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French Indochina
Indochina
(previously spelled as French Indo-China)[1] (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法, IPA: [ɗə̄wŋm jɨ̄əŋ tʰûək fǎp], frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise)[2] after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation
Federation
(French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia. A grouping of the three Vietnamese regions of Tonkin (north), Annam (centre), and Cochinchina (south) with Cambodia
Cambodia
was formed in 1887. Laos
Laos
was added in 1893 and the leased Chinese territory of Guangzhouwan
Guangzhouwan
in 1898. The capital was moved from Saigon (in Cochinchina) to Hanoi
Hanoi
(Tonkin) in 1902 and again to Da Lat
Da Lat
(Annam) in 1939. In 1945 it was moved back to Hanoi. After the Fall of France
Fall of France
during World War II, the colony was administered by the Vichy government and was under Japanese occupation until March 1945, when the Japanese overthrew the colonial regime. After the Japanese surrender, the Viet Minh, a communist organization led by Hồ Chí Minh, declared Vietnamese independence, but France subsequently took back control of French Indochina. An all-out independence war, known as the First Indochina
Indochina
War, broke out in late 1946 between French and Viet Minh
Viet Minh
forces. In order to create a political alternative to the Viet Minh, the State of Vietnam, led by former Emperor Bảo Đại, was proclaimed in 1949. On 9 November 1953 the Kingdom of Cambodia
Cambodia
proclaimed its independence. Following the Geneva Accord of 1954, the French evacuated Vietnam
Vietnam
and French Indochina
Indochina
came to an end.

Contents

1 History

1.1 First French interventions 1.2 19th century 1.3 Establishment 1.4 Vietnamese rebellions 1.5 Franco-Siamese war (1893) 1.6 Further encroachments on Siam (1904–07) 1.7 Yên Bái mutiny
Yên Bái mutiny
(1930) 1.8 French-Thai War (1940–41) 1.9 World War II 1.10 First Indochina
Indochina
War 1.11 Geneva Agreements

2 Population 3 Economy

3.1 Infrastructure

4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] First French interventions[edit] Main articles: France– Vietnam
Vietnam
relations and French assistance to Nguyễn Ánh France– Vietnam
Vietnam
relations started in early 17th century with the mission of the Jesuit missionary Alexandre de Rhodes. At this time, Vietnam
Vietnam
was only just beginning to occupy the Mekong
Mekong
Delta, former territory of the Indianised kingdom of Champa
Champa
which they had defeated in 1471.[3] European involvement in Vietnam
Vietnam
was confined to trade during the 18th century. In 1787, Pierre Pigneau de Behaine, a French Catholic priest, petitioned the French government and organised French military volunteers to aid Nguyễn Ánh in retaking lands his family lost to the Tây Sơn. Pigneau died in Vietnam
Vietnam
but his troops fought on until 1802 in the French assistance to Nguyễn Ánh. 19th century[edit] Main article: Cochinchina Campaign See also: French Cochinchina
French Cochinchina
and French protectorate of Cambodia France
France
was heavily involved in Vietnam
Vietnam
in the 19th century; protecting the work of the Paris Foreign Missions Society
Paris Foreign Missions Society
in the country was often presented as a justification. For its part, the Nguyễn dynasty increasingly saw Catholic missionaries as a political threat; courtesans, for example, an influential faction in the dynastic system, feared for their status in a society influenced by an insistence on monogamy. In 1858, the brief period of unification under the Nguyễn dynasty ended with a successful attack on Da Nang
Da Nang
by French Admiral Charles Rigault de Genouilly under the orders of Napoleon III. Diplomat Charles de Montigny's mission having failed, Genouilly's mission was to stop attempts to expel Catholic missionaries. His orders were to stop the persecution of missionaries and assure the unimpeded propagation of the faith.[4]

Palace of the Governor-General
Governor-General
(Norodom Palace) in Saigon, about 1875

