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French Guiana
French Guiana
(pronounced /ɡiːˈɑːnə/ or /ɡiːˈænə/, French: Guyane française; French pronunciation: ​[ɡɥijan fʁɑ̃sɛz]), officially called Guiana (French: Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America
South America
in the Guyanas. It borders Brazil
Brazil
to the east and south and Suriname
Suriname
to the west. Its 83,534 km2 (32,253 sq mi) area has a very low population density of only 3.4 inhabitants per square kilometre (8.8/sq mi), with half of its 281,612 inhabitants in 2018 living in the metropolitan area of Cayenne, its capital. By land area, it is the second-largest region of France
France
and the largest outermost region within the European Union. Since 1981, when Belize
Belize
became independent, French Guiana
French Guiana
has been the only territory of the mainland Americas
Americas
that is still part of a European country. Both the region and the department have been ruled since December 2015 by a single assembly within the framework of a new territorial collectivity, the French Guiana
French Guiana
Territorial Collectivity (French: collectivité territoriale de Guyane). This assembly, the French Guiana Assembly (French: assemblée de Guyane), has replaced the former regional council and departmental council, which were both disbanded. The French Guiana
French Guiana
Assembly is in charge of regional and departmental government. Its president is Rodolphe Alexandre. The area was originally inhabited by Native Americans. The first French establishment is recorded in 1503, but the French presence did not become durable until the foundation of Cayenne
Cayenne
in 1643. Guiana then became a slave colony and saw its population increase until the official abolition of slavery at the time of the French Revolution. Guiana temporarily became a French department
French department
in 1797 but was gradually transformed into a penal colony with the establishment of a network of camps and penitentiaries spread over the coast where prisoners were sentenced to forced labor. During World War II, Guianan Félix Éboué
Félix Éboué
was one of the first to stand behind General de Gaulle as early as June 18, 1940. Guiana officially rallied Free France
France
in 1943. It abandoned its status as a colony and once again became a French department
French department
in 1946. De Gaulle, who became president, decided to establish the Guiana Space Centre
Guiana Space Centre
in 1965. It is now operated by the CNES, Arianespace
Arianespace
and the European Space Agency
European Space Agency
(ESA). Several thousand Hmong refugees from Laos[3] migrated to French Guiana
French Guiana
in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Nowadays fully integrated in the French central state, Guiana is a part of the European Union, and its official currency is the euro. The region is the most prosperous territory in South America
South America
with the highest nominal GDP per capita.[2] A large part of Guiana's economy derives from the presence of the Guiana Space Centre, now the European Space Agency's primary launch site near the equator. As elsewhere in France, the official language is French, but each ethnic community has its own language, of which Guianan Creole
Guianan Creole
is the most widely spoken.

Contents

1 Name 2 History 3 Geography

3.1 Administrative divisions 3.2 Climate 3.3 Environment 3.4 Agriculture

4 Economy 5 Demographics

5.1 Immigration 5.2 Religion 5.3 Fertility

6 Languages 7 Politics 8 Transport 9 Main settlements 10 Military, police and security forces 11 Culture and sports 12 In popular culture 13 Guianan personalities 14 See also 15 References 16 Further reading 17 External links

Name[edit] Guiana is derived from an Amerindian language and means "land of many waters".[4] The addition of the adjective "French" in most languages other than French is rooted in colonial times when five such colonies existed (The Guianas), namely from west to east: Spanish Guiana (now Guayana Region
Guayana Region
and Guayana Esequiba
Guayana Esequiba
in Venezuela), British Guiana
British Guiana
(now Guyana), Dutch Guiana (now Suriname), French Guiana, and Portuguese Guiana (now Amapá
Amapá
in Brazil). French Guiana
French Guiana
and the two larger countries to the north and west, Guyana
Guyana
and Suriname, are still often collectively referred to as the Guianas and constitute one large landmass known as the Guiana Shield. History[edit] Main article: History of French Guiana See also: French colonization of the Americas
Americas
and Portuguese conquest of French Guiana French Guiana
French Guiana
was originally inhabited by indigenous people: Kalina, Arawak, Emerillon, Galibi, Palikur, Wayampi and Wayana. The French attempted to create a colony there in the 18th century in conjunction with its settlement of some other Caribbean
Caribbean
islands. In this penal colony, the convicts were sometimes used as butterfly catchers. As the sentences of the convicts were often long, and the prospect of employment very weak, the convicts caught butterflies to sell in the international market, for scientific purposes as well as general collecting.[5] Bill Marshall, Professor of Comparative Cultural Studies at the University of Stirling[6] wrote of French Guiana's origins:

The first French effort to colonize Guiana, in 1763, failed utterly when tropical diseases and climate killed all but 2,000 of the initial 12,000 settlers. During its existence, France
France
transported approximately 56,000 prisoners to Devil's Island. Fewer than 10% survived their sentence.[7]

Its infamous Île du Diable
Île du Diable
(Devil's Island) was the site of a small prison facility, part of a larger penal system by the same name, which consisted of prisons on three islands and three larger prisons on the mainland, and which was operated from 1852 to 1953. In addition, in the late nineteenth century, France
France
began requiring forced residencies by prisoners who survived their hard labor.[8] A Portuguese-British naval squadron took French Guiana
French Guiana
for the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
in 1809. It was returned to France
France
with the signing of the Treaty of Paris
Paris
in 1814. Though the region was handed back to France, a Portuguese presence remained until 1817. A border dispute with Brazil
Brazil
arose in the late 19th century over a vast area of jungle leading to the short-lived pro-French independent state of Counani in the disputed territory. There was some fighting between settlers. The dispute was resolved largely in favor of Brazil
Brazil
by the arbitration of the Swiss government.[9]

