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The French Republican Calendar
Calendar
(French: calendrier républicain français), also commonly called the French Revolutionary Calendar (calendrier révolutionnaire français), was a calendar created and implemented during the French Revolution, and used by the French government for about 12 years from late 1793 to 1805, and for 18 days by the Paris Commune
Paris Commune
in 1871. The revolutionary system was designed in part to remove all religious and royalist influences from the calendar, and was part of a larger attempt at decimalisation in France (which also included decimal time of day, decimalisation of currency, and metrication). It was used in government records in France
France
and other areas under French rule, including Belgium, Luxembourg, and parts of the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Malta and Italy.

Contents

1 Overview and origins

1.1 Precursor 1.2 History 1.3 Calendar
Calendar
design 1.4 Decimal time

2 Months 3 Ten days of the week 4 Rural Calendar

4.1 Autumn 4.2 Winter 4.3 Spring 4.4 Summer

5 Complementary days 6 Converting from the Gregorian Calendar 7 Current date and time 8 Criticism and shortcomings 9 Famous dates and other cultural references 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Overview and origins[edit] Precursor[edit] Sylvain Maréchal, prominent anticlerical atheist, published the first edition of his Almanach des Honnêtes-gens (Almanac of Honest People) in 1788.[1] On pages 14–15 appears a calendar, consisting of twelve months. The first month is "Mars, ou Princeps" (March, or First), the last month is "Février, ou Duodécembre" (February, or Twelfth). (The months of September [meaning "the seventh"] through December [meaning "the tenth"] are already numeric names, although their meanings do not match their positions in either the Julian or the Gregorian calendar since the Romans changed the first month of a year from March to January.) The lengths of the months are the same; however, the 10th, 20th, and 30th are singled out of each month as the end of a décade (group of ten). Individual days were assigned, instead of to the traditional saints, to people noteworthy for mostly secular achievements; 25 December is assigned to both Jesus and Newton.[citation needed] Later editions of the almanac would switch to the Republican Calendar.[citation needed] History[edit]

A copy of the French Republican Calendar
Calendar
in the Historical Museum of Lausanne

The days of the French Revolution
French Revolution
and Republic saw many efforts to sweep away various trappings of the ancien régime (the old feudal monarchy); some of these were more successful than others. The new Republican government sought to institute, among other reforms, a new social and legal system, a new system of weights and measures (which became the metric system), and a new calendar. Amid nostalgia for the ancient Roman Republic, the theories of the Enlightenment were at their peak, and the devisers of the new systems looked to nature for their inspiration. Natural constants, multiples of ten, and Latin
Latin
as well as Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
derivations formed the fundamental blocks from which the new systems were built. The new calendar was created by a commission under the direction of the politician Charles-Gilbert Romme
Charles-Gilbert Romme
seconded by Claude Joseph Ferry and Charles-François Dupuis. They associated with their work the chemist Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau, the mathematician and astronomer Joseph-Louis Lagrange, the astronomer Joseph Jérôme Lefrançois de Lalande, the mathematician Gaspard Monge, the astronomer and naval geographer Alexandre Guy Pingré, and the poet, actor and playwright Fabre d'Églantine, who invented the names of the months, with the help of André Thouin, gardener at the Jardin des Plantes of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle
Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle
in Paris. As the rapporteur of the commission, Charles-Gilbert Romme
Charles-Gilbert Romme
presented the new calendar to the Jacobin-controlled National Convention
National Convention
on 23 September 1793, which adopted it on 24 October 1793 and also extended it proleptically to its epoch of 22 September 1792. It is because of his position as rapporteur of the commission that the creation of the republican calendar is attributed to Romme.[2] The calendar is often called the "French Revolutionary Calendar" because it was created during the Revolution, but this is somewhat of a misnomer. Indeed, there was initially a debate as to whether the calendar should celebrate the Great Revolution, which began in July 1789, or the Republic, which was established in 1792.[3] Immediately following 14 July 1789, papers and pamphlets started calling 1789 year I of Liberty and the following years II and III. It was in 1792, with the practical problem of dating financial transactions, that the legislative assembly was confronted with the problem of the calendar. Originally, the choice of epoch was either 1 January 1789 or 14 July 1789. After some hesitation the assembly decided on 2 January 1792 that all official documents would use the "era of Liberty" and that the year IV of Liberty started on 1 January 1792. This usage was modified on 22 September 1792 when the Republic was proclaimed and the Convention decided that all public documents would be dated Year I of the French Republic. The decree of 2 January 1793 stipulated that the year II of the Republic began on 1 January 1793; this was revoked with the introduction of the new calendar, which set 22 September 1793 as the beginning of year II. The establishment of the Republic was used as the epochal date for the calendar; therefore, the calendar commemorates the Republic, not the Revolution. In France, it is known as the calendrier républicain as well as the calendrier révolutionnaire. French coins of the period naturally used this calendar. Many show the year (French: an) in Arabic numbers, although Roman numerals
Roman numerals
were used on some issues. Year 11 coins typically have a "XI" date to avoid confusion with the Roman "II". The French Revolution
French Revolution
is usually considered to have ended with the coup of 18 Brumaire, Year VIII (9 November 1799), the coup d'état of Napoléon
Napoléon
Bonaparte against the established constitutional regime of the Directoire. The Concordat of 1801
Concordat of 1801
re-established the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
as an official institution in France, although not as the state religion of France. The concordat took effect from Easter Sunday, 28 Germinal, Year XI (8 April
April
1802); it restored the names of the days of the week to the ones from the Gregorian Calendar, and fixed Sunday as the official day of rest and religious celebration.[4] However, the other attributes of the republican calendar, the months, and years, remained as they were. The French Republic ended with the coronation of Napoleon
Napoleon
I as Empereur des Français (Emperor of the French) on 11 Frimaire, Year XIII (2 December 1804), but the republican calendar would remain in place for another year. Napoléon
Napoléon
finally abolished the republican calendar with effect from 1 January 1806 (the day after 10 Nivôse Year XIV), a little over twelve years after its introduction. It was, however, used again briefly during the short period of the Paris Commune, 6–23 May 1871 (16 Floréal–3 Prairial
Prairial
Year LXXIX). Some legal texts that were adopted when the Republican Calendar
Calendar
was officially in use are still in force in France
France
and other nations or territories which at the time were incorporated into revolutionary France, such as present-day Belgium, Luxembourg and the German territories to the west of the Rhine river. These documents have kept their original dates for legal accuracy and citation purposes.[5] Calendar
Calendar
design[edit]

L AN 2 DE LA REPUBLIQUE FR (Year 2 of the French Republic) on a barn near Geneva

Years appear in writing as Roman numerals
Roman numerals
(usually), with epoch 22 September 1792, the beginning of the "Republican Era" (the day the French First Republic
French First Republic
was proclaimed, one day after the Convention abolished the monarchy). As a result, Roman Numeral I indicates the first year of the republic, that is, the year before the calendar actually came into use. By law, the beginning of each year was set at midnight, beginning on the day the apparent autumnal equinox falls at the Paris Observatory. There were twelve months, each divided into three ten-day weeks called décades. The tenth day, décadi, replaced Sunday as the day of rest and festivity. The five or six extra days needed to approximate the solar or tropical year were placed after the months at the end of each year and called complementary days. This arrangement was an almost exact copy of the calendar used by the Ancient Egyptians, though in their case the beginning of the year was marked by summer solstice rather than autumn equinox. A period of four years ending on a leap day was to be called a "Franciade". The name "Olympique" was originally proposed[6] but changed to Franciade to commemorate the fact that it had taken the revolution four years to establish a republican government in France.[7] The leap year was called Sextile, an allusion to the "bissextile" leap years of the Julian and Gregorian calendars, because it contained a sixth complementary day. Decimal time[edit] Main article: Decimal time Each day in the Republican Calendar
Calendar
was divided into ten hours, each hour into 100 decimal minutes, and each decimal minute into 100 decimal seconds. Thus an hour was 144 conventional minutes (more than twice as long as a conventional hour), a minute was 86.4 conventional seconds (44% longer than a conventional minute), and a second was 0.864 conventional seconds (13.6% shorter than a conventional second). Clocks were manufactured to display this decimal time, but it did not catch on. Mandatory use of decimal time was officially suspended 7 April
April
1795, although some cities continued to use decimal time as late as 1801.[8] The numbering of years in the Republican Calendar
Calendar
by Roman numerals ran counter to this general decimalization tendency. Months[edit] The Republican calendar year began the day the autumnal equinox occurred in Paris, and had twelve months of 30 days each, which were given new names based on nature, principally having to do with the prevailing weather in and around Paris.