In September 1858, fourteen French gunships, 3,000 men and 300 Filipino troops provided by the Spanish[5] attacked the port of Tourane (present day Da Nang), causing significant damage and occupying the city. After a few months, Rigault had to leave the city due to supply issues and illnesses.[4] Sailing south, de Genouilly then captured the poorly defended city of Saigon on 18 February 1859. On 13 April 1862, the Vietnamese government was forced to cede the three provinces of Biên Hòa, Gia Định and Định Tường to France. De Genouilly was criticised for his actions and was replaced by Admiral Page in November 1859, with instructions to obtain a treaty protecting the Catholic faith in Vietnam, but refrain from territorial gains.[4] French policy four years later saw a reversal, with the French continuing to accumulate territory. In 1862, France
France
obtained concessions from Emperor Tự Đức, ceding three treaty ports in Annam and Tonkin, and all of Cochinchina, the latter being formally declared a French territory in 1864. In 1867 the provinces of Châu Đốc, Hà Tiên
Hà Tiên
and Vĩnh Long were added to French-controlled territory. In 1863, the Cambodian king Norodom had requested the establishment of a French protectorate over his country. In 1867, Siam (modern Thailand) renounced suzerainty over Cambodia
Cambodia
and officially recognised the 1863 French protectorate on Cambodia, in exchange for the control of Battambang
Battambang
and Siem Reap
Siem Reap
provinces which officially became part of Thailand. (These provinces would be ceded back to Cambodia
Cambodia
by a border treaty between France
France
and Siam in 1906). Establishment[edit]

French marine infantrymen in Tonkin, 1884

The expansion of French Indochina
Indochina
(blue).

Main article: Tonkin campaign See also: Annam (French protectorate), Tonkin (French protectorate), French protectorate of Laos, and Guangzhouwan France
France
obtained control over northern Vietnam
Vietnam
following its victory over China
China
in the Sino-French War
Sino-French War
(1884–85). French Indochina
Indochina
was formed on 17 October 1887 from Annam, Tonkin, Cochinchina (which together form modern Vietnam) and the Kingdom of Cambodia; Laos
Laos
was added after the Franco-Siamese War
Franco-Siamese War
in 1893. The federation lasted until 21 July 1954. In the four protectorates, the French formally left the local rulers in power, who were the Emperors of Vietnam, Kings of Cambodia, and Kings of Luang Prabang, but in fact gathered all powers in their hands, the local rulers acting only as figureheads. Vietnamese rebellions[edit] French troops landed in Vietnam
Vietnam
in 1858 and by the mid-1880s they had established a firm grip over the northern region. From 1885 to 1895, Phan Đình Phùng
Phan Đình Phùng
led a rebellion against the colonising power. Nationalist sentiments intensified in Vietnam, especially during and after World War I, but all the uprisings and tentative efforts failed to obtain any concessions from the French overseers. Franco-Siamese war (1893)[edit] Main article: Franco-Siamese War

Siamese army in the disputed territory of Laos
Laos
in 1893.

Territorial conflict in the Indochinese peninsula for the expansion of French Indochina
Indochina
led to the Franco-Siamese War
Franco-Siamese War
of 1893. In 1893 the French authorities in Indochina
Indochina
used border disputes, followed by the Paknam naval incident, to provoke a crisis. French gunboats appeared at Bangkok, and demanded the cession of Lao territories east of the Mekong
Mekong
River. King Chulalongkorn
Chulalongkorn
appealed to the British, but the British minister told the King to settle on whatever terms he could get, and he had no choice but to comply. Britain's only gesture was an agreement with France
France
guaranteeing the integrity of the rest of Siam. In exchange, Siam had to give up its claim to the Thai-speaking Shan region of north-eastern Burma to the British, and cede Laos
Laos
to France. Further encroachments on Siam (1904–07)[edit]

Occupation of Trat
Trat
by French troops in 1904.

The French, however, continued to pressure Siam, and in 1902 they manufactured another crisis [clarification needed]. This time Siam had to concede French control of territory on the west bank of the Mekong opposite Luang Prabang
Luang Prabang
and around Champasak in southern Laos, as well as western Cambodia. France
France
also occupied the western part of Chantaburi. In 1904, to get back Chantaburi Siam had to give Trat
Trat
and Koh Kong to French Indochina. Trat
Trat
became part of Thailand
Thailand
again on 23 March 1907 in exchange for many areas east of the Mekong
Mekong
like Battambang, Siam Nakhon and Sisophon.

French Indochina
Indochina
in 1930.

