THE CONSULATE was the government of France from the fall of the Directory in the coup of Brumaire in 1799 until the start of the Napoleonic Empire in 1804. By extension, the term _The Consulate_ also refers to this period of French history.
During this period, Napoleon Bonaparte , as First Consul, established himself as the head of a more authoritarian , autocratic , and centralized republican government in France while not declaring himself sole ruler. Due to the long-lasting institutions established during these years, Robert B. Holtman has called the Consulate "one of the most important periods of all French history." Napoleon brought authoritarian personal rule which has been viewed as military dictatorship.
* 1 Fall of the Directory government * 2 The new government * 3 Napoleon\'s consolidation of power * 4 The Duke of Enghien affair * 5 End of the First Republic * 6 Consuls * 7 Ministers * 8 References * 9 Bibliography
FALL OF THE DIRECTORY GOVERNMENT
French military disasters in 1798 and 1799 had shaken the Directory, and eventually shattered it. Historians sometimes date the start of the political downfall of the Directory to 18 June 1799 (30 Prairial Year VII by the French Republican calendar ), when Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès with the help of Paul Barras successfully rid himself of the other then-sitting directors. An irregularity emerged in the election of Jean Baptiste Treilhard , who retired in favor of Louis Jérôme Gohier . Within days, Philippe-Antoine Merlin (Merlin de Douai) and Louis-Marie de La Revellière (La Révellière-Lépeaux) were driven to resign; Baron Jean-François-Auguste Moulin and Roger Ducos replaced them. The three new directors were generally seen as non-entities.
A few more military disasters, royalist insurrections in the south, Chouan disturbances in a dozen departments of the western part of France (mainly in Brittany , Maine and eventually Normandy ), _ Orléanist _ intrigues, and the end became certain. In order to soothe the populace and protect the frontier, more than the French Revolution 's usual terrorist measures (such as forced taxation or the law of hostages ) was necessary. The new Directory government, led by Sieyès, decided that the necessary revision of the constitution would require "a head" (his own) and "a sword" (a general to back him). Jean Victor Moreau being unattainable as his sword, Sieyès favoured Barthélemy Catherine Joubert ; but, when Joubert was killed at the Battle of Novi (15 August 1799), he turned to General Napoleon Bonaparte .
Although Guillaume Marie Anne Brune and André Masséna won the Battles of Bergen and of Zürich , and although the Allies of the Second Coalition lingered on the frontier as they had done after the Battle of Valmy , still the fortunes of the Directory were not restored. Success was reserved for Bonaparte, suddenly landing at Fréjus with the prestige of his victories in the East , and now, after Hoche 's death (1797), appearing as sole master of the armies.
In the coup of 18 Brumaire Year VIII (9 November 1799), Napoleon seized French parliamentary and military power in a two-fold _coup d'état_, forcing the sitting directors of the government to resign. On the night of the 19 Brumaire (10 November 1799) a remnant of the Council of Ancients abolished the Constitution of the Year III , ordained the Consulate, and legalised the _coup d'état_ in favour of Bonaparte with the Constitution of the Year VIII .
THE NEW GOVERNMENT
The initial 18 Brumaire coup seemed to be a victory for Sieyès, rather than for Bonaparte. Sieyès was a proponent of a new system of government for the Republic, and the coup initially seemed certain to bring his system into force. Bonaparte's cleverness lay in counterposing Pierre Claude François Daunou 's plan to that of Sieyès, and in retaining only those portions of both which could serve his ambition. Constitution of the year VIII and later the French Empire
The new government was composed of three parliamentary assemblies: the Council of State which drafted bills, the Tribunate which could not vote on the bills but instead debated them, and the Legislative Assembly, whose members could not discuss the bills but voted on them after reviewing the Tribunate's debate record. The Sénat conservateur was a governmental body equal to the three aforementioned legislative assemblies and verified the draft bills and directly advised the First Consul on the implications of such bills. Ultimate executive authority was vested in three consuls , who were elected for ten years. Popular suffrage was retained, though mutilated by the lists of notables (on which the members of the Assemblies were to be chosen by the Senate). The four aforementioned governmental organs were retained under the Constitution of the Year XII , which recognized Napoleon as the French sovereign Emperor, but their respective powers were greatly diminished.
Napoleon vetoed Sieyès' original idea of having a single _Grand Elector_ as supreme executive and Head of State . Sieyès had intended to reserve this important position for himself, and by denying him the job Napoleon helped reinforce the authority of the consuls, an office which he would assume. Nor was Napoleon content simply to be part of an equal triumvirate . As the years would progress he would move to consolidate his own power as First Consul, and leave the two other consuls, Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès and Charles-François Lebrun , as well as the Assemblies, weak and subservient.