Autumn:

Vendémiaire
Vendémiaire
in French (from French vendange, derived from Latin vindemia, "grape harvest"), starting 22, 23, or 24 September Brumaire
Brumaire
(from French brume, "mist"), starting 22, 23, or 24 October Frimaire
Frimaire
(From French frimas, "frost"), starting 21, 22, or 23 November

Winter:

Nivôse
Nivôse
(from Latin
Latin
nivosus, "snowy"), starting 21, 22, or 23 December Pluviôse
Pluviôse
(from French pluvieux, derived from Latin
Latin
pluvius, "rainy"), starting 20, 21, or 22 January Ventôse
Ventôse
(from French venteux, derived from Latin
Latin
ventosus, "windy"), starting 19, 20, or 21 February

Spring:

Germinal (from French germination), starting 20 or 21 March Floréal
Floréal
(from French fleur, derived from Latin
Latin
flos, "flower"), starting 20 or 21 April Prairial
Prairial
(from French prairie, "meadow"), starting 20 or 21 May

Summer:

Messidor
Messidor
(from Latin
Latin
messis, "harvest"), starting 19 or 20 June Thermidor
Thermidor
(or Fervidor*) (from Greek thermon, "summer heat"), starting 19 or 20 July Fructidor
Fructidor
(from Latin
Latin
fructus, "fruit"), starting 18 or 19 August

*Note: On many printed calendars of Year II (1793–94), the month of Thermidor
Thermidor
was named Fervidor (from Latin
Latin
fervens, "hot"). Most of the month names were new words coined from French, Latin, or Greek. The endings of the names are grouped by season. "Dor" means "giving" in Greek.[9] In Britain, a contemporary wit mocked the Republican Calendar
Calendar
by calling the months: Wheezy, Sneezy and Freezy; Slippy, Drippy and Nippy; Showery, Flowery and Bowery; Hoppy, Croppy and Poppy.[10] The Scottish historian Thomas Carlyle
Thomas Carlyle
suggested somewhat more serious English names in his 1837 work The French Revolution: A History,[9] namely Vintagearious, Fogarious, Frostarious, Snowous, Rainous, Windous, Buddal, Floweral, Meadowal, Reapidor, Heatidor, and Fruitidor. Like the French originals, they are neologisms suggesting a meaning related to the season. Ten days of the week[edit]

French Revolutionary pocket watch showing ten-day décade names and thirty-day month numbers from the Republican Calendar, but with duodecimal time. On display at the Musée d'Art et d'Histoire (Neuchâtel) In Switzerland.

The month is divided into three décades or "weeks" of ten days each, named simply:

primidi (first day) duodi (second day) tridi (third day) quartidi (fourth day) quintidi (fifth day) sextidi (sixth day) septidi (seventh day) octidi (eighth day) nonidi (ninth day) décadi (tenth day)

Décades were abandoned in Floréal
Floréal
an X ( April
April
1802).[11] Rural Calendar[edit] The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
used a calendar of saints, which named each day of the year after an associated saint. To reduce the influence of the Church, Fabre d'Églantine introduced a Rural Calendar
Calendar
in which each day of the year had a unique name associated with the rural economy, stated to correspond to the time of year. Every décadi (ending in 0) was named after an agricultural tool. Each quintidi (ending in 5) was named for a common animal. The rest of the days were named for "grain, pasture, trees, roots, flowers, fruits" and other plants, except for the first month of winter, Nivôse, during which the rest of the days were named after minerals.[12][13]

Our starting point was the idea of celebrating, through the calendar, the agricultural system, and of leading the nation back to it, marking the times and the fractions of the year by intelligible or visible signs taken from agriculture and the rural economy. (...) As the calendar is something that we use so often, we must take advantage of this frequency of use to put elementary notions of agriculture before the people — to show the richness of nature, to make them love the fields, and to methodically show them the order of the influences of the heavens and of the products of the earth. The priests assigned the commemoration of a so-called saint to each day of the year: this catalogue exhibited neither utility nor method; it was a collection of lies, of deceit or of charlatanism. We thought that the nation, after having kicked out this canonised mob from its calendar, must replace it with the objects that make up the true riches of the nation, worthy objects not from a cult, but from agriculture — useful products of the soil, the tools that we use to cultivate it, and the domesticated animals, our faithful servants in these works; animals much more precious, without doubt, to the eye of reason, than the beatified skeletons pulled from the catacombs of Rome. So we have arranged in the column of each month, the names of the real treasures of the rural economy. The grains, the pastures, the trees, the roots, the flowers, the fruits, the plants are arranged in the calendar, in such a way that the place and the day of the month that each product occupies is precisely the season and the day that Nature presents it to us. — Fabre d'Églantine, "Rapport fait à la Convention nationale au nom de la Commission chargée de la confection du Calendrier",[14] Imprimerie nationale, 1793

Autumn[edit]

Vendémiaire (22 September – 21 October)

1 22 Sep Raisin (Grape)

2 23 Sep Safran (Saffron)

3 24 Sep Châtaigne (Chestnut)

4 25 Sep Colchique (Crocus)

5 26 Sep Cheval (Horse)

6 27 Sep Balsamine (Impatiens)

7 28 Sep Carotte (Carrot)

8 29 Sep Amaranthe (Amaranth)

9 30 Sep Panais (Parsnip)

10 1 Oct Cuve (Vat)

11 2 Oct Pomme de terre (Potato)

12 3 Oct Immortelle (Strawflower)

13 4 Oct Potiron (Winter squash)

14 5 Oct Réséda (Mignonette)

15 6 Oct Âne (Donkey)

16 7 Oct Belle de nuit (Four o'clock flower)

17 8 Oct Citrouille (Pumpkin)

18 9 Oct Sarrasin (Buckwheat)

19 10 Oct Tournesol (Sunflower)

20 11 Oct Pressoir (Wine-Press)

21 12 Oct Chanvre (Hemp)

22 13 Oct Pêche (Peach)

23 14 Oct Navet (Turnip)

24 15 Oct Amaryllis
Amaryllis
(Amaryllis)

25 16 Oct Bœuf (Ox)

26 17 Oct Aubergine (Eggplant)

27 18 Oct Piment (Chili pepper)

28 19 Oct Tomate (Tomato)

29 20 Oct Orge (Barley)

30 21 Oct Tonneau (Barrel)

Brumaire (22 October – 20 November)

1 22 Oct Pomme (Apple)

2 23 Oct Céleri (Celery)

3 24 Oct Poire (Pear)