Departmental flag of French Guiana

The territory of Inini
Inini
consisted of most of the interior of French Guiana when it was created in 1930. It was abolished in 1946, when French Guiana
French Guiana
as a whole became an overseas department of France. During the 1970s, following the French withdrawal from Vietnam in the 1950s, France
France
helped resettle Hmong refugees from Laos
Laos
to French Guiana. In 1964, French president Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
decided to construct a space-travel base in French Guiana. It was intended to replace the Sahara base in Algeria and stimulate economic growth in French Guiana. The department was considered particularly suitable for the purpose because it is near the equator and has extensive access to the ocean as a buffer zone. The Guiana Space Centre, located a short distance along the coast from Kourou, has grown considerably since the initial launches of the Véronique rockets. It is now part of the European space industry and has had commercial success with such launches as the Ariane 4
Ariane 4
and Ariane 5. The Guianese General Council officially adopted a departmental flag in 2010.[10] In a referendum that same year, French Guianans voted against autonomy.[11] On March 20, 2017, French Guianans began going on strike and demonstrating for more resources and infrastructure.[12] March 28, 2017 saw the largest demonstration ever held in French Guiana.[13] Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of French Guiana

Forested landscape of Remire-Montjoly.

Geographic map of French Guiana

French Guiana
French Guiana
lies between latitudes 2° and 6° N, and longitudes 51° and 55° W. It consists of two main geographical regions: a coastal strip where the majority of the people live, and dense, near-inaccessible rainforest which gradually rises to the modest peaks of the Tumuc-Humac mountains along the Brazilian frontier. French Guiana's highest peak is Bellevue de l' Inini
Inini
in Maripasoula (851 m (2,792 ft)). Other mountains include Mont Machalou (782 m (2,566 ft)), Pic Coudreau (711 m (2,333 ft)) and Mont St Marcel (635 m (2,083 ft)), Mont Favard (200 m (660 ft)) and Montagne du Mahury (156 m (512 ft)). Several small islands are found off the coast, the three Salvation's Islands which include Devil's Island, and the isolated Îles du Connétable bird sanctuary further along the coast towards Brazil. The Petit-Saut Dam, a hydroelectric dam in the north of French Guiana forms an artificial lake and provides hydroelectricity. There are many rivers in French Guiana, including the Waki River. As of 2007[update], the Amazonian forest, located in the most remote part of the department, is protected as the Guiana Amazonian Park, one of the ten national parks of France. The territory of the park covers some 33,900 square kilometres (13,090 sq mi) upon the communes of Camopi, Maripasoula, Papaïchton, Saint-Élie
Saint-Élie
and Saül.

View from Île Royale

Administrative divisions[edit] French Guiana
French Guiana
is divided into 2 arrondissements and 22 communes:

Arrondissement of Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni

Awala-Yalimapo Mana Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni Apatou Grand-Santi Papaïchton Saül Maripasoula

Arrondissement of Cayenne

Camopi Saint-Georges Ouanary Régina Roura Saint-Élie Iracoubo Sinnamary Kourou Macouria Montsinéry-Tonnegrande Matoury Cayenne Remire-Montjoly

Climate[edit] Located within six degrees of the Equator
Equator
and rising only to modest elevations, French Guiana
French Guiana
is hot and oppressively humid all year round. During most of the year, rainfall across the country is very heavy due to the presence of the Intertropical Convergence Zone
Intertropical Convergence Zone
and its powerful thunderstorm cells. In most parts of French Guiana, rainfall is always very heavy from December to June or July – typically over 330 millimetres or 13 inches can be expected each month during this period throughout the department. Between August and November in the eastern half is a “dry” season with as little as 30 millimetres or 1.18 inches in September and October typical in many areas, causing eastern French Guiana
French Guiana
to be classed as a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen Am); the west Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni
Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni
has a tropical rainforest climate (Af).

Climate data for French Guiana
French Guiana
(Cayenne)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 32 (90) 34 (93) 33 (91) 33 (91) 33 (91) 34 (93) 34 (93) 36 (97) 36 (97) 36 (97) 35 (95) 34 (93) 36 (97)

Average high °C (°F) 27 (81) 28 (82) 28 (82) 28 (82) 28 (82) 28 (82) 29 (84) 30 (86) 31 (88) 30 (86) 30 (86) 28 (82) 29 (84)

Average low °C (°F) 23 (73) 23 (73) 23 (73) 23 (73) 23 (73) 23 (73) 23 (73) 22 (72) 22 (72) 22 (72) 22 (72) 23 (73) 23 (73)

Record low °C (°F) 19 (66) 20 (68) 19 (66) 18 (64) 20 (68) 21 (70) 20 (68) 20 (68) 21 (70) 20 (68) 20 (68) 20 (68) 18 (64)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 380 (14.96) 320 (12.6) 380 (14.96) 380 (14.96) 510 (20.08) 390 (15.35) 200 (7.87) 100 (3.94) 40 (1.57) 50 (1.97) 120 (4.72) 290 (11.42) 3,160 (124.4)

Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 20 16 22 21 26 23 18 9 4 4 11 18 192

Average relative humidity (%) 82 80 82 84 85 82 78 74 71 71 76 81 78.8

Mean monthly sunshine hours 155 113 124 120 124 180 217 248 270 279 240 186 2,256

Source: BBC Weather[14]

Environment[edit]

Liana
Liana
on a palm branch near a lake in Kourou

The grey-winged trumpeter, a species of bird commonly found in the region.