By consolidating power, Bonaparte was able to transform the aristocratic constitution of Sieyès into an unavowed dictatorship .
On 7 February 1800, a public referendum confirmed the new constitution. It vested all of the real power in the hands of the First Consul, leaving only a nominal role for the other two consuls. A full 99.9% of voters approved the motion, according to the released results.
While this near-unanimity is certainly open to question, Napoleon was genuinely popular among many voters, and after a period of strife, many in France were reassured by his dazzling but unsuccessful offers of peace to the victorious Second Coalition , his rapid disarmament of La Vendée , and his talk of stability of government, order, justice and moderation. He gave everyone a feeling that France was governed once more by a real statesman, and that a competent government was finally in charge.
NAPOLEON\'S CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
Napoleon Bonaparte as First Consul, February 1803 by François Gérard
Bonaparte had now to rid himself of Sieyès and of those republicans who had no desire to hand over the republic to one man, particularly of Moreau and Masséna, his military rivals. The victory of Marengo (14 June 1800) momentarily in the balance, but secured by Desaix and Kellermann , offered a further opportunity to his ambition by increasing his popularity. The royalist plot of the Rue Saint-Nicaise on 24 December 1800 allowed him to make a clean sweep of the democratic republicans, who despite their innocence were deported to French Guiana . He annulled the Assemblies and made the Senate omnipotent in constitutional matters.
The Treaty of Lunéville , signed in February 1801 with Austria (which had been disarmed by Moreau’s victory at Hohenlinden ), restored peace to Europe, gave nearly the whole of Italy to France, and permitted Bonaparte to eliminate from the Assemblies all the leaders of the opposition in the discussion of the Civil Code . The Concordat of 1801 , drawn up not in the Church's interest but in that of his own policy, by giving satisfaction to the religious feeling of the country, allowed him to put down the constitutional democratic Church, to rally round him the consciences of the peasants, and above all to deprive the royalists of their best weapon. The _Articles Organiques_ hid from the eyes of his companions-in-arms and councillors a reaction which, in fact if not in law, restored to a submissive Church, despoiled of her revenues, her position as the religion of the state.
The Peace of Amiens (25 March 1802) with the United Kingdom, of which France's allies, Spain and the Batavian Republic , paid all the costs, finally gave the peacemaker a pretext for endowing himself with a Consulate, not for ten years but for life, as a recompense from the nation. The Rubicon was crossed on that day: Bonaparte’s march to empire began with the Constitution of the Year X .
As Napoleon increased his power, he borrowed many techniques of the _ Ancien Régime _ in his new form of one-man government. Like the old monarchy, he re-introduced plenipotentiaries , an over-centralised, strictly utilitarian administrative and bureaucratic methods, and a policy of subservient pedantic scholasticism towards the nation's universities. He constructed or consolidated the funds necessary for national institutions, local governments, a judiciary system, organs of finance, banking, codes, traditions of conscientious well-disciplined labour force.
France enjoyed a high level of peace and order under Napoleon that helped to raise the standard of comfort. Prior to this, Paris had often suffered from hunger and thirst, and lacked fire and light, but under Napoleon, provisions became cheap and abundant, while trade prospered and wages ran high. The pomp and luxury of the _nouveaux riches_ were displayed in the salons of the good Joséphine , the beautiful Madame Tallien , and the "divine" Juliette Récamier .
In strengthening the machinery of state, Napoleon created the elite order of the Légion d\'honneur (The Legion of Honour), the Concordat , and restored indirect taxes, an act seen as a betrayal of the Revolution.
Napoleon was largely able to quell dissent within government by expelling his more vocal critics, such as Benjamin Constant and Madame de Staël . The expedition to San Domingo reduced the republican army to a nullity. Constant war helped demoralise and scatter the military's leaders, who were jealous of their "comrade" Bonaparte. The last major challenge to Napoleon's authority came from Moreau, who was compromised in a royalist plot; he too was sent into exile.
In contradistinction to the opposition of senators and republican generals, the majority of the French populace remained uncritical of Bonaparte's authority. No suggestion of the possibility of his death was tolerated. The Napoleonic age began here when he became officer of the French state and established the Consulate.