4 25 Oct Betterave (Beetroot)

5 26 Oct Oie (Goose)

6 27 Oct Héliotrope (Heliotrope)

7 28 Oct Figue (Common fig)

8 29 Oct Scorsonère (Black Salsify)

9 30 Oct Alisier (Chequer Tree)

10 31 Oct Charrue (Plough)

11 1 Nov Salsifis (Salsify)

12 2 Nov Mâcre (Water chestnut)

13 3 Nov Topinambour (Jerusalem artichoke)

14 4 Nov Endive
Endive
(Endive)

15 5 Nov Dindon (Turkey)

16 6 Nov Chervis (Skirret)

17 7 Nov Cresson (Watercress)

18 8 Nov Dentelaire (Leadworts)

19 9 Nov Grenade (Pomegranate)

20 10 Nov Herse (Harrow)

21 11 Nov Bacchante (Baccharis)

22 12 Nov Azerole (Azarole)

23 13 Nov Garance (Madder)

24 14 Nov Orange (Orange)

25 15 Nov Faisan (Pheasant)

26 16 Nov Pistache (Pistachio)

27 17 Nov Macjonc (Tuberous pea)

28 18 Nov Coing (Quince)

29 19 Nov Cormier (Service tree)

30 20 Nov Rouleau (Roller)

Frimaire (21 November – 20 December)

1 21 Nov Raiponce (Rampion)

2 22 Nov Turneps (Turnip)

3 23 Nov Chicorée (Chicory)

4 24 Nov Nèfle (Medlar)

5 25 Nov Cochon (Pig)

6 26 Nov Mâche (Lamb's lettuce)

7 27 Nov Chou-fleur (Cauliflower)

8 28 Nov Miel (Honey)

9 29 Nov Genièvre (Juniper)

10 30 Nov Pioche (Pickaxe)

11 1 Dec Cire (Wax)

12 2 Dec Raifort (Horseradish)

13 3 Dec Cèdre (Cedar tree)

14 4 Dec Sapin (Fir)

15 5 Dec Chevreuil (Roe deer)

16 6 Dec Ajonc (Gorse)

17 7 Dec Cyprès (Cypress Tree)

18 8 Dec Lierre (Ivy)

19 9 Dec Sabine (Savin Juniper)

20 10 Dec Hoyau (Grub-hoe)

21 11 Dec Érable à sucre (Sugar Maple)

22 12 Dec Bruyère (Heather)

23 13 Dec Roseau (Reed plant)

24 14 Dec Oseille (Sorrel)

25 15 Dec Grillon (Cricket)

26 16 Dec Pignon (Pine nut)

27 17 Dec Liège (Cork)

28 18 Dec Truffe (Truffle)

29 19 Dec Olive
Olive
(Olive)

30 20 Dec Pelle (Shovel)

Winter[edit]

Nivôse (21 December – 19 January)

1 21 Dec Tourbe (Peat)

2 22 Dec Houille (Coal)

3 23 Dec Bitume (Bitumen)

4 24 Dec Soufre (Sulphur)

5 25 Dec Chien (Dog)

6 26 Dec Lave (Lava)

7 27 Dec Terre végétale (Topsoil)

8 28 Dec Fumier (Manure)

9 29 Dec Salpêtre (Saltpeter)

10 30 Dec Fléau (Flail)

11 31 Dec Granit (Granite)

12 1 Jan Argile (Clay)

13 2 Jan Ardoise (Slate)

14 3 Jan Grès (Sandstone)

15 4 Jan Lapin (Rabbit)

16 5 Jan Silex (Flint)

17 6 Jan Marne (Marl)

18 7 Jan Pierre à chaux (Limestone)

19 8 Jan Marbre (Marble)

20 9 Jan Van ( Winnowing
Winnowing
basket)

21 10 Jan Pierre à plâtre (Gypsum)

22 11 Jan Sel (Salt)

23 12 Jan Fer (Iron)

24 13 Jan Cuivre (Copper)

25 14 Jan Chat (Cat)

26 15 Jan Étain (Tin)

27 16 Jan Plomb (Lead)

28 17 Jan Zinc
Zinc
(Zinc)

29 18 Jan Mercure (Mercury)

30 19 Jan Crible (Sieve)

Pluviôse (20 January – 18 February)

1 20 Jan Lauréole (Spurge-laurel)

2 21 Jan Mousse (Moss)

3 22 Jan Fragon (Butcher's Broom)

4 23 Jan Perce-neige (Snowdrop)

5 24 Jan Taureau (Bull)

6 25 Jan Laurier-thym (Laurustinus)

7 26 Jan Amadouvier (Tinder polypore)

8 27 Jan Mézéréon (Daphne mezereum)

9 28 Jan Peuplier (Poplar)

10 29 Jan Coignée (Axe)

11 30 Jan Ellébore (Hellebore)

12 31 Jan Brocoli (Broccoli)

13 1 Feb Laurier (Bay laurel)

14 2 Feb Avelinier (Filbert)

15 3 Feb Vache (Cow)

16 4 Feb Buis (Box Tree)

17 5 Feb Lichen
Lichen
(Lichen)

18 6 Feb If (Yew tree)

19 7 Feb Pulmonaire (Lungwort)

20 8 Feb Serpette (Billhook)

21 9 Feb Thlaspi (Pennycress)

22 10 Feb Thimelé ( Rose
Rose
Daphne)

23 11 Feb Chiendent (Couch grass)

24 12 Feb Trainasse (Common Knotgrass)

25 13 Feb Lièvre (Hare)

26 14 Feb Guède (Woad)

27 15 Feb Noisetier (Hazel)

28 16 Feb Cyclamen
Cyclamen
(Cyclamen)

29 17 Feb Chélidoine (Celandine)

30 18 Feb Traîneau (Sleigh)

Ventôse (19 February – 20 March)

1 19 Feb Tussilage (Coltsfoot)

2 20 Feb Cornouiller (Dogwood)

3 21 Feb Violier (Matthiola)

4 22 Feb Troène (Privet)

5 23 Feb Bouc (Billygoat)

6 24 Feb Asaret (Wild Ginger)

7 25 Feb Alaterne (Italian Buckthorn)

8 26 Feb Violette (Violet)

9 27 Feb Marceau ( Goat
Goat
Willow)

10 28 Feb Bêche (Spade)

11 1 Mar Narcisse (Narcissus)

12 2 Mar Orme (Elm)

13 3 Mar Fumeterre (Common fumitory)

14 4 Mar Vélar (Hedge mustard)

15 5 Mar Chèvre (Goat)

16 6 Mar Épinard (Spinach)

17 7 Mar Doronic (Doronicum)

18 8 Mar Mouron (Pimpernel)

19 9 Mar Cerfeuil (Chervil)

20 10 Mar Cordeau (Twine)

21 11 Mar Mandragore (Mandrake)

22 12 Mar Persil (Parsley)

23 13 Mar Cochléaria (Scurvy-grass)

24 14 Mar Pâquerette (Daisy)

25 15 Mar Thon (Tuna)

26 16 Mar Pissenlit (Dandelion)

27 17 Mar Sylvie (Wood Anemone)

28 18 Mar Capillaire (Maidenhair fern)

29 19 Mar Frêne (Ash tree)

30 20 Mar Plantoir (Dibber)

Spring[edit]

Germinal (21 March – 19 April)

1 21 Mar Primevère (Primrose)

2 22 Mar Platane (Plane Tree)

3 23 Mar Asperge (Asparagus)

4 24 Mar Tulipe (Tulip)

5 25 Mar Poule (Hen)

