FRENCH GUIANA (pronounced /ɡiːˈɑːnə/ or /ɡiːˈænə/ ,
French : _Guyane française_; French pronunciation: ), officially
called GUIANA (French : _Guyane_), is an overseas department and
France , located on the north Atlantic coast of South
America in the Guyanas . It borders
Brazil to the east and south, and
Suriname to the west. Its 83,534 km2 (32,253 sq mi) area has a very
low population density of only 3 inhabitants per km², with half of
its 244,118 inhabitants in 2013 living in the metropolitan area of
Cayenne , its capital . By land area, it is the second largest region
France and the largest outermost region within the
European Union .
Since 1981, when
Belize became independent,
French Guiana has been the
only territory of the mainland
Americas that is still controlled by a
Both the region and the department have been ruled since December
2015 by a single assembly within the framework of a new territorial
collectivity , the
French Guiana Territorial Collectivity (French:
_collectivité territoriale de Guyane_). This assembly, the French
Guiana Assembly (French: _assemblée de Guyane_), has replaced the
former regional council and departmental council , which were both
French Guiana Assembly is in charge of regional and
departmental government. Its president is
Rodolphe Alexandre .
The area was originally inhabited by Native Americans . The first
French establishment is recorded in 1503 but the French presence
didn't really become durable until 1643 and the foundation of Cayenne
. Guiana then became a slave colony and saw its population increase
until the official abolition of slavery at the time of the French
Revolution . Guiana temporarily became a
French department in 1797 but
was gradually transformed into a penal colony with the establishment
of a network of camps and penitentiaries spread over the coast where
prisoners were sentenced to forced labor . During
World War II
World War II ,
Félix Éboué was one of the first to stand behind General de
Gaulle as early as June 18, 1940. Guiana officially rallied Free
France in 1943. It abandoned its status as a colony and became again a
French department in 1946. De Gaulle, who became president, decided to
Guiana Space Centre in 1965. It is now operated by the
Arianespace and the
European Space Agency (ESA). Several
thousand Hmong refugees from
Laos migrated to
French Guiana in the
late 1970s and early 1980s.
Nowadays fully integrated in the French central state , Guiana is a
part of the
European Union , and its official currency is the euro .
The region is the most prosperous territory in
South America with the
GDP per capita
GDP per capita . A large part of Guiana's economy derives
from the presence of the
Guiana Space Centre , now the European Space
Agency 's primary launch site near the equator. As elsewhere in
France, the official language is French , but each ethnic community
has its own language, of which
Guianan Creole is the most widely
* 1 Name
* 2 History
* 3 Geography
* 3.1 Administrative divisions
* 3.2 Climate
* 3.3 Environment
* 3.4 Agriculture
* 4 Economy
* 5 Demographics
* 5.1 Immigration
* 5.2 Religion
* 5.3 Fertility
* 6 Languages
* 7 Politics
* 8 Transport
* 9 Main settlements
* 10 Military, police and security forces
* 11 Culture and sports
* 12 In popular culture
* 13 Guianan personalities
* 14 See also
* 15 References
* 16 Further reading
* 17 External links
_Guiana_ is derived from an Amerindian language and means "land of
many waters". The addition of the adjective "French" in most
languages other than French is rooted in colonial times when five such
colonies existed (
The Guianas ), namely from west to east: Spanish
Guayana Region in
British Guiana (now Guyana
), Dutch Guiana (now
Suriname ), French Guiana, and Portuguese Guiana
Amapá in Brazil).
French Guiana and the two larger countries to
the north and west,
Guyana and Suriname, are still often collectively
referred to as the Guianas and constitute one large shield landmass .
History of French Guiana See also: French colonization
Portuguese conquest of French Guiana Coat of
French Guiana was originally inhabited by indigenous people : Kalina
, Arawak ,
Wayana . The
French attempted to create a colony there in the 18th century in
conjunction with its settlement of some other
Caribbean islands. In
this penal colony, the convicts were sometimes used as butterfly
catchers. As the sentences of the convicts were often long, and the
prospect of employment very weak, the convicts caught butterflies to
sell in the international market, for scientific purposes as well as
general collecting. Bill Marshall, Professor of Comparative Cultural
Studies at the
University of Stirling wrote of French Guiana's
The first French effort to colonize Guiana, in 1763, failed utterly
when tropical diseases and climate killed all but 2,000 of the initial
12,000 settlers. During its existence,
approximately 56,000 prisoners to Devil\'s Island . Fewer than 10%
survived their sentence.
