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The FRENCH REPUBLICAN CALENDAR (French : _calendrier républicain français_), also commonly called the FRENCH REVOLUTIONARY CALENDAR (_calendrier révolutionnaire français_), was a calendar created and implemented during the French Revolution , and used by the French government for about 12 years from late 1793 to 1805, and for 18 days by the Paris Commune in 1871. The revolutionary system was designed in part to remove all religious and royalist influences from the calendar, and was part of a larger attempt at decimalisation in France (which also included decimal time of day, decimalisation of currency, and metrication ).

CONTENTS

* 1 Overview and origins

* 1.1 Precursor * 1.2 History * 1.3 Calendar
Calendar
design * 1.4 Decimal time

* 2 Months * 3 Ten days of the week

* 4 Rural Calendar
Calendar

* 4.1 Autumn * 4.2 Winter * 4.3 Spring * 4.4 Summer

* 5 Complementary days * 6 Converting from the Gregorian Calendar
Calendar
* 7 Current date and time * 8 Criticism and shortcomings * 9 Famous dates and other cultural references * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links

OVERVIEW AND ORIGINS

PRECURSOR

Sylvain Maréchal , prominent anticlerical atheist, published the first edition of his _Almanach des Honnêtes-gens_ (Almanac of Honest People) in 1788. On pages 14–15 appears a calendar, consisting of twelve months. The first month is "Mars, ou Princeps" (March, or First), the last month is "Février, ou Duodécembre" (February, or Twelfth). (The months of September through December are already numeric names, although their meanings do not match their positions in either the Julian or the Gregorian calendar since the Romans changed the first month of a year from March to January.) The lengths of the months are the same; however, the 10th, 20th, and 30th are singled out of each month as the end of a _décade_ (group of ten). Individual days were assigned, instead of to the traditional saints, to people noteworthy for mostly secular achievements; December 25 is assigned to both Jesus and Newton.

Later editions of the almanac would switch to the Republican Calendar.

HISTORY

A copy of the French Republican Calendar
Calendar
in the Historical Museum of Lausanne.

The days of the French Revolution and Republic saw many efforts to sweep away various trappings of the _ancien régime _ (the old feudal monarchy); some of these were more successful than others. The new Republican government sought to institute, among other reforms, a new social and legal system, a new system of weights and measures (which became the metric system ), and a new calendar. Amid nostalgia for the ancient Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, the theories of the Enlightenment were at their peak, and the devisers of the new systems looked to nature for their inspiration. Natural constants, multiples of ten, and Latin
Latin
as well as Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
derivations formed the fundamental blocks from which the new systems were built.

The new calendar was created by a commission under the direction of the politician Charles-Gilbert Romme seconded by Claude Joseph Ferry and Charles-François Dupuis . They associated with their work the chemist Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau , the mathematician and astronomer Joseph-Louis Lagrange , the astronomer Joseph Jérôme Lefrançois de Lalande , the mathematician Gaspard Monge , the astronomer and naval geographer Alexandre Guy Pingré , and the poet, actor and playwright Fabre d\'Églantine , who invented the names of the months, with the help of André Thouin , gardener at the Jardin des Plantes of the Muséum National d\'Histoire Naturelle in Paris. As the rapporteur of the commission, Charles-Gilbert Romme presented the new calendar to the Jacobin -controlled National Convention
National Convention
on 23 September 1793, which adopted it on 24 October 1793 and also extended it proleptically to its epoch of 22 September 1792. It is because of his position as rapporteur of the commission that the creation of the republican calendar is attributed to Romme.

The calendar is often called the "French Revolutionary Calendar" because it was created during the Revolution, but this is somewhat of a misnomer. Indeed, there was initially a debate as to whether the calendar should celebrate the Great Revolution, which began in July 1789, or the Republic, which was established in 1792. Immediately following 14 July 1789, papers and pamphlets started calling 1789 year I of Liberty and the following years II and III. It was in 1792, with the practical problem of dating financial transactions, that the legislative assembly was confronted with the problem of the calendar. Originally, the choice of epoch was either 1 January 1789 or 14 July 1789. After some hesitation the assembly decided on 2 January 1792 that all official documents would use the "era of Liberty" and that the year IV of Liberty started on 1 January 1792. This usage was modified on 22 September 1792 when the Republic was proclaimed and the Convention decided that all public documents would be dated Year I of the French Republic. The decree of 2 January 1793 stipulated that the year II of the Republic began on 1 January 1793; this was revoked with the introduction of the new calendar, which set 22 September 1793 as the beginning of year II. The establishment of the Republic was used as the epochal date for the calendar; therefore, the calendar commemorates the Republic, not the Revolution. In France, it is known as the _calendrier républicain_ as well as the _calendrier révolutionnaire_.

French coins of the period naturally used this calendar. Many show the year (French : _an_) in Arabic numbers, although Roman numerals were used on some issues. Year 11 coins typically have a "XI" date to avoid confusion with the Roman "II".

The French Revolution is usually considered to have ended with the coup of 18 Brumaire , Year VIII (9 November 1799), the coup d\'etat of Napoléon Bonaparte against the established constitutional regime of the _Directoire_.

The Concordat of 1801
Concordat of 1801
re-established the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
as an official institution in France, although not as the state religion of France. The concordat took effect from Easter Sunday, 28 Germinal, Year XI (8 April 1802); it restored the names of the days of the week to the ones from the Gregorian Calendar
Calendar
, and fixed Sunday as the official day of rest and religious celebration. However, the other attributes of the republican calendar, the months, and years, remained as they were.

The French Republic ended with the coronation of Napoleon
Napoleon
I as _Empereur des Français_ (Emperor of the French) on 11 Frimaire, Year XIII (2 December 1804), but the republican calendar would remain in place for a other year. Napoléon finally abolished the republican calendar with effect from 1 January 1806 (the day after 10 Nivôse Year XIV), a little over twelve years after its introduction. It was, however, used again briefly during the short period of the Paris Commune , 6–23 May 1871 (16 Floréal–3 Prairial
Prairial
Year LXXIX).