In the 1930s, Siam engaged France
France
in a series of talks concerning the repatriation of Siamese provinces held by the French. In 1938, under the Front Populaire administration in Paris, France
France
had agreed to repatriate Angkor Wat, Angkor Thom, Siem Reap, Siem Pang and the associated provinces (approximately 13) to Siam. Meanwhile, Siam took over control of those areas, in anticipation of the upcoming treaty. Signatories from each country were dispatched to Tokyo to sign the treaty repatriating the lost provinces. Yên Bái mutiny
Yên Bái mutiny
(1930)[edit] Further information: Yên Bái
Yên Bái
mutiny On 10 February 1930, there was an uprising by Vietnamese soldiers in the French colonial army's Yên Bái
Yên Bái
garrison. The Yên Bái
Yên Bái
mutiny was sponsored by the Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng
Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng
(VNQDĐ). The VNQDĐ was the Vietnamese Nationalist Party. The attack was the largest disturbance brewed up by the Cần Vương monarchist restoration movement of the late 19th century. The aim of the revolt was to inspire a wider uprising among the general populace in an attempt to overthrow the colonial authority. The VNQDĐ had previously attempted to engage in clandestine activities to undermine French rule, but increasing French scrutiny of their activities led to their leadership group taking the risk of staging a large scale military attack in the Red River Delta in northern Vietnam. French-Thai War (1940–41)[edit] Main article: Franco-Thai War During World War II, Thailand
Thailand
took the opportunity of French weaknesses to reclaim previously lost territories, resulting in the Franco-Thai War
Franco-Thai War
between October 1940 and 9 May 1941. The Thai forces generally did well on the ground, but Thai objectives in the war were limited. In January, Vichy French naval forces decisively defeated Thai naval forces in the Battle of Ko Chang. The war ended in May at the instigation of the Japanese, with the French forced to concede territorial gains for Thailand. World War II[edit] Main articles: French Indochina
Indochina
in World War II
World War II
and 1940–46 in the Vietnam
Vietnam
War

A propaganda painting in Hanoi, 1942.

In September 1940, during World War II, the newly created regime of Vichy France
Vichy France
granted Japan's demands for military access to Tonkin following the Japanese occupation of French Indochina, which lasted until the end of the Pacific War. This allowed Japan better access to China
China
in the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
against the forces of Chiang Kai-shek, but it was also part of Japan's strategy for dominion over the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. Thailand
Thailand
took this opportunity of weakness to reclaim previously lost territories, resulting in the Franco-Thai War
Franco-Thai War
between October 1940 and 9 May 1941. On 9 March 1945, with France
France
liberated, Germany in retreat, and the United States
United States
ascendant in the Pacific, Japan decided to take complete control of Indochina
Indochina
and destroyed the French colonial administration. Vietnam, Cambodia
Cambodia
and Laos
Laos
were proclaimed as independent states, members of Japan's Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. The Japanese kept power in Indochina
Indochina
until the news of their government's surrender came through in August. The general disorganization of French Indochina, coupled with several natural disasters, caused a dreadful famine in Northern and Central Vietnam. Several hundred thousands people - possibly over one million - are believed to have starved to death in 1944-45. First Indochina
Indochina
War[edit] Main article: First Indochina
Indochina
War After the World War, France
France
petitioned for the nullification of the 1938 Franco-Siamese Treaty and reasserted itself in the region, but came into conflict with the Viet Minh, a coalition of Communist and Vietnamese nationalists led by Hồ Chí Minh, founder of the Indochinese Communist Party. During World War II, the United States had supported the Viet Minh
Viet Minh
in resistance against the Japanese; the group had been in control of the countryside since the French gave way in March 1945. American President Roosevelt and General Stilwell privately made it adamantly clear that the French were not to reacquire French Indochina after the war was over. He told Secretary of State Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
the Indochinese were worse off under the French rule of nearly 100 years than they were at the beginning. Roosevelt asked Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
if he wanted Indochina, to which Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
replied: "Under no circumstances!"[6]

Members of the 1st Foreign Parachute Heavy Mortar Company
1st Foreign Parachute Heavy Mortar Company
during the Indochina
Indochina
War.