Its infamous _
Île du Diable _ (Devil's Island) was the site of a
small prison facility, part of a larger penal system by the same name,
which consisted of prisons on three islands and three larger prisons
on the mainland, and which was operated from 1852 to 1953. In
addition, in the late nineteenth century,
France began requiring
forced residencies by prisoners who survived their hard labor. A
Portuguese -British naval squadron took
French Guiana for the
Portuguese Empire in 1809. It was returned to
France with the signing
of the Treaty of
Paris in 1814. Though the region was handed back to
France, a Portuguese presence remained until 1817. A border dispute
Brazil arose in the late 19th century over a vast area of jungle
leading to the short-lived pro-French independent state of Counani in
the disputed territory. There was some fighting between settlers. The
dispute was resolved largely in favor of
Brazil by the arbitration of
the Swiss government.
The territory of
Inini consisted of most of the interior of French
Guiana when it was created in 1930. It was abolished in 1946, when
French Guiana as a whole became an overseas department of France.
During the 1970s, following the French withdrawal from Vietnam in the
France helped resettle Hmong refugees from
Laos to French
In 1964, French president
Charles de Gaulle decided to construct a
space-travel base in French Guiana. It was intended to replace the
Sahara base in Algeria and stimulate economic growth in French Guiana.
The department was considered particularly suitable for the purpose
because it is near the equator and has extensive access to the ocean
as a buffer zone. The
Guiana Space Centre , located a short distance
along the coast from
Kourou , has grown considerably since the initial
launches of the Véronique rockets. It is now part of the European
space industry and has had commercial success with such launches as
Ariane 4 and
Ariane 5 .
In a 2010 referendum, French Guianans voted against autonomy.
2017 social unrest in French Guiana
On March 20, 2017, French Guianans began going on strike and
demonstrating for more resources and infrastructure. March 28, 2017
saw the largest demonstration ever held in French Guiana.
Geography of French Guiana Forested landscape of
Remire-Montjoly . Geographic map of
French Guiana lies between latitudes 2° and 6° N, and longitudes
51° and 55° W. It consists of two main geographical regions: a
coastal strip where the majority of the people live, and dense,
near-inaccessible rainforest which gradually rises to the modest peaks
of the Tumuc-Humac mountains along the Brazilian frontier. French
Guiana's highest peak is Bellevue de l\'
Maripasoula (851 m
(2,792 ft)). Other mountains include Mont Machalou (782 m (2,566 ft)),
Pic Coudreau (711 m (2,333 ft)) and Mont St Marcel (635 m (2,083 ft)),
Mont Favard (200 m (660 ft)) and Montagne du Mahury (156 m (512 ft)).
Several small islands are found off the coast, the three Salvation\'s
Islands which include Devil\'s Island , and the isolated Îles du
Connétable bird sanctuary further along the coast towards Brazil.
Petit-Saut Dam , a hydroelectric dam in the north of French
Guiana forms an artificial lake and provides hydroelectricity . There
are many rivers in French Guiana, including the Waki River .
As of 2007 , the
Amazonian forest , located in the most remote part
of the department, is protected as the
Guiana Amazonian Park , one of
the ten national parks of
France . The territory of the park covers
some 33,900 square kilometres (13,090 sq mi) upon the communes of
Saül . View
French Guiana is divided into 2 arrondissements , 19 cantons (not
shown here), and 22 communes :
CLIMATE DATA FOR FRENCH GUIANA (CAYENNE)
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE RAINY DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM)
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Source: BBC Weather
French Guiana experiences a tropical climate all year round.
Liana on a palm branch near a lake in
grey-winged trumpeter , a species of bird commonly found in the
French Guiana is home to many different ecosystems : tropical
rainforests , coastal mangroves , savannahs , inselbergs and many
types of wetlands .