Some legal texts that were adopted when the Republican Calendar
Calendar
was officially in use are still in force in France
France
and other nations or territories which at the time were incorporated into revolutionary France, such as present-day Belgium, Luxembourg and the German territories to the west of the Rhine river. These documents have kept their original dates for legal accuracy and citation purposes.

CALENDAR DESIGN

L AN 2 DE LA REPUBLIQUE FR. (Year 2 of the French Republic) on a barn near Geneva

Years appear in writing as Roman numerals (usually), with epoch 22 September 1792, the beginning of the "Republican Era" (the day the French First Republic was proclaimed, one day after the Convention abolished the monarchy). As a result, Roman Numeral I indicates the first year of the republic, that is, the year before the calendar actually came into use. By law, the beginning of each year was set at midnight, beginning on the day the apparent autumnal equinox falls at the Paris Observatory.

There were twelve months, each divided into three ten-day weeks called _décades_. The tenth day, _décadi_, replaced Sunday as the day of rest and festivity. The five or six extra days needed to approximate the solar or tropical year were placed after the months at the end of each year and called complementary days . This arrangement was an almost exact copy of the calendar used by the Ancient Egyptians, though in their case the beginning of the year was marked by summer solstice rather than autumn equinox.

A period of four years ending on a leap day was to be called a "Franciade". The name "Olympique " was originally proposed but changed to Franciade to commemorate the fact that it had taken the revolution four years to establish a republican government in France.

The leap year was called _Sextile_, an allusion to the "bissextile " leap years of the Julian and Gregorian calendars, because it contained a sixth complementary day.

DECIMAL TIME

Main article: Decimal time

Each day in the Republican Calendar
Calendar
was divided into ten hours, each hour into 100 decimal minutes, and each decimal minute into 100 decimal seconds. Thus an hour was 144 conventional minutes (more than twice as long as a conventional hour), a minute was 86.4 conventional seconds (44% longer than a conventional minute), and a second was 0.864 conventional seconds (13.6% shorter than a conventional second).

Clocks were manufactured to display this decimal time , but it did not catch on. Mandatory use of decimal time was officially suspended 7 April 1795, although some cities continued to use decimal time as late as 1801.

The numbering of years in the Republican Calendar
Calendar
by Roman numerals ran counter to this general decimalization tendency.

MONTHS

The Republican calendar year began the day the autumnal equinox occurred in Paris, and had twelve months of 30 days each, which were given new names based on nature, principally having to do with the prevailing weather in and around Paris.

* Autumn:

* Vendémiaire in French (from French _vendange_, derived from Latin _vindemia_, "grape harvest"), starting 22, 23, or 24 September * Brumaire (from French _brume_, "mist"), starting 22, 23, or 24 October * Frimaire
Frimaire
(From French _frimas_, "frost"), starting 21, 22, or 23 November

* Winter:

* Nivôse (from Latin
Latin
_nivosus_, "snowy"), starting 21, 22, or 23 December * Pluviôse (from French _pluvieux_, derived from Latin
Latin
_pluvius_, "rainy"), starting 20, 21, or 22 January * Ventôse (from French _venteux_, derived from Latin
Latin
_ventosus_, "windy"), starting 19, 20, or 21 February

* Spring:

* Germinal (from French _germination_), starting 20 or 21 March * Floréal (from French _fleur_, derived from Latin
Latin
_flos_, "flower"), starting 20 or 21 April * Prairial
Prairial
(from French _prairie_, "meadow"), starting 20 or 21 May

* Summer:

* Messidor (from Latin
Latin
_messis_, "harvest"), starting 19 or 20 June * Thermidor
Thermidor
(or Fervidor) (from Greek _thermon_, "summer heat"), starting 19 or 20 July * Fructidor
Fructidor
(from Latin
Latin
_fructus_, "fruit"), starting 18 or 19 August

Note: On many printed calendars of Year II (1793–94), the month of _Thermidor_ was named _Fervidor_ (from Latin
Latin
_fervens_, "hot").

Most of the month names were new words coined from French, Latin
Latin
, or Greek . The endings of the names are grouped by season. "Dor" means "giving" in Greek.

In Britain, a contemporary wit mocked the Republican Calendar
Calendar
by calling the months: Wheezy, Sneezy and Freezy; Slippy, Drippy and Nippy; Showery, Flowery and Bowery; Hoppy, Croppy and Poppy. The Scottish historian Thomas Carlyle suggested somewhat more serious English names in his 1837 work _The French Revolution: A History _, namely Vintagearious, Fogarious, Frostarious, Snowous, Rainous, Windous, Buddal, Floweral, Meadowal, Reapidor, Heatidor, and Fruitidor. Like the French originals, they are neologisms suggesting a meaning related to the season.

TEN DAYS OF THE WEEK

_ French Revolutionary pocket watch showing ten-day décade_ names and thirty-day month numbers from the Republican Calendar, but with duodecimal time. On display at Neuchâtel Beaux-Arts museum.

The month is divided into three _décades_ or "weeks" of ten days each, named simply:

* _primidi_ (first day) * _duodi_ (second day) * _tridi_ (third day) * _quartidi_ (fourth day) * _quintidi_ (fifth day) * _sextidi_ (sixth day) * _septidi_ (seventh day) * _octidi_ (eighth day) * _nonidi_ (ninth day) * _décadi_ (tenth day)

Décades were abandoned in Floréal an X (April 1802).

RURAL CALENDAR

The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
used a calendar of saints , which named each day of the year after an associated saint . To reduce the influence of the Church, Fabre d\'Églantine introduced a Rural Calendar
Calendar
in which each day of the year had a unique name associated with the rural economy, stated to correspond to the time of year. Every _décadi_ (ending in 0) was named after an agricultural tool. Each _quintidi_ (ending in 5) was named for a common animal. The rest of the days were named for "grain, pasture, trees, roots, flowers, fruits" and other plants, except for the first month of winter, Nivôse, during which the rest of the days were named after minerals.

Our starting point was the idea of celebrating, through the calendar, the agricultural system, and of leading the nation back to it, marking the times and the fractions of the year by intelligible or visible signs taken from agriculture and the rural economy. (...)