THE DUKE OF ENGHIEN AFFAIR
Because Napoleon's hold on political power was still tenuous, French Royalists devised a plot that involved kidnapping and assassinating him and inviting Louis Antoine Henri, the Duke of Enghien , to lead a coup d'état that would precede the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy with Louis XVIII on the throne. The British government of William Pitt the Younger had contributed to this Royalist conspiracy by financing one million pounds and providing naval transport (with the ship of Captain John Wesley Wright) to the conspirators Georges Cadoudal and General Charles Pichegru for their return to France from England. Pichegru met Jean Victor Marie Moreau , one of Napoleon's generals and a former protege of Pichegru, on 28 January 1804. The next day, a British secret agent named Courson was arrested and he, under torture, confessed that Pichegru, Moreau and Cadoudal were conspiring to overthrow the Consulate. The French government sought more details of this plot by arresting and torturing Louis Picot, Cadoudal's servant. Joachim Murat ordered the city gates of Paris to be closed from 7 pm to 6 am while Pichegru and Moreau were arrested during the next month.
These further arrests revealed that the Royalist conspiracy would eventually involve the active participation of the Duke of Enghien, who was a relatively young Bourbon prince and thus another possible heir to a restored Bourbon monarchy. The Duke, at that time, was living as a French émigré in the Grand Duchy of Baden , but he also kept a rented house in Ettenheim, which was close to the French border. Perhaps at the urging of Talleyrand , Napoleon's foreign minister, and Fouché , Napoleon's minister of police who had warned that "the air is full of daggers", the First Consul came to the political conclusion that the Duke must be dealt with. Two hundred French soldiers surrounded the Duke's home in Baden and arrested him.
On the way back to France d'Enghien stated that "he had sworn implacable hatred against Bonaparte as well as against the French; he would take every occasion to make war on them."
After three plots to assassinate him and the further financing of a supposed insurrection in Strasbourg, Napoleon had enough. Based on d'Enghien's who were seized at his home in Germany and the material from the police, d'Enghien was charged as a conspirator in time of war and was subject to a military court. He was ordered to be tried by a court of seven colonels at Vincennes.
D'Enghien during his questioning at the court told them that he was being paid £ 4,200 per year by England "in order to combat not France but a government to which his birth had made him hostile." Further, he stated that "I asked England if I might serve in her armies, but she replied that that was impossible: I must wait on the Rhine, where I would have a part to play immediately, and I was in fact waiting."
D'Enghien was found guilty of being in violation of Article 2 of a law of 6 October 1791, to wit, "Any conspiracy and plot aimed at disturbing the State by civil war, and arming the citizens against one another, or against lawful authority, will be punished by death." He was executed in the ditch of the fortress of Vincennes.
The aftermath caused hardly a ripple in France, but abroad, it produced a storm of anger. Many of those who had favored or been neutral to Napoleon now turned against him. But Napoleon always assumed full responsibility for allowing the execution and continued to believe that, on balance, he had done the right thing.
END OF THE FIRST REPUBLIC
_ This article's FACTUAL ACCURACY IS DISPUTED . Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page . Please help to ensure that disputed statements are reliably sourced . (June 2013)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_
The endless conspiracies against Bonaparte's life began to raise concerns that the Republic would collapse shortly following his death, followed by either the Bourbons restored, a military dictatorship, or the Jacobins with their guillotine. Fouché suggested that Napoleon create a hereditary title to cement his legacy and lessen the likelihood that the regime would change upon his death. Napoleon was at first reluctant to accept the title. However, he was ultimately persuaded to do so, provided that the power come from the people, not by divine right. On 18 May 1804, the Senate passed a bill introducing the French Empire, with Napoleon as Emperor. The coronation ceremony took place on 2 December 1804, where Napoleon crowned himself as Emperor of the French, establishing the Empire.
