercolour by Jean-Pierre Houël The Ancien Régime (; ; literally "old rule"), also known as the Old Regime, was the political and soc ...
, the Estates General (french: États généraux ) or States-General was a legislative and consultative assembly of the different classes (or
estates Estate or The Estate may refer to: Law * Estate (law), a term in common law for a person's property, entitlements and obligations * Estates of the realm, a broad social category in the histories of certain countries. ** The Estates, representative ...
) of French subjects. It had a separate assembly for each of the three estates (
clergy Clergy are formal leaders within established religions. Their roles and functions vary in different religious traditions, but usually involve presiding over specific rituals and teaching their religion's doctrines and practices. Some of the ter ...
,
nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates of the realm, estate of the realm that p ...
and
commoners '' A commoner, also known as the ''common man'', ''commoners'', the ''common people'' or the ''masses'', is an ordinary person in a community or nation who does not have any significant social status, especially one who is a member of neither Roya ...
), which were called and dismissed by the king. It had no true power in its own right as, unlike the
English parliament The Parliament of England was the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted with ...
, it was not required to approve royal
tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law, a legal person is any person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attr ...
ation or
legislation Legislation is the process or product of enrolled bill, enrolling, enactment of a bill, enacting, or promulgation, promulgating law by a legislature, parliament, or analogous Government, governing body. Before an item of legislation becomes law i ...
. It served as an advisory body to the king, primarily by presenting petitions from the various estates and consulting on
fiscal policy In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods ...

fiscal policy
. The Estates General first met in 1302 and 1303 in relation to
King Philip IV
King Philip IV
's conflict with the
papacy The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...
. They met intermittently until 1614 and only once afterward, in 1789, but were not definitively dissolved until after the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General of 1789 and ended in coup of 18 Brumaire, November 1799 with the formation of the French Consulate. Many of its ideas are considered fundamental principles ...

French Revolution
. The Estates General were distinct from the ''
parlements A ''parlement'' (), under the French Ancien Régime File:Prise de la Bastille.jpg, The ''Storming of the Bastille'' on 14 July 1789, later taken to mark the end of the ''Ancien Régime''; watercolour by Jean-Pierre Houël The Ancien Rég ...
'' (the most powerful of which was the
Parliament of Paris In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of socia ...
), which started as appellate courts but later used their powers to decide whether to publish laws to claim a legislative role. The Estates General had similarities with institutions in other European polities, generally known as
the Estates The Estates, also known as the States (french: États, german: Landstände, nl, Staten), was the assembly of the representatives of the estates of the realm, the divisions of society in feudal times, called together for purposes of deliberation, ...
, such as the
States General of the Netherlands The States General of the Netherlands ( nl, Staten-Generaal ) is the Parliamentary sovereignty, supreme Bicameralism, bicameral legislature of the Netherlands consisting of the Senate (Netherlands), Senate () and the House of Representatives (Nethe ...
, the
Parliament of England The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England from the mid 13th to 17th century. The first English Parliament was convened in 1215, with the creation and signing of the Magna Carta, which established the rights of ba ...
, the Estates of Parliament of
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mainland Scotland has a 96-mile (154 km) Anglo-Scottish bo ...

Scotland
, the Sejm of Poland-Lithuania, the Cortes of
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a sovereign state, country whose mainland is located on the Iberian Peninsula, in Southern Europe, Southwestern Europe, and whose territory also includ ...

Portugal
or
Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_ ...

Spain
, the Imperial Diet (''Reichstag'') of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its D ...
, the Diets (german:
Landtag A Landtag (State Diet Diet may refer to: Food * Diet (nutrition), the sum of the food consumed by an organism or group * Dieting, the deliberate selection of food to control body weight or nutrient intake ** Diet food, foods that aid in creating ...

Landtag
e) of the " Lands", the Parliamentum Publicum of Hungary, and the Swedish
Riksdag of the Estates Riksdag of the Estates (formally sv, Riksens ständer; informally sv, Ståndsriksdagen) was the name used for the Estates of Sweden Sweden (; sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a ...
. Unlike some of these institutions, however, France's Estates General were only summoned at irregular intervals by the king, and never grew into a permanent legislative body.