6 26 Mar Bette (Chard)

7 27 Mar Bouleau (Birch)

8 28 Mar Jonquille (Daffodil)

9 29 Mar Aulne (Alder)

10 30 Mar Couvoir (Hatchery)

11 31 Mar Pervenche (Periwinkle)

12 1 Apr Charme (Hornbeam)

13 2 Apr Morille (Morel)

14 3 Apr Hêtre (Beech Tree)

15 4 Apr Abeille (Bee)

16 5 Apr Laitue (Lettuce)

17 6 Apr Mélèze (Larch)

18 7 Apr Ciguë (Hemlock)

19 8 Apr Radis (Radish)

20 9 Apr Ruche (Hive)

21 10 Apr Gainier (Judas tree)

22 11 Apr Romaine (Romaine lettuce)

23 12 Apr Marronnier ( Horse
Horse
chestnut)

24 13 Apr Roquette ( Arugula
Arugula
or Rocket)

25 14 Apr Pigeon
Pigeon
(Pigeon)

26 15 Apr Lilas (Lilac)

27 16 Apr Anémone (Anemone)

28 17 Apr Pensée (Pansy)

29 18 Apr Myrtille (Bilberry)

30 19 Apr Greffoir (Knife)

Floréal (20 April
April
– 19 May)

1 20 Apr Rose
Rose
(Rose)

2 21 Apr Chêne (Oak Tree)

3 22 Apr Fougère (Fern)

4 23 Apr Aubépine (Hawthorn)

5 24 Apr Rossignol (Nightingale)

6 25 Apr Ancolie (Common Columbine)

7 26 Apr Muguet (Lily of the valley)

8 27 Apr Champignon (Button mushroom)

9 28 Apr Hyacinthe (Hyacinth)

10 29 Apr Râteau (Rake)

11 30 Apr Rhubarbe (Rhubarb)

12 1 May Sainfoin
Sainfoin
(Sainfoin)

13 2 May Bâton d'or (Wallflower)

14 3 May Chamerisier (Fan Palm tree)

15 4 May Ver à soie (Silkworm)

16 5 May Consoude (Comfrey)

17 6 May Pimprenelle (Salad burnet)

18 7 May Corbeille d'or ( Basket
Basket
of Gold)

19 8 May Arroche (Orache)

20 9 May Sarcloir (Garden hoe)

21 10 May Statice (Thrift)

22 11 May Fritillaire (Fritillary)

23 12 May Bourrache (Borage)

24 13 May Valériane (Valerian)

25 14 May Carpe (Carp)

26 15 May Fusain (Spindle (shrub))

27 16 May Civette (Chive)

28 17 May Buglosse (Bugloss)

29 18 May Sénevé (Wild mustard)

30 19 May Houlette (Shepherd's crook)

Prairial (20 May – 18 June)

1 20 May Luzerne (Alfalfa)

2 21 May Hémérocalle (Daylily)

3 22 May Trèfle (Clover)

4 23 May Angélique (Angelica)

5 24 May Canard (Duck)

6 25 May Mélisse ( Lemon
Lemon
balm)

7 26 May Fromental ( Oat
Oat
grass)

8 27 May Martagon (Martagon lily)

9 28 May Serpolet (Wild Thyme)

10 29 May Faux (Scythe)

11 30 May Fraise (Strawberry)

12 31 May Bétoine (Woundwort)

13 1 Jun Pois (Pea)

14 2 Jun Acacia
Acacia
(Acacia)

15 3 Jun Caille (Quail)

16 4 Jun Œillet (Carnation)

17 5 Jun Sureau (Elderberry)

18 6 Jun Pavot (Poppy plant)

19 7 Jun Tilleul (Linden or Lime tree)

20 8 Jun Fourche (Pitchfork)

21 9 Jun Barbeau (Cornflower)

22 10 Jun Camomille (Camomile)

23 11 Jun Chèvrefeuille (Honeysuckle)

24 12 Jun Caille-lait (Bedstraw)

25 13 Jun Tanche (Tench)

26 14 Jun Jasmin (Jasmine)

27 15 Jun Verveine (Verbena)

28 16 Jun Thym (Thyme)

29 17 Jun Pivoine (Peony)

30 18 Jun Chariot (Hand Cart)

Summer[edit]

Messidor (19 June – 18 July)

1 19 Jun Seigle (Rye)

2 20 Jun Avoine (Oat)

3 21 Jun Oignon (Onion)

4 22 Jun Véronique (Speedwell)

5 23 Jun Mulet (Mule)

6 24 Jun Romarin (Rosemary)

7 25 Jun Concombre (Cucumber)

8 26 Jun Échalote (Shallot)

9 27 Jun Absinthe (Wormwood)

10 28 Jun Faucille (Sickle)

11 29 Jun Coriandre (Coriander)

12 30 Jun Artichaut (Artichoke)

13 1 Jul Girofle (Clove)

14 2 Jul Lavande (Lavender)

15 3 Jul Chamois
Chamois
(Chamois)

16 4 Jul Tabac (Tobacco)

17 5 Jul Groseille (Redcurrant)

18 6 Jul Gesse (Hairy Vetchling)

19 7 Jul Cerise (Cherry)

20 8 Jul Parc (Park)

21 9 Jul Menthe (Mint)

22 10 Jul Cumin
Cumin
(Cumin)

23 11 Jul Haricot (Bean)

24 12 Jul Orcanète (Alkanet)

25 13 Jul Pintade (Guinea fowl)

26 14 Jul Sauge (Sage Plant)

27 15 Jul Ail (Garlic)

28 16 Jul Vesce (Tare)

29 17 Jul Blé (Wheat)

30 18 Jul Chalémie (Shawm)

Thermidor (19 July – 17 August)

1 19 Jul Épeautre (Spelt)

2 20 Jul Bouillon blanc (Common mullein)

3 21 Jul Melon (Melon)

4 22 Jul Ivraie (Ryegrass)

5 23 Jul Bélier (Ram)

6 24 Jul Prêle (Horsetail)

7 25 Jul Armoise (Mugwort)

8 26 Jul Carthame (Safflower)

9 27 Jul Mûre (Blackberry)

10 28 Jul Arrosoir (Watering can)

11 29 Jul Panic (Switchgrass)

12 30 Jul Salicorne (Common Glasswort)

13 31 Jul Abricot (Apricot)

14 1 Aug Basilic (Basil)

15 2 Aug Brebis (Ewe)

16 3 Aug Guimauve (Marshmallow)

17 4 Aug Lin (Flax)

18 5 Aug Amande (Almond)

19 6 Aug Gentiane (Gentian)

20 7 Aug Écluse (Lock)

21 8 Aug Carline (Carline thistle)

22 9 Aug Câprier (Caper)

23 10 Aug Lentille (Lentil)

24 11 Aug Aunée (Inula)

25 12 Aug Loutre (Otter)

26 13 Aug Myrte (Myrtle)

27 14 Aug Colza (Rapeseed)

28 15 Aug Lupin
Lupin
(Lupin)

29 16 Aug Coton (Cotton)

30 17 Aug Moulin (Mill)

Fructidor (18 August – 16 September)

1 18 Aug Prune (Plum)

2 19 Aug Millet
Millet
(Millet)

3 20 Aug Lycoperdon (Puffball)

4 21 Aug Escourgeon (Six-row Barley)

5 22 Aug Saumon (Salmon)

6 23 Aug Tubéreuse (Tuberose)

7 24 Aug Sucrion (Winter Barley)

8 25 Aug Apocyn (Apocynum)

9 26 Aug Réglisse (Liquorice)