French Guiana has a high level of biodiversity in
terms of both flora and fauna . This is due to the presence of
old-growth forests (i.e., ancient/primary forests), which are
biodiversity hotspots . The rainforests of
French Guiana provide
shelter for many species during dry periods and terrestrial
glaciation. These forests are protected by a national park (the Guiana
Amazonian Park ) and six additional nature reserves . The
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the European
Union (EU) have recommended special efforts to protect these areas.
Following the Grenelle Environment Round Table of 2007, the Grenelle
Law II was proposed in 2009, under law number 2010-788. Article 49 of
the law proposed the creation of a single organization responsible for
environmental conservation in French Guiana. Article 64 proposes a
"departmental plan of mining orientation" for French Guiana, which
would promote mining (specifically of gold) that is compatible with
requirements for environmental protection. The coastal environment
along the N1 has historically experienced the most changes, but
development is occurring locally along the N2, and also in western
French Guiana due to gold mining.
5,500 plant species have been recorded, including more than a
thousand trees, along with 700 species of birds, 177 species of
mammals, over 500 species of fish including 45% of which are endemic
and 109 species of amphibians . The micro-organisms would be much more
numerous, especially in the north, which competes with the Brazilian
Sumatra . This single
French department has at
least 98% of vertebrate fauna and 96% of vascular plants as found in
France and its overseas territories.
Threats to the ecosystem are: habitat fragmentation from roads, which
remains very limited compared to other forests of South America;
immediate and deferred impacts of EDF 's
Petit-Saut Dam ; gold mining
; poor control of hunting and poaching , facilitated by the creation
of many tracks; and the introduction of all-terrain vehicles . Logging
remains moderate due to the lack of roads, difficult climate, and
difficult terrain. The Forest Code of
French Guiana was modified by
ordinance on 28 July 2005. Logging concessions or free transfers are
sometimes granted by local authorities to persons traditionally
deriving their livelihood from the forest.
The beaches of the natural reserve of the Amana , the joint
Awala-Yalimapo in the west, is an exceptional marine turtle nesting
site. This is one of the largest worldwide for the leatherback turtle
French Guiana has some of the poorest soils in the world. The soil is
low in nutrients (e.g., nitrogen , potassium ) and organic matter .
Soil acidity is another cause of the poor soils, and it requires
farmers to add lime to their fields. All of these soil characteristics
have led to the use of slash and burn agriculture. The resulting ashes
elevate soil pH (i.e., lower soil acidity), and contribute minerals
and other nutrients to the soil. Sites of
Terra preta (anthropogenic
soils) have been discovered in French Guiana, particularly near the
Brazil . Research is being actively pursued in multiple
fields to determine how these enriched soils were historically
created, and how this can be done in modern times.
Ariane launched from the
Guiana Space Centre near
Kourou , on 10
August 1992. Main article:
Economy of French Guiana
As a part of France,
French Guiana is part of the
European Union and
Eurozone ; its currency is the euro . The country code top-level
domain (ccTLD) for
French Guiana is
.gf , but
.fr is generally used
In 2012, the GDP of
French Guiana at market exchange rates was
US$4.90 billion (€3.81 billion), ranking as the largest economy in
the Guianas , and the 11th largest in South America.
French Guiana is heavily dependent on mainland
France for subsidies,
trade, and goods. The main traditional industries are fishing
(accounting for 5% of exports in 2012), gold mining (accounting for
32% of exports in 2012) and timber (accounting for 1% of exports in
2012). In addition, the
Guiana Space Centre has played a significant
role in the local economy since it was established in
Kourou in 1964:
it accounted directly and indirectly for 16% of French Guiana's GDP in
2002 (down from 26% in 1994, as the French Guianan economy is becoming
increasingly diversified). The
Guiana Space Centre employed 1,659
people in 2012.
There is very little manufacturing. Agriculture is largely
undeveloped and is mainly confined to the area near the coast and
Maroni River . Sugar and bananas were traditionally two of
the main cash crops grown for export but have almost completely
disappeared. Today they have been replaced by livestock raising
(essentially beef cattle and pigs) in the coastal savannas between
Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni , and market gardening (fruits and
vegetables) developed by the Hmong communities settled in French
Guiana in the 1970s, both destined to the local market. A thriving
rice production, developed on polders near
Mana from the early 1980s
to the late 2000s, has almost completely disappeared since 2011 due to
marine erosion and new EU plant health rules which forbid the use of
many pesticides and fertilizers. Tourism, especially eco-tourism , is
growing. Unemployment has been persistently high in the last few
decades: 20% to 25% (22.3% in 2012).