Origin

The first national assembly of the Estates General was in 1302, summoned by King , to address a conflict with
Pope Boniface VIII Pope Boniface VIII ( la, Bonifatius PP. VIII; born Benedetto Caetani, c. 1230 – 11 October 1303) was pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff ...

Pope Boniface VIII
. The letters summoning the assembly of 1302 are published by
Georges Picot Georges Marie René Picot (; 24 December 1838 – 16 August 1909) was a French lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at lawAttorney at law or attorney-at-law, usually abbreviated in everyday ...
in his collection of ''Documents inédits pour servir à l'histoire de France''. During Philip's reign the Estates General were subsequently assembled several times to give him aid by granting
subsidies A subsidy or government incentive is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy. Although commonly extended from the government, the term ...
. Over time, subsidies came to be the most frequent motive for their convocation. The composition and powers of the Estates General remained the same: they always included representatives of the First Estate (
clergy Clergy are formal leaders within established religions. Their roles and functions vary in different religious traditions, but usually involve presiding over specific rituals and teaching their religion's doctrines and practices. Some of the ter ...
), Second Estate (the
nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates of the realm, estate of the realm that p ...
), and
Third Estate Image:Cleric-Knight-Workman.jpg, 250px, A 13th-century French representation of the tripartite social order of the Middle Ages – ''Oratores'' ("those who pray"), ''Bellatores'' ("those who fight"), and ''Laboratores'' ("those who work"). The esta ...
(
commoners '' A commoner, also known as the ''common man'', ''commoners'', the ''common people'' or the ''masses'', is an ordinary person in a community or nation who does not have any significant social status, especially one who is a member of neither Roya ...
: all others), and monarchs always summoned them either to grant subsidies or to advise
the Crown The Crown is the state (polity), state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their subdivisions (such as the Crown Dependencies, British Overseas Territories, overseas territories, Provinces and territories ...

the Crown
, to give aid and counsel. Their composition, however, as well as their effective powers, varied greatly at different times. In their primitive form in the 14th and the first half of the 15th centuries, the Estates General had only a limited elective element. The lay lords and the ecclesiastical lords (
bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian Chur ...

bishop
s and other high clergy) who made up the Estates General were not elected by their peers, but directly chosen and summoned by the king. In the order of the clergy, however, certain ecclesiastical bodies, e.g.
abbey An abbey is a type of monastery A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, solitary" via Latin L ...

abbey
s and
chapter Chapter or Chapters may refer to: Books * Chapter (books), a main division of a piece of writing or document * Chapter book, a story book intended for intermediate readers, generally age 7–10 * Chapters (bookstore), Canadian big box bookstore b ...
s of
cathedral A cathedral is a church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is used t ...

cathedral
s, were also summoned to the assembly. Since these bodies, being persons in the moral but not in the physical sense, could not appear in person, their representative had to be chosen by the
monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, solitary" via Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ...

monk
s of the
convent A convent is a community of either priest A priest is a religious leader authorized to perform the Sacred rite, sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deity, deities. They also have th ...

convent
or the
canon Canon or Canons may refer to: Places * Canon, Georgia Canon is a city in Franklin County, Georgia, Franklin and Hart County, Georgia, Hart counties in the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. The population was 804 at the 2010 census. His ...
s of the chapter. Only representatives of the Third Estate were chosen by election. Originally, all commoners were not called upon to seek representation in the estates. Only the '' bonnes villes'', or the privileged towns, were called upon. They were represented by elected '' procureurs'', who were frequently the municipal officials of the town, but deputies were also elected for the purpose. The country districts, the '' plat pays'', were not represented. Even within the ''bonnes villes'', the franchise was quite narrow.