10 27 Aug Échelle (Ladder)

11 28 Aug Pastèque (Watermelon)

12 29 Aug Fenouil (Fennel)

13 30 Aug Épine vinette (Barberry)

14 31 Aug Noix (Walnut)

15 1 Sep Truite (Trout)

16 2 Sep Citron (Lemon)

17 3 Sep Cardère (Teasel)

18 4 Sep Nerprun (Buckthorn)

19 5 Sep Tagette (Mexican Marigold)

20 6 Sep Hotte (Harvesting basket)

21 7 Sep Églantier (Wild Rose)

22 8 Sep Noisette (Hazelnut)

23 9 Sep Houblon (Hops)

24 10 Sep Sorgho (Sorghum)

25 11 Sep Écrevisse (Crayfish)

26 12 Sep Bigarade (Bitter orange)

27 13 Sep Verge d'or (Goldenrod)

28 14 Sep Maïs ( Maize
Maize
or Corn)

29 15 Sep Marron (Sweet Chestnut)

30 16 Sep Panier (Pack Basket)

Complementary days[edit] Main article: Sansculottides Five extra days – six in leap years – were national holidays at the end of every year. These were originally known as les sans-culottides (after sans-culottes), but after year III (1795) as les jours complémentaires:

1st complementary day: La Fête de la Vertu, "Celebration of Virtue", on 17 or 18 September 2nd complementary day: La Fête du Génie, "Celebration of Talent", on 18 or 19 September 3rd complementary day: La Fête du Travail, "Celebration of Labour", on 19 or 20 September 4th complementary day: La Fête de l'Opinion, "Celebration of Convictions", on 20 or 21 September 5th complementary day: La Fête des Récompenses, "Celebration of Honors (Awards)", on 21 or 22 September 6th complementary day: La Fête de la Révolution, "Celebration of the Revolution", on 22 or 23 September (on leap years only)

Converting from the Gregorian Calendar[edit]

Fountain in Octon, Hérault
Octon, Hérault
with date 5 Ventôse
Ventôse
an 109 (24 February 1901)

Below are the Gregorian dates each Republican year (an in French) began while the calendar was in effect.

An Gregorian

I (1) 22 September 1792

II (2) 22 September 1793

III (3) 22 September 1794

IV (4) 23 September 1795*

V (5) 22 September 1796

VI (6) 22 September 1797

VII (7) 22 September 1798

VIII (8) 23 September 1799*

IX (9) 23 September 1800

X (10) 23 September 1801

XI (11) 23 September 1802

XII (12) 24 September 1803*

XIII (13) 23 September 1804

XIV (14) 23 September 1805

* Extra (sextile) day inserted before date, due to previous leap year[15] The calendar was abolished in the year XIV (1805). After this date, opinions seem to differ on the method by which the leap years would have been determined if the calendar were still in force. There are at least four hypotheses used to convert dates from the Gregorian calendar:

Equinox: The leap years would continue to vary in order to ensure that each year the autumnal equinox in Paris falls on 1 Vendémiaire, as was the case from year I to year XIV. This is the only method that was ever in legal effect, although it means that sometimes five years pass between leap years, such as the years 15 and 20.[16] Romme: Leap years
Leap years
would have fallen on each year divisible by four (thus in 20, 24, 28…), except most century years, according to Romme's proposed fixed rules. This would have simplified conversions between the Republican and Gregorian calendars since the Republican leap day would usually follow a few months after 29 February, at the end of each year divisible by four, so that the date of the Republican New Year remains the same (22 September) in the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
for the entire third century of the Republican Era (AD 1992–2091).[17] Continuous: The leap years would have continued in a fixed rule every four years from the last one (thus years 15, 19, 23, 27…) with the leap day added before, rather than after, each year divisible by four, except most century years. This rule has the advantage that it is both simple to calculate and is continuous with every year in which the calendar was in official use during the First Republic. Some concordances were printed in France, after the Republican Calendar
Calendar
was abandoned, using this rule to determine dates for long-term contracts.[18][19] 128-Year: Beginning with year 20, years divisible by four would be leap years, except for years divisible by 128. Note that this rule was first proposed by von Mädler, and not until the late 19th century. The date of the Republican New Year remains the same (23 September) in the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
every year from 129 to 256 (AD 1920–2047).[20][21][22]

The following table shows when several years of the Republican Era begin on the Gregorian calendar, according to each of the four above methods:

An AD/CE Equinox Romme Continuous 128-Year

XV (15)

1806

23 September

23 September

23 September

23 September

XVI (16)

1807

24 September*

23 September

24 September*

24 September*

XVII (17)

1808

23 September

23 September*

23 September

23 September

XVIII (18)

1809

23 September

23 September

23 September

23 September

XIX (19)

1810

23 September

23 September

23 September

23 September

XX (20)

1811

23 September

23 September

24 September*

23 September

CCXXV (225)

2016

22 September

22 September*

22 September

23 September*

CCXXVI (226)

2017

22 September

22 September

22 September

23 September

CCXXVII (227)

2018

23 September*

22 September

22 September

23 September

CCXXVIII (228)

2019

23 September

22 September

23 September*

23 September

* Extra (sextile) day inserted before date, due to previous leap year Current date and time[edit] For this calendar, the Romme method of calculating leap years is used. Other methods may differ by one day. Time may be cached and therefore not accurate. Decimal time
Decimal time
is according to Paris mean time, which is 9 minutes 21 seconds (6.49 decimal minutes) ahead of Greenwich Mean Time. This is as time of page generated (Fri 2018-04-06 21:46:54 UTC, Fri 2018-04-06 21:56:16 TMP (Gregorian calendar, conventional time), .90756 decimal UT, Unix timestamp
Unix timestamp
1523051214) (update)

226 Germinal CCXXVI

 

Primidi

Duodi

Tridi

Quartidi

Quintidi

Sextidi

Septidi

Octidi

Nonidi

Décadi

décade 19

1 Wednesday 21 March 2018

2 Thursday 22 March 2018

3 Friday 23 March 2018

4 Saturday 24 March 2018

5 Sunday 25 March 2018

6 Monday 26 March 2018

7 Tuesday 27 March 2018

8 Wednesday 28 March 2018

9 Thursday 29 March 2018

10 Friday 30 March 2018

décade 20

11 Saturday 31 March 2018

12 Sunday 1 April
April
2018

13 Monday 2 April
April
2018

14 Tuesday 3 April
April
2018

15 Wednesday 4 April
April
2018

16 Thursday 5 April
April
2018

17 Friday 6 April
April
2018

18 Saturday 7 April
April
2018

19 Sunday 8 April
April
2018

20 Monday 9 April
April
2018

décade 21

21 Tuesday 10 April
April
2018

22 Wednesday 11 April
April
2018

23 Thursday 12 April
April
2018

24 Friday 13 April
April
2018

25 Saturday 14 April
April
2018

26 Sunday 15 April
April
2018

27 Monday 16 April
April
2018

28 Tuesday 17 April
April
2018

29 Wednesday 18 April
April
2018

30 Thursday 19 April
April
2018

10 h

Paris

9h14m06s

21:46:54

24 h

Greenwich

Criticism and shortcomings[edit]

Clock
Clock
dial displaying both decimal and duodecimal time

Leap years
Leap years
in the calendar are a point of great dispute, due to the contradicting statements in the establishing decree[23] stating:

Each year begins at midnight, with the day on which the true autumnal equinox falls for the Paris Observatory.

and:

The four-year period, after which the addition of a day is usually necessary, is called the Franciade in memory of the revolution which, after four years of effort, led France
France
to republican government. The fourth year of the Franciade is called Sextile.