After the war, 200,000 Chinese troops under General Lu Han sent by Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
invaded northern Indochina
Indochina
north of the 16th parallel to accept the surrender of Japanese occupying forces, and remained there until 1946.[7] The Chinese used the VNQDĐ, the Vietnamese branch of the Chinese Kuomintang, to increase their influence in Indochina
Indochina
and put pressure on their opponents.[8] Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
threatened the French with war in response to manoeuvering by the French and Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
against each other, forcing them to come to a peace agreement, and in February 1946 he also forced the French to surrender all of their concessions in China
China
and renounce their extraterritorial privileges in exchange for withdrawing from northern Indochina
Indochina
and allowing French troops to reoccupy the region starting in March 1946.[9][10][11][12] After persuading Emperor Bảo Đại
Bảo Đại
to abdicate in his favour, on 2 September 1945 President Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
declared independence for the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. But before September's end, a force of British and Free French soldiers, along with captured Japanese troops, restored French control. Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
agreed to negotiate with the French in order to gain autonomy, but the Fontainebleau Agreements
Fontainebleau Agreements
of 1946 failed to produce a satisfactory solution. Bitter fighting ensued in the First Indochina War
First Indochina War
as Ho and his government took to the hills. In 1949, in order to provide a political alternative to Ho Chi Minh, the French favored the creation of a unified State of Vietnam : former Emperor Bảo Đại
Bảo Đại
was put back in power. Vietnam, Laos
Laos
and Cambodia
Cambodia
became associated states of the French Union
French Union
and were granted more autonomy. 1950, however was the turning point of the war. Ho's government was recognised by the fellow Communist governments of China
China
and the Soviet Union and Mao's government subsequently gave a fallback position to Ho's forces, as well as abundant supplies of weapons. In October 1950, the French army suffered its first major defeat with the battle of Route Coloniale 4. Subsequent efforts by the French military managed to improve their situation only in the short term. Bảo Đại's State of Vietnam
State of Vietnam
proved a weak and unstable government, and Norodom Sihanouk's Cambodia
Cambodia
proclaimed its independence in November 1953. Fighting lasted until May 1954, when the Viet Minh
Viet Minh
won the decisive victory against French forces at the gruelling battle of Điện Biên Phủ.

Indochina
Indochina
in 1954.

Geneva Agreements[edit] On 20 July 1954, the Geneva Conference produced the Geneva Agreements between North Vietnam
North Vietnam
and France. Provisions included supporting the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Indochina, granting it independence from France, declaring the cessation of hostilities and foreign involvement in internal Indochina
Indochina
affairs, and delineating northern and southern zones into which opposing troops were to withdraw. The Agreements mandated unification on the basis of internationally supervised free elections to be held in July 1956.[3] It was at this conference that France
France
relinquished any claim to territory in the Indochinese peninsula. The United States
United States
and South Vietnam
Vietnam
rejected the Geneva Accords and never signed. South Vietnamese leader Diem rejected the idea of nationwide election as proposed in the agreement, saying that a free election was impossible in the communist North and that his government was not bound by the Geneva Accords. France
France
did withdraw, turning the north over to the Communists while the Bảo Đại
Bảo Đại
regime, with American support, kept control of the South. The events of 1954 marked the beginnings of serious United States involvement in Vietnam
Vietnam
and the ensuing Vietnam
Vietnam
War. Laos
Laos
and Cambodia also became independent in 1954, but were both drawn into the Vietnam War. Population[edit] The Vietnamese, Lao and Khmer ethnic groups formed the majority of their respective colony's populations. Minority groups such as the Muong, Tay, Chams, and Jarai, were collectively known as Montagnards and resided principally in the mountain regions of Indochina. Ethnic Han Chinese were largely concentrated in major cities, especially in Southern Vietnam
Vietnam
and Cambodia, where they became heavily involved in trade and commerce. Around 95% of French Indochina's population was rural in a 1913 estimate, although urbanisation did slowly grow over the course of French rule.[13] The principal religion in French Indochina
Indochina
was Buddhism, with Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
influenced by Confucianism
Confucianism
more dominant in Vietnam, while Theravāda Buddhism
Buddhism
was more widespread in Laos
Laos
and Cambodia. In addition, active Catholic missionaries were widespread throughout Indochina
Indochina
and roughly 10% of Tonkin's population identified as Catholic by the end of French rule. Cao Đài's origins began during this period as well.