Rise and fall of power

The effective powers of the Estates General likewise varied over time. In the 14th century they were considerable. The king could not, in theory, levy general
taxation A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or Legal person, legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund government spending and various public expenditures (regional, ...
. Even in the provinces attached to the domain of the Crown, he could levy it only where he had retained the ''haute justice'' over the inhabitants, but not on the subjects of lords having the ''haute justice''. The privileged towns generally had the right of taxing themselves. To collect general taxes, the king required consent of the lay and ecclesiastical lords, and of the towns. This amounted to needing authorization from the Estates General, which granted these subsidies only temporarily and for fairly short periods. As a result, they were summoned frequently and their power over the Crown became considerable. In the second half of the 14th century, however, certain royal taxes, levied throughout the Crown's domain, tended to become permanent and independent of the vote of the estates. This result drew from many causes, particularly, the Crown endeavoured to transform and change the nature of the "feudal aid" to levy a general tax by right, on its own authority, in such cases as those in which a lord could demand feudal aid from his
vassal A vassal or liege subject is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power (social and political), power over others, acting as a master, a chief, ...
s. For instance, the Crown thus raised the necessary taxes for twenty years to pay the
ransom of King John II of France The ransom of King John II of France was an event during the Hundred Years War, between Kingdom of France, France and Kingdom of England, England. Following the English capture of the French king during the Battle of Poitiers (1356), Battle of Poit ...
without a vote of the Estates General, although the assembly met several times during this period. Custom confined this tendency. During the second half of the 15th century, the chief taxes, the ''
taille The ''taille'' () was a direct land tax on the France, French French peasants, peasantry and non-nobles in ''Ancien Régime'' France. The tax was imposed on each household and was based on how much land it held, and was directly paid to the stat ...

taille
'', ''
aids Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection An infection is the invasion of an organism's body Tissue (biology), tissues by Pathogen, disease-ca ...
'' and ''gabelle'' became definitely permanent for the benefit of the Crown. In some cases there was formal consent of the Estates General, as in 1437 in the case of the ''aids''. The critical periods of the Hundred Years' War favoured the Estates General, though at the price of great sacrifices. Under the reign of King John II, from 1355 to 1358, the Estates General had controlled not only the voting but, through their commissaries, the administration of and jurisdiction over the taxes. In the first half of the reign of Charles VII of France, Charles VII, they had been summoned almost every year and had dutifully voted subsidies for the Crown. But when the struggle was over, they renounced the power of the purse. At the estates of 1484, however, after the death of Louis XI of France, Louis XI, Louis XII of France, the Duke of Orleans sought to obtain the regency during the minority of Charles VIII of France, Charles VIII. The Estates sided with Charles's sister Anne of France, Anne de Beaujeu and refused. Deputies of the three orders united their efforts in the hope of regaining the right of periodically sanctioning taxation. They voted the ''taille'' for two years only, at the same time reducing it to the amount it had reached at the end of the reign of Charles VII. They demanded, and obtained, the promise of the Crown that they should be summoned again before the two years had ended. But this promise was not kept, and the Estates General were not summoned again until 1560. During this 76-year interim, successive kings expanded the role of the centralised state through various means. In the mid-16th century, public officials (''officiers'') explored the option of forming a fourth order of their own but their attempts went nowhere, largely between of the attractiveness of the nobility to many of them.