As the calendar is something that we use so often, we must take advantage of this frequency of use to put elementary notions of agriculture before the people — to show the richness of nature, to make them love the fields, and to methodically show them the order of the influences of the heavens and of the products of the earth.

The priests assigned the commemoration of a so-called saint to each day of the year: this catalogue exhibited neither utility nor method; it was a collection of lies, of deceit or of charlatanism.

We thought that the nation, after having kicked out this canonised mob from its calendar, must replace it with the objects that make up the true riches of the nation, worthy objects not from a cult, but from agriculture — useful products of the soil, the tools that we use to cultivate it, and the domesticated animals, our faithful servants in these works; animals much more precious, without doubt, to the eye of reason, than the beatified skeletons pulled from the catacombs of Rome.

So we have arranged in the column of each month, the names of the real treasures of the rural economy. The grains, the pastures, the trees, the roots, the flowers, the fruits, the plants are arranged in the calendar, in such a way that the place and the day of the month that each product occupies is precisely the season and the day that Nature presents it to us. — Fabre d'Églantine, "Rapport fait à la Convention nationale au nom de la Commission chargée de la confection du Calendrier", Imprimerie nationale, 1793

AUTUMN

_

VENDéMIAIRE (22 SEPTEMBER – 21 OCTOBER)

1 22 Sep_ Raisin ( Grape
Grape
)

2 _23 Sep_ Safran ( Saffron
Saffron
)

3 _24 Sep_ Châtaigne ( Chestnut
Chestnut
)

4 _25 Sep_ Colchique (Crocus )

5 _26 Sep_ Cheval ( Horse
Horse
)

6 _27 Sep_ Balsamine ( Impatiens )

7 _28 Sep_ Carotte ( Carrot
Carrot
)

8 _29 Sep_ Amaranthe ( Amaranth )

9 _30 Sep_ Panais ( Parsnip )

10 _1 Oct_ Cuve (Vat )

11 _2 Oct_ Pomme de terre ( Potato
Potato
)

12 _3 Oct_ Immortelle (Strawflower )

13 _4 Oct_ Potiron ( Winter squash )

14 _5 Oct_ Réséda (Mignonette )

15 _6 Oct_ Âne ( Donkey
Donkey
)

16 _7 Oct_ Belle de nuit (Four o\'clock flower )

17 _8 Oct_ Citrouille ( Pumpkin
Pumpkin
)

18 _9 Oct_ Sarrasin ( Buckwheat )

19 _10 Oct_ Tournesol ( Sunflower )

20 _11 Oct_ Pressoir (Wine-Press )

21 _12 Oct_ Chanvre ( Hemp
Hemp
)

22 _13 Oct_ Pêche ( Peach
Peach
)

23 _14 Oct_ Navet ( Turnip )

24 _15 Oct_ Amaryllis ( Amaryllis )

25 _16 Oct_ Bœuf (Ox )

26 _17 Oct_ Aubergine ( Eggplant
Eggplant
)

27 _18 Oct_ Piment ( Chili pepper )

28 _19 Oct_ Tomate ( Tomato
Tomato
)

29 _20 Oct_ Orge ( Barley
Barley
)

30 _21 Oct_ Tonneau (Barrel )

_

BRUMAIRE (22 OCTOBER – 20 NOVEMBER)

1 22 Oct_ Pomme ( Apple
Apple
)

2 _23 Oct_ Céleri ( Celery
Celery
)

3 _24 Oct_ Poire ( Pear )

4 _25 Oct_ Betterave ( Beet root )

5 _26 Oct_ Oie ( Goose
Goose
)

6 _27 Oct_ Héliotrope (Heliotrope )

7 _28 Oct_ Figue ( Common Fig )

8 _29 Oct_ Scorsonère (Black Salsify )

9 _30 Oct_ Alisier (Chequer Tree )

10 _31 Oct_ Charrue ( Plough
Plough
)

11 _1 Nov_ Salsifis (Salsify )

12 _2 Nov_ Mâcre (Water chestnut )

13 _3 Nov_ Topinambour ( Jerusalem artichoke )

14 _4 Nov_ Endive ( Endive )

15 _5 Nov_ Dindon (Turkey )

16 _6 Nov_ Chervis (Skirret )

17 _7 Nov_ Cresson ( Watercress )

18 _8 Nov_ Dentelaire (Leadworts )

19 _9 Nov_ Grenade ( Pomegranate
Pomegranate
)

20 _10 Nov_ Herse (Harrow )

21 _11 Nov_ Bacchante (Baccharis )

22 _12 Nov_ Azerole (Azarole )

23 _13 Nov_ Garance (Madder )

24 _14 Nov_ Orange (Orange )

25 _15 Nov_ Faisan ( Pheasant
Pheasant
)

26 _16 Nov_ Pistache ( Pistachio
Pistachio
)

27 _17 Nov_ Macjonc (Tuberous pea )

28 _18 Nov_ Coing ( Quince
Quince
)

29 _19 Nov_ Cormier (Service tree )

30 _20 Nov_ Rouleau (Roller )

_

FRIMAIRE (21 NOVEMBER – 20 DECEMBER)

1 21 Nov_ Raiponce (Rampion )

2 _22 Nov_ Turneps ( Turnip )

3 _23 Nov_ Chicorée ( Chicory )

4 _24 Nov_ Nèfle ( Medlar )

5 _25 Nov_ Cochon ( Pig
Pig
)

6 _26 Nov_ Mâche ( Corn salad )

7 _27 Nov_ Chou-fleur ( Cauliflower
Cauliflower
)

8 _28 Nov_ Miel ( Honey
Honey
)

9 _29 Nov_ Genièvre (Juniper )

10 _30 Nov_ Pioche ( Pickaxe
Pickaxe
)

11 _1 Dec_ Cire ( Wax
Wax
)

12 _2 Dec_ Raifort ( Horseradish )

13 _3 Dec_ Cèdre (Cedar tree )

14 _4 Dec_ Sapin ( Fir
Fir
)

15 _5 Dec_ Chevreuil ( Roe deer )

16 _6 Dec_ Ajonc ( Gorse
Gorse
)

17 _7 Dec_ Cyprès (Cypress Tree )

18 _8 Dec_ Lierre ( Ivy
Ivy
)