French Guiana
French Guiana
is home to many different ecosystems: tropical rainforests, coastal mangroves, savannahs, inselbergs and many types of wetlands. French Guiana
French Guiana
has a high level of biodiversity in terms of both flora and fauna. This is due to the presence of old-growth forests (i.e., ancient/primary forests), which are biodiversity hotspots. The rainforests of French Guiana
French Guiana
provide shelter for many species during dry periods and terrestrial glaciation. These forests are protected by a national park (the Guiana Amazonian Park) and six additional nature reserves. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the European Union
European Union
(EU) have recommended special efforts to protect these areas.[15] Following the Grenelle Environment Round Table of 2007, the Grenelle Law II was proposed in 2009, under law number 2010-788. Article 49 of the law proposed the creation of a single organization responsible for environmental conservation in French Guiana. Article 64 proposes a "departmental plan of mining orientation" for French Guiana, which would promote mining (specifically of gold) that is compatible with requirements for environmental protection.[16] The coastal environment along the N1 has historically experienced the most changes, but development is occurring locally along the N2, and also in western French Guiana
French Guiana
due to gold mining. 5,500 plant species have been recorded, including more than a thousand trees, along with 700 species of birds, 177 species of mammals, over 500 species of fish including 45% of which are endemic and 109 species of amphibians. The micro-organisms would be much more numerous, especially in the north, which competes with the Brazilian Amazon, Borneo
Borneo
and Sumatra. This single French department
French department
has at least 98% of vertebrate fauna and 96% of vascular plants as found in all of France and its overseas territories. Threats to the ecosystem are: habitat fragmentation from roads, which remains very limited compared to other forests of South America; immediate and deferred impacts of EDF's Petit-Saut Dam; gold mining; poor control of hunting and poaching, facilitated by the creation of many tracks; and the introduction of all-terrain vehicles. Logging remains moderate due to the lack of roads, difficult climate, and difficult terrain. The Forest Code of French Guiana
French Guiana
was modified by ordinance on 28 July 2005. Logging concessions or free transfers are sometimes granted by local authorities to persons traditionally deriving their livelihood from the forest. The beaches of the natural reserve of the Amana, the joint Awala-Yalimapo
Awala-Yalimapo
in the west, is an exceptional marine turtle nesting site. This is one of the largest worldwide for the leatherback turtle. Agriculture[edit] French Guiana
French Guiana
has some of the poorest soils in the world. The soil is low in nutrients (e.g., nitrogen, potassium) and organic matter. Soil acidity is another cause of the poor soils, and it requires farmers to add lime to their fields. All of these soil characteristics have led to the use of slash and burn agriculture. The resulting ashes elevate soil pH (i.e., lower soil acidity), and contribute minerals and other nutrients to the soil. Sites of Terra preta
Terra preta
(anthropogenic soils) have been discovered in French Guiana, particularly near the border with Brazil. Research is being actively pursued in multiple fields to determine how these enriched soils were historically created, and how this can be done in modern times. Economy[edit]

Ariane launched from the Guiana Space Centre
Guiana Space Centre
near Kourou, on 10 August 1992.

Main article: Economy of French Guiana As a part of France, French Guiana
French Guiana
is part of the European Union
European Union
and the Eurozone; its currency is the euro. The country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for French Guiana
French Guiana
is .gf, but .fr is generally used instead.[17] In 2016, the GDP of French Guiana
French Guiana
at market exchange rates was US$4.86 billion (€4.39 billion),[2] ranking as the largest economy in the Guianas, and the 11th largest in South America.[18] French Guiana
French Guiana
is heavily dependent on mainland France
France
for subsidies, trade, and goods.[citation needed] The main traditional industries are fishing (accounting for 5% of exports in 2012), gold mining (accounting for 32% of exports in 2012) and timber (accounting for 1% of exports in 2012).[19] In addition, the Guiana Space Centre
Guiana Space Centre
has played a significant role in the local economy since it was established in Kourou
Kourou
in 1964: it accounted directly and indirectly for 16% of French Guiana's GDP in 2002 (down from 26% in 1994, as the French Guianan economy is becoming increasingly diversified).[20] The Guiana Space Centre
Guiana Space Centre
employed 1,659 people in 2012.[21] There is very little manufacturing. Agriculture is largely undeveloped and is mainly confined to the area near the coast and along the Maroni River. Sugar and bananas were traditionally two of the main cash crops grown for export but have almost completely disappeared. Today they have been replaced by livestock raising (essentially beef cattle and pigs) in the coastal savannas between Cayenne
Cayenne
and the second-largest town, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, and market gardening (fruits and vegetables) developed by the Hmong communities settled in French Guiana in the 1970s, both destined to the local market. A thriving rice production, developed on polders near Mana
Mana
from the early 1980s to the late 2000s, has almost completely disappeared since 2011 due to marine erosion and new EU plant health rules which forbid the use of many pesticides and fertilizers. Tourism, especially eco-tourism, is growing. Unemployment has been persistently high in the last few decades: 20% to 25% (22.3% in 2012).[22] In 2016, the GDP per capita
GDP per capita
of French Guiana
French Guiana
at market exchange rates, not at PPP, was US$17,961 (€16,230),[2] the highest in South America,[23] but only 48% of metropolitan France's average GDP per capita that year, and 56.5% of the metropolitan French regions outside the Paris
Paris
Region.[2]