In 2012, the
GDP per capita
GDP per capita of
French Guiana at market exchange
rates, not at PPP , was US$19,828 (€15,416), the highest in South
America, but only 49% of metropolitan
France 's average GDP per
capita that year, and 57.5% of the metropolitan French regions outside
Paris Region .
REGIONAL GDP OF FRENCH GUIANA
(at market exchange rates; values fluctuate YoY due to exchange
NOMINAL GDP (US$ BN)
GDP PER CAPITA (US DOLLARS)
GDP PER CAPITA AS A %
OF METROPOLITAN FRANCE \'S 46.6
IMF for the exchange rates.
Demographics of French Guiana
French Guiana's population of 244,118 (2013 census ), most of whom
live along the coast, is very ethnically diverse. At the 2011 census,
56.5% of the inhabitants of
French Guiana were born in the region,
9.3% were born in Metropolitan
France , 3.4% were born in the French
Caribbean _départements _ (
Martinique ), and 30.5%
were born in foreign countries (primarily
Suriname and Haiti
Estimates of the percentages of
French Guiana ethnic composition
vary, a situation compounded by the large proportion of immigrants.
Mulattoes (people of mixed African and French ancestry), are the
largest ethnic group, though estimates vary as to the exact
percentage, depending upon whether the large Haitian community is
included as well. Generally the Creole population is judged to be
about 60 to 70% of the total population if
roughly one-third of Creoles ) are included, and 30 to 50% without.
There are also smaller groups from various
Caribbean islands, mainly
Saint Lucia as well as
Roughly 14% of the population is of European ancestry. The vast
majority of these are of French heritage, though there are also people
of Dutch , British, Spanish and Portuguese ancestry.
The main Asian communities are the Chinese (about 3–4%, primarily
Zhejiang Province and
Guangdong Province in mainland China ) and
Laos (1–2%). Other Asian groups include
East Indians ,
Lebanese and Vietnamese .
The main groups living in the interior are the Maroons (formerly
called "Bush Negroes") who are of African descent, and Amerindians .
The Maroons, descendants of escaped African slaves, live primarily
Maroni River . The main Maroon groups are the Saramaca,
Aucan (both of whom also live in
Suriname ), and Boni (Aluku).
The main Amerindian groups (forming about 3%–4% of the population)
are the Arawak , Carib ,
Emerillon (now called the
Wayana . As of the late
1990s, there was evidence of an uncontacted group of Wayampi.
Place of birth of residents of French Guiana
(at the 1990, 1999, 2006, and 2011 censuses)
French Guiana Born in
France Born in the
French West Indies Born in the
rest of Overseas
France Born in foreign
countries with French
citizenship at birth¹ IMMIGRANTS²
¹Persons born abroad of French parents, such as
children of French expatriates .
²An immigrant is by French definition a person born in a foreign
country and who didn't have French citizenship at birth. Note that an
immigrant may have acquired French citizenship since moving to France,
but is still listed as an immigrant in French statistics. On the other
hand, persons born in
France with foreign citizenship (the children of
immigrants) are not listed as immigrants.
Official figures from past censuses and
Cayenne Cathedral . Most inhabitants of
French Guiana are
The dominant religion of
French Guiana is
Roman Catholicism ; the
Maroons and some Amerindian people maintain their own religions. The
Hmong people are also mainly Catholic owing to the influence of
missionaries who helped bring them to French Guiana.
The total fertility rate in
French Guiana has remained high and is
today considerably higher than in metropolitan
France , and also
higher than the average of the French overseas departments . It is
largely responsible for the high population growth of French Guiana.