19 _9 Dec_ Sabine (Savin Juniper )

20 _10 Dec_ Hoyau (Grub-hoe )

21 _11 Dec_ Érable à sucre (Sugar Maple )

22 _12 Dec_ Bruyère (Heather )

23 _13 Dec_ Roseau (Reed plant )

24 _14 Dec_ Oseille ( Sorrel )

25 _15 Dec_ Grillon (Cricket )

26 _16 Dec_ Pignon ( Pine nut )

27 _17 Dec_ Liège (Cork )

28 _18 Dec_ Truffe ( Truffle )

29 _19 Dec_ Olive
Olive
( Olive
Olive
)

30 _20 Dec_ Pelle ( Shovel
Shovel
)

WINTER

_

NIVôSE (21 DECEMBER – 19 JANUARY)

1 21 Dec_ Tourbe ( Peat
Peat
)

2 _22 Dec_ Houille ( Coal
Coal
)

3 _23 Dec_ Bitume ( Bitumen )

4 _24 Dec_ Soufre ( Sulphur
Sulphur
)

5 _25 Dec_ Chien ( Dog
Dog
)

6 _26 Dec_ Lave ( Lava
Lava
)

7 _27 Dec_ Terre végétale ( Topsoil )

8 _28 Dec_ Fumier ( Manure
Manure
)

9 _29 Dec_ Salpêtre (Saltpeter )

10 _30 Dec_ Fléau (Flail )

11 _31 Dec_ Granit ( Granite
Granite
)

12 _1 Jan_ Argile ( Clay
Clay
)

13 _2 Jan_ Ardoise ( Slate
Slate
)

14 _3 Jan_ Grès ( Sandstone
Sandstone
)

15 _4 Jan_ Lapin ( Rabbit
Rabbit
)

16 _5 Jan_ Silex ( Flint
Flint
)

17 _6 Jan_ Marne ( Marl )

18 _7 Jan_ Pierre à chaux ( Limestone
Limestone
)

19 _8 Jan_ Marbre ( Marble
Marble
)

20 _9 Jan_ Van ( Winnowing basket )

21 _10 Jan_ Pierre à plâtre ( Gypsum
Gypsum
)

22 _11 Jan_ Sel ( Salt
Salt
)

23 _12 Jan_ Fer (Iron )

24 _13 Jan_ Cuivre ( Copper
Copper
)

25 _14 Jan_ Chat ( Cat
Cat
)

26 _15 Jan_ Étain ( Tin
Tin
)

27 _16 Jan_ Plomb ( Lead
Lead
)

28 _17 Jan_ Zinc
Zinc
( Zinc
Zinc
)

29 _18 Jan_ Mercure (Mercury )

30 _19 Jan_ Crible ( Sieve )

_

PLUVIôSE (20 JANUARY – 18 FEBRUARY)

1 20 Jan_ Lauréole (Spurge-laurel )

2 _21 Jan_ Mousse ( Moss
Moss
)

3 _22 Jan_ Fragon (Butcher\'s Broom )

4 _23 Jan_ Perce-neige ( Snowdrop )

5 _24 Jan_ Taureau (Bull )

6 _25 Jan_ Laurier-thym (Laurustinus )

7 _26 Jan_ Amadouvier (Tinder polypore )

8 _27 Jan_ Mézéréon ( Daphne mezereum )

9 _28 Jan_ Peuplier (Poplar )

10 _29 Jan_ Coignée ( Axe
Axe
)

11 _30 Jan_ Ellébore ( Hellebore )

12 _31 Jan_ Brocoli ( Broccoli )

13 _1 Feb_ Laurier ( Bay laurel )

14 _2 Feb_ Avelinier (Filbert )

15 _3 Feb_ Vache (Cow )

16 _4 Feb_ Buis (Box Tree )

17 _5 Feb_ Lichen
Lichen
( Lichen
Lichen
)

18 _6 Feb_ If (Yew tree )

19 _7 Feb_ Pulmonaire ( Lungwort )

20 _8 Feb_ Serpette ( Billhook
Billhook
)

21 _9 Feb_ Thlaspi (Pennycress )

22 _10 Feb_ Thimelé ( Rose
Rose
Daphne )

23 _11 Feb_ Chiendent ( Couch grass )

24 _12 Feb_ Trainasse (Common Knotgrass )

25 _13 Feb_ Lièvre ( Hare
Hare
)

26 _14 Feb_ Guède ( Woad
Woad
)

27 _15 Feb_ Noisetier ( Hazel
Hazel
)

28 _16 Feb_ Cyclamen
Cyclamen
( Cyclamen
Cyclamen
)

29 _17 Feb_ Chélidoine (Celandine )

30 _18 Feb_ Traîneau ( Sleigh
Sleigh
)

_

VENTôSE (19 FEBRUARY – 20 MARCH)

1 19 Feb_ Tussilage (Coltsfoot )

2 _20 Feb_ Cornouiller (Dogwood )

3 _21 Feb_ Violier ( Matthiola )

4 _22 Feb_ Troène ( Privet
Privet
)

5 _23 Feb_ Bouc (Billygoat )

6 _24 Feb_ Asaret (Wild Ginger )

7 _25 Feb_ Alaterne (Italian Buckthorn )

8 _26 Feb_ Violette (Violet )

9 _27 Feb_ Marceau ( Goat
Goat
Willow )

10 _28 Feb_ Bêche ( Spade )

11 _1 Mar_ Narcisse (Narcissus )

12 _2 Mar_ Orme ( Elm
Elm
)

13 _3 Mar_ Fumeterre (Common fumitory )

14 _4 Mar_ Vélar (Hedge mustard )

15 _5 Mar_ Chèvre ( Goat
Goat
)

16 _6 Mar_ Épinard ( Spinach
Spinach
)

17 _7 Mar_ Doronic ( Doronicum )

18 _8 Mar_ Mouron (Pimpernel )

19 _9 Mar_ Cerfeuil ( Chervil )

20 _10 Mar_ Cordeau ( Twine
Twine
)

21 _11 Mar_ Mandragore (Mandrake )

22 _12 Mar_ Persil ( Parsley )