These two specifications are incompatible, as leap years defined by the autumnal equinox in Paris do not recur on a regular four-year schedule. Thus, the years III, VII, and XI were observed as leap years, and the years XV and XX were also planned as such, even though they were five years apart.

Clock
Clock
dial displaying both decimal (inside the circle) and duodecimal time (on the outer rim)

A fixed arithmetic rule for determining leap years was proposed in the name of the Committee of Public Education by Gilbert Romme
Gilbert Romme
on 19 Floréal An III (8 May 1795). The proposed rule was to determine leap years by applying the rules of the Gregorian calendar to the years of the French Republic (years IV, VIII, XII, etc. were to be leap years) except that year 4000 (the last year of ten 400-year periods) should be a common year instead of a leap year. Because he was shortly after sentenced to the guillotine, this proposal was never adopted and the original astronomical rule continued, which excluded any other fixed arithmetic rule. The proposal was intended to avoid uncertain future leap years caused by the inaccurate astronomical knowledge of the 1790s (even today, this statement is still valid due to the uncertainty in ΔT). In particular, the committee noted that the autumnal equinox of year 144 was predicted to occur at 11:59:40 pm local apparent time in Paris, which was closer to midnight than its inherent 3 to 4 minute uncertainty. The calendar was abolished by an act dated 22 Fructidor
Fructidor
an XIII (9 September 1805) and signed by Napoleon, which referred to a report by Michel-Louis-Étienne Regnaud de Saint-Jean d'Angély
Michel-Louis-Étienne Regnaud de Saint-Jean d'Angély
and Jean Joseph Mounier, listing two fundamental flaws.

The rule for leap years depended upon the uneven course of the sun, rather than fixed intervals, so that one must consult astronomers to determine when each year started, especially when the equinox happened close to midnight, as the exact moment could not be predicted with certainty. Both the era and the beginning of the year were chosen to commemorate an historical event which occurred on the first day of autumn in France, whereas the other European nations began the year near the beginning of winter or spring, thus being impediments to the calendar's adoption in Europe and America, and even a part of the French nation, where the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
continued to be used, as it was required for religious purposes.

The report also noted that the 10-day décade was unpopular and had already been suppressed three years earlier in favor of the 7-day week, removing what was considered by some as one of the calendar's main benefits.[24] The 10-day décade was unpopular with laborers because they received only one full day of rest out of ten, instead of one in seven, although they also got a half-day off on the fifth day. It also, by design, conflicted with Sunday religious observances. Another criticism of the calendar was that despite the poetic names of its months, they are tied to the climate and agriculture of metropolitan France
France
and therefore not applicable to France's overseas territories.[25] Famous dates and other cultural references[edit]

This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (October 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

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See also: Glossary of the French Revolution
French Revolution
§ Events commonly known by their Revolutionary dates

Décret de la Convention 9 Brumaire
Brumaire
An III above the entrance to the ENS

The "18 Brumaire" or "Brumaire" was the coup d'état of Napoleon Bonaparte on 18 Brumaire
Brumaire
An VIII (9 November 1799), which many historians consider as the end of the French Revolution. Karl Marx's 1852 essay The 18th Brumaire
Brumaire
of Louis Napoléon
Napoléon
compares the 1851 coup of Louis Napoléon
Napoléon
to his uncle's earlier coup. Another famous revolutionary date is 9 Thermidor
Thermidor
An II (27 July 1794), the date the Convention turned against Robespierre, who, along with others associated with the Mountain, was guillotined the following day. Based on this event, the term "Thermidorian" entered the Marxist vocabulary as referring to revolutionaries who destroy the revolution from the inside and turn against its true aims. For example, Leon Trotsky and his followers used this term about Joseph Stalin. Émile Zola's novel Germinal takes its name from the calendar's month of Germinal. The seafood dish lobster thermidor was probably named after the 1891 play Thermidor, set during the Revolution.[26][27] The French frigates of the Floréal
Floréal
class all bear names of Republican months. The Convention of 9 Brumaire
Brumaire
An III, 30 October 1794, established the École Normale Supérieure. The date appears prominently on the entrance to the school. The French composer Fromental Halévy
Fromental Halévy
was named after the feast day of 'Fromental' in the Revolutionary Calendar, which occurred on his birthday in year VIII (27 May 1799). Neil Gaiman's The Sandman series included a story called "Thermidor" that takes place in that month during the French Revolution.[28] The Liavek shared world series uses a calendar that is a direct translation of the French Republican calendar. Sarah Monette's Doctrine of Labyrinths series borrows the Republican calendar for one of the two competing calendars (their usage splits between social classes) in the fictional city of Mélusine. Jacques Rivette's 1974 film Celine and Julie Go Boating
Celine and Julie Go Boating
refers to the calendar and its hours of the day. Alain Tanner's 1979 film Messidor
Messidor
presents a haphazard summer road trip of two young women in Switzerland. See also[edit]

Agricultural cycle Calendar
Calendar
reform Dechristianisation of France Decimal time Soviet calendar Solar Hijri calendar, astronomical equinox-based calendar used in Iran World Calendar

References[edit]

^ Sylvain, Maréchal. "Almanach des Honnêtes-gens". gallica.bnf.fr. Gallica. pp. 14–15.  ^ James Guillaume, Procès-verbaux du Comité d'instruction publique de la Convention nationale, t. I, pp. 227–228 et t. II, pp. 440–448 ; Michel Froechlé, « Le calendrier républicain correspondait-il à une nécessité scientifique ? », Congrès national des sociétés savantes : scientifiques et sociétés, Paris, 1989, pp. 453–465. ^ Le calendrier républicain: de sa création à sa disparition. Bureau des longitudes. 1994. p. 19. ISBN 978-2-910015-09-1.  ^ "Concordat de 1801 Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte religion en france Concordat de 1801". Roi-president.com. 21 November 2007. Archived from the original on 10 September 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2009.  ^ "laurenishay". The Past in Present Tense. Retrieved 2017-11-02.  ^ Le calendrier républicain: de sa création à sa disparition. Bureau des longitudes. 1994. p. 26. ISBN 978-2-910015-09-1.  ^ Le calendrier républicain: de sa création à sa disparition. Bureau des longitudes. 1994. p. 36. ISBN 978-2-910015-09-1.  ^ Richard A. Carrigan, Jr. "Decimal Time". American Scientist, (May–June 1978), 66(3): 305–313. ^ a b Thomas Carlyle
Thomas Carlyle
(1867). The French revolution: a history. Harper.  ^ Clavis Calendaria: Or, A Compendious Analysis of the Calendar; Illustrated with Ecclesiastica, Historical, and Classical Anecdotes, 1, Rogerson and Tuxford, 1812, p. 38  ^ Antoine Augustin Renouard (1822). Manuel pour la concordance des calendriers républicain et grégorien (2 ed.). A. A. Renouard. Retrieved 14 September 2009.  ^ Ed. Terwecoren (1870). Collection de Précis historiques. J. Vandereydt. p. 31.  ^ Philippe-Joseph-Benjamin Buchez, Prosper Charles Roux (1837). Histoire parlementaire de la révolution française. Paulin. p. 415.  ^ Rapport fait à la Convention nationale at Google Books ^ Parise, Frank (2002). The Book of Calendars. Gorgias Press. p. 376. ISBN 9781931956765.  ^ Sébastien Louis Rosaz (1810). Concordance de l'Annuaire de la République française avec le calendrier grégorien.  ^ " Brumaire
Brumaire
– Calendrier Républicain". Prairial.free.fr. Retrieved 30 January 2009.  ^ Antoine Augustin Renouard (1822). Manuel pour la concordance des calendriers républicain et grégorien: ou, Recueil complet de tous les annuaires depuis la première année républicaine (2 ed.). A. A. Renouard.  ^ " Brumaire
Brumaire
– Calendrier Républicain". Prairial.free.fr. Retrieved 30 January 2009.  ^ The French Revolution
French Revolution
Calendar
Calendar
Archived 18 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Calendars". Projectpluto.com. Retrieved 30 January 2009.  ^ "The French Revolutionary Calendar, Calendars". Webexhibits.org. Retrieved 30 January 2009.  ^ "Le Calendrier Republicain". Gefrance.com. Retrieved 30 January 2009.  ^ Antoine Augustin Renouard (1822). Manuel pour la concordance des calendriers républicain et grégorien: ou, Recueil complet de tous les annuaires depuis la première année républicaine (2 ed.). A. A. Renouard. p. 217.  ^ Canes, Kermit (2012). The Esoteric Codex: Obsolete Calendars. LULU Press. ISBN 1365065561.  ^ James, Kenneth (15 November 2006). Escoffier: The King of Chefs. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-85285-526-0. Retrieved 11 March 2012.  ^ "Lobster thermidor". Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 11 March 2012.  ^ Gaiman, Neil (w), Woch, Stan (p), Giordano, Nick (i), Vozzo, Daniel (col), Klein, Todd (let), Berger, Karen (ed). "Thermidor" The Sandman v29, (August 1991), Vertigo Comics