The subdivisions of French Indochina.

Unlike Algeria, French settlement in Indochina
Indochina
did not occur at a grand scale. By 1940, only about 34,000 French civilians lived in French Indochina, along with a smaller number of French military personnel and government workers. The principal reasons why French settlement did not grow in a manner similar to that in French North Africa (which had a population of over 1 million French civilians) were because French Indochina
Indochina
was seen as a colonie d'exploitation économique (economic colony) rather than a colonie de peuplement (settlement colony helping Metropolitan France
Metropolitan France
from being overpopulated), and because Indochina
Indochina
was distant from France
France
itself. During French colonial rule, the French language
French language
was the principal language of education, government, trade, and media and French was widely introduced to the general population. French became widespread among urban and semi-urban populations and became the principal language of the elite and educated. This was most notable in the colonies of Tonkin and Cochinchina (Northern and Southern Vietnam respectively), where French influence was most heavy, while Annam, Laos
Laos
and Cambodia
Cambodia
were less influenced by French education.[14] Despite the dominance of the French language, local populations still largely spoke their native languages. After French rule ended, the French language
French language
was still largely used among the new governments (with the exception of North Vietnam) but since then English, increasingly taught in schools across the country, has massively replaced French as the second language. Today, less than 0.5% of the population of Vietnam
Vietnam
can speak French.[14] Economy[edit] French Indochina
Indochina
was designated as a colonie d'exploitation (colony of economic exploitation) by the French government. Funding for the colonial government came by means of taxes on locals and the French government established a near monopoly on the trade of opium, salt and rice alcohol. The French administration established quotas of consumption for each Vietnamese village, thereby compelling villagers to purchase and consume set amounts of these monopolised goods.[15] The trade of those three products formed about 44% of the colonial government's budget in 1920 but declined to 20% by 1930 as the colony began to economically diversify. The colony's principal bank was the Banque de l'Indochine, established in 1875 and was responsible for minting the colony's currency, the Indochinese piastre. Indochina
Indochina
was the second most invested-in French colony by 1940 after Algeria, with investments totalling up to 6.7 million francs. Beginning in the 1930s, France
France
began to exploit the region for its natural resources and to economically diversify the colony. Cochinchina, Annam and Tonkin (encompassing modern-day Vietnam) became a source of tea, rice, coffee, pepper, coal, zinc and tin, while Cambodia
Cambodia
became a centre for rice and pepper crops. Only Laos
Laos
was seen initially as an economically unviable colony, although timber was harvested at a small scale from there. At the turn of the 20th century, the growing automobile industry in France
France
resulted in the growth of the rubber industry in French Indochina, and plantations were built throughout the colony, especially in Annam and Cochinchina. France
France
soon became a leading producer of rubber through its Indochina
Indochina
colony and Indochinese rubber became prized in the industrialised world. The success of rubber plantations in French Indochina
Indochina
resulted in an increase in investment in the colony by various firms such as Michelin. With the growing number of investments in the colony's mines and rubber, tea and coffee plantations, French Indochina
Indochina
began to industrialise as factories opened in the colony. These new factories produced textiles, cigarettes, beer and cement which were then exported throughout the French Empire. Infrastructure[edit]

Paul Doumer
Paul Doumer
Bridge, now Long Biên Bridge

Musée Louis Finot in Hanoi, built by Ernest Hébrard in 1932, now National Museum of Vietnamese History

When French Indochina
Indochina
was viewed as an economically important colony for France, the French government set a goal to improve the transport and communications networks in the colony. Saigon became a principal port in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and rivalled the British port of Singapore as the region's busiest commercial centre. By 1937 Saigon was the sixth busiest port in the entire French Empire. In 1936, the Trans-Indochinois railway linking Hanoi
Hanoi
and Saigon opened. Further improvements in the colony's transport infrastructures led to easier travel between France
France
and Indochina. By 1939, it took no more than a month by ship to travel from Marseille
Marseille
to Saigon and around five days by aeroplane from Paris to Saigon. Underwater telegraph cables were installed in 1921. French settlers further added their influence on the colony by constructing buildings in the form of Beaux-Arts and added French-influenced landmarks such as the Hanoi
Hanoi
Opera House (modeled on the Palais Garnier), the Hanoi
Hanoi
St. Joseph's Cathedral (resembling the Notre Dame de Paris) and the Saigon Notre-Dame Basilica. The French colonists also built a number of cities and towns in Indochina
Indochina
which served various purposes from trading outposts to resort towns. The most notable examples include Đà Lạt in southern Vietnam
Vietnam
and Pakse in Laos. See also[edit]