Regional GDP of French Guiana (in euros, current prices)

 2008   2009   2010   2011   2012   2013   2014   2015   2016 

Nominal GDP (€ bn) 3.32 3.47 3.50 3.63 3.95 3.93 4.08 4.23 4.39

GDP per capita
GDP per capita
(euros) 14,950 15,294 15,002 15,210 16,314 15,820 15,916 16,078 16,230

GDP per capita
GDP per capita
as a % of Metropolitan France's 47.6 50.4 48.2 47.6 50.7 48.7 48.5 48.2 48.1

Sources: Eurostat;[2] INSEE for the population.[1]

Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of French Guiana

Historical population

1790 estimate 1839 estimate 1857 estimate 1891 estimate 1936 census 1946 census 1952 estimate 1954 census 1961 census

14,520 20,940 25,561 33,500 37,005 28,506 25,459 27,863 33,505

1967 census 1974 census 1982 census 1990 census 1999 census 2006 census 2011 census 2015 census 2018 estimate

44,392 55,125 73,022 114,678 156,790 205,954 237,549 259,865 281,612

Official figures from past censuses and INSEE estimates.

French Guiana's population of 281,612 (2018 estimate[1]), most of whom live along the coast, is very ethnically diverse. At the 2014 census, 57.3% of the inhabitants of French Guiana
French Guiana
were born in the region, 9.3% were born in Metropolitan France, 3.0% were born in the French Caribbean
Caribbean
departments and collectivities (Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint Martin, Saint Barthélemy), and 30.2% were born in foreign countries (primarily Suriname, Brazil
Brazil
and Haiti).[24] Estimates of the percentages of French Guiana
French Guiana
ethnic composition vary, a situation compounded by the large proportion of immigrants. Mulattoes (people of mixed African and French ancestry), are the largest ethnic group, though estimates vary as to the exact percentage, depending upon whether the large Haitian community is included as well. Generally the Creole population is judged to be about 60 to 70% of the total population if Haitians
Haitians
(comprising roughly one-third of Creoles) are included, and 30 to 50% without. There are also smaller groups from various Caribbean
Caribbean
islands, mainly Martinique, Guadeloupe, Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
as well as Dominica. Roughly 14% of the population is of European ancestry. The vast majority of these are of French heritage, though there are also people of Dutch, British, Spanish and Portuguese ancestry. The main Asian communities are the Chinese (about 3–4%, primarily from Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Province and Guangdong
Guangdong
Province in mainland China) and Hmong from Laos
Laos
(1–2%). Other Asian groups include East Indians, Lebanese and Vietnamese. The main groups living in the interior are the Maroons (formerly called "Bush Negroes") who are of African descent, and Amerindians. The Maroons, descendants of escaped African slaves, live primarily along the Maroni River. The main Maroon groups are the Saramaca, Aucan (both of whom also live in Suriname), and Boni (Aluku). The main Amerindian groups (forming about 3%–4% of the population) are the Arawak, Carib, Emerillon (now called the Teko), Galibi
Galibi
(now called the Kaliña), Palikur, Wayampi and Wayana. As of the late 1990s, there was evidence of an uncontacted group of Wayampi. Immigration[edit]

Place of birth of residents of French Guiana (at the 1990, 1999, 2006, 2011, and 2014 censuses)

Census Born in French Guiana Born in Metropolitan France Born in the French West Indies Born in the rest of Overseas France Born in foreign countries with French citizenship at birth¹ Immigrants²

2014 57.3% 9.3% 3.0% 0.3% 1.2% 29.0%

2011 56.5% 9.3% 3.4% 0.2% 1.3% 29.3%

2006 55.3% 9.6% 3.1% 0.2% 1.4% 30.4%

1999 54.4% 11.8% 4.9% 0.3% 2.0% 26.6%

1990 50.5% 11.7% 5.2% 0.3% 1.9% 30.4%

¹Persons born abroad of French parents, such as Pieds-Noirs
Pieds-Noirs
and children of French expatriates. ²An immigrant is by French definition a person born in a foreign country and who didn't have French citizenship at birth. Note that an immigrant may have acquired French citizenship since moving to France, but is still listed as an immigrant in French statistics. On the other hand, persons born in France
France
with foreign citizenship (the children of immigrants) are not listed as immigrants.

Source: INSEE[24]

Religion[edit]

Cayenne
Cayenne
Cathedral. Most inhabitants of French Guiana
French Guiana
are Catholic.

The dominant religion of French Guiana
French Guiana
is Roman Catholicism; the Maroons and some Amerindian peoples maintain their own religions. The Hmong people
Hmong people
are also largely Catholic owing to the influence of missionaries who helped bring them to French Guiana.[25] Fertility[edit] The total fertility rate in French Guiana
French Guiana
has remained high and is today considerably higher than in metropolitan France, and also higher than the average of the French overseas departments. It is largely responsible for the high population growth of French Guiana.