23 _13 Mar_ Cochléaria (Scurvy-grass )

24 _14 Mar_ Pâquerette (Daisy )

25 _15 Mar_ Thon ( Tuna
Tuna
)

26 _16 Mar_ Pissenlit (Dandelion )

27 _17 Mar_ Sylvie (Wood Anemone )

28 _18 Mar_ Capillaire (Maidenhair fern )

29 _19 Mar_ Frêne (Ash tree )

30 _20 Mar_ Plantoir ( Dibber )

SPRING

_

GERMINAL (21 MARCH – 19 APRIL)

1 21 Mar_ Primevère (Primrose )

2 _22 Mar_ Platane (Plane Tree )

3 _23 Mar_ Asperge ( Asparagus
Asparagus
)

4 _24 Mar_ Tulipe ( Tulip
Tulip
)

5 _25 Mar_ Poule (Hen )

6 _26 Mar_ Bette ( Chard
Chard
)

7 _27 Mar_ Bouleau ( Birch
Birch
)

8 _28 Mar_ Jonquille (Daffodil )

9 _29 Mar_ Aulne ( Alder
Alder
)

10 _30 Mar_ Couvoir ( Hatchery
Hatchery
)

11 _31 Mar_ Pervenche (Periwinkle )

12 _1 Apr_ Charme ( Hornbeam )

13 _2 Apr_ Morille (Morel )

14 _3 Apr_ Hêtre (Beech Tree )

15 _4 Apr_ Abeille ( Bee
Bee
)

16 _5 Apr_ Laitue ( Lettuce )

17 _6 Apr_ Mélèze ( Larch )

18 _7 Apr_ Ciguë (Hemlock )

19 _8 Apr_ Radis ( Radish
Radish
)

20 _9 Apr_ Ruche (Hive )

21 _10 Apr_ Gainier (Judas tree )

22 _11 Apr_ Romaine ( Romaine lettuce )

23 _12 Apr_ Marronnier ( Horse
Horse
chestnut )

24 _13 Apr_ Roquette ( Arugula
Arugula
or Rocket )

25 _14 Apr_ Pigeon
Pigeon
( Pigeon
Pigeon
)

26 _15 Apr_ Lilas ( Lilac )

27 _16 Apr_ Anémone (Anemone )

28 _17 Apr_ Pensée ( Pansy
Pansy
)

29 _18 Apr_ Myrtille ( Bilberry )

30 _19 Apr_ Greffoir ( Knife
Knife
)

_

FLORéAL (20 APRIL – 19 MAY)

1 20 Apr_ Rose
Rose
( Rose
Rose
)

2 _21 Apr_ Chêne (Oak Tree )

3 _22 Apr_ Fougère ( Fern
Fern
)

4 _23 Apr_ Aubépine (Hawthorn )

5 _24 Apr_ Rossignol ( Nightingale
Nightingale
)

6 _25 Apr_ Ancolie (Common Columbine )

7 _26 Apr_ Muguet ( Lily of the valley
Lily of the valley
)

8 _27 Apr_ Champignon (Button mushroom )

9 _28 Apr_ Hyacinthe (Hyacinth )

10 _29 Apr_ Râteau (Rake )

11 _30 Apr_ Rhubarbe ( Rhubarb )

12 _1 May_ Sainfoin ( Sainfoin )

13 _2 May_ Bâton d'or (Wallflower )

14 _3 May_ Chamerisier (Fan Palm tree )

15 _4 May_ Ver à soie ( Silkworm )

16 _5 May_ Consoude ( Comfrey )

17 _6 May_ Pimprenelle ( Salad burnet )

18 _7 May_ Corbeille d'or ( Basket
Basket
of Gold )

19 _8 May_ Arroche ( Orache )

20 _9 May_ Sarcloir (Garden hoe )

21 _10 May_ Statice (Thrift )

22 _11 May_ Fritillaire (Fritillary )

23 _12 May_ Bourrache ( Borage
Borage
)

24 _13 May_ Valériane (Valerian )

25 _14 May_ Carpe ( Carp
Carp
)

26 _15 May_ Fusain (Spindle (shrub) )

27 _16 May_ Civette ( Chive )

28 _17 May_ Buglosse (Bugloss )

29 _18 May_ Sénevé (Wild mustard )

30 _19 May_ Houlette (Shepherd\'s crook )

_

PRAIRIAL (20 MAY – 18 JUNE)

1 20 May_ Luzerne ( Alfalfa )

2 _21 May_ Hémérocalle ( Daylily )

3 _22 May_ Trèfle ( Clover
Clover
)

4 _23 May_ Angélique (Angelica )

5 _24 May_ Canard ( Duck
Duck
)

6 _25 May_ Mélisse ( Lemon balm
Lemon balm
)

7 _26 May_ Fromental ( Oat
Oat
grass )

8 _27 May_ Martagon (Martagon lily )

9 _28 May_ Serpolet (Wild Thyme
Thyme
)

10 _29 May_ Faux ( Scythe
Scythe
)

11 _30 May_ Fraise ( Strawberry
Strawberry
)

12 _31 May_ Bétoine (Woundwort )

13 _1 Jun_ Pois ( Pea
Pea
)

14 _2 Jun_ Acacia
Acacia
( Acacia
Acacia
)

15 _3 Jun_ Caille ( Quail
Quail
)

16 _4 Jun_ Œillet (Carnation )

17 _5 Jun_ Sureau ( Elderberry
Elderberry
)

18 _6 Jun_ Pavot (Poppy plant )

19 _7 Jun_ Tilleul (Linden or Lime tree )

20 _8 Jun_ Fourche ( Pitchfork
Pitchfork
)

21 _9 Jun_ Barbeau ( Cornflower )

22 _10 Jun_ Camomille ( Camomile )

23 _11 Jun_ Chèvrefeuille ( Honeysuckle
Honeysuckle
)

24 _12 Jun_ Caille-lait (Bedstraw )

25 _13 Jun_ Tanche ( Tench
Tench
)

26 _14 Jun_ Jasmin ( Jasmine
Jasmine
)

27 _15 Jun_ Verveine (Verbena )

28 _16 Jun_ Thym ( Thyme
Thyme
)