East Indies French Union List of Governors-General of French Indochina Political administration of French Indochina List of French possessions and colonies

Notes[edit]

^ While both 'Indo-China' and 'Indochina' can be found in contemporary English-language sources, 'Indo-China' is the most commonly used spelling (even though Indochine, instead of Indo-Chine', was commonly used in French); contemporary official publications also adopt the spelling of 'Indo-China'. ^ Decree of 17 October 1887. ^ a b Kahin, George McTurnin; Lewis, John W. (1967). The United States in Vietnam: An analysis in depth of the history of America's involvement in Vietnam. Delta Books.  ^ a b c Tucker, Spencer C. (1999). Vietnam
Vietnam
(Google Books). University Press of Kentucky. p. 29. ISBN 0-8131-0966-3.  ^ Chapuis, Oscar (1995). A History of Vietnam: From Hong Bang to Tu Duc (Google Books). Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 195. ISBN 0-313-29622-7.  ^ Barbara Wertheim Tuchman (1985). The march of folly: from Troy to Vietnam. Random House. p. 235. ISBN 0-345-30823-9. Retrieved 28 November 2010.  ^ Larry H. Addington (2000). America's war in Vietnam: a short narrative history. Indiana University Press. p. 30. ISBN 0-253-21360-6. Retrieved 28 November 2010.  ^ Peter Neville (2007). Britain in Vietnam: prelude to disaster, 1945–6. Psychology Press. p. 119. ISBN 0-415-35848-5. Retrieved 28 November 2010.  ^ Van Nguyen Duong (2008). The tragedy of the Vietnam
Vietnam
War: a South Vietnamese officer's analysis. McFarland. p. 21. ISBN 0-7864-3285-3. Retrieved 28 November 2010.  ^ Stein Tønnesson (2010). Vietnam
Vietnam
1946: how the war began. University of California Press. p. 41. ISBN 0-520-25602-6. Retrieved 28 November 2010.  ^ Elizabeth Jane Errington (1990). The Vietnam
Vietnam
War as history: edited by Elizabeth Jane Errington and B.J.C. McKercher. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 63. ISBN 0-275-93560-4. Retrieved 28 November 2010.  ^ "The Vietnam
Vietnam
War Seeds of Conflict 1945–1960". The History Place. 1999. Retrieved 28 December 2010.  ^ Le Vietnam
Vietnam
compte à lui seul cinquante quatre ethnies, présentées au Musée Ethnographique de Hanoi. ^ a b Approximately 100,000 people. "Vietnam". L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde (in French).  ^ Peters, Erica (2012). Appetites and Aspirations in Vietnam. AltaMira Press. 

References[edit]

Brocheux, Pierre, and Daniel Hemery. Indochina: An Ambiguous Colonization, 1858–1954 (University of California Press; 2010) 490 pages; a history of French Indochina. Chandler, David (2007). A History of Cambodia
Cambodia
(4th ed.). Boulder, Colorado:: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-4363-1.  Duiker, William (1976). The Rise of Nationalism
Nationalism
in Vietnam, 1900-1941. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-0951-9.  Edwards, Penny (2007). Cambodge: The Cultivation of a Nation, 1860–1945. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-2923-9.  Evans, Grant (2002). A Short History of Laos. Crow's Nest, Australia: Allen and Unwin. ASIN B000MBU21O.  Forbes, Andrew; Henley, David (2012). Vietnam
Vietnam
Past and Present: The North (History of French colonialism in Tonkin). Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. ASIN B006DCCM9Q.  Marr, David (1971). Vietnamese Anticolonialism, 1885–1925. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-01813-3.  Marr, David (1982). Vietnamese Tradition on Trial, 1920–1945. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-04180-1.  Marr, David (1995). Vietnam
Vietnam
1945: The Quest for Power. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-07833-0.  McLeod, Mark (1991). The Vietnamese Response to French Intervention, 1862–1874. New York: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-93562-0.  Murray, Martin J. (1980). The Development of Capitalism in Colonial Indochina
Indochina
(1870–1940). Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-04000-7.  Osborne, Milton (1969). The French Presence in Cochinchina and Cambodia: Rule and Response (1859–1905). Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. ASIN B000K13QGO.  Perkins, Mandaley (2006). Hanoi, Adieu: A bittersweet memoir of French Indochina. Sydney: Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0-7322-8197-7.  Stuart-Fox, Martin (1997). A History of Laos. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-59235-6.  Tarling, Nicholas (2001). Imperialism in Southeast Asia: "A Fleeting, Passing Phase". London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-23289-9.  Tully, John (2003). France
France
on the Mekong: A History of the Protectorate in Cambodia, 1863–1953. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America. ISBN 0-7618-2431-6.  Woodside, Alexander (1976). Community and Revolution in Modern Vietnam. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-20367-8.  Zinoman, Peter (2001). The Colonial Bastille: A History of Imprisonment in Vietnam, 1862–1940. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22412-4. On the bank of river called Touiys