Total fertility rate

 1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010   2011   2012 

French Guiana 3.87 3.93 3.79 3.73 3.77 3.47 3.79 3.80 3.73 3.57 3.49 3.37 3.38 3.50

Four overseas departments 2.32 2.45 2.42 2.35 2.38 2.40 2.46 2.48 2.48 2.46 2.42 2.39 2.39 2.44

Metropolitan France 1.79 1.87 1.88 1.86 1.87 1.90 1.92 1.98 1.96 1.99 1.99 2.02 2.00 2.00

Source: INSEE[26]

Languages[edit] The official language of French Guiana
French Guiana
is French, and it is the predominant language of the department, spoken by most residents as a first or second language. In addition, a number of other local languages exist. Regional languages include Guianan Creole, six Amerindian languages (Arawak, Palijur, Kali'na, Wayana, Wayampi, Emerillon), four Maroon creole languages (Saramaka, Paramaccan, Aluku, Ndyuka), as well as Hmong Njua.[27] Other languages spoken include Portuguese, Hakka, Haitian Creole, Spanish, Dutch, and English. Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of French Guiana

Map of the European Union
European Union
in the world with overseas countries and territories and outermost regions

French Guiana, as part of France, forms part of the European Union
European Union
- the largest landmass for an area outside of Europe
Europe
(since Greenland left the European Community in 1985), with one of the longest EU external boundaries. It is one of only three European Union territories outside Europe
Europe
that is not an island (the others being the Spanish Autonomous Cities in Africa, Ceuta
Ceuta
and Melilla). As an integral part of France, its head of state is the President of the French Republic, and its head of government is the Prime Minister of France. The French Government and its agencies have responsibility for a wide range of issues that are reserved to the national executive power, such as defense and external relations.

Cayenne
Cayenne
City Hall

The President of France
France
appoints a prefect (resident at the prefecture building in Cayenne) as his representative to head the local government of French Guiana. There is one elected, local executive body, the Assemblée de Guyane.[28] French Guiana
French Guiana
sends two deputies to the French National Assembly, one representing the commune (municipality) of Cayenne
Cayenne
and the commune of Macouria, and the other representing the rest of French Guiana. This latter constituency is the largest in the French Republic by land area. French Guiana
French Guiana
also sends two senators to the French Senate. The Guianese Socialist Party dominated politics in French Guiana
French Guiana
until 2010. A chronic issue affecting French Guiana
French Guiana
is the influx of illegal immigrants and clandestine gold prospectors from Brazil
Brazil
and Suriname. The border between the department and Suriname, the Maroni River, flows through rain forest and is difficult for the Gendarmerie and the French Foreign Legion
French Foreign Legion
to patrol. There have been several phases launched by the French government to combat illegal gold mining in French Guiana, beginning with Operation Anaconda beginning in 2003, followed by Operation Harpie in 2008, 2009 and Operation Harpie Reinforce in 2010. Colonel François Müller, the commander of French Guiana's gendarmes, believes these operations have been successful. However, after each operation ends, Brazilian miners, garimpeiros[fr], return.[29] Soon after Operation Harpie Reinforce began, an altercation took place between French authorities and Brazilian miners. On 12 March 2010 a team of French soldiers and border police were attacked while returning from a successful operation, during which "the soldiers had arrested 15 miners, confiscated three boats, and seized 617 grams of gold... currently worth about $22,317". Garimpeiros
Garimpeiros
returned to retrieve their lost loot and colleagues. The soldiers fired warning shots and rubber "flash balls", but the miners managed to retake one of their boats and about 500 grammes of gold. "The violent reaction by the garimpeiros can be explained by the exceptional take of 617 grammes of gold, about 20 percent of the quantity seized in 2009 during the battle against illegal mining", said Phillipe Duporge, the director of French Guiana's border police, at a press conference the next day.[30] Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in French Guiana

Cayenne, monument to French abolitionist Victor Schoelcher.

French Guiana's main international airport is Cayenne
Cayenne
– Félix Eboué Airport, located in the commune of Matoury, a southern suburb of Cayenne. There are two flights a day to Paris
Paris
(Orly Airport), served by Air France
France
and Air Caraïbes. The flight time from Cayenne to Paris
Paris
is 8 hours and 25 minutes, and from Paris
Paris
to Cayenne
Cayenne
it is 9 hours and 10 minutes. There are also flights to Fort-de-France, Pointe-à-Pitre, Port-au-Prince, and Belém. French Guiana's main seaport is the port of Dégrad des Cannes, located on the estuary of the Mahury River, in the commune of Remire-Montjoly, a south-eastern suburb of Cayenne. Almost all of French Guiana's imports and exports pass through the port of Dégrad des Cannes. Built in 1969, it replaced the old harbour of Cayenne which was congested and could not cope with modern traffic. An asphalted road from Régina
Régina
to Saint-Georges de l'Oyapock
Saint-Georges de l'Oyapock
(a town by the Brazilian border) was opened in 2004, completing the road from Cayenne
Cayenne
to the Brazilian border. It is now possible to drive on a fully paved road from Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni
Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni
on the Surinamese border to Saint-Georges de l'Oyapock
Saint-Georges de l'Oyapock
on the Brazilian border.