29 _17 Jun_ Pivoine ( Peony
Peony
)

30 _18 Jun_ Chariot (Hand Cart )

SUMMER

_

MESSIDOR (19 JUNE – 18 JULY)

1 19 Jun_ Seigle ( Rye
Rye
)

2 _20 Jun_ Avoine ( Oat
Oat
)

3 _21 Jun_ Oignon ( Onion
Onion
)

4 _22 Jun_ Véronique (Speedwell )

5 _23 Jun_ Mulet ( Mule
Mule
)

6 _24 Jun_ Romarin ( Rosemary
Rosemary
)

7 _25 Jun_ Concombre ( Cucumber
Cucumber
)

8 _26 Jun_ Échalote ( Shallot )

9 _27 Jun_ Absinthe (Wormwood )

10 _28 Jun_ Faucille ( Sickle
Sickle
)

11 _29 Jun_ Coriandre ( Coriander )

12 _30 Jun_ Artichaut (Artichoke )

13 _1 Jul_ Girofle ( Clove )

14 _2 Jul_ Lavande ( Lavender
Lavender
)

15 _3 Jul_ Chamois ( Chamois )

16 _4 Jul_ Tabac ( Tobacco
Tobacco
)

17 _5 Jul_ Groseille ( Redcurrant )

18 _6 Jul_ Gesse (Hairy Vetchling )

19 _7 Jul_ Cerise ( Cherry
Cherry
)

20 _8 Jul_ Parc ( Park
Park
)

21 _9 Jul_ Menthe (Mint )

22 _10 Jul_ Cumin
Cumin
( Cumin
Cumin
)

23 _11 Jul_ Haricot ( Bean
Bean
)

24 _12 Jul_ Orcanète (Alkanet )

25 _13 Jul_ Pintade ( Guinea fowl )

26 _14 Jul_ Sauge (Sage Plant )

27 _15 Jul_ Ail ( Garlic
Garlic
)

28 _16 Jul_ Vesce (Tare )

29 _17 Jul_ Blé ( Wheat
Wheat
)

30 _18 Jul_ Chalémie ( Shawm )

_

THERMIDOR (19 JULY – 17 AUGUST)

1 19 Jul_ Épeautre ( Spelt
Spelt
)

2 _20 Jul_ Bouillon blanc ( Common mullein )

3 _21 Jul_ Melon (Melon )

4 _22 Jul_ Ivraie ( Ryegrass )

5 _23 Jul_ Bélier (Ram )

6 _24 Jul_ Prêle (Horsetail )

7 _25 Jul_ Armoise (Mugwort )

8 _26 Jul_ Carthame ( Safflower )

9 _27 Jul_ Mûre ( Blackberry
Blackberry
)

10 _28 Jul_ Arrosoir ( Watering can )

11 _29 Jul_ Panic (Switchgrass )

12 _30 Jul_ Salicorne (Common Glasswort
Glasswort
)

13 _31 Jul_ Abricot ( Apricot
Apricot
)

14 _1 Aug_ Basilic ( Basil
Basil
)

15 _2 Aug_ Brebis (Ewe )

16 _3 Aug_ Guimauve (Marshmallow )

17 _4 Aug_ Lin ( Flax
Flax
)

18 _5 Aug_ Amande ( Almond
Almond
)

19 _6 Aug_ Gentiane ( Gentian )

20 _7 Aug_ Écluse (Lock )

21 _8 Aug_ Carline ( Carline thistle )

22 _9 Aug_ Câprier ( Caper )

23 _10 Aug_ Lentille ( Lentil
Lentil
)

24 _11 Aug_ Aunée ( Inula )

25 _12 Aug_ Loutre ( Otter
Otter
)

26 _13 Aug_ Myrte (Myrtle )

27 _14 Aug_ Colza ( Rapeseed
Rapeseed
)

28 _15 Aug_ Lupin
Lupin
( Lupin
Lupin
)

29 _16 Aug_ Coton ( Cotton
Cotton
)

30 _17 Aug_ Moulin (Mill )

_

FRUCTIDOR (18 AUGUST – 16 SEPTEMBER)

1 18 Aug_ Prune ( Plum
Plum
)

2 _19 Aug_ Millet
Millet
( Millet
Millet
)

3 _20 Aug_ Lycoperdon ( Puffball )

4 _21 Aug_ Escourgeon (Six-row Barley
Barley
)

5 _22 Aug_ Saumon ( Salmon
Salmon
)

6 _23 Aug_ Tubéreuse ( Tuberose )

7 _24 Aug_ Sucrion (Winter Barley
Barley
)

8 _25 Aug_ Apocyn (Apocynum )

9 _26 Aug_ Réglisse ( Liquorice )

10 _27 Aug_ Échelle ( Ladder
Ladder
)

11 _28 Aug_ Pastèque ( Watermelon )

12 _29 Aug_ Fenouil ( Fennel )

13 _30 Aug_ Épine vinette ( Barberry )

14 _31 Aug_ Noix ( Walnut
Walnut
)

15 _1 Sep_ Truite ( Trout
Trout
)

16 _2 Sep_ Citron ( Lemon
Lemon
)

17 _3 Sep_ Cardère (Teasel )

18 _4 Sep_ Nerprun ( Buckthorn )

19 _5 Sep_ Tagette (Mexican Marigold )

20 _6 Sep_ Hotte (Harvesting basket )

21 _7 Sep_ Églantier (Wild Rose
Rose
)

22 _8 Sep_ Noisette ( Hazelnut )

23 _9 Sep_ Houblon (Hops )

24 _10 Sep_ Sorgho ( Sorghum
Sorghum
)

25 _11 Sep_ Écrevisse ( Crayfish )

26 _12 Sep_ Bigarade ( Bitter orange )

27 _13 Sep_ Verge d'or ( Goldenrod )

28 _14 Sep_ Maïs ( Maize
Maize
or Corn )

29 _15 Sep_ Marron (Sweet Chestnut
Chestnut
)

30 _16 Sep_ Panier (Pack Basket
Basket
)