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to French Indochina.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of a 1922 Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
article about French Indochina.

(in English) (in French) The Colonization of Indochina, from around 1892 (in English) (in French) Indochina, a tourism book published in 1910

v t e

French Indochina

Background

France–Asia relations French colonial empire France– Vietnam
Vietnam
relations France– Thailand
Thailand
relations France– China
China
relations

Constituent territories

Cochinchina Tonkin Annam Cambodia Laos Guangzhouwan Provisional Central Government of Vietnam State of Vietnam

Events

French assistance to Nguyễn Ánh
French assistance to Nguyễn Ánh
(1777–1820) Lê Văn Khôi revolt
Lê Văn Khôi revolt
(1833–35) Bombardment of Tourane
Bombardment of Tourane
(1847) Siege of Tourane
Siege of Tourane
(1858) Cochinchina campaign (1858–62) Tonkin Campaign
Tonkin Campaign
(1883–1886) Sino-French War
Sino-French War
(1884–1885) Pacification of Tonkin Franco-Siamese War
Franco-Siamese War
(1893) Holy Man's Rebellion (1901-1936) World War I 1916 Cochinchina uprising Thái Nguyên uprising War of the Insane Bazin assassination Yên Bái
Yên Bái
mutiny World War II French–Thai War (1940–1941) Japanese invasion of French Indochina Japanese coup d'état in French Indochina August Revolution Proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam First Indochina
Indochina
War Battle of Dien Bien Phu Partition of Vietnam

Treaties

Treaty of Versailles (1787) Treaty of Saigon (1862) Treaty of Huế (1863) Second Treaty of Saigon (1874) Treaty of Huế (1883) Geneva Conference (1954)

French personalities

Alexandre de Rhodes Pierre Pigneau de Behaine Jean-Baptiste Chaigneau Jean-Baptiste Cécille Charles de Montigny Charles Rigault de Genouilly Amédée Courbet Henri Rivière Francis Garnier Ernest Doudart de Lagrée Auguste Pavie Albert Sarraut

Organisations

Paris Foreign Missions Society Tirailleurs indochinois Tonkin Expeditionary Corps Tonkinese Rifles Governor-General
Governor-General
of French Indochina

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French overseas empire

Former

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Former French colonies in Africa and the Indian Ocean

French North Africa

Algeria Morocco Tunisia

French West Africa

Côte d'Ivoire Dahomey French Sudan Guinea Mauritania

Arguin
Arguin
Island

Niger Senegal Upper Volta

 

French Togoland James Island Albreda

French Equatorial Africa

Chad Gabon Middle Congo Ubangi-Shari French Cameroons

French Comoros

Anjouan Grande Comore Mohéli

 

French Somaliland
French Somaliland
(Djibouti) Madagascar Isle de France

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Former French colonies in the Americas

New France

Acadia Louisiana Canada Terre Neuve

French Caribbean

Dominica Grenada The Grenadines Saint-Domingue

Haïti, Dominican Republic

Saint Kitts & Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent Tobago Virgin Islands

Equinoctial France

Berbice France
France
Antarctique Inini

French colonization of the Americas French West India Company

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Former French colonies in Asia and Oceania