Total fertility rate
Total fertility rate
Four overseas departments
The official language of
French Guiana is French , and it is the
predominant language of the department, spoken by most residents as a
first or second language. In addition, a number of other local
languages exist. Regional languages include
Guianan Creole , six
Amerindian languages (Arawak , Palijur , Kali\'na ,
Emerillon ), four Maroon creole languages (Saramaka , Paramaccan ,
Aluku , Ndyuka ), as well as
Hmong Njua . Other languages spoken
include Portuguese , Hakka , Haitian Creole , Spanish , Dutch , and
Politics of French Guiana Map of the European
Union in the world with overseas countries and territories and
French Guiana, as part of France, forms part of the
European Union -
the largest landmass for an area outside of
Europe (since Greenland
left the European Community in 1985), with one of the longest EU
external boundaries. It is one of only three European Union
Europe that is not an island (the others being the
Spanish Autonomous Cities in Africa,
Melilla ). As an
integral part of France, its head of state is the President of the
French Republic , and its head of government is the Prime Minister of
France . The French Government and its agencies have responsibility
for a wide range of issues that are reserved to the national executive
power, such as defense and external relations.
Cayenne City Hall
The President of
France appoints a prefect (resident at the
prefecture building in Cayenne) as his representative to head the
local government of French Guiana. There is one elected, local
executive body, the Assemblée de Guyane.
French Guiana sends two deputies to the French National Assembly ,
one representing the commune (municipality) of
Cayenne and the commune
Macouria , and the other representing the rest of French Guiana.
This latter constituency is the largest in the French Republic by land
French Guiana also sends two senators to the French Senate .
Guianese Socialist Party dominated politics in French Guiana
A chronic issue affecting
French Guiana is the influx of illegal
immigrants and clandestine gold prospectors from
The border between the department and Suriname, the
Maroni River ,
flows through rain forest and is difficult for the Gendarmerie and the
French Foreign Legion to patrol. There have been several phases
launched by the French government to combat illegal gold mining in
French Guiana, beginning with Operation Anaconda beginning in 2003,
followed by Operation Harpie in 2008, 2009 and Operation Harpie
Reinforce in 2010. Colonel François Müller, the commander of French
Guiana's gendarmes, believes these operations have been successful.
However, after each operation ends, Brazilian miners, garimpeiros ,
return. Soon after Operation Harpie Reinforce began, an altercation
took place between French authorities and Brazilian miners. On 12
March 2010 a team of French soldiers and border police were attacked
while returning from a successful operation, during which "the
soldiers had arrested 15 miners, confiscated three boats, and seized
617 grams of gold... currently worth about $22,317". Garimpeiros
returned to retrieve their lost loot and colleagues. The soldiers
fired warning shots and rubber "flash balls", but the miners managed
to retake one of their boats and about 500 grammes of gold. "The
violent reaction by the garimpeiros can be explained by the
exceptional take of 617 grammes of gold, about 20 percent of the
quantity seized in 2009 during the battle against illegal mining",
said Phillipe Duporge, the director of French Guiana's border police,
at a press conference the next day.
Transport in French Guiana
Cayenne , monument to
Victor Schoelcher .
French Guiana's main international airport is
Cayenne – Félix
Eboué Airport , located in the commune of
Matoury , a southern suburb
Cayenne . There are two flights a day to
Paris (Orly Airport ),
served by Air
Air Caraïbes . The flight time from Cayenne
Paris is 8 hours and 25 minutes, and from
Cayenne it is 9
hours and 10 minutes. There are also flights to Fort-de-
Port-au-Prince , and
French Guiana's main seaport is the port of Dégrad des Cannes,
located on the estuary of the
Mahury River , in the commune of
Remire-Montjoly , a south-eastern suburb of Cayenne. Almost all of
French Guiana's imports and exports pass through the port of Dégrad
des Cannes. Built in 1969, it replaced the old harbour of Cayenne
which was congested and could not cope with modern traffic.
An asphalted road from
Régina to Saint-Georges de l\'Oyapock (a town
by the Brazilian border) was opened in 2004, completing the road from
Cayenne to the Brazilian border. It is now possible to drive on a
fully paved road from
Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni on the Surinamese border
Saint-Georges de l'Oyapock on the Brazilian border.
This section needs to be UPDATED. Please update this article to
reflect recent events or newly available information. (January 2017)_
Following a treaty between
Brazil signed in July 2005, the
Oyapock River Bridge over the
Oyapock River was built and completed in
2011, becoming the first land crossing ever between
French Guiana and
the rest of the world (there exists no other bridge crossing the
Oyapock River, and no bridge crossing the
Maroni River marking the
border with Suriname, although there is a ferry crossing to Albina,
Suriname ). The bridge was officially opened on March 18, 2017.