COMPLEMENTARY DAYS

Main article: Sansculottides

Five extra days – six in leap years – were national holidays at the end of every year. These were originally known as _les sans-culottides_ (after _sans-culottes _), but after year III (1795) as _les jours complémentaires_:

* 1st complementary day: La Fête de la Vertu , "Celebration of Virtue", on 17 or 18 September * 2nd complementary day: La Fête du Génie , "Celebration of Talent", on 18 or 19 September * 3rd complementary day: La Fête du Travail , "Celebration of Labour", on 19 or 20 September * 4th complementary day: La Fête de l\'Opinion , "Celebration of Convictions", on 20 or 21 September * 5th complementary day: La Fête des Récompenses , "Celebration of Honors (Awards)", on 21 or 22 September * 6th complementary day: La Fête de la Révolution , "Celebration of the Revolution", on 22 or 23 September (on leap years only)

CONVERTING FROM THE GREGORIAN CALENDAR

_ Fountain in Octon, Hérault with date 5 Ventôse an 109_ (24 February 1901)

Below are the Gregorian dates each Republican year (_an_ in French) began while the calendar was in effect.

AN GREGORIAN

I (1) 22 September 1792

II (2) 22 September 1793

III (3) 22 September 1794

IV (4) 23 September 1795*

V (5) 22 September 1796

VI (6) 22 September 1797

VII (7) 22 September 1798

VIII (8) 23 September 1799*

IX (9) 23 September 1800

X (10) 23 September 1801

XI (11) 23 September 1802

XII (12) 24 September 1803*

XIII (13) 23 September 1804

XIV (14) 23 September 1805

* Extra (sextile) day inserted before date, due to previous leap year

The calendar was abolished in the year XIV (1805). After this date, opinions seem to differ on the method by which the leap years would have been determined if the calendar were still in force. There are at least four hypotheses used to convert dates from the Gregorian calendar:

* _Equinox:_ The leap years would continue to vary in order to ensure that each year the autumnal equinox in Paris falls on 1 Vendémiaire, as was the case from year I to year XIV. This is the only method that was ever in legal effect, although it means that sometimes five years pass between leap years, such as the years 15 and 20. * _Romme:_ Leap years would have fallen on each year divisible by four (thus in 20, 24, 28…), except most century years, according to Romme's proposed fixed rules. This would have simplified conversions between the Republican and Gregorian calendars since the Republican leap day would usually follow a few months after 29 February, at the end of each year divisible by four, so that the date of the Republican New Year remains the same (22 September) in the Gregorian calendar for the entire third century of the Republican Era (AD 1992–2091). * _Continuous:_ The leap years would have continued in a fixed rule every four years from the last one (thus years 15, 19, 23, 27…) with the leap day added before, rather than after, each year divisible by four, except most century years. This rule has the advantage that it is both simple to calculate and is continuous with every year in which the calendar was in official use during the First Republic . Some concordances were printed in France, after the Republican Calendar
Calendar
was abandoned, using this rule to determine dates for long-term contracts. * _128-Year:_ Beginning with year 20, years divisible by four would be leap years, except for years divisible by 128. Note that this rule was first proposed by von Mädler , and not until the late 19th century. The date of the Republican New Year remains the same (23 September) in the Gregorian calendar every year from 129 to 256 (AD 1920–2047).

The following table shows when several years of the Republican Era begin on the Gregorian calendar, according to each of the four above methods:

AN AD/CE EQUINOX ROMME CONTINUOUS 128-YEAR

XV (15)

1806

23 September

23 September

23 September

23 September

XVI (16)

1807

24 September*

23 September

24 September*

24 September*

XVII (17)

1808

23 September

23 September*

23 September

23 September

XVIII (18)

1809

23 September

23 September

23 September

23 September

XIX (19)

1810

23 September

23 September

23 September

23 September

XX (20)

1811

23 September

23 September

24 September*

23 September

CCXXV (225)

2016

22 September

22 September*

22 September

23 September*

CCXXVI (226)

2017
2017

22 September

22 September

22 September

23 September

CCXXVII (227)

2018

23 September*

22 September

22 September

23 September

CCXXVIII (228)

2019

23 September

22 September

23 September*

23 September

* Extra (sextile) day inserted before date, due to previous leap year

CURRENT DATE AND TIME

For this calendar, the Romme method of calculating leap years is used. Other methods may differ by one day. Time may be cached and therefore not accurate. Decimal time is according to Paris mean time, which is 9 minutes 21 seconds (6.49 decimal minutes) ahead of Greenwich Mean Time. This is as time of page generated (Mon 2017 -08-07 12:15:07 UTC
UTC
, Mon 2017-08-07 12:24:28 TMP (Gregorian calendar , conventional time), .51049 decimal UT, Unix timestamp 1502108107) (update)

225 THERMIDOR CCXXV

Primidi

Duodi

Tridi

Quartidi

Quintidi

Sextidi

Septidi

Octidi

Nonidi

Décadi

décade 31

1 Wednesday 19 July 2017
2017

2 Thursday 20 July 2017
2017

3 Friday 21 July 2017
2017

4 Saturday 22 July 2017
2017

5 Sunday 23 July 2017
2017

6 Monday 24 July 2017
2017

7 Tuesday 25 July 2017
2017

8 Wednesday 26 July 2017
2017

9 Thursday 27 July 2017
2017

10 Friday 28 July 2017
2017

décade 32

11 Saturday 29 July 2017
2017

12 Sunday 30 July 2017
2017

13 Monday 31 July 2017
2017

14 Tuesday 1 August 2017
2017

15 Wednesday 2 August 2017
2017

16 Thursday 3 August 2017
2017

17 Friday 4 August 2017
2017

18 Saturday 5 August 2017
2017

19 Sunday 6 August 2017
2017

20 Monday 7 August 2017
2017

décade 33

21 Tuesday 8 August 2017
2017

22 Wednesday 9 August 2017
2017

23 Thursday 10 August 2017
2017

24 Friday 11 August 2017
2017

25 Saturday 12 August 2017
2017

26 Sunday 13 August 2017
2017

27 Monday 14 August 2017
2017

28 Tuesday 15 August 2017
2017

29 Wednesday 16 August 2017
2017

30 Thursday 17 August 2017
2017

10 h

Paris

5H16M99S

12:15:07

24 h

Greenwich

CRITICISM AND SHORTCOMINGS

Clock
Clock
dial displaying both decimal and duodecimal time.