French India

Chandernagor Coromandel Coast Madras Mahé Pondichéry Karaikal Yanaon

Indochinese Union

Cambodia Laos Vietnam

Cochinchina Annam Tonkin

Kouang-Tchéou-Wan, China

French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon

State of Syria

Aleppo Damascus

Alawite State Greater Lebanon Jabal al-Druze Sanjak of Alexandretta

Oceania

New Hebrides

Vanuatu

Port Louis-Philippe (Akaroa)

France–Asia relations French East India Company

Present

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Overseas France

Inhabited areas

Overseas departments1

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte2 Réunion

Overseas collectivities

French Polynesia St. Barthélemy St. Martin St. Pierre and Miquelon Wallis and Futuna

Sui generis
Sui generis
collectivity

New Caledonia

Uninhabited areas

Pacific Ocean

Clipperton Island

Overseas territory (French Southern and Antarctic Lands)

Île Amsterdam Île Saint-Paul Crozet Islands Kerguelen Islands Adélie Land

Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean

Bassas da India3 Europa Island3 Glorioso Islands2, 3 Juan de Nova Island3 Tromelin Island4

1 Also known as overseas regions 2 Claimed by Comoros 3 Claimed by Madagascar 4 Claimed by Mauritius

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Vietnamese independence movement

Events

Bombardment of Tourane Siege of Saigon Capture of the Citadel of Saigon Conquest of Cochinchina Ba Dinh uprising / Cần Vương Pacification of Tonkin Hanoi
Hanoi
Poison Plot World War I 1916 Cochinchina uprising Thái Nguyên uprising Bazin assassination Yên Bái
Yên Bái
mutiny Nghệ-Tĩnh Soviets World War II 1940 Cochinchina uprising Japanese coup d'état in French Indochina August Revolution Proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam First Indochina
Indochina
War Battle of Dien Bien Phu Geneva Conference

Organisations

Cần Vương Đông Du Duy Tân
Duy Tân
hội Empire of Vietnam Nguyễn dynasty Tonkin Free School Việt Nam Quang Phục Hội Vietnamese Revolutionary Youth League Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng Viet Minh Communist Party of Vietnam

Revolutionaries

Cường Để Đinh Công Tráng Ho Chi Minh Huỳnh Thúc Kháng Lương Văn Can Ngô Đức Kế Nguyễn An Ninh Nguyễn Quang Bích Nguyễn Quyền Nguyễn Thái Học Nguyễn Thần Hiến Nguyễn Thành Nguyễn Thiện Thuật Nguyễn Thượng Hiền Nguyễn Trung Trực Nguyen Xuan On Phạm Bành Phan Bội Châu Phan Chu Trinh Phan Đình Phùng Phan Thanh Giản Phan Xích Long Tạ Thu Thâu Tôn Thất Thuyết Trần Cao Vân Trương Định Vũ Hồng Khanh

Emperors

Tự Đức Hàm Nghi Thành Thái Duy Tân Bảo Đại

French rulers

Albert Sarraut Jean Decoux French Indochina

Governor-General

Collaborators

Hoàng Cao Khải Trần Bá Lộc

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States and territories in the sphere of influence of the Empire of Japan during World War II

State of Burma Kingdom of Cambodia
Cambodia
(1945) Provisional Government of China Reformed Government of China Occupied Hong Kong Shanghai Great Way Government East Hebei Autonomous Council Provisional Government of Free India Karafuto Prefecture Korea under Japanese rule South Pacific Mandate Kingdom of Laos
Laos
(1945) Manchukuo  Mengjiang  Second Philippine Republic Taiwan under Japanese rule Kingdom of Thailand Empire of Vietnam    Reorganized National Government of China Occupied Guam French Indochina
Indochina
(1941–1945) Occupied Dutch East Indies Occupied Malaya Occupied Nauru

Occupied Sarawak, Brunei, Labuan and British North Borneo

Occupied Singapore Portuguese Timor

Greater East Asia Conference Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere Pacific War

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 141862519 LCCN: n50055276 GND: 115041-8 SUDOC: 027262006 BNF: cb12086315d (data) NDL: 00563739

Coordinates: 21°02′00″N 105°51′00″E / 21.0333°N 105.8500°E /

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