Revival in 1560–1614

The Estates General was revived in the second half of the 16th century because of scarcity of money and the quarrels and French Wars of Religion, Wars of Religion. There would be estates at Estates General of 1560-1, Orleans in 1560, followed by those of Estates General of 1560-1, Pontoise in 1561, and those of Blois in 1576 and 1588. Those of 1588 ended with a coup d'état effected by Henry III of France, Henry III, and the States summoned by the League, which sat in Paris in 1593 and whose chief object was to elect a Roman Catholic Church, Catholic king, were not a success. The Estates General again met in Paris in 1614, on the occasion of the disturbances that followed the death of Henry IV of France, Henry IV; however, though their minutes bear witness to their sentiments of exalted patriotism, dissensions between the three orders rendered them weak. They dissolved before completing their work and were not summoned again until 1789. As to the question whether the Estates General formed one or three chambers of parliament, chambers for the purposes of their working, from the constitutional point of view the point was never decided. What the king required was to have the consent, the resolution of the three estates of the realm; it was in reality of little importance to him whether their resolutions expressed themselves in common or separately. At the Estates General of 1484 the elections were made in common for the three orders, and the deputies also arrived at their resolutions in common. But after 1560 the rule was that each order deliberate separately; the royal declaration of 23 June 1789 (at the outbreak of the French Revolution) even stated that they formed three distinct chambers. But Jacques Necker, Necker's report to the ''conseil du roi'' according to which the convocation of 1789 was decided, said (as did the declaration of 23 June), that on matters of common interest the deputies of the three orders could deliberate together, if each of the others decided by a separate vote in favour of this, and if the king consented. The working of the Estates General led to an almost exclusive system of deliberation by committees. There were, it is true, solemn general sessions, called ''séances royales'', because the king presided; but at these there was no discussion. At the first, the king or his chancellor announced the object of the convocation, and set forth the demands or questions put to them by the Crown; at the other royal sessions each order made known its answers or observations by the mouth of an ''orateur'' elected for the purpose. But almost all useful work was done in the ''sections'', among which the deputies of each order were divided. At the estates of 1484 they were divided into six ''nations'' or ''sections'', corresponding to the six ''généralités'' then existing. Subsequently, the deputies belonging to the same ''gouvernement'' formed a group or ''bureau'' for deliberating and voting purposes. Certain questions, however, were discussed and decided in full assembly; sometimes, too, the estates nominated commissaries in equal numbers for each order. But in the ancient Estates General there was never any personal vote. The unit represented for each of the three orders was the ''bailliage'' or ''sénéchaussé'' and each ''bailliage'' had one vote, the majority of the deputies of the ''bailliage'' deciding in what way this vote should be given. At the estates of the 16th century voting was by ''gouvernements'', each ''gouvernement'' having one vote, but the majority of the ''bailliages'' composing the ''gouvernement'' decided how it should be given. The Estates General, when they gave counsel, had in theory only a consultative faculty. They had the power of granting subsidies, which was the chief and ordinary cause of their convocation. But it had come to be a consent with which the king could dispense, as permanent taxation became established. In the 16th century, however, the estates again claimed that their consent was necessary for the establishment of new taxation, and, on the whole, the facts seemed to be in favour of this view at the time. However, in the course of the 17th century the principle gained recognition that the king could tax on his own sole authority. Thus were established in the second half of the 17th century, and in the 18th, the direct taxes of the ''Tax per head, capitation'' and of the ''dixième'' or ''vingtième'', and many indirect taxes. It was sufficient for the law creating them to be registered by the ''cours des aides'' and the ''parlements''. It was only in 1787 that the ''parlement'' of Paris declared that it could not register the new taxes, the land-tax and stamp duty (''subvention territoriale'' and ''impôt du timbre''), as they did not know whether they would be submitted to by the country, and that the consent of the representatives of the tax-payers must be asked. The Estates General had legally no share in the legislative power, which belonged to the king alone. The Estates of Blois demanded in 1576 that the king be bound to turn into law any proposition voted in identical terms by each of the three orders; but Henry III would not grant this demand, which would not even have left him a right of veto. In practice, however, the Estates General contributed largely to legislation. Those who sat in them had at all times the right of presenting complaints (''doléances''), requests and petitions to the king; in this, indeed, consisted their sole initiative. They were usually answered by an ''ordonnance'', and it is chiefly through these that we are acquainted with the activity of the estates of the 14th and 15th centuries. In the latest form, and from the estates of 1484 onwards, this was done by a new and special procedure. The Estates had become an entirely elective assembly, and at the elections (at each step of the election if there were several) the electors drew up a ''cahier de doléances'' (statement of grievances), which they requested the deputies to present. This even appeared to be the most important feature of an election. The deputies of each order in every ''bailliage'' also brought with them a ''cahier des doléances'', arrived at, for the third estate, by a combination of statements drawn up by the primary or secondary electors. On the assembly of the estates the ''cahiers'' of the ''bailliages'' were incorporated into a ''cahier'' for each ''gouvernement'', and these again into a ''cahier general'' or general statement, which was presented to the king, and which he answered in his council. When the three orders deliberated in common, as in 1484, there was only one ''cahier général''; when they deliberated separately, there were three, one for each order. The drawing up of the ''cahier general'' was looked upon as the main business (''le grand cause'') of the session. By this means the Estates General furnished the material for numerous ''ordonnances'', though the king did not always adopt the propositions contained in the ''cahiers'', and often modified them in forming them into an ''ordonnance''. These latter were the ''ordonnances de reforme'' (reforming ordinances), treating of the most varied subjects, according to the demands of the ''cahiers''. They were not, however, for the most part very well observed. The last of the type was the ''grande ordonnance'' of 1629 (''Code Michau''), drawn up in accordance with the ''cahiers'' of 1614 and with the observations of various assemblies of notables that followed them. The peculiar power of the Estates General was recognized, but was of a kind that could not often be exercised. It was, essentially, a constituent power. The ancient public law of France contained a number of rules called "the fundamental laws of the realm" (''lois fondamentales du royaume''), though most of them were purely customary. Chief among these were rules that determined the succession to the Crown and rules forbidding alienation of the domain of the Crown. The king, supreme though his power might be, could not abrogate, modify or infringe them. But it was admitted that he might do so by the consent of the Estates General. The Estates could give the king a dispensation from a fundamental law in a given instance; they could even, in agreement with the king, make new fundamental laws. The Estates of Blois of 1576 and 1588 offer entirely convincing precedents in this respect. It was universally recognized that in the event of the line of Hugh Capet becoming extinct, it would be the function of the States-General to elect a new king. The Estates General of 1614 proved the last for over a century and a half. A new convocation had indeed been announced to take place on the majority of Louis XIII of France, Louis XIII, and letters were even issued in view of the elections, but this ended in nothing. Absolute monarchy progressively became definitely established, and appeared incompatible with the institution of the Estates General. Liberalism, Liberal minds, however, in the entourage of Louis, Dauphin of France (1682-1712), Louis, duc de Bourgogne, who were preparing a new plan of government in view of his expected accession to the French throne in succession to Louis XIV, thought of reviving the institution. It figures in the projects of Louis de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon, Saint-Simon and Francois Fénelon, Fénelon though the latter would have preferred to begin with an assembly of non-elected notables. But though St Simon stood high in the favor of the regent Orléans, the death of Louis XIV did not see a summoning of the Estates.