However, since the Brazilian government is yet to complete its border
posts, only passenger vehicles will be allowed through the bridge for
the time being. The inauguration makes it possible to drive
Macapá , the capital of the state of
Amapá in Brazil.
Population figures are those recorded in the 2013 census.
Cayenne : 54,709 inhabitants in the commune; 106,591 inhabitants
in the urban area (which includes the communes of Cayenne,
Remire-Montjoly ); 123,085 in the metropolitan area (which
additionally includes the communes of
Montsinéry-Tonnegrande , and
Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni : 41,515
Kourou : 25,793
Maripasoula : 10,477
Mana : 9,593
Apatou : 7,649
Papaïchton : 6,335
Grand-Santi : 6,343
* Saint-Georges : 3,907
Sinnamary : 3,011
MILITARY, POLICE AND SECURITY FORCES
The commander of the French armed forces in
French Guiana since July
2009 has been General Jean-Pierre Hestin. The military there is
currently 1,900 strong, expected to increase enrollment in
Among the military, police and security forces in French Guiana, are
3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment (3e REI) of
Kourou (Legion ).
* The 9th Marine Regiment (9e RIMa) of
Cayenne , the Madeleine.
* The gendarmerie and the police , divided into 16 brigades. These
Remire-Montjoly , Cacao ,
* The RSMAG Regiment (Adapted Military Service) of Guyana, located
Saint-Jean-du-Maroni , with a detachment in Cayenne.
* Various detachments corps:
French Air Force platoon based at the Felix Eboué airport.
* The platoon of the
French Navy , based at the naval base of
Dégrad des Cannes .
* A detachment of the
Paris Fire Brigade in Kourou, ensuring the
protection of the
Guiana Space Centre .
CULTURE AND SPORTS
Music of French Guiana ,
Guianan Cuisine , and
Dizé milé with a
coconut ice cream and an imperial cream
Easter , Guianans eat a traditional dish called
Awara broth .
As French Overseas department,
French Guiana is not a member of the
Pan American Sports Organization , rather athletes compete within the
French National Olympic and Sports Committee and governed by the Ligue
d\'Athlétisme de la Guyane , a sub-unit of the Fédération
française d\'athlétisme .
IN POPULAR CULTURE
The novel _Papillon _, by the French convict
Henri Charrière , is
set in French Guiana. It was first published in
France in 1969,
describing his escape from a penal colony there. Becoming an instant
bestseller, it was translated into English from the original French by
June P. Wilson and Walter B. Michaels for a 1970 edition, and by
author Patrick O\'Brian . Soon afterward the book was adapted for a
Hollywood film of the same name .
Charrière stated that all events in the book are truthful and
accurate, allowing for minor lapses in memory. Since its publication
there has been controversy over its accuracy.
Index of French Guiana-related articles
List of colonial and departmental heads of French Guiana
* Republic of Independent
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_
INSEE . "Recensement de la population en Guyane -
244 118 habitants au 1er janvier 2013" (in French). Retrieved 21 May
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_
INSEE . "Produits intérieurs bruts
régionaux et valeurs ajoutées régionales de 1990 à 2012".
Retrieved 4 March 2014.
* ^ French : Atlas des populations immigrées en Guyane, 2006
* ^ "Guyana". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
* ^ , Convicts, Collecting and Knowledge Production in the
Nineteenth Century, Clare Anderson
* ^ University of Stirling. "Stirling Research Database, Prof Bill
* ^ Marshall, Bill (2005). _
France and the Americas: Culture,
Politics, and History_. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc. pp.
372–373. ISBN 1-85109-411-3 .
* ^ "French Guiana", _Encyclopædia Britannica_
* ^ Carlos A. Parodi (2002). _The Politics of South American
Praeger Publishers . ISBN 0-275-97194-5 .
* ^ Faget, Dominique (April 3, 2017). "Cazeneuve calls for
continuation of dialogue in French Guiana". _Radio France
International_. Retrieved April 4, 2017. In a referendum in January
French Guiana voted firmly against autonomy.