Leap years in the calendar are a point of great dispute, due to the contradicting statements in the establishing decree stating:

Each year begins at midnight, with the day on which the true autumnal equinox falls for the Paris Observatory
Paris Observatory
.

and:

The four-year period, after which the addition of a day is usually necessary, is called the _Franciade_ in memory of the revolution which, after four years of effort, led France
France
to republican government. The fourth year of the _Franciade_ is called _Sextile_.

These two specifications are incompatible, as leap years defined by the autumnal equinox in Paris do not recur on a regular four year schedule. Thus, the years III, VII, and XI were observed as leap years, and the years XV and XX were also planned as such, even though they were five years apart. Clock
Clock
dial displaying both decimal (inside the circle) and duodecimal time (on the outer rim).

A fixed arithmetic rule for determining leap years was proposed in the name of the Committee of Public Education by Gilbert Romme
Gilbert Romme
on 19 Floréal An III (8 May 1795). The proposed rule was to determine leap years by applying the rules of the Gregorian calendar to the years of the French Republic (years IV, VIII, XII, etc. were to be leap years) except that year 4000 (the last year of ten 400-year periods) should be a common year instead of a leap year. Because he was shortly after sentenced to the guillotine, this proposal was never adopted and the original astronomical rule continued, which excluded any other fixed arithmetic rule. The proposal was intended to avoid uncertain future leap years caused by the inaccurate astronomical knowledge of the 1790s (even today, this statement is still valid due to the uncertainty in ΔT ). In particular, the committee noted that the autumnal equinox of year 144 was predicted to occur at 11:59:40 pm local apparent time in Paris, which was closer to midnight than its inherent 3 to 4 minute uncertainty.

The calendar was abolished by an act dated 22 Fructidor
Fructidor
an XIII (9 September 1805) and signed by Napoleon
Napoleon
, which referred to a report by Michel-Louis-Étienne Regnaud de Saint-Jean d\'Angély and Jean Joseph Mounier , listing two fundamental flaws.

* The rule for leap years depended upon the uneven course of the sun, rather than fixed intervals, so that one must consult astronomers to determine when each year started, especially when the equinox happened close to midnight, as the exact moment could not be predicted with certainty. * Both the era and the beginning of the year were chosen to commemorate an historical event which occurred on the first day of autumn in France, whereas the other European nations began the year near the beginning of winter or spring, thus being impediments to the calendar's adoption in Europe and America, and even a part of the French nation, where the Gregorian calendar continued to be used, as it was required for religious purposes.

The report also noted that the 10-day décade was unpopular and had already been suppressed three years earlier in favor of the 7-day week, removing what was considered by some as one of the calendar's main benefits. The 10-day décade was unpopular with laborers because they received only one full day of rest out of ten, instead of one in seven, although they also got a half-day off on the fifth day. It also, by design, conflicted with Sunday religious observances.

Another criticism of the calendar was that despite the poetic names of its months, they are tied to the climate and agriculture of metropolitan France
France
and therefore not applicable to France\'s overseas territories .

FAMOUS DATES AND OTHER CULTURAL REFERENCES

See also: Glossary of the French Revolution § Events commonly known by their Revolutionary dates _ Décret de la Convention 9 Brumaire An III_ above the entrance to the ENS .

The "18 Brumaire " or "Brumaire" was the coup d\'état of Napoleon Bonaparte on 18 Brumaire An VIII (9 November 1799), which many historians consider as the end of the French Revolution. Karl Marx
Karl Marx
's 1852 essay _The 18th Brumaire of Louis Napoléon _ compares the 1851 coup of Louis Napoléon to his uncle's earlier coup.

Another famous revolutionary date is 9 Thermidor
Thermidor
An II (27 July 1794), the date the Convention turned against Robespierre
Robespierre
, who, along with others associated with the Mountain , was guillotined the following day. Based on this event, the term "Thermidorian" entered the Marxist vocabulary as referring to revolutionaries who destroy the revolution from the inside and turn against its true aims. For example, Leon Trotsky
Leon Trotsky
and his followers used this term about Joseph Stalin .

Émile Zola 's novel _Germinal _ takes its name from the calendar's month of Germinal.

The seafood dish lobster thermidor was probably named after the 1891 play _ Thermidor
Thermidor
_, set during the Revolution.

The French frigates of the _Floréal_ class all bear names of Republican months.

The Convention of 9 Brumaire An III, 30 October 1794, established the École Normale Supérieure . The date appears prominently on the entrance to the school.

The French composer Fromental Halévy was named after the feast day of 'Fromental' in the Revolutionary Calendar, which occurred on his birthday in year VIII (27 May 1799).

Neil Gaiman 's _The Sandman _ series, included a story called Thermidor
Thermidor
which takes place on that month during the French Revolution.

The _ Liavek _ shared world series uses a calendar which is a direct translation of the French Republican calendar.

Sarah Monette 's _ Doctrine of Labyrinths _ series borrows the Republican calendar for one of the two competing calendars (their usage splits between social classes) in the fictional city of Mélusine.

Alain Tanner 's 1979 film Messidor presents a haphazard summer road trip of two young women in Switzerland.

SEE ALSO

* Agricultural cycle * Calendar
Calendar
reform * Dechristianisation of France
France
* Decimal time * Soviet calendar * Solar Hijri calendar
Solar Hijri calendar
, astronomical equinox-based calendar used in Iran * World Calendar
Calendar

REFERENCES

* ^ Sylvain, Maréchal. "Almanach des Honnêtes-gens". _gallica.bnf.fr_. Gallica. pp. 14–15. * ^ James Guillaume , _Procès-verbaux du Comité d'instruction publique de la Convention nationale_, t. I, pp. 227–228 et t. II, pp. 440–448 ; Michel Froechlé, « Le calendrier républicain correspondait-il à une nécessité scientifique ? », Congrès national des sociétés savantes : scientifiques et sociétés, Paris, 1989, pp. 453–465. * ^ _