1789

At the time of the revolution, the First Estate comprised 100,000 Catholic clergy and owned 5–10% of the lands in France—the highest per capita of any estate. All property of the First Estate was tax exempt. The Second Estate comprised the nobility, which consisted of 400,000 people, including women and children. Since the death of Louis XIV in 1715, the nobles had enjoyed a resurgence in power. By the time of the revolution, they had almost a monopoly over distinguished government service, higher offices in the church, army, and parliaments, and most other public and semi-public honors. Under the principle of feudal precedent, they were not taxed. The Third Estate comprised about 25 million people: the bourgeoisie, the peasants, and everyone else in France. Unlike the First and Second Estates, the Third Estate were compelled to pay taxes. The bourgeoisie found ways to evade them and become exempt. The major burden of the French government fell upon the poorest in French society: the farmers, peasantry, and working poor. The Third Estate had considerable resentment toward the upper classes. In 1789, the Estates General was summoned for the first time since 1614. As François Fénelon had promoted in the 17th century, an Assembly of Notables in 1787 (which already displayed great independence) preceded the Estates General session. According to Fénelon's model of 1614, the Estates General would consist of equal numbers of representatives of each Estate. During the Revolution, the Third Estate demanded, and ultimately received, double representation, which they already had achieved in the provincial assemblies. When the Estates General convened in Versailles, Yvelines, Versailles on 5 May 1789, however, it became clear that the double representation was something of a sham: voting was to occur "by orders", which meant that the collective vote of the 578 representatives of the Third Estate would be weighed the same as that of each of the other, less numerous Estates. Royal efforts to focus solely on taxes failed totally. The Estates General reached an immediate impasse, debating (with each of the three estates meeting separately) its own structure rather than the nation's finances. On 28 May 1789, Abbé Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, Sieyès moved that the Third Estate, now meeting as the ''Communes'' ( en, Commons), proceed with verification of its own powers and invite the other two estates to take part, but not to wait for them. They proceeded to do so, completing the process on June 17. They voted a measure far more radical, declaring themselves the National Assembly (French Revolution), National Assembly, an assembly not of the Estates but of "the People". They invited the other orders to join them, but emphasized that they intended to conduct the nation's affairs with or without them. King Louis XVI of France tried to resist. When he shut down the Salle des États where the Assembly met, the Assembly moved its deliberations to a nearby tennis court. They swore the Tennis Court Oath (20 June 1789), under which they agreed not to separate until they had given France a constitution. A majority of the representatives of the clergy soon joined them, as did forty-seven members of the nobility. By 27 June the royal party had overtly given in. But military forces began to arrive in large numbers around Paris and Versailles. Messages of support for the Assembly poured in from Paris and other French cities. On 9 July the Assembly reconstituted itself as the National Constituent Assembly (France), National Constituent Assembly.


List

* Reign of (1285-1314) ** 1302, at Notre-Dame de Paris ** 1303, at the Louvre Palace in Paris ** 1308, at Poitiers then Tours ** 1312, at Lyon ** 1313, at Paris ** 1314, at the Palais de la Cité in Paris * Reign of Philip V of France, Philip V (1316-1322) ** 1317, in Paris ** 1320; in Pontoise ** 1321, in Poitiers * Reign of Charles IV of France, Charles IV (1322-1328) ** 1322 ** 1326, at Meaux * Reign of Philip VI of France, Philip VI (1328-1350) ** 1343 ** 1346, at Paris and Toulouse * Reign of John II of France, John II (1350-1364) ** 1355-1356, in Paris and Toulouse ** 1356, at Paris ** 1357, at Paris ** 1358, at Compiègne ** 1359 ** November 1363, at Amiens * Reign of Charles V of France, Charles V (1364-1380) ** December 1369, at the Palais de la Cité in Paris * Reign of Charles VI of France, Charles VI (1380-1422) ** 1380-81, several meetings in Paris and Compiègne whose qualification as Estates-General is disputed ** 1413, at the Hôtel Saint-Pol in Paris ** 1420, at the Hôtel Saint-Pol in Paris * Reign of Charles VII of France, Charles VII (1422-1461) ** 1439, at Orléans ** 1448, at Bourges * Reign of Louis XI of France, Louis XI (1461-1483) ** 1468, at Tours * Reign of Charles VIII of France, Charles VIII (1483-1498) ** 1484, at Tours * Reign of Charles IX of France, Charles IX (1560-1574) ** Estates General of 1560-1, 1560-1561, at Orléans (convened by François II of France, François II) ** Estates General of 1560-1, 1561, at Pontoise * Reign of Henry III of France, Henry III (1574-1589) ** 1576-1577, at the Château de Blois ** 1588-1589, at the Château de Blois * Reign of Henry IV of France, Henry IV (1589-1610) ** 1593, at the Louvre Palace in Paris (meeting organized by the Catholic League (French), Catholic League) * Reign of Louis XIII (1610-1645) ** 1614-1615, at the Hôtel du Petit-Bourbon (by then a dependency of the Louvre Palace) in Paris * Reign of Louis XVI (1774-1792) ** 1789, at the Hôtel des Menus Plaisirs [:fr:Hôtel des Menus Plaisirs, fr] in Versailles, Yvelines, Versailles


See also

*
States General of the Netherlands The States General of the Netherlands ( nl, Staten-Generaal ) is the Parliamentary sovereignty, supreme Bicameralism, bicameral legislature of the Netherlands consisting of the Senate (Netherlands), Senate () and the House of Representatives (Nethe ...
*Estates General of French Canada *The Estates *States provincial (France)


Citations


References

* * {{Authority control 1302 establishments in Europe 1300s establishments in France 1789 disestablishments in France Historical legislatures Kingdom of France Political history of the Ancien Régime Tricameral legislatures