* ^ Marot, Laurent (March 27, 2017). "La Guyane paralysée par les
mouvements sociaux". _Le Monde_. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
* ^ "Guyane : manifestations historiques pour la "journée morte"".
_Le Point_. March 28, 2017. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
* ^ "Average Conditions Cayenne, French Guiana". BBC Weather.
Retrieved 15 May 2010.
* ^ Comité français de l’Union Internationale pour la
Conservation de la Nature (French Committee of the International Union
for Conservation of Nature) (2003). "Guyane (Guyana)" (PDF).
_Biodiversité et conservation en outre-mer (
conservation overseas)_. Comité français de l’UICN (French
Committee of the IUCN). Retrieved 3 January 2010.
* ^ Borloo, Jean-Louis (12 January 2009). "Portant engagement
national pour l\'environnement (on national commitment to the
environment)". _Loi n° 2010-788 (law number 2010-788)_. Sénat
français (French Senate). Retrieved 3 January 2010.
* ^ French Guiana. CIA Wolrd Factbook (2004)
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_
International Monetary Fund . "World Economic
Outlook Database, October 2013". Retrieved 4 March 2014.
* ^ IEDOM. "Guyane – Rapport annuel 2012" (PDF). p. 46. Retrieved
4 March 2014.
INSEE . "Le poids du spatial diminue, l’économie de la
Guyane se diversifie" (PDF). Retrieved 4 March 2014.
* ^ IEDOM. "Guyane – Rapport annuel 2012" (PDF). p. 136.
Retrieved 4 March 2014.
INSEE . "T401 : Taux de chômage localisé au deuxième
trimestre par département d\'outre-mer". Retrieved 4 March 2014.
* ^ _A_ _B_
INSEE . "Fichier Données harmonisées des recensements
de la population de 1968 à 2011" (in French). Archived from the
original on 25 October 2014. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
* ^ Palmerlee, Danny (2007). _South America_.
Lonely Planet . ISBN
INSEE . "TABLEAU P3D – INDICATEURS GÉNÉRAUX DE LA
POPULATION PAR DÉPARTEMENT ET RÉGION" (in French). Retrieved 22 June
* ^ "
Ethnologue report for French Guiana". _
Ethnologue _ (16th
ed.). 2009. Retrieved 22 September 2009.
* ^ "Evolution institutionnelle La Collectivité Territoriale de
Guyane". Retrieved 2015-10-07.
* ^ Tabor, Damon (1 April 2010) French Guiana: Interview with
Colonel Francois Müller, Commander of the Gendarmes.
* ^ Tabor, Damon (17 March 2010) French Guiana: Welcome to the
* ^ "Ponte entre Brasil e União Europeia é aberta no
6 anos pronta". _Amapá_ (in Portuguese). 2017-03-18. Retrieved
* ^ Journal of
Guyana RFO TV 18 August 2009
* ^ Aéroport. guyane.cci.fr
* ^ If this is correct; the \'real\' Papillon. Rue Rude. December
* ^ Randall, Colin (27 June 2005) Ex-convict aged 104 claims to be
* Robert Aldrich and John Connell. _France's Overseas Frontier :
Départements et territoires d'outre-mer_ Cambridge University Press,
2006. ISBN 0-521-03036-6 .
* René Belbenoit. _Dry guillotine: Fifteen years among the living
dead_ 1938, Reprint: Berkley (1975). ISBN 0-425-02950-6 .
* René Belbenoit. _Hell on Trial_ 1940, translated from the
original French manuscript by Preston Rambo. E. P Dutton Perennial,
2001. ISBN 0-06-093479-4 (sbk).
* John Gimlette, _Wild Coast: Travels on South America's Untamed
* Joshua R. Hyles (2013). _Guiana and the Shadows of Empire:
Colonial and Cultural Negotiations at the Edge of the World_.
* Peter Redfield. _Space in the Tropics: From Convicts to Rockets in
French Guiana_ ISBN 0-520-21985-6 .
* Miranda Frances Spieler. _Empire and Underworld: Captivity in
French Guiana_ (Harvard University Press; 2012) studies slaves,
criminals, indentured workers, and other marginalized people from 1789
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