THE PROVISIONAL CONSULS (10 NOVEMBER – 12 DECEMBER 1799)
DURING THE CONSULATE (12 DECEMBER 1799 – 18 MAY 1804)
The Ministers under the Consulate were:
MINISTRY START END MINISTER
Foreign Affairs 11 November 1799 22 November 1799 Charles-Frédéric Reinhard
22 November 1799 18 May 1804 Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord
Justice 11 November 1799 25 December 1799 Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès
25 December 1799 14 September 1802 André Joseph Abrial
14 September 1802 18 May 1804 Claude Ambroise Régnier
War 11 November 1799 2 April 1800 Louis-Alexandre Berthier
2 April 1800 8 October 1800 Lazare Carnot
8 October 1800 18 May 1804 Louis-Alexandre Berthier
Finance 11 November 1799 18 May 1804 Martin-Michel-Charles Gaudin
Police 11 November 1799 18 May 1804 Joseph Fouché
Interior 12 November 1799 25 December 1799 Pierre-Simon Laplace
25 December 1799 21 January 1801 Lucien Bonaparte
21 January 1801 18 May 1804 Jean-Antoine Chaptal
Navy and Colonies 12 November 1799 22 November 1799 Marc Antoine Bourdon de Vatry
22 November 1799 3 October 1801 Pierre-Alexandre-Laurent Forfait
3 October 1801 18 May 1804 Denis Decrès
Secretary of State 25 December 1799 18 May 1804 Hugues-Bernard Maret, duc de Bassano
Treasury 27 September 1801 18 May 1804 François Barbé-Marbois
War Administration 12 March 1802 18 May 1804 Jean François Aimé Dejean
* ^ Robert B. Holtman, _The Napoleonic Revolution_ (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1981), 31. * ^ Jones, Colin. _The Cambridge Illustrated History of France_ (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 193–94. ISBN 0-521-43294-4 . * ^ Antoine-Claire Thibaudeau, "Creation of the Consular Government," _Napoleon: Symbol for an Age, A Brief History with Documents_, ed. Rafe Blaufarb (New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008), 54–56. * ^ "From Life Consulship to the hereditary Empire (1802–1804)". Napoleon.org. Retrieved 2012-01-09. * ^ Frank McLynn (2002). _Napoleon_. Arcade Publishing. pp. 253–54. ISBN 978-1-55970-631-5 . * ^ Lucius Hudson Holt, Alexander Wheeler Chilton (1919). _A Brief History of Europe from 1789–1815_. The Macmillan Company. p. 206. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ Cronin 1994, p. 242 * ^ Cronin 1994, pp. 243–44 * ^ *Muel, Léon (1891). _Gouvernements, ministères et constitutions de la France depuis cent ans: Précis historique des révolutions, des crises ministérielles et gouvernementales, et des changements de constitutions de la France depuis 1789 jusqu\'en 1890 ..._ Marchal et Billard. p. 61. Retrieved 2014-05-03.
* Tom Holmberg, "The d\'Enghien Affair: Crime or Blunder?" (September 2005), The Napoleonic Series website. Accessed October 2006. * "Louis Antoine Henri, duke of Enghien"_Histoire et Figurines_ website (English language version). Accessed October 2006.
_ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica _ (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
* v * t * e
Governments of France (1792–1870)
FIRST REPUBLIC (1792–1804)
FIRST EMPIRE (1804–1814)
* Napoleon * Provisional Government of 1814 * First restoration * Hundred Days * Provisional Government of 1815
* Talleyrand * Richelieu (1) * Dessolles * Decazes * Richelieu (2) * Villèle * Martignac * Polignac * Mortemart
JULY MONARCHY (1830–1848)
* Paris Municipal Commission * Provisional Ministry * First ministry of Louis-Philippe * Laffitte * Casimir Perier * Soult (1) * Gérard * Maret * Mortier * de Broglie * Thiers (1) * Molé (1) * Molé (2) * Transitional cabinet of 1839 * Soult (2) * Thiers (2) * Soult (3) * Guizot
SECOND REPUBLIC (1848–1852)
* Provisional Government * Executive Commission * Cavaignac * Barrot (1) * Barrot (2) * Hautpoul * Petit ministère * Faucher * Last cabinet of the French Second Republic * Louis Napoleon (1) * Louis Napoleon (2)
SECOND EMPIRE (1852–1870)
* v * t * e
Heads of State of France
Styled President of the Republic after 1871, except from 1940–44 (Chief of State) and 1944–47 (Chairman of the Provisional Government)
FIRST REPUBLIC (1792–1804)
* National Convention * Directory * Consulate
FIRST EMPIRE (1804–1815)
BOURBON RESTORATION (1815–1830)
* Louis XVIII * Charles X
JULY MONARCHY (1830–1848)
SECOND REPUBLIC (1848–1852)
* Jacques-Charles Dupont de l\'Eure * Executive Commission * Louis-Eugène Cavaignac * Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte
SECOND EMPIRE (1852–1870)
* Napoleon III
GOVERNMENT OF NATIONAL DEFENSE (1870–1871)
THIRD REPUBLIC (1871–1940)
* Adolphe Thiers * Patrice de Mac-Mahon * _ Jules Armand Dufaure _ * Jules Grévy * _ Maurice Rouvier _ * Sadi Carnot * _ Charles Dupuy _ * Jean Casimir-Perier * _ Charles Dupuy _ * Félix Faure * _ Charles Dupuy _ * Émile Loubet * Armand Fallières * Raymond Poincaré * Paul Deschanel * _ Alexandre Millerand _ * Alexandre Millerand * _ Frédéric François-Marsal _ * Gaