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 Holy Roman Empire

Austria[note 1]

  Prussia
Prussia
(1792–95)[note 2]   Great Britain
Great Britain
(1793–1800)[note 3]

Anglo-Corsican Kingdom
Anglo-Corsican Kingdom
(1794-1796)

Ireland (1793–1800)[note 3] United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(1801–02)  Russia (1799) French royalists Counter-revolutionaries Spain
Spain
(1793–95)[note 2] Portugal  Sardinia  Naples Switzerland (1798)[note 4] Other Italian states[note 5]  Ottoman Empire   Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
(1793–95)[note 6] Newfoundland (1796) Order of Saint John (1798) Malta
Malta
(1798–1800)

(Haitian Revolution) Saint-Domingue
Saint-Domingue
rebels (1791–94)

 United States (Quasi-War) (1798-1800)

Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
(until 1792)[note 7] French Republic (from 1792)

French satellites United Irishmen[note 8] Polish Legions[note 9] Batavia (1795–1802) Spain
Spain
(1796–1802)[note 10]

Denmark–Norway
Denmark–Norway
(Action of 16 May 1797)[note 11]

  Kingdom of Mysore
Kingdom of Mysore
(Fourth Anglo-Mysore War)

Commanders and leaders

Francis II Archduke Charles Baillet de Latour Count of Clerfayt Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld József Alvinczi Dagobert von Wurmser Michael von Melas Pál Kray Frederick William II Duke of Brunswick Prince of Hohenlohe William Pitt Henry Addington Charles O'Hara  Duke of York Horatio Nelson Ralph Abercromby Samuel Hood Paul I Alexander Suvorov Prince de Condé Charles IV (1793–95) Mary I Victor Amadeus III Ferdinand IV Selim III Jezzar Pasha Laurens Pieter van de Spiegel
Laurens Pieter van de Spiegel
(1793–95) Murad Bey James Wallace Ferdinand von Hompesch zu Bolheim 

Toussaint L'Ouverture

John Adams

Louis XVI  Jacques Pierre Brissot  Maximilien Robespierre  Paul Barras (1795–99) Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte Charles-F. Dumouriez François Christophe Kellermann François Étienne Kellermann Charles Pichegru Jean-Baptiste Jourdan Comte de Custine  Lazare Hoche † André Masséna Jean V. M. Moreau Louis Desaix † Jacques François Dugommier † Pierre Augereau Jean Baptiste Kléber † François-Paul Brueys d'Aigalliers † Jacques MacDonald Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Wolfe Tone † Jan Henryk Dąbrowski

Christian VII Olfert Fischer Steen Bille

Tipu Sultan †

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French Revolutionary Wars

Timeline

1792 1793 1794 1795 1796 1797 1798 1799 1800 1801

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Haitian Revolution

Bois Caïman Fort-Dauphin Jean-Rabel War of Knives Saint-Domingue
Saint-Domingue
expedition

Snake Gully Crête-à-Pierrot Blockade of Saint-Domingue Vertières

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War of the First Coalition

Porrentruy Marquain Verdun Thionville Valmy Lille Mainz Flanders
Flanders
Campaign Royalist Revolts Chouannerie Naval Battles Mediterranean campaign of 1793–1796 War in the Vendée War of the Pyrenees Rhine
Rhine
Campaign of 1793-94 Italian Campaigns East Indies Theatre Martinique Guadeloupe Atlantic campaign of May 1794 Helder Rhine
Rhine
Campaign of 1795 Rhine
Rhine
Campaign of 1796 Anglo-Spanish War Fishguard Neuwied Diersheim

v t e

United Irishmen Rebellion

Ballymore-Eustace Naas Rathangan Prosperous Kilcullen Carnew Dunlavin Carlow Harrow Tara Hill Oulart Hill Enniscorthy Gibbet Rath Newtownmountkennedy Three Rocks Bunclody Tubberneering New Ross/Scullabogue Antrim Arklow Saintfield Ballynahinch Ovidstown Foulksmills Vinegar Hill Ballyellis Castlebar Collooney Ballinamuck Killala Tory Island

v t e

War of the Second Coalition

Nicopolis Corfu Ostrach Feldkirch 1st Stockach Verona Magnano Cassano Bassignana Winterthur 1st Zurich Modena Trebbia Mantua Novi Callantsoog Vlieter Incident Krabbendam Mannheim Bergen 2nd Zurich Alkmaar Castricum Genola Wiesloch Genoa Hohentwiel 2nd Stockach Messkirch Biberach Fort Bard Montebello Marengo Höchstädt Neuburg Ampfing Hohenlinden Mincio Copenhagen Algeciras (1st • 2nd) Porto Ferrajo

Mediterranean Campaign Egyptian Campaign Swiss Campaign Dutch Campaign Italian Campaign

v t e

Quasi-War

USS Delaware vs La Croyable USS Constellation vs L'Insurgente Action of 1 January 1800 USS Constellation vs La Vengeance Jacmel Puerto Plata Harbor USS Boston vs Berceau USS Enterprise vs Flambeau Curaçao

v t e

Italian Campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars

1st Saorgio Méribel Epierre 2nd Saorgio 1st Dego Loano Montenotte Campaign Fombio Lodi Borghetto Lonato Castiglione Peschiera (fr) Rovereto 1st Bassano 2nd Bassano Calliano Caldiero Arcole Rivoli 1st Mantua Faenza Valvasone Tyrol (fr) Tarvis Veronese Easter Verona Magnano Cassano Bassignana Modena Trebbia 2nd Mantua Novi Genola Genoa Montebello Marengo Pozzolo

v t e

Mediterranean campaign of 1793–1796

Sardinia Toulon

Burning of the French fleet

Genoa
Genoa
Raid 22 October 1793 Corsica

San Fiorenzo Bastia Calvi

Martin's cruise Mykonos Berwick Genoa 24 June 1795 Hyères Islands Richery's expedition

Levant Convoy

Ganteaume's expedition 13 October 1796 19 December 1796

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East Indies theatre of the French Revolutionary Wars

Pondicherry Sunda Strait 5 May 1794 Île Ronde Ceylon Cape Colony Saldanha Bay Sumatra Bali Strait Manila Macau 9 February 1799 28 February 1799 Port Louis Mahé

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Naval Battles of the French Revolutionary Wars

Sardinia Toulon 1st Genoa Guernsey May 1794 Ushant Alexander Croisière du Grand Hiver Gulf of Roses 2nd Genoa April 1795 Cornwallis's Retreat Groix Hyères Levant Convoy Saldanha Bay Newfoundland expedition Expédition d'Irlande

Droits de l'Homme

2nd St Vincent Camperdown Raz de Sein Îles Saint-Marcouf Nile Tory Island Croisière de Bruix Dunkirk Malta Copenhagen Algeciras

1st 2nd

Boulogne Mahé

v t e

Royalist Revolts of the French Revolutionary Wars

Vendée Chouannerie

Toulon Lyon Quiberon 13 Vendémiaire Peasants' War (1798)

v t e

Anglo-French wars

1202–04 1213–14 1215–17 1242–43 1294–1303 1337–1453 (1337–60, 1369–89, 1415–53) 1496-98 1512–14 1522–26 1542–46 1557–1559 1627–29 1666–67 1689–97 1702–13 1744–48 1744–1763 1754–63 1778–83 1793–1802 1803–14 1815

The French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars
were a series of sweeping military conflicts, lasting from 1792 until 1802, resulting from the French Revolution. They pitted the French Republic against Britain, Austria and several other monarchies. They are divided in two periods: the War of the First Coalition
First Coalition
(1792–97) and the War of the Second Coalition (1798–1802). Initially confined to Europe, the fighting gradually assumed a global dimension. After a decade of constant warfare and aggressive diplomacy, France
France
had conquered a wide array of territories, from the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
and the Low Countries
Low Countries
in Europe
Europe
to the Louisiana Territory
Louisiana Territory
in North America. French success in these conflicts ensured the spread of revolutionary principles over much of Europe. As early as 1791, the other monarchies of Europe
Europe
looked with outrage at the revolution and its upheavals, and considered whether they should intervene, either in support of King Louis XVI, or to prevent the spread of revolution, or to take advantage of the chaos in France. Anticipating an attack, France
France
declared war on Prussia
Prussia
and Austria in the spring of 1792, and they responded with a coordinated invasion that was eventually turned back at the Battle of Valmy
Battle of Valmy
in September. This victory emboldened the National Convention
National Convention
to abolish the monarchy.[1] A series of victories by the new French armies abruptly ended with defeat at Neerwinden in the spring of 1793. The French suffered additional defeats in the remainder of the year, and these difficult times allowed the Jacobins
Jacobins
to rise to power and impose the Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
to unify the nation. In 1794, the situation improved dramatically for the French, as huge victories at Fleurus against the Austrians and at the Black Mountain against the Spanish signaled the start of a new stage in the wars. By 1795, the French had captured the Austrian Netherlands
Austrian Netherlands
and knocked Spain
Spain
and Prussia
Prussia
out of the war with the Peace of Basel. A hitherto unknown general named Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
began his first campaign in Italy in April 1796. In less than a year, French armies under Napoleon decimated the Habsburg
Habsburg
forces and evicted them from the Italian peninsula, winning almost every battle and capturing 150,000 prisoners. With French forces marching towards Vienna, the Austrians sued for peace and agreed to the Treaty of Campo Formio, ending the First Coalition
First Coalition
against the Republic. The War of the Second Coalition
War of the Second Coalition
began with the French invasion of Egypt, headed by Napoleon, in 1798. The Allies took the opportunity presented by the French effort in the Middle East
Middle East
to regain territories lost from the First Coalition. The war began well for the Allies in Europe, where they gradually pushed the French out of Italy and invaded Switzerland—racking up victories at Magnano, Cassano, and Novi along the way. However, their efforts largely unraveled with the French victory at Zurich in September 1799, which caused Russia to drop out of the war.[2] Meanwhile, Napoleon's forces annihilated a series of Egyptian and Ottoman armies at the battles of the Pyramids, Mount Tabor, and Abukir. These victories and the conquest of Egypt further enhanced Napoleon's popularity back in France; he returned in triumph in the fall of 1799. However, the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
had won the Battle of the Nile
Battle of the Nile
in 1798, further strengthening British control of the Mediterranean. Napoleon's arrival from Egypt led to the fall of the Directory in the Coup of 18 Brumaire, with Napoleon
Napoleon
installing himself as Consul. Napoleon
Napoleon
then reorganized the French army and launched a new assault against the Austrians in Italy during the spring of 1800. This brought a decisive French victory at the Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
in June 1800, after which the Austrians withdrew from the peninsula once again. Another crushing French triumph at Hohenlinden in Bavaria
Bavaria
forced the Austrians to seek peace for a second time, leading to the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801. With Austria and Russia out of the war, the United Kingdom found itself increasingly isolated and agreed to the Treaty of Amiens with Napoleon's government in 1802, concluding the Revolutionary Wars. The lingering tensions proved too difficult to contain, however, and the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
began a few years later with the formation of the Third Coalition, continuing the series of Coalition Wars.

Contents

1 War of the First Coalition

1.1 1791–1792 1.2 1793 1.3 1794 1.4 1795 1.5 1796 1.6 1797 1.7 1798

2 War of Second Coalition

2.1 1799 2.2 1800 2.3 1801 2.4 1802

3 Influence 4 See also 5 Footnotes

5.1 Notes 5.2 References

6 Further reading

6.1 Historiography 6.2 In French

War of the First Coalition[edit] Main article: First Coalition 1791–1792[edit] See also: Campaigns of 1792 in the French Revolutionary Wars The key figure in initial foreign reaction to the revolution was Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II, brother of Louis XVI's Queen Marie Antoinette. Leopold had initially looked on the Revolution with equanimity, but became more and more disturbed as the Revolution became more radical, although he still hoped to avoid war. On 27 August, Leopold and King Frederick William II of Prussia, in consultation with emigrant French nobles, issued the Declaration of Pillnitz, which declared the interest of the monarchs of Europe
Europe
in the well-being of Louis and his family, and threatened vague but severe consequences if anything should befall them. Although Leopold saw the Pillnitz Declaration as a non-committal gesture to placate the sentiments of French monarchists and nobles, it was seen in France
France
as a serious threat and was denounced by the revolutionary leaders.[3] France
France
eventually issued an ultimatum demanding that the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria under Leopold II who also was Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire renounce any hostile alliances and withdraw its troops from the French border.[4] The reply was evasive and the Assembly voted for war on 20 April 1792 against Francis II (who succeeded Leopold II), after a long list of grievances presented by foreign minister Charles François Dumouriez. Dumouriez prepared an immediate invasion of the Austrian Netherlands, where he expected the local population to rise against Austrian rule, as they had earlier in 1790. However, the revolution had thoroughly disorganized the army, and the forces raised were insufficient for the invasion. Following the declaration of war, French soldiers deserted en masse and, in one case, murdered their general, Théobald Dillon.[5]

Anonymous caricature depicting the treatment given to the Brunswick Manifesto by the French population

While the revolutionary government frantically raised fresh troops and reorganized its armies, a mostly Prussian Allied army under Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick assembled at Koblenz
Koblenz
on the Rhine. The duke then issued a proclamation called the Brunswick Manifesto (July 1792), written by the French king's cousin, Louis Joseph de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, the leader of an émigré corps within the Allied army, which declared the Allies' intent to restore the king to his full powers and to treat any person or town who opposed them as rebels to be condemned to death by martial law. This, however, had the effect of strengthening the resolve of the revolutionary army and government to oppose them by any means necessary. On 10 August, a crowd stormed the Tuileries Palace, seizing the king and his family. On 19 August 1792, the invasion by Brunswick's army commenced, with Brunswick's army easily taking the fortresses of Longwy
Longwy
and Verdun. The invasion continued, but at Valmy on 20 September, the invaders came to a stalemate against Dumouriez and Kellermann in which the highly professional French artillery distinguished itself. Although the battle was a tactical draw, it gave a great boost to French morale. Further, the Prussians, finding that the campaign had been longer and more costly than predicted, decided that the cost and risk of continued fighting was too great and, with winter approaching, they decided to retreat from France
France
to preserve their army. The next day, the monarchy was formally abolished as the First Republic was declared (21 September 1792).[6] Meanwhile, the French had been successful on several other fronts, occupying Savoy
Savoy
and Nice, which were parts of the Kingdom of Sardinia, while General Custine invaded Germany, occupying several German towns along the Rhine
Rhine
and reaching as far as Frankfurt. Dumouriez went on the offensive in the Austrian Netherlands
Austrian Netherlands
once again, winning a great victory over the Austrians at the Battle of Jemappes
Battle of Jemappes
on 6 November and occupying the entire country by the beginning of winter.[7] 1793[edit] See also: Campaigns of 1793 in the French Revolutionary Wars, Flanders Campaign, and War in the Vendée

While the First Coalition
First Coalition
attacked the new Republic, France
France
faced civil war and counter-revolutionary guerrilla war. Here, several insurgents of the Chouannerie
Chouannerie
have been taken prisoner.

Spain
Spain
and Portugal
Portugal
entered the anti-French coalition in January 1793. Britain began military preparations in late 1792 and declared that war was inevitable unless France
France
gave up its conquests, notwithstanding French assurances they would not attack Holland or annex the Low Countries.[8] Britain expelled the French ambassador following the execution of Louis XVI
Louis XVI
and on 1 February France
France
responded by declaring war on Great Britain
Great Britain
and the Dutch Republic.[3] France
France
drafted hundreds of thousands of men, beginning a policy of using mass conscription to deploy more of its manpower than the autocratic states could manage to do (first stage, with a decree of 24 February 1793 ordering the draft of 300,000 men, followed by the general mobilization of all the young men able to be drafted, through the famous decree of 23 August 1793). Nonetheless, the Coalition allies launched a determined drive to invade France
France
during the Flanders
Flanders
Campaign.[9] France
France
suffered severe reverses at first. They were driven out of the Austrian Netherlands, and serious revolts flared in the west and south of France. One of these, at Toulon, was the first serious taste of action for an unknown young artillery officer Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte. He contributed to the siege of the city and its harbor by planning an effective assault with well-placed artillery batteries raining projectiles down on rebel positions. This performance helped make his reputation as a capable tactician, and it fueled his meteoric rise to military and political power. Once the city was occupied, he participated in pacifying the rebelling citizens of Toulon
Toulon
with the same artillery that he first used to conquer the city.[10] By the end of the year, large new armies had turned back foreign invaders, and the Reign of Terror, a fierce policy of repression, had suppressed internal revolts. The French military was in the ascendant. Lazare Carnot, a scientist and prominent member of the Committee of Public Safety, organized the fourteen armies of the Republic, and was then nicknamed the Organizer of the Victory.[11] 1794[edit] See also: French Revolutionary Wars: Campaigns of 1794

General Jourdan at the battle of Fleurus, 26 June 1794

The year 1794 brought increased success to the French armies. On the Alpine frontier, there was little change, with the French invasion of Piedmont
Piedmont
failing. On the Spanish border, the French under General Dugommier rallied from their defensive positions at Bayonne
Bayonne
and Perpignan, driving the Spanish out of Roussillon
Roussillon
and invading Catalonia. Dugommier was killed in the Battle of the Black Mountain
Battle of the Black Mountain
in November. On the northern front in the Flanders
Flanders
Campaign, the Austrians and French both prepared offensives in Belgium, with the Austrians besieging Landrecies
Landrecies
and advancing towards Mons
Mons
and Maubeuge. The French prepared an offensive on multiple fronts, with two armies in Flanders
Flanders
under Pichegru and Moreau, and Jourdan attacking from the German border. The French withstood several damaging but inconclusive actions before regaining the initiative at the battles of Tourcoing and Fleurus in June. The French armies drove the Austrians, British, and Dutch beyond the Rhine, occupying Belgium, the Rhineland, and the south of the Netherlands. On the middle Rhine
Rhine
front in July, General Michaud's Army of the Rhine attempted two offensives in July in the Vosges, the second of which was successful but not followed up, allowing for a Prussian counter-attack in September. Otherwise this sector of the front was largely quiet over the course of the year. At sea, the French Atlantic Fleet succeeded in holding off a British attempt to interdict a vital cereal convoy from the United States
United States
on the Glorious First of June, though at the cost of one quarter of its strength. In the Caribbean, the British fleet landed in Martinique
Martinique
in February, taking the whole island by 24 March and holding it until the Treaty of Amiens, and in Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe
in April, where they captured the island briefly but were driven out by Victor Hugues
Victor Hugues
later in the year. In the Mediterranean, following the British evacuation of Toulon, the Corsican leader Pasquale Paoli
Pasquale Paoli
agreed with admiral Samuel Hood to place Corsica
Corsica
under British protection in return for assistance capturing French garrisons at Saint-Florent, Bastia, and Calvi, creating the short-lived Anglo-Corsican Kingdom. By the end of the year French armies had won victories on all fronts, and as the year closed they began advancing into the Netherlands. 1795[edit] See also: Campaigns of 1795 in the French Revolutionary Wars

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Armée des Émigrés
Armée des Émigrés
at the Battle of Quiberon

Capture of the Dutch fleet by the French hussars

The year opened with French forces in the process of attacking the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
in the middle of winter. The Dutch people rallied to the French call and started the Batavian Revolution. City after city was occupied by the French. The Dutch fleet was captured, and the stadtholder William V fled to be replaced by a popular Batavian Republic, a sister republic which supported the revolutionary cause and signed a treaty with the French, ceding the territories of North Brabant and Maastricht
Maastricht
to France
France
on 16 May. With the Netherlands falling, Prussia
Prussia
also decided to leave the coalition, signing the Peace of Basel
Peace of Basel
on 6 April, ceding the west bank of the Rhine
Rhine
to France. This freed Prussia
Prussia
to finish the occupation of Poland. The French army in Spain
Spain
advanced in Catalonia
Catalonia
while taking Bilbao
Bilbao
and Vitoria and marching toward Castile. By 10 July, Spain
Spain
also decided to make peace, recognizing the revolutionary government and ceding the territory of Santo Domingo, but returning to the pre-war borders in Europe. This left the armies on the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
free to march east and reinforce the armies on the Alps, and the combined army overran Piedmont. Meanwhile, Britain's attempt to reinforce the rebels in the Vendée by landing troops at Quiberon failed, and a conspiracy to overthrow the republican government from within ended when Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte's garrison used cannon to fire grapeshot into the attacking mob (which led to the establishment of the Directory). On the Rhine
Rhine
frontier, General Pichegru, negotiating with the exiled Royalists, betrayed his army and forced the evacuation of Mannheim
Mannheim
and the failure of the siege of Mainz
Mainz
by Jourdan. This was a moderate setback to the position of the French. In northern Italy, victory at the Battle of Loano
Battle of Loano
in November gave France
France
access to the Italian peninsula. 1796[edit] See also: French Revolutionary Wars: Campaigns of 1796

General Bonaparte and his troops crossing the bridge of Arcole

Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
defeats the Austrians at the Battle of Lodi

The French prepared a great advance on three fronts, with Jourdan and Moreau on the Rhine, and Bonaparte in Italy. The three armies were to link up in Tyrol and march on Vienna. Jourdan and Moreau advanced rapidly into Germany, and Moreau had reached Bavaria
Bavaria
and the edge of Tyrol by September, but Jourdan was defeated by Archduke Charles, and both armies were forced to retreat back across the Rhine. Napoleon, on the other hand, was completely successful in a daring invasion of Italy. He left Paris on 11 March for Nice
Nice
to take over the weak and poorly supplied Army of Italy, arriving on 26 March. The army was already being reorganised and supplied when he arrived, and he found that the situation was rapidly improving. He was soon able to carry out the plan for the invasion of Italy that he had been advocating for years, which provided for an advance over the Apennines near Altare to attack the enemy position of Ceva. The Montenotte Campaign
Montenotte Campaign
opened after Johann Beaulieu's Austrian forces attacked the extreme French eastern flank near Genoa
Genoa
on 10 April. Bonaparte countered by attacking and crushing the isolated right wing of the allied armies at the Battle of Montenotte
Battle of Montenotte
on 12 April. The next day he defeated an Austro-Sardinian force at the Battle of Millesimo. He then won a victory at the Second Battle of Dego, driving the Austrians northeast, away from their Piedmontese allies. Satisfied that the Austrians were temporarily inert, Bonaparte harried Michelangelo Colli's Piedmontese at Ceva
Ceva
and San Michele Mondovi before whipping them at the Battle of Mondovì. A week later, on 28 April, the Piedmontese signed an armistice at Cherasco, withdrawing from the hostilities. On 18 May they signed a peace treaty at Paris, ceding Savoy
Savoy
and Nice
Nice
and allowing the French bases to be used against Austria. After a short pause, Napoleon
Napoleon
carried out a brilliant flanking manoeuvre, and crossed the Po at Piacenza, nearly cutting the Austrian line of retreat. The Austrians escaped after the Battle of Fombio, but had their rear-guard mauled at Lodi on 10 May, after which the French took Milan. Bonaparte then advanced eastwards again, drove off the Austrians in the Battle of Borghetto
Battle of Borghetto
and in June began the Siege of Mantua. Mantua
Mantua
was the strongest Austrian base in Italy. Meanwhile, the Austrians retreated north into the foothills of the Tyrol. During July and August, Austria sent a fresh army into Italy under Dagobert Wurmser. Wurmser attacked toward Mantua
Mantua
along the east side of Lake Garda, sending Peter Quasdanovich
Peter Quasdanovich
down the west side in an effort to envelop Bonaparte. Bonaparte exploited the Austrian mistake of dividing their forces to defeat them in detail, but in so doing, he abandoned the siege of Mantua, which held out for another six months (Carl von Clauswitz mentioned in On War
On War
that the siege might have been able to be kept up if Bonaparte had circumvallated the city[12]). Quasdanovich was overcome at Lonato on 3 August and Wurmser at Castiglione on 5 August. Wurmser retreated to the Tyrol, and Bonaparte resumed the siege. In September, Bonaparte marched north against Trento
Trento
in Tyrol, but Wurmser had already marched toward Mantua
Mantua
by the Brenta valley, leaving Paul Davidovich's force to hold off the French. Bonaparte overran the holding force at the Battle of Rovereto. Then he followed Wurmser down the Brenta valley, to fall upon and defeat the Austrians at the Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
on 8 September. Wurmser elected to march for Mantua
Mantua
with a large portion of his surviving troops. The Austrians evaded Bonaparte's attempts to intercept them but were driven into the city after a pitched battle on 15 September. This left nearly 30,000 Austrians trapped in the fortress. This number rapidly diminished due to disease, combat losses, and hunger. The Austrians sent yet another army under József Alvinczi
József Alvinczi
against Bonaparte in November. Again the Austrians divided their effort, sending Davidovich's corps from the north while Alvinczi's main body attacked from the east. At first they proved victorious over the French at Bassano, Calliano, and Caldiero. But Bonaparte ultimately defeated Alvinczi in the Battle of Arcole
Battle of Arcole
southeast of Verona. The French then turned on Davidovich in great strength and chased him into the Tyrol. Wurmser's only sortie was late and ineffectual. The rebellion in the Vendée was also finally crushed in 1796 by Hoche, but Hoche's attempt to land a large invasion force in Ireland was unsuccessful. 1797[edit] See also: French Revolutionary Wars: Campaigns of 1797

Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
at the Battle of Rivoli

Soldiers killed in battle in 1797

On 14 February, British admiral Jervis met and defeated a Spanish fleet off Portugal
Portugal
at the Battle of Cape St. Vincent. This prevented the Spanish fleet from rendezvousing with the French, removing a threat of invasion to Britain. However, the British fleet was weakened over the rest of the year by the Spithead and Nore mutinies, which kept many ships in port through the summer. On 22 February French invasion force consisting of 1,400 troops from the La Legion Noire (The Black Legion) under the command of Irish American Colonel William Tate landed near Fishguard (Wales). They were met by a quickly assembled group of around 500 British reservists, militia and sailors under the command of John Campbell, 1st Baron Cawdor. After brief clashes with the local civilian population and Lord Cawdor's forces on 23 February, Tate was forced into an unconditional surrender by 24 February. In Italy, Napoleon's armies were laying siege to Mantua
Mantua
at the beginning of the year, and a second attempt by Austrians under Joseph Alvinczy to raise the siege was driven off at the Battle of Rivoli, where the French scored a decisive victory. Finally, on 2 February, Wurmser surrendered Mantua
Mantua
and 18,000 troops. The Papal forces sued for peace, which was granted at Tolentino
Tolentino
on 19 February. Napoleon
Napoleon
was now free to attack the Austrian heartland. He advanced directly toward Austria over the Julian Alps, sending Barthélemy Joubert to invade the Tyrol. Archduke Charles of Austria
Archduke Charles of Austria
hurried from the German front to defend Austria, but he was defeated at the Tagliamento
Tagliamento
on 16 March, and Napoleon
Napoleon
proceeded into Austria, occupying Klagenfurt
Klagenfurt
and preparing for a rendezvous with Joubert in front of Vienna. In Germany, the armies of Hoche and Moreau crossed the Rhine
Rhine
again in April after the previous year's failure. The victories of Napoleon
Napoleon
had frightened the Austrians into making peace, and they concluded the Peace of Leoben
Peace of Leoben
in April, ending hostilities. However, his absence from Italy had allowed the outbreak of the revolt known as the Veronese Easters
Veronese Easters
on 17 April, which was put down eight days later. Although Britain remained at war with France, this effectively ended the First Coalition. Austria later signed the Treaty of Campo Formio, ceding the Austrian Netherlands
Austrian Netherlands
to France
France
and recognizing the French border at the Rhine. Austria and France
France
also partitioned Venice between them. 1798[edit] Main articles: French Revolutionary Wars: Campaigns of 1798, French campaign in Egypt and Syria, and Quasi-War

In July 1798, French forces under Napoleon
Napoleon
annihilated an Egyptian army at the Battle of the Pyramids. The victory facilitated the conquest of Egypt and remains one of the most important battles of the era.

Battle of the Nile, August 1798. The British fleet bears down on the French line.

With only Britain left to fight and not enough of a navy to fight a direct war, Napoleon
Napoleon
conceived of an invasion of Egypt in 1798, which satisfied his personal desire for glory and the Directory's desire to have him far from Paris. The military objective of the expedition is not entirely clear, but may have been to threaten British dominance in India. Napoleon
Napoleon
sailed from Toulon
Toulon
to Alexandria, taking Malta
Malta
on the way, and landing in June. Marching to Cairo, he won a great victory at the Battle of the Pyramids; however, his fleet was sunk by Nelson at the Battle of the Nile, stranding him in Egypt. Napoleon
Napoleon
spent the remainder of the year consolidating his position in Egypt.[13] The French government also took advantage of internal strife in Switzerland to invade, establishing the Helvetian Republic
Helvetian Republic
and annexing Geneva. French troops also deposed Pope Pius VI, establishing a republic in Rome. An expeditionary force was sent to County Mayo, in Ireland, to assist in the rebellion against Britain in the summer of 1798. It had some success against British forces, most notably at Castlebar, but was ultimately routed while trying to reach Dublin. French ships sent to assist them were captured by the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
off County Donegal. The French were also under pressure in the Southern Netherlands
Southern Netherlands
and Luxembourg where the local people revolted against conscription and anti-religious violence (Peasants' War). The French had taken this territory in 1794, but it was officially theirs in 1797 due to a treaty with Austria. The French forces easily handed the Peasants' rebellion in the Southern Netherlands, and were able to put down the revolting forces in under 2 months. The French in 1798 fought an undeclared war at sea against the United States, that was known variously as the "Quasi-War", the "Half War" and the "Pirate Wars". It was resolved peaceably with the Convention of 1800. War of Second Coalition[edit] Main article: War of the Second Coalition Britain and Austria organized a new coalition against France
France
in 1798, including for the first time the Russian Empire, although no action occurred until 1799 except against the kingdom of the Two Sicilies. 1799[edit] See also: Campaigns of 1799 in the French Revolutionary Wars

Battle of Abukir in 1799

Battle of Mount Tabor against the Ottomans

In Egypt, Napoleon
Napoleon
had consolidated his control of the country for the time being. Soon after the beginning of the year, he mounted an invasion of Syria, capturing El Arish
El Arish
and Jaffa. On 17 March, he laid siege to Acre, and defeated an Ottoman effort to relieve the city at the Battle of Mount Tabor on 17 April. However, his repeated assaults on Acre were driven back by Ottoman and British forces under the command of Jezzar Pasha
Jezzar Pasha
and Sir Sidney Smith. By May, with plague rampant in his army and no sign of success against the city, Napoleon was forced to retreat into Egypt. In July, Turkey, with the help of the British navy, mounted an invasion by sea from Rhodes. Napoleon attacked the Turkish beachheads and scored a crushing victory at the Battle of Abukir, capturing and killing the entire enemy army. In August, Napoleon
Napoleon
decided to return to Europe, hearing of the political and military crisis in France. Leaving his army behind with Kléber in command, he sailed through the British blockade to return to Paris and resolved to take control of the government there in a coup. In Europe, the French Army of Observation, organized with 30,000 men in four divisions, crossed the Rhine
Rhine
at Kehl
Kehl
and Basel in March 1799. The following day, it was renamed the Army of the Danube.[14] Under command of Jourdan, the army advanced in four columns through the Black Forest. First Division, the right wing, assembled at Hüningen, crossed at Basel
Basel
and advanced eastward along the north shore of the Rhine
Rhine
toward Lake Constance.[15] The Advanced Guard crossed at Kehl, and Vandamme led it north-east through the mountains via Freudenstadt. This column eventually became the left flank. It was followed across the Rhine, also at Kehl, by the II. Division. The Third Division and the Reserve also crossed at Kehl, and then divided into two columns, III. Division traveling through the Black Forest
Black Forest
via Oberkirch, and the Reserve, with most of the artillery and horse, by the valley at Freiburg im Breisgau, where they would find more forage, and then over the mountains past the Titisee to Löffingen
Löffingen
and Hüfingen.[16] The major part of the imperial army, under command of the Archduke Charles', had wintered immediately east of the Lech, which Jourdan knew, because he had sent agents into Germany with instructions to identify the location and strength of his enemy. This was less than 64 kilometres (40 mi) distant; any passage over the Lech was facilitated by available bridges, both of permanent construction and temporary pontoons and a traverse through friendly territory.[17] In March 1799, the Army of the Danube engaged in two major battles, both in the southwestern German theater. At the intensely fought Battle of Ostrach, 21–2 March 1799, the first battle of the War of the Second Coalition, Austrian forces, under the command of Archduke Charles, defeated Jourdan's Army of the Danube. The French suffered significant losses and were forced to retreat from the region, taking up new positions to the west at Messkirch
Messkirch
(Mößkirch, Meßkirch), and then at Stockach
Stockach
and Engen. At the second battle, in Stockach, on 25 March 1799, the Austrian army achieved a decisive victory over the French forces, and again pushed the French army west. Jourdan instructed his generals to take up positions in the Black Forest, and he himself established a base at Hornberg. From there, General Jourdan relegated command of the army to his chief of staff, Jean Augustin Ernouf, and traveled to Paris to ask for more and better troops and, ultimately, to request a medical leave.[18]

Russian General Suvorov crossing the St. Gotthard Pass
St. Gotthard Pass
during the Italian and Swiss expedition
Italian and Swiss expedition
in 1799

The Army was reorganized, and a portion placed under the command of André Masséna
André Masséna
and merged with the Army of Helvetia. Following the reorganization and change in command, the Army participated in several skirmishes and actions on the eastern part of the Swiss Plateau, including the Battle of Winterthur. After this action, three forces of the imperial army united north of Zürich, completing a partial encirclement of Massena's combined Army of the Danube and Army of Switzerland. A few days later, at the First Battle of Zurich, Massena was forced west, across the Limmat. In late summer, 1799, Charles was ordered to support imperial activities in the middle Rhineland; he withdrew north across the Rhine, and marched toward Mannheim, leaving Zürich and northern Switzerland in the hands of the inexperienced Alexander Korsakov
Alexander Korsakov
and 25,000 Russian troops. Although the highly capable Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
remained in support, his 15,000 men were not able to counter Korsakov's poor defensive arrangements. Three weeks later, at the Second Battle of Zurich, the Russian force was annihilated, and Hotze was killed south of Zürich. This left Massena in control of northern Switzerland, and closed forced Suvorov into an arduous three-week march into the Vorarlberg, where his troops arrived, starving and exhausted, in mid-October.[18] Napoleon
Napoleon
himself invaded Syria from Egypt, but after a failed siege of Acre retreated to Egypt, repelling a British-Turkish invasion. Alerted to the political and military crisis in France, he returned, leaving his army behind, and used his popularity and army support to mount a coup that made him First Consul, the head of the French government.[19] 1800[edit] See also: French Revolutionary Wars: Campaigns of 1800

Napoleon
Napoleon
Crossing the Alps
Alps
by Jacques-Louis David. In one of the famous paintings of Napoleon, the Consul and his army are depicted crossing the Swiss Alps
Alps
on their way to Italy. The daring maneuver surprised the Austrians and forced a decisive engagement at Marengo in June 1800. Victory there allowed Napoleon
Napoleon
to strengthen his political position back in France.

In Italy, the Austrians under General Melas attacked first, and by the third week in April had advanced to the Var, with Massena and half his army in Genoa
Genoa
besieged by land, by the Austrians and under tight blockade by the Royal Navy. In response Berthier moved – not to the threatened frontier, but to Geneva
Geneva
– and Massena was instructed to hold Genoa
Genoa
until 4 June. The Army of the Reserve was joined by Napoleon, and in mid-May set out to cross the Alps
Alps
to attack the Austrian rear. The bulk of the army crossed by the Great St Bernard Pass, still under snow, and by 24 May 40,000 troops were in the valley of the Po. Artillery
Artillery
was man-hauled over with great effort and ingenuity; however an Austrian-held fort on the Italian side (although bypassed by infantry and cavalry) prevented most of the artillery reaching the plains of Northern Italy until the start of June. Once over the Alps, Napoleon
Napoleon
did not proceed directly to the relief of Genoa. Instead, he advanced on Milan, to improve his lines of communication (via the Simplon and St Gotthard passes) and to threaten Melas's lines of communication with Mantua
Mantua
and Vienna, in the belief that this would cause Melas to raise the siege of Genoa. He entered Milan
Milan
on 2 June and by crossing to the South bank of the Po completely cut Melas's communications. Taking up a strong defensive position at Stradella, he confidently awaited an attempt by the Austrian Army to fight its way out. However, Melas had not raised the siege of Genoa, and on 4 June, Masséna had duly capitulated. Napoleon
Napoleon
then faced the possibility that, thanks to the British command of the Mediterranean, far from falling back, the Austrians could instead take Genoa
Genoa
as their new base and be supplied by sea. His defensive posture would not prevent this; he had to find and attack the Austrians before they could regroup. He therefore advanced from Stradella towards Alessandria, where Melas was, apparently doing nothing. Convinced that Melas was about to retreat, Napoleon
Napoleon
sent strong detachments to block Melas's routes northwards to the Po, and southwards to Genoa. At this point, Melas attacked, and for all the brilliance of the previous campaign, Napoleon
Napoleon
found himself at a significant disadvantage in the consequent Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
(14 June). Napoleon
Napoleon
and the French came under huge pressure in the early hours of the battle. Melas believed he had already won and turned over delivery of the final blow to a subordinate. Suddenly, the prompt return of a detached French force under Desaix and a vigorous French counter-attack converted the battle into a decisive French victory. The Austrians lost half of their army, but Desaix was one of the French victims. Melas promptly entered into negotiations, which led to the Austrians evacuating Northern Italy west of the Ticino
Ticino
and suspending military operations in Italy. Napoleon
Napoleon
returned to Paris after the victory, leaving Brune to consolidate in Italy and begin a march toward Austria. In the German theater, the armies of France
France
and Austria faced each other across the Rhine
Rhine
at the beginning of 1800. Feldzeugmeister
Feldzeugmeister
Pál Kray led approximately 120,000 troops. In addition to his Austrian regulars, his force included 12,000 men from the Electorate of Bavaria, 6,000 troops from the Duchy of Württemberg, 5,000 soldiers of low quality from the Archbishopric of Mainz, and 7,000 militiamen from the County of Tyrol. Of these, 25,000 men were deployed east of Lake Constance
Lake Constance
(Bodensee) to protect the Vorarlberg. Kray posted his main body of 95,000 soldiers in the L-shaped angle where the Rhine changes direction from a westward flow along the northern border of Switzerland to a northward flow along the eastern border of France. Unwisely, Kray set up his main magazine at Stockach, near the northwestern end of Lake Constance, only a day's march from French-held Switzerland.[20]

General Moreau at the Battle of Hohenlinden, a decisive French victory in Bavaria
Bavaria
which precipitated the end of the Revolutionary Wars

General of Division Jean Victor Marie Moreau
Jean Victor Marie Moreau
commanded a modestly-equipped army of 137,000 French troops. Of these, 108,000 troops were available for field operations while the other 29,000 watched the Swiss border and held the Rhine
Rhine
fortresses. First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
offered a plan of operations based on outflanking the Austrians by a push from Switzerland, but Moreau declined to follow it. Rather, Moreau planned to cross the Rhine
Rhine
near Basel
Basel
where the river swung to the north. A French column would distract Kray from Moreau's true intentions by crossing the Rhine
Rhine
from the west. Bonaparte wanted Claude Lecourbe's corps to be detached to Italy after the initial battles, but Moreau had other plans.[21] Through a series of complicated maneuvers in which he flanked, double flanked, and reflanked Kray's army, Moreau's army lay on the eastern slope of the Black Forest, while portions of Kray's army was still guarded the passes on the other side.[22] On 3 May 1800 Moreau and Kray fought battles at Engen and Stockach. The fighting near Engen resulted in a stalemate with heavy losses on both sides. However, while the two main armies were engaged at Engen, Claude Lecourbe
Claude Lecourbe
captured Stockach
Stockach
from its Austrian defenders under Joseph, Prince of Lorraine-Vaudemont. The loss of this main supply base at Stockach
Stockach
compelled Kray to order a retreat to Messkirch, where they enjoyed a more favourable defensive position. It also meant, however, that any retreat by Kray into Austria via Switzerland and the Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
was cut off.[23] On 4 and 5 May, the French launched repeated and fruitless assaults on the Messkirch. At nearby Krumbach, where the Austrians also had the superiority of position and force, the 1st Demi-Brigade took the village and the heights around it, which gave them a commanding aspect over Messkirch. Subsequently, Kray withdrew his forces to Sigmaringen, followed closely by the French. Fighting at nearby Biberach an der Ris ensued on 9 May; action principally consisted of the 25,000 man-strong French "Center", commanded by Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr.[24] After being flanked by General Moreau, who approached Ulm from the east and overwhelmed his outposts at Battle of Höchstädt, Kray retreated to Munich. Again, on 10 May, the Austrians withdrew with heavy losses, this time to Ulm.[25] A several month armistice followed, during which Kray was replaced by the Archduke John, with the Austrian army retiring behind the river Inn. Austrian reluctance to accept negotiated terms caused the French to end the armistice in mid-November, effective in two weeks. When the armistice ended, John advanced over the Inn towards Munich. His army was defeated in small engagements at the battles of Ampfing and Neuburg an der Donau, and decisively in the forests before the city at Hohenlinden on 3 December. Moreau began a march on Vienna, and the Austrians soon sued for peace, ending the war on the continent. 1801[edit] See also: French Revolutionary Wars: Campaigns of 1801

First Battle of Algeciras

By 9 February, the Austrians had signed the Treaty of Lunéville, ending the war on the continent. The war against the United Kingdom continued (with Neapolitan harbours closed to her by the Treaty of Florence, signed on 28 March), and the Turks invaded Egypt in March, losing to Kléber at Heliopolis. The exhausted French force in Egypt, however, surrendered in August. The naval war also continued, with the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
maintaining a blockade of France
France
by sea. Non-combatants Russia, Prussia, Denmark, and Sweden joined to protect neutral shipping from British attacks, but were unsuccessful. British Admiral Horatio Nelson
Horatio Nelson
defied orders and attacked the Danish fleet in harbor at the Battle of Copenhagen, destroying much of the fleet of one of France's more steady allies during the period. An armistice prevented him from continuing into the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
to attack the Russian fleet at Reval (Tallinn). Meanwhile, off Gibraltar, the outnumbered French squadron under Linois
Linois
rebuffed a first British attack under Saumarez in the First Battle of Algeciras, capturing a line-of-battle ship. In the Second Battle of Algeciras, four days later, the British captured a French ship and sank two others, killing around 2000 French for the loss of 12 British. 1802[edit] In 1802, the British and French signed the Treaty of Amiens, ending the war. Thus began the longest period of peace during the period 1802–1815. The treaty is generally considered to be the most appropriate point to mark the transition between the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars, although Napoleon
Napoleon
was not crowned emperor until 1804. Influence[edit]

The armies of the Revolution at Jemappes in 1792. With chaos internally and enemies on the borders, the French were in a period of uncertainty during the early years of the Revolutionary Wars. By 1797, however, France
France
dominated much of Western Europe, conquering the Rhineland, the Netherlands, and the Italian peninsula while erecting a series of sister republics and puppet states stretching from Spain
Spain
to the German heartland.

The French Revolution
French Revolution
transformed nearly all aspects of French and European life. The powerful sociopolitical forces unleashed by a people seeking liberté, égalité, and fraternité made certain that even warfare was not spared this upheaval. 18th-century armies—with their rigid protocols, static operational strategy, unenthusiastic soldiers, and aristocratic officer classes—underwent massive remodeling as the French monarchy and nobility gave way to liberal assemblies obsessed with external threats. The fundamental shifts in warfare that occurred during the period have prompted scholars to identify the era as the beginning of "modern war".[26] In 1791 the Legislative Assembly passed the "Drill-Book" legislation, implementing a series of infantry doctrines created by French theorists because of their defeat by the Prussians in the Seven Years' War.[27] The new developments hoped to exploit the intrinsic bravery of the French soldier, made even more powerful by the explosive nationalist forces of the Revolution. The changes also placed a faith on the ordinary soldier that would be completely unacceptable in earlier times; French troops were expected to harass the enemy and remain loyal enough to not desert, a benefit other Ancien Régime armies did not have. Following the declaration of war in 1792, an imposing array of enemies converging on French borders prompted the government in Paris to adopt radical measures. 23 August 1793, would become a historic day in military history; on that date the National Convention
National Convention
called a levée en masse, or mass conscription, for the first time in human history. By summer of the following year, conscription made some 500,000 men available for service and the French began to deal blows to their European enemies.[28] Armies during the Revolution became noticeably larger than their Holy Roman counterparts, and combined with the new enthusiasm of the troops, the tactical and strategic opportunities became profound. By 1797 the French had defeated the First Coalition, occupied the Low Countries, the west bank of the Rhine, and Northern Italy, objectives which had defied the Valois and Bourbon dynasties for centuries. Unsatisfied with the results, many European powers formed a Second Coalition, but by 1801 this too had been decisively beaten. Another key aspect of French success was the changes wrought in the officer classes. Traditionally, European armies left major command positions to those who could be trusted, namely, the aristocracy. The hectic nature of the French Revolution, however, tore apart France's old army, meaning new men were required to become officers and commanders. In addition to opening a flood of tactical and strategic opportunities, the Revolutionary Wars also laid the foundation for modern military theory. Later authors that wrote about "nations in arms" drew inspiration from the French Revolution, in which dire circumstances seemingly mobilized the entire French nation for war and incorporated nationalism into the fabric of military history.[29] Although the reality of war in the France
France
of 1795 would be different from that in the France
France
of 1915, conceptions and mentalities of war evolved significantly. Clausewitz correctly analyzed the Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras to give posterity a thorough and complete theory of war that emphasized struggles between nations occurring everywhere, from the battlefield to the legislative assemblies, and to the very way that people think.[30] War now emerged as a vast panorama of physical and psychological forces heading for victory or defeat. See also[edit]

Military career of Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte Napoleonic Wars

Books View or order collections of articles

History of France History of Europe

Portals Access related topics

France
France
portal History portal Politics portal War portal

Footnotes[edit] Notes[edit]

^ The Austrian Netherlands
Austrian Netherlands
and the Duchy of Milan
Milan
were under direct Austrian rule. Many other Italian states, as well as other Habsburg ruled states such as the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, had close ties with the Habsburgs. ^ a b Neutral following the Treaty of Basel
Basel
in 1795. ^ a b Became the United Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
and Ireland on 1 January 1801. ^ French invasion of Switzerland ^ Virtually all of the Italian states, including the neutral Papal States and the Republic of Venice, were conquered following Napoleon's invasion in 1796 and became French satellite states. ^ Most forces fled rather than engaging the invading French army. Allied with France
France
in 1795 as the Batavian Republic
Batavian Republic
following the Peace of Basel. ^ War against Austria was actually announced in the National Assembly by then King Louis XVI
Louis XVI
of the French on 20 April 1792 while the kingdom still existed in name. (Constitutional) monarchy was suspended on 10 August following the assault on the Tuileries, and abolished 21 September 1792 ^ Started the Irish Rebellion of 1798
Irish Rebellion of 1798
against British rule. ^ Arrived in France
France
following the abolition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth after the Third Partition in 1795. ^ Re-entered the war as an ally of France
France
after signing the Second Treaty of San Ildefonso. ^ Officially neutral but Danish fleet was attacked by Great Britain
Great Britain
at the Battle of Copenhagen.

References[edit]

^ TCW Blanning, The French Revolutionary Wars. pp. 78–79. ^ TCW Blanning, The French Revolutionary Wars. pp. 254–55. ^ a b Georges Lefebvre, The French Revolution
French Revolution
Volume II: from 1793 to 1799 (1964) ch 1 ^ Lecky, William Edward Hartpole, A History of England in the Eighteenth Century Volume V (1890) p. 601 ^ Charles Esdaile (2002). The French Wars 1792–1815. Routledge. p. 7.  ^ William Doyle, The Oxford History of the French Revolution
French Revolution
(1989) p. 194 ^ Jeremy Black (1994). British Foreign Policy in an Age of Revolutions, 1783–1793. p. 408.  ^ Lecky, William Edward Hartpole, A History of England in the Eighteenth Century Volume VI (1890) pp. 101–30 ^ Alan Forrest, Soldiers of the French Revolution
French Revolution
(1989) ^ Robert Forczyk, Toulon
Toulon
1793: Napoleon's First Great Victory (2005) ^ Paddy Griffith, The Art of War of Revolutionary France, 1789–1802 (1998) ^ On War, Book
Book
II, Chapter 5, 24., Carl von Clausewitz, translated by Michael Howard, p. 188 ISBN 1-85715-121-6 ^ Paul Strathern, Napoleon
Napoleon
in Egypt: The Greatest Glory (2007) ^ Jourdan, p. 140. ^ Masséna, commanding the Army of Switzerland, sent a Demi-brigade
Demi-brigade
to secure the Swiss town of Schaffhausen, on the north shore of the Rhine, which guaranteed communications between the two forces. Jourdan, pp. 96–97. ^ Jourdan, p. 97. ^ Rothenberg, pp. 70–74; Jourdan, pp. 65–88; 96–100; Blanning, p. 232; (in German) Ruth Broda. "Schlacht von Ostrach:“ jährt sich zum 210. Mal – Feier am Wochenende. Wie ein Dorf zum Kriegsschauplatz wurde. In: Südkurier vom 13. Mai 2009. ^ a b Young, pp. 230–345; Gallagher, p. 70–79; Jourdan, pp. 190–204. ^ Georges Lefebvre, The French Revolution
French Revolution
Volume II: from 1793 to 1799 (1964) ch 13 ^ Arnold, 197–99 ^ Arnold, 199–201 ^ W.M. Sloane, Life of Napoleon. France, 1896, p. 109. ^ Sloane, 109 ^ Sloane, pp. 109–10. ^ Digby Smith, Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
Databook. London: Greenhill Press, 1998, p. 178. ^ Lester Kurtz and Jennifer Turpin, Encyclopedia of violence, peace and conflict, Volume 2. p. 425 ^ David G. Chandler, The Campaigns of Napoleon. p. 136 ^ T. C. W. Blanning, The French Revolutionary Wars. p. 109 ^ Parker, Geoffrey. The Cambridge history of warfare. p. 189 ^ Peter Paret, Clausewitz and the State. p. 332

Further reading[edit]

 Atkinson, Charles Francis; Hannay, David McDowall (1911). "French Revolutionary Wars". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 11 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 171–205.  Bertaud, Jean-Paul. The Army of the French Revolution: From Citizen-Soldiers to Instrument of Power (1988), a major French study Black, Jeremy. British Foreign Policy in an Age of Revolutions, 1783–93 (1994) Blanning, T. C. W. The French Revolutionary Wars, 1787–1801. (1996) excerpt and text search Bryant, Arthur. Years of Endurance 1793–1802 (1942); on Britain Connelly, Owen. The wars of the French Revolution
French Revolution
and Napoleon, 1792–1815 (2006) Crawley, C. W., ed. The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 9: War and Peace in an Age of Upheaval, 1793–1830 (1965), comprehensive global coverage by experts Doughty, Robert, and Ira Gruber, eds. Warfare in the Western World: volume 1: Military operations from 1600 to 1871 (1996) pp. 173–94 Dupuy, Trevor N. and Dupuy, R. Ernest. The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History (2nd ed. 1970) pp. 678–93 Esdaile, Charles. The French Wars 1792–1815 (2002) 113pp excerpt and text search, ch 1 Forrest, Alan. Soldiers of the French Revolution
French Revolution
(1989) Forrest, Alan. " French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars
(1792–1802)" in Gordon Martel, ed. The Encyclopedia of War (2012). Fremont-Barnes, Gregory. The French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars
(Essential Histories) (2013) excerpt and text search Gardiner, Robert. Fleet Battle And Blockade: The French Revolutionary War 1793–1797 (2006), naval excerpt and text search Griffith, Paddy. The Art of War of Revolutionary France, 1789–1802 (1998) excerpt and text search; military topics, but not a battle history Knight, Roger. Britain Against Napoleon: The Organisation of Victory, 1793–1815 (2013) Lavery, Brian. Nelson's Navy, Revised and Updated: The Ships, Men, and Organization, 1793–1815 (2nd ed. 2012) Lefebvre, Georges. The French Revolution
French Revolution
Volume II: from 1793 to 1799 (1964). Lynn, John A. The Bayonets of the Republic: Motivation And Tactics In The Army Of Revolutionary France, 1791–94 (1984) Roberts, Andrew. Napoleon
Napoleon
(2014), a major biography Rodger, A.B. The War of the Second Coalition: 1798 to 1801, a strategic commentary (1964) Ross, Steven T. Quest for Victory; French Military Strategy, 1792–1799 (1973) Ross, Steven T. European Diplomatic History, 1789–1815: France Against Europe
Europe
(1969) Rothenberg, Gunther E. (1982). Napoleon's Great Adversaries: The Archduke Charles and the Austrian Army 1792–1814.  Rothenberg, Gunther E. "The Origins, Causes, and Extension of the Wars of the French Revolution
French Revolution
and Napoleon," Journal of Interdisciplinary History (1988) 18#4 pp. 771–93 in JSTOR Schroeder, Paul W. The Transformation of European Politics 1763–1848 (Oxford University Press, 1996); advanced diplomatic history; pp. 100–230 online Schneid, Frederick C.: The French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2011. von Guttner, Darius. The French Revolution
French Revolution
[1] (2015).

Historiography[edit]

Simms, Brendan. "Britain and Napoleon," Historical Journal (1998) 41#3 pp. 885–94 in JSTOR

In French[edit]

Attar, Frank, La Révolution française déclare la guerre à l'Europe. ISBN 2-87027-448-3 Attar, Frank, • Aux armes citoyens ! Naissance et fonctions du bellicisme révolutionnaire. ISBN 2-0208-8891-2

v t e

French Revolution

Causes Timeline Ancien Régime Revolution Constitutional monarchy Republic Directory Consulate Glossary

Significant civil and political events by year

1788

Day of the Tiles
Day of the Tiles
(7 Jun 1788) Assembly of Vizille
Assembly of Vizille
(21 Jul 1788)

1789

What Is the Third Estate?
What Is the Third Estate?
(Jan 1789) Réveillon riots (28 Apr 1789) Convocation of the Estates-General (5 May 1789) National Assembly (17 Jun – 9 Jul 1790) Tennis Court Oath
Tennis Court Oath
(20 Jun 1789) National Constituent Assembly (9 Jul – 30 Sep 1791) Storming of the Bastille
Storming of the Bastille
(14 Jul 1789) Great Fear (20 Jul – 5 Aug 1789) Abolition of Feudalism (4-11 Aug 1789) Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
(27 Aug 1789) Women's March on Versailles
Women's March on Versailles
(5 Oct 1789)

1790

Abolition of the Parlements (Feb–Jul 1790) Abolition of the Nobility (19 Jun 1790) Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
(12 Jul 1790)

1791

Flight to Varennes
Flight to Varennes
(20–21 Jun 1791) Champ de Mars Massacre
Champ de Mars Massacre
(17 Jul 1791) Declaration of Pillnitz (27 Aug 1791) The Constitution of 1791 (3 Sep 1791) Legislative Assembly (1 Oct 1791 – Sep 1792)

1792

France
France
declares war (20 Apr 1792) Brunswick Manifesto
Brunswick Manifesto
(25 Jul 1792) Paris Commune becomes insurrectionary (Jun 1792) 10th of August (10 Aug 1792) September Massacres
September Massacres
(Sep 1792) National Convention
National Convention
(20 Sep 1792 – 26 Oct 1795) First republic declared (22 Sep 1792)

1793

Execution of Louis XVI
Louis XVI
(21 Jan 1793) Revolutionary Tribunal
Revolutionary Tribunal
(9 Mar 1793 – 31 May 1795) Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
(27 Jun 1793 – 27 Jul 1794)

Committee of Public Safety Committee of General Security

Fall of the Girondists (2 Jun 1793) Assassination of Marat (13 Jul 1793) Levée en masse
Levée en masse
(23 Aug 1793) The Death of Marat
The Death of Marat
(painting) Law of Suspects
Law of Suspects
(17 Sep 1793) Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
is guillotined (16 Oct 1793) Anti-clerical laws (throughout the year)

1794

Danton and Desmoulins guillotined (5 Apr 1794) Law of 22 Prairial
Law of 22 Prairial
(10 Jun 1794) Thermidorian Reaction
Thermidorian Reaction
(27 Jul 1794) Robespierre guillotined (28 Jul 1794) White Terror (Fall 1794) Closing of the Jacobin Club (11 Nov 1794)

1795

Constitution of the Year III
Constitution of the Year III
(22 Aug 1795) Conspiracy of the Equals
Conspiracy of the Equals
(Nov 1795) Directoire (1795–99)

Council of Five Hundred Council of Ancients

13 Vendémiaire
13 Vendémiaire
5 Oct 1795

1797

Coup of 18 Fructidor
Coup of 18 Fructidor
(4 Sep 1797) Second Congress of Rastatt
Second Congress of Rastatt
(Dec 1797)

1799

Coup of 30 Prairial VII (18 Jun 1799) Coup of 18 Brumaire
Coup of 18 Brumaire
(9 Nov 1799) Constitution of the Year VIII
Constitution of the Year VIII
(24 Dec 1799) Consulate

Revolutionary campaigns

1792

Verdun Thionville Valmy Royalist Revolts

Chouannerie Vendée Dauphiné

Lille Siege of Mainz Jemappes Namur (fr)

1793

First Coalition Siege of Toulon
Siege of Toulon
(18 Sep – 18 Dec 1793) War in the Vendée Battle of Neerwinden) Battle of Famars
Battle of Famars
(23 May 1793) Expédition de Sardaigne
Expédition de Sardaigne
(21 Dec 1792 - 25 May 1793) Battle of Kaiserslautern Siege of Mainz Battle of Wattignies Battle of Hondschoote Siege of Bellegarde Battle of Peyrestortes
Battle of Peyrestortes
(Pyrenees) First Battle of Wissembourg (13 Oct 1793) Battle of Truillas
Battle of Truillas
(Pyrenees) Second Battle of Wissembourg (26–27 Dec 1793)

1794

Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
(24 Apr 1794) Battle of Boulou
Battle of Boulou
(Pyrenees) (30 Apr – 1 May 1794) Battle of Tournay
Battle of Tournay
(22 May 1794) Battle of Fleurus (26 Jun 1794) Chouannerie Battle of Tourcoing
Battle of Tourcoing
(18 May 1794) Battle of Aldenhoven (2 Oct 1794)

1795

Peace of Basel

1796

Battle of Lonato
Battle of Lonato
(3–4 Aug 1796) Battle of Castiglione
Battle of Castiglione
(5 Aug 1796) Battle of Theiningen Battle of Neresheim
Battle of Neresheim
(11 Aug 1796) Battle of Amberg
Battle of Amberg
(24 Aug 1796) Battle of Würzburg
Battle of Würzburg
(3 Sep 1796) Battle of Rovereto
Battle of Rovereto
(4 Sep 1796) First Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(8 Sep 1796) Battle of Emmendingen
Battle of Emmendingen
(19 Oct 1796) Battle of Schliengen
Battle of Schliengen
(26 Oct 1796) Second Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(6 Nov 1796) Battle of Calliano (6–7 Nov 1796) Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
(15–17 Nov 1796) The Ireland Expedition (Dec 1796)

1797

Naval Engagement off Brittany (13 Jan 1797) Battle of Rivoli
Battle of Rivoli
(14–15 Jan 1797) Battle of the Bay of Cádiz (25 Jan 1797) Treaty of Leoben
Treaty of Leoben
(17 Apr 1797) Battle of Neuwied (18 Apr 1797) Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
(17 Oct 1797)

1798

French invasion of Switzerland
French invasion of Switzerland
(28 January – 17 May 1798) French Invasion of Egypt
French Invasion of Egypt
(1798–1801) Irish Rebellion of 1798
Irish Rebellion of 1798
(23 May – 23 Sep 1798) Quasi-War
Quasi-War
(1798–1800) Peasants' War (12 Oct – 5 Dec 1798)

1799

Second Coalition
Second Coalition
(1798–1802) Siege of Acre (20 Mar – 21 May 1799) Battle of Ostrach
Battle of Ostrach
(20–21 Mar 1799) Battle of Stockach
Stockach
(25 Mar 1799) Battle of Magnano
Battle of Magnano
(5 Apr 1799) Battle of Cassano (27 Apr 1799) First Battle of Zurich
First Battle of Zurich
(4–7 Jun 1799) Battle of Trebbia (19 Jun 1799) Battle of Novi (15 Aug 1799) Second Battle of Zurich
Second Battle of Zurich
(25–26 Sep 1799)

1800

Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
(14 Jun 1800) Battle of Hohenlinden
Battle of Hohenlinden
(3 Dec 1800) League of Armed Neutrality (1800–02)

1801

Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville
(9 Feb 1801) Treaty of Florence
Treaty of Florence
(18 Mar 1801) Algeciras Campaign
Algeciras Campaign
(8 Jul 1801)

1802

Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
(25 Mar 1802)

Military leaders

French Army

Eustache Charles d'Aoust Pierre Augereau Alexandre de Beauharnais Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte Louis-Alexandre Berthier Jean-Baptiste Bessières Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune Jean François Carteaux Jean Étienne Championnet Chapuis de Tourville Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine Louis-Nicolas Davout Louis Desaix Jacques François Dugommier Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Charles François Dumouriez Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino Louis-Charles de Flers Paul Grenier Emmanuel de Grouchy Jacques Maurice Hatry Lazare Hoche Jean-Baptiste Jourdan François Christophe de Kellermann Jean-Baptiste Kléber Pierre Choderlos de Laclos Jean Lannes Charles Leclerc Claude Lecourbe François Joseph Lefebvre Jacques MacDonald Jean-Antoine Marbot Jean Baptiste de Marbot François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers Auguste de Marmont André Masséna Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey Jean Victor Marie Moreau Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise Joachim Murat Michel Ney Pierre-Jacques Osten (fr) Nicolas Oudinot Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon Jean-Charles Pichegru Józef Poniatowski Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier Joseph Souham Jean-de-Dieu Soult Louis-Gabriel Suchet Belgrand de Vaubois Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno

French Navy

Charles-Alexandre Linois

Opposition

Austria

József Alvinczi Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen Count of Clerfayt (Walloon) Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
(Swiss) Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth Pál Kray
Pál Kray
(Hungarian) Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
(French) Maximilian Baillet de Latour (Walloon) Karl Mack von Leiberich Rudolf Ritter von Otto (Saxon) Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich Prince Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
(Hungarian) Karl Philipp Sebottendorf Dagobert von Wurmser

Britain

Sir Ralph Abercromby Admiral Sir James Saumarez Admiral Sir Edward Pellew Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany

Dutch Republic

William V, Prince of Orange

 Prussia

Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen

Russia

Alexander Korsakov Alexander Suvorov

Spain

Luis Firmin de Carvajal Antonio Ricardos

Other significant figures and factions

Society of 1789

Jean Sylvain Bailly Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt Isaac René Guy le Chapelier Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord Nicolas de Condorcet

Feuillants and monarchiens

Madame de Lamballe Madame du Barry Louis de Breteuil Loménie de Brienne Charles Alexandre de Calonne de Chateaubriand Jean Chouan Grace Elliott Arnaud de La Porte Jean-Sifrein Maury Jacques Necker François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas Antoine Barnave Lafayette Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth Charles Malo François Lameth André Chénier Jean-François Rewbell Camille Jordan Madame de Staël Boissy d'Anglas Jean-Charles Pichegru Pierre Paul Royer-Collard

Girondists

Jacques Pierre Brissot Roland de La Platière Madame Roland Father Henri Grégoire Étienne Clavière Marquis de Condorcet Charlotte Corday Marie Jean Hérault Jean Baptiste Treilhard Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve Jean Debry Jean-Jacques Duval d'Eprémesnil Olympe de Gouges Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux

The Plain

Abbé Sieyès de Cambacérès Charles François Lebrun Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot Philippe Égalité Louis Philippe I Mirabeau Antoine Christophe Merlin
Antoine Christophe Merlin
de Thionville Jean Joseph Mounier Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours François de Neufchâteau

Montagnards

Maximilien Robespierre Georges Danton Jean-Paul Marat Camille Desmoulins Louis Antoine de Saint-Just Paul Nicolas, vicomte de Barras Louis Philippe I Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau Jacques-Louis David Marquis de Sade Jacques-Louis David Georges Couthon Roger Ducos Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois Jean-Henri Voulland Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier Jean-Pierre-André Amar Prieur de la Côte-d'Or Prieur de la Marne Gilbert Romme Jean Bon Saint-André Jean-Lambert Tallien Pierre Louis Prieur Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Antoine Christophe Saliceti

Hébertists and Enragés

Jacques Hébert Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne Pierre Gaspard Chaumette Charles-Philippe Ronsin Antoine-François Momoro François-Nicolas Vincent François Chabot Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel François Hanriot Jacques Roux Stanislas-Marie Maillard Charles-Philippe Ronsin Jean-François Varlet Theophile Leclerc Claire Lacombe Pauline Léon Gracchus Babeuf Sylvain Maréchal

Others

Charles X Louis XVI Louis XVII Louis XVIII Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien Louis Henri, Prince of Condé Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé Marie Antoinette Napoléon Bonaparte Lucien Bonaparte Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Fesch Joséphine de Beauharnais Joachim Murat Jean Sylvain Bailly Jacques-Donatien Le Ray Guillaume-Chrétien de Malesherbes Talleyrand Thérésa Tallien Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target Catherine Théot List of people associated with the French Revolution

Influential thinkers

Les Lumières Beaumarchais Edmund Burke Anacharsis Cloots Charles-Augustin de Coulomb Pierre Claude François Daunou Diderot Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson Antoine Lavoisier Montesquieu Thomas Paine Jean-Jacques Rousseau Abbé Sieyès Voltaire Mary Wollstonecraft

Cultural impact

La Marseillaise French Tricolour Liberté, égalité, fraternité Marianne Bastille Day Panthéon French Republican Calendar Cult of the Supreme Being Cult of Reason

Temple of Reason

Sans-culottes Metric system Phrygian cap Women in the French Revolution Symbolism in the French Revolution Historiography of the French Revolution Influence of the French Revolution

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