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (January 2017)

Following a treaty between France
France
and Brazil
Brazil
signed in July 2005, the Oyapock River Bridge
Oyapock River Bridge
over the Oyapock River
Oyapock River
was built and completed in 2011, becoming the first land crossing ever between French Guiana
French Guiana
and the rest of the world (there exists no other bridge crossing the Oyapock River, and no bridge crossing the Maroni River
Maroni River
marking the border with Suriname, although there is a ferry crossing to Albina, Suriname). The bridge was officially opened on March 18, 2017. However, since the Brazilian government is yet to complete its border posts, only passenger vehicles will be allowed through the bridge for the time being.[31] The inauguration makes it possible to drive uninterrupted from Cayenne
Cayenne
to Macapá, the capital of the state of Amapá
Amapá
in Brazil. Main settlements[edit] Population figures are those recorded in the 2015 census.[32]

Cayenne: 57,614 inhabitants in the commune; 114,017 inhabitants in the urban area (which includes the communes of Cayenne, Matoury, and Remire-Montjoly); 131,922 in the metropolitan area (which additionally includes the communes of Macouria, Montsinéry-Tonnegrande, and Roura) Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni: 43,600 Kourou: 26,221 Maripasoula: 11,856 Mana: 10,241 Apatou: 8,431 Papaïchton: 7,266 Grand-Santi: 6,969 Saint-Georges: 4,020

Military, police and security forces[edit] The commander of the French armed forces in French Guiana
French Guiana
since July 2009 has been General Jean-Pierre Hestin. The military there is currently 1,900 strong, expected to increase enrollment in 2014–2015.[33] Among the military, police and security forces in French Guiana, are the following:

The 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment
3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment
(3e REI) of Kourou
Kourou
(Legion). The 9th Marine Infantry Regiment
9th Marine Infantry Regiment
(9e RIMa) of Cayenne, the Madeleine. The gendarmerie and the police, divided into 16 brigades. These serve Cayenne, Remire-Montjoly, Cacao, Régina, Saint-Georges-de-l'Oyapock, Camopi, Macouria, Kourou, Sinnamary, Iracoubo, Mana, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Apatou, Grand-Santi, Papaïchton, Maripasoula and Matoury. The RSMAG Regiment (Adapted Military Service) of Guyana, located in Saint-Jean-du-Maroni, with a detachment in Cayenne. Various detachments corps:

A French Air Force
French Air Force
platoon based at the Felix Eboué airport.[34] The platoon of the French Navy, based at the naval base of Dégrad des Cannes. A detachment of the Paris Fire Brigade
Paris Fire Brigade
in Kourou, ensuring the protection of the Guiana Space Centre.

Culture and sports[edit] See also: Music of French Guiana, Guianan Cuisine, and Carnival
Carnival
in French Guiana

Carnival
Carnival
in Cayenne

Dizé milé
Dizé milé
with a coconut ice cream and an imperial cream

Countess (cake)

At Easter, Guianans eat a traditional dish called Awara broth. As French Overseas department, French Guiana
French Guiana
is not a member of the Pan American Sports Organization, rather athletes compete within the French National Olympic and Sports Committee
French National Olympic and Sports Committee
and governed by the Ligue d'Athlétisme de la Guyane, a sub-unit of the Fédération française d'athlétisme. In popular culture[edit] The novel Papillon, by the French convict Henri Charrière, is set in French Guiana. It was first published in France
France
in 1969, describing his escape from a penal colony there. Becoming an instant bestseller, it was translated into English from the original French by June P. Wilson and Walter B. Michaels for a 1970 edition, and by author Patrick O'Brian. Soon afterward the book was adapted for a Hollywood film of the same name. Charrière stated that all events in the book are truthful and accurate, allowing for minor lapses in memory. Since its publication there has been controversy over its accuracy.[35][36] Guianan personalities[edit]

Léon Damas Gaston Monnerville Justin Catayée Félix Éboué Élie Castor Léopold Héder Lucie Décosse Malia Metella Christiane Taubira Gadwin Springer Alicia Aylies Florent Malouda

See also[edit]

Index of French Guiana-related articles List of colonial and departmental heads of French Guiana Republic of Independent Guyana.

References[edit]