Further reading[edit]

Ozouf, Mona, 'Revolutionary Calendar' in Furet, François and Mona Ozouf, eds., Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution
French Revolution
(1989) Shaw, Matthew, Time and the French Revolution: a history of the French Republican Calendar, 1789-Year XIV (2011)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to French Republican Calendar.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Decree of the National Convention
National Convention
on the establishment of the Republican calendar

Antique Decimal Watches Date converter for numerous calendars, including this one Dials & Symbols of the French revolution. The Republican Calendar and Decimal time. Republican calendar page, with an alternative Dashboard's widget The Republican Calendar
Calendar
and Decimal time
Decimal time
online Brumaire
Brumaire
– The Republican Calendar, with Windows and Mac OS X applications, including a Dashboard's widget. (fr es en eo pt de nl) Républican calendars (in French)

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Calendar
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List of calendars

v t e

French Revolution

Causes Timeline Ancien Régime Revolution Constitutional monarchy Republic Directory Consulate Glossary

Significant civil and political events by year

1788

Day of the Tiles
Day of the Tiles
(7 Jun 1788) Assembly of Vizille
Assembly of Vizille
(21 Jul 1788)

1789

What Is the Third Estate?
What Is the Third Estate?
(Jan 1789) Réveillon riots (28 Apr 1789) Convocation of the Estates-General (5 May 1789) National Assembly (17 Jun – 9 Jul 1790) Tennis Court Oath
Tennis Court Oath
(20 Jun 1789) National Constituent Assembly (9 Jul – 30 Sep 1791) Storming of the Bastille
Storming of the Bastille
(14 Jul 1789) Great Fear (20 Jul – 5 Aug 1789) Abolition of Feudalism (4-11 Aug 1789) Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
(27 Aug 1789) Women's March on Versailles
Women's March on Versailles
(5 Oct 1789)

1790

Abolition of the Parlements (Feb–Jul 1790) Abolition of the Nobility (19 Jun 1790) Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
(12 Jul 1790)

1791

Flight to Varennes
Flight to Varennes
(20–21 Jun 1791) Champ de Mars Massacre
Champ de Mars Massacre
(17 Jul 1791) Declaration of Pillnitz (27 Aug 1791) The Constitution of 1791 (3 Sep 1791) Legislative Assembly (1 Oct 1791 – Sep 1792)

1792

France
France
declares war (20 Apr 1792) Brunswick Manifesto
Brunswick Manifesto
(25 Jul 1792) Paris Commune
Paris Commune
becomes insurrectionary (Jun 1792) 10th of August (10 Aug 1792) September Massacres
September Massacres
(Sep 1792) National Convention
National Convention
(20 Sep 1792 – 26 Oct 1795) First republic declared (22 Sep 1792)

1793

Execution of Louis XVI
Execution of Louis XVI
(21 Jan 1793) Revolutionary Tribunal
Revolutionary Tribunal
(9 Mar 1793 – 31 May 1795) Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
(27 Jun 1793 – 27 Jul 1794)

Committee of Public Safety Committee of General Security

Fall of the Girondists (2 Jun 1793) Assassination of Marat (13 Jul 1793) Levée en masse
Levée en masse
(23 Aug 1793) The Death of Marat
The Death of Marat
(painting) Law of Suspects
Law of Suspects
(17 Sep 1793) Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
is guillotined (16 Oct 1793) Anti-clerical laws (throughout the year)

1794

Danton and Desmoulins guillotined (5 Apr 1794) Law of 22 Prairial
Prairial
(10 Jun 1794) Thermidorian Reaction
Thermidorian Reaction
(27 Jul 1794) Robespierre
Robespierre
guillotined (28 Jul 1794) White Terror (Fall 1794) Closing of the Jacobin Club
Jacobin Club
(11 Nov 1794)

1795

Constitution of the Year III
Constitution of the Year III
(22 Aug 1795) Conspiracy of the Equals
Conspiracy of the Equals
(Nov 1795) Directoire (1795–99)

Council of Five Hundred Council of Ancients

13 Vendémiaire
Vendémiaire
5 Oct 1795

1797

Coup of 18 Fructidor
Fructidor
(4 Sep 1797) Second Congress of Rastatt
Second Congress of Rastatt
(Dec 1797)

1799

Coup of 30 Prairial
Prairial
VII (18 Jun 1799) Coup of 18 Brumaire
Coup of 18 Brumaire
(9 Nov 1799) Constitution of the Year VIII
Constitution of the Year VIII
(24 Dec 1799) Consulate

Revolutionary campaigns

1792

Verdun Thionville Valmy Royalist Revolts

Chouannerie Vendée Dauphiné

Lille Siege of Mainz Jemappes Namur (fr)

1793

First Coalition Siege of Toulon
Siege of Toulon
(18 Sep – 18 Dec 1793) War in the Vendée Battle of Neerwinden) Battle of Famars
Battle of Famars
(23 May 1793) Expédition de Sardaigne
Expédition de Sardaigne
(21 Dec 1792 - 25 May 1793) Battle of Kaiserslautern Siege of Mainz Battle of Wattignies Battle of Hondschoote Siege of Bellegarde Battle of Peyrestortes
Battle of Peyrestortes
(Pyrenees) First Battle of Wissembourg (13 Oct 1793) Battle of Truillas
Battle of Truillas
(Pyrenees) Second Battle of Wissembourg (26–27 Dec 1793)

1794

Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
(24 Apr 1794) Battle of Boulou
Battle of Boulou
(Pyrenees) (30 Apr – 1 May 1794) Battle of Tournay
Battle of Tournay
(22 May 1794) Battle of Fleurus (26 Jun 1794) Chouannerie Battle of Tourcoing
Battle of Tourcoing
(18 May 1794) Battle of Aldenhoven (2 Oct 1794)