^ a b c INSEE. "Estimation de population par région, sexe et grande classe d'âge - Années 1975 à 2018" (in French). Retrieved 27 January 2018.  ^ a b c d e f " Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product
(GDP) at current market prices by NUTS 2 regions". Eurostat. Retrieved 2018-03-13.  ^ (in French) Atlas des populations immigrées en Guyane, 2006 ^ "Guyana". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 9 May 2015.  ^ [1], Convicts, Collecting and Knowledge Production in the Nineteenth Century, Clare Anderson ^ University of Stirling. "Stirling Research Database, Prof Bill Marshall".  ^ Marshall, Bill (2005). France
France
and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc. pp. 372–373. ISBN 1-85109-411-3.  ^ "French Guiana", Encyclopædia Britannica ^ Carlos A. Parodi (2002). The Politics of South American Boundaries. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-97194-5.  ^ "The General Council adopts the Guyanese flag". 97320.com (in French). OuebTV. 26 January 2010. Archived from the original on 31 May 2017.  ^ Faget, Dominique (April 3, 2017). "Cazeneuve calls for continuation of dialogue in French Guiana". Radio France
France
International. Retrieved April 4, 2017. In a referendum in January 2010, French Guiana
French Guiana
voted firmly against autonomy.  ^ Marot, Laurent (March 27, 2017). "La Guyane paralysée par les mouvements sociaux". Le Monde. Retrieved April 3, 2017.  ^ "Guyane : manifestations historiques pour la "journée morte"". Le Point. March 28, 2017. Retrieved April 4, 2017.  ^ "Average Conditions Cayenne, French Guiana". BBC Weather. Retrieved 15 May 2010.  ^ Comité français de l’Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature (French Committee of the International Union for Conservation of Nature) (2003). "Guyane (Guyana)" (PDF). Biodiversité et conservation en outre-mer ( Biodiversity
Biodiversity
and conservation overseas). Comité français de l’UICN (French Committee of the IUCN). Retrieved 3 January 2010.  ^ Borloo, Jean-Louis (12 January 2009). "Portant engagement national pour l'environnement (on national commitment to the environment)". Loi n° 2010-788 (law number 2010-788). Sénat français (French Senate). Retrieved 3 January 2010.  ^ French Guiana. CIA Wolrd Factbook (2004) ^ International Monetary Fund. "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2017 - Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product
per capita, current prices, U.S. dollars". Retrieved 2018-03-13.  ^ IEDOM. "Guyane – Rapport annuel 2012" (PDF). p. 46. Retrieved 4 March 2014.  ^ INSEE. "Le poids du spatial diminue, l'économie de la Guyane se diversifie" (PDF). Retrieved 4 March 2014.  ^ IEDOM. "Guyane – Rapport annuel 2012" (PDF). p. 136. Retrieved 4 March 2014.  ^ INSEE. "T401 : Taux de chômage localisé au deuxième trimestre par département d'outre-mer". Retrieved 4 March 2014.  ^ International Monetary Fund. "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2017 - Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product
per capita, current prices, U.S. dollars". Retrieved 2018-03-13.  ^ a b INSEE. "Données harmonisées des recensements de la population 1968-2014" (in French). Retrieved 27 January 2018.  ^ Palmerlee, Danny (2007). South America. Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-74104-443-X.  ^ INSEE. "TABLEAU P3D – INDICATEURS GÉNÉRAUX DE LA POPULATION PAR DÉPARTEMENT ET RÉGION" (in French). Retrieved 22 June 2014.  ^ " Ethnologue
Ethnologue
report for French Guiana". Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(16th ed.). 2009. Retrieved 22 September 2009.  ^ "Evolution institutionnelle La Collectivité Territoriale de Guyane". Archived from the original on 7 October 2015. Retrieved 7 October 2015.  ^ Tabor, Damon (1 April 2010) French Guiana: Interview with Colonel Francois Müller, Commander of the Gendarmes. untoldstories.pulitzercenter.org ^ Tabor, Damon (17 March 2010) French Guiana: Welcome to the Jungle. untoldstories.pulitzercenter.org ^ "Ponte entre Brasil e União Europeia é aberta no Amapá
Amapá
após 6 anos pronta". Amapá
Amapá
(in Portuguese). 2017-03-18. Retrieved 2017-03-18.  ^ INSEE. "Historique des populations légales". Retrieved 2018-01-28.  ^ Journal of Guyana
Guyana
RFO TV 18 August 2009 ^ Aéroport. guyane.cci.fr ^ If this is correct; the 'real' Papillon. Rue Rude. December 2005 ^ Randall, Colin (27 June 2005) Ex-convict aged 104 claims to be Papillon. Telegraph.co.uk

Further reading[edit]

Robert Aldrich and John Connell. France's Overseas Frontier : Départements et territoires d'outre-mer Cambridge University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-521-03036-6. René Belbenoit. Dry guillotine: Fifteen years among the living dead 1938, Reprint: Berkley (1975). ISBN 0-425-02950-6. René Belbenoit. Hell on Trial 1940, translated from the original French manuscript by Preston Rambo. E. P Dutton & Co. Reprint by Blue Ribbon Books, New York, 194 p. Reprint: Bantam Books, 1971. Henri Charrière. Papillon Reprints: Hart-Davis, MacGibbon Ltd. 1970. ISBN 0-246-63987-3 (hbk); Perennial, 2001. ISBN 0-06-093479-4 (sbk). John Gimlette, Wild Coast: Travels on South America's Untamed Edge 2011 Joshua R. Hyles (2013). Guiana and the Shadows of Empire: Colonial and Cultural Negotiations at the Edge of the World. Lexington Books. ISBN 9780739187807.  Peter Redfield. Space in the Tropics: From Convicts to Rockets in French Guiana
French Guiana
ISBN 0-520-21985-6. Miranda Frances Spieler. Empire and Underworld: Captivity in French Guiana (Harvard University Press; 2012) studies slaves, criminals, indentured workers, and other marginalized people from 1789 to 1870.

External links[edit]

Find more aboutFrench Guianaat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

French Guiana : Sacred land of biodiversity – Official French website (in English) Conseil régional de Guyane Official website (in French) Préfecture de Guyane Official website (in French) French Guiana
French Guiana
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Wikimedia Atlas of French Guiana Geographic data related to French Guiana
French Guiana
at OpenStreetMap Consular Information Sheet from the United States Department of State Ethnologue
Ethnologue
French Guiana
French Guiana
page Silvolab Guyanae – scientific interest group in French Guiana Article on separatism in French Guiana About.com French Guiana
French Guiana
travel site Status of Forests in French Guiana Officials reports, thesis, scientific papers about French Guiana (enfr) Training legionnaires to fight in French Guiana The IRD's database AUBLET2 stores information about botanical specimens collected in the Guianas, mainly in French Guiana James Rogers and Luis Simón. The Status and Location of the Military Installations of the Member States of the European Union
European Union
and Their Potential Role for the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP). Brussels: European Parliament, 2009. 25 pp.

Places adjacent to French Guiana

Marowijne District,  Suriname Atlantic Ocean Atlantic Ocean

Sipaliwini District,  Suriname

 French Guiana

 Amapá,  Brazil

 Amapá,  Brazil  Amapá,  Brazil  Amapá,  Brazil

Topics related to French Guiana

v t e

Overseas France

Inhabited areas

Overseas departments1

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte2 Réunion

Overseas collectivities

French Polynesia St. Barthélemy St. Martin St. Pierre and Miquelon Wallis and Futuna

Sui generis
Sui generis
collectivity

New Caledonia

Uninhabited areas

Pacific Ocean

Clipperton Island

Overseas territory (French Southern and Antarctic Lands)

Île Amsterdam Île Saint-Paul Crozet Islands Kerguelen Islands Adélie Land

Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean

Bassas da India3 Europa Island3 Glorioso Islands2, 3 Juan de Nova Island3 Tromelin Island4

1 Also known as overseas regions 2 Claimed by Comoros 3 Claimed by Madagascar 4 Claimed by Mauritius

v t e

Administrative regions of France

Current administrative regions (since 2016)

Metropolitan regions

Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Bourgogne-Franche-Comté Brittany Centre-Val de Loire Corsica Grand Est Hauts-de-France Île-de-France Normandy Nouvelle-Aquitaine Occitanie Pays de la Loire Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur

Overseas regions

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte Réunion

Former administrative regions (1982–2015)

Metropolitan regions

Alsace Aquitaine Auvergne Burgundy Brittany Centre-Val de Loire Champagne-Ardenne Corsica Franche-Comté Île-de-France Languedoc-Roussillon Limousin Lorraine Midi-Pyrénées Nord-Pas-de-Calais Lower Normandy Upper Normandy Pays de la Loire Picardy Poitou-Charentes Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Rhône-Alpes

Overseas regions

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte Réunion

v t e

Departments of France

01 Ain 02 Aisne 03 Allier 04 Alpes-de-Haute-Provence 05 Hautes-Alpes 06 Alpes-Maritimes 07 Ardèche 08 Ardennes 09 Ariège 10 Aube 11 Aude 12 Aveyron 13 Bouches-du-Rhône 14 Calvados 15 Cantal 16 Charente 17 Charente-Maritime 18 Cher 19 Corrèze 2A Corse-du-Sud 2B Haute-Corse 21 Côte-d'Or 22 Côtes-d'Armor 23 Creuse 24 Dordogne 25 Doubs 26 Drôme 27 Eure 28 Eure-et-Loir 29 Finistère 30 Gard 31 Haute-Garonne 32 Gers 33 Gironde 34 Hérault 35 Ille-et-Vilaine 36 Indre 37 Indre-et-Loire 38 Isère 39 Jura 40 Landes 41 Loir-et-Cher 42 Loire 43 Haute-Loire 44 Loire-Atlantique 45 Loiret 46 Lot 47 Lot-et-Garonne 48 Lozère 49 Maine-et-Loire 50 Manche 51 Marne 52 Haute-Marne 53 Mayenne 54 Meurthe-et-Moselle 55 Meuse 56 Morbihan 57 Moselle 58 Nièvre 59 Nord 60 Oise 61 Orne 62 Pas-de-Calais 63 Puy-de-Dôme 64 Pyrénées-Atlantiques 65 Hautes-Pyrénées 66 Pyrénées-Orientales 67 Bas-Rhin 68 Haut-Rhin 69D Rhône 70 Haute-Saône 71 Saône-et-Loire 72 Sarthe 73 Savoie 74 Haute-Savoie 75 Paris 76 Seine-Maritime 77 Seine-et-Marne 78 Yvelines 79 Deux-Sèvres 80 Somme 81 Tarn 82 Tarn-et-Garonne 83 Var 84 Vaucluse 85 Vendée 86 Vienne 87 Haute-Vienne 88 Vosges 89 Yonne 90 Territoire de Belfort 91 Essonne 92 Hauts-de-Seine 93 Seine-Saint-Denis 94 Val-de-Marne 95 Val-d'Oise

Overseas departments 971 Guadeloupe 972 Martinique 973 French Guiana 974 Réunion 976 Mayotte

Metropolis with territorial collectivity statute 69M Lyon

v t e

The Guianas

Current

Guayana

Esquiba

Guyana Suriname French Guiana Amapá

Former

British Guiana Counani Free Counani Trinidad-Guayana Dutch Guiana

Pre-1667 Surinam Suriname

v t e

Countries and dependencies of South America

Sovereign states

Entire

Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela

In part

France

French Guiana

Dependencies

Falkland Islands / South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

UK

v t e

Outermost regions of European Union
European Union
states

Portugal

Azores Madeira

Spain

Canary Islands

France

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte Réunion Saint-Martin

v t e

Outlying territories of European countries

Territories under European sovereignty but closer to or on continents other than Europe
Europe
(see inclusion criteria for further information).

Denmark

Greenland

France

Clipperton Island French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern and Antarctic Lands

Adélie Land Crozet Islands Île Amsterdam Île Saint-Paul Kerguelen Islands Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean

Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte New Caledonia Réunion Saint Barthélemy Saint Martin Saint Pierre and Miquelon Wallis and Futuna

Italy

Pantelleria Pelagie Islands

Lampedusa Lampione Linosa

Netherlands

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Caribbean
Netherlands

Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius

Curaçao Sint Maarten

Norway

Bouvet Island Peter I Island Queen Maud Land

Portugal

Azores Madeira

Spain

Canary Islands Ceuta Melilla Plazas de soberanía

Chafarinas Islands Alhucemas Islands Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera

United Kingdom

Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic Territory British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Montserrat Pitcairn Islands Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Turks and Caicos Islands

Coordinates: 4°N 53°W / 4°N 53°W / 4; -53

French Guiana
French Guiana
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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 152032724 GND: 4018184-4 SUDOC: 02653424X BNF:

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