1795

Peace of Basel

1796

Battle of Lonato
Battle of Lonato
(3–4 Aug 1796) Battle of Castiglione
Battle of Castiglione
(5 Aug 1796) Battle of Theiningen Battle of Neresheim
Battle of Neresheim
(11 Aug 1796) Battle of Amberg
Battle of Amberg
(24 Aug 1796) Battle of Würzburg
Battle of Würzburg
(3 Sep 1796) Battle of Rovereto
Battle of Rovereto
(4 Sep 1796) First Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(8 Sep 1796) Battle of Emmendingen
Battle of Emmendingen
(19 Oct 1796) Battle of Schliengen
Battle of Schliengen
(26 Oct 1796) Second Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(6 Nov 1796) Battle of Calliano (6–7 Nov 1796) Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
(15–17 Nov 1796) The Ireland Expedition (Dec 1796)

1797

Naval Engagement off Brittany (13 Jan 1797) Battle of Rivoli
Battle of Rivoli
(14–15 Jan 1797) Battle of the Bay of Cádiz (25 Jan 1797) Treaty of Leoben
Treaty of Leoben
(17 Apr 1797) Battle of Neuwied (18 Apr 1797) Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
(17 Oct 1797)

1798

French invasion of Switzerland
French invasion of Switzerland
(28 January – 17 May 1798) French Invasion of Egypt (1798–1801) Irish Rebellion of 1798 (23 May – 23 Sep 1798) Quasi-War
Quasi-War
(1798–1800) Peasants' War (12 Oct – 5 Dec 1798)

1799

Second Coalition (1798–1802) Siege of Acre (20 Mar – 21 May 1799) Battle of Ostrach
Battle of Ostrach
(20–21 Mar 1799) Battle of Stockach (25 Mar 1799) Battle of Magnano
Battle of Magnano
(5 Apr 1799) Battle of Cassano (27 Apr 1799) First Battle of Zurich
First Battle of Zurich
(4–7 Jun 1799) Battle of Trebbia (19 Jun 1799) Battle of Novi (15 Aug 1799) Second Battle of Zurich
Second Battle of Zurich
(25–26 Sep 1799)

1800

Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
(14 Jun 1800) Battle of Hohenlinden
Battle of Hohenlinden
(3 Dec 1800) League of Armed Neutrality (1800–02)

1801

Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville
(9 Feb 1801) Treaty of Florence
Treaty of Florence
(18 Mar 1801) Algeciras Campaign
Algeciras Campaign
(8 Jul 1801)

1802

Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
(25 Mar 1802)

Military leaders

French Army

Eustache Charles d'Aoust Pierre Augereau Alexandre de Beauharnais Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte Louis-Alexandre Berthier Jean-Baptiste Bessières Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune Jean François Carteaux Jean Étienne Championnet Chapuis de Tourville Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine Louis-Nicolas Davout Louis Desaix Jacques François Dugommier Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Charles François Dumouriez Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino Louis-Charles de Flers Paul Grenier Emmanuel de Grouchy Jacques Maurice Hatry Lazare Hoche Jean-Baptiste Jourdan François Christophe de Kellermann Jean-Baptiste Kléber Pierre Choderlos de Laclos Jean Lannes Charles Leclerc Claude Lecourbe François Joseph Lefebvre Jacques MacDonald Jean-Antoine Marbot Jean Baptiste de Marbot François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers Auguste de Marmont André Masséna Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey Jean Victor Marie Moreau Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise Joachim Murat Michel Ney Pierre-Jacques Osten (fr) Nicolas Oudinot Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon Jean-Charles Pichegru Józef Poniatowski Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier Joseph Souham Jean-de-Dieu Soult Louis-Gabriel Suchet Belgrand de Vaubois Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno

French Navy

Charles-Alexandre Linois

Opposition

Austria

József Alvinczi Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen Count of Clerfayt (Walloon) Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
(Swiss) Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth Pál Kray (Hungarian) Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
(French) Maximilian Baillet de Latour (Walloon) Karl Mack von Leiberich Rudolf Ritter von Otto (Saxon) Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich Prince Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
(Hungarian) Karl Philipp Sebottendorf Dagobert von Wurmser

Britain

Sir Ralph Abercromby Admiral Sir James Saumarez Admiral Sir Edward Pellew Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany

Dutch Republic

William V, Prince of Orange

 Prussia

Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen

Russia

Alexander Korsakov Alexander Suvorov

Spain

Luis Firmin de Carvajal Antonio Ricardos

Other significant figures and factions

Society of 1789

Jean Sylvain Bailly Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt Isaac René Guy le Chapelier Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord Nicolas de Condorcet

Feuillants and monarchiens

Madame de Lamballe Madame du Barry Louis de Breteuil Loménie de Brienne Charles Alexandre de Calonne de Chateaubriand Jean Chouan Grace Elliott Arnaud de La Porte Jean-Sifrein Maury Jacques Necker François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas Antoine Barnave Lafayette Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth Charles Malo François Lameth André Chénier Jean-François Rewbell Camille Jordan Madame de Staël Boissy d'Anglas Jean-Charles Pichegru Pierre Paul Royer-Collard

Girondists

Jacques Pierre Brissot Roland de La Platière Madame Roland Father Henri Grégoire Étienne Clavière Marquis de Condorcet Charlotte Corday Marie Jean Hérault Jean Baptiste Treilhard Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve Jean Debry Jean-Jacques Duval d'Eprémesnil Olympe de Gouges Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux

The Plain

Abbé Sieyès de Cambacérès Charles François Lebrun Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot Philippe Égalité Louis Philippe I Mirabeau Antoine Christophe Merlin
Antoine Christophe Merlin
de Thionville Jean Joseph Mounier Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours François de Neufchâteau

Montagnards

Maximilien Robespierre Georges Danton Jean-Paul Marat Camille Desmoulins Louis Antoine de Saint-Just Paul Nicolas, vicomte de Barras Louis Philippe I Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau Jacques-Louis David Marquis de Sade Jacques-Louis David Georges Couthon Roger Ducos Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois Jean-Henri Voulland Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier Jean-Pierre-André Amar Prieur de la Côte-d'Or Prieur de la Marne Gilbert Romme Jean Bon Saint-André Jean-Lambert Tallien Pierre Louis Prieur Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Antoine Christophe Saliceti

Hébertists and Enragés

Jacques Hébert Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne Pierre Gaspard Chaumette Charles-Philippe Ronsin Antoine-François Momoro François-Nicolas Vincent François Chabot Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel François Hanriot Jacques Roux Stanislas-Marie Maillard Charles-Philippe Ronsin Jean-François Varlet Theophile Leclerc Claire Lacombe Pauline Léon Gracchus Babeuf Sylvain Maréchal

Others

Charles X Louis XVI Louis XVII Louis XVIII Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien Louis Henri, Prince of Condé Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé Marie Antoinette Napoléon
Napoléon
Bonaparte Lucien Bonaparte Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Fesch Joséphine de Beauharnais Joachim Murat Jean Sylvain Bailly Jacques-Donatien Le Ray Guillaume-Chrétien de Malesherbes Talleyrand Thérésa Tallien Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target Catherine Théot List of people associated with the French Revolution

Influential thinkers

Les Lumières Beaumarchais Edmund Burke Anacharsis Cloots Charles-Augustin de Coulomb Pierre Claude François Daunou Diderot Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson Antoine Lavoisier Montesquieu Thomas Paine Jean-Jacques Rousseau Abbé Sieyès Voltaire Mary Wollstonecraft

Cultural impact

La Marseillaise French Tricolour Liberté, égalité, fraternité Marianne Bastille Day Panthéon French Republican Calendar Cult of the Supreme Being Cult of Reason

Temple of Reason

Sans-culottes Metric system Phrygian cap Women in the French Revolution Symbolism in the French Revolution Historiography of the French Revolution Influence of the French Revolution

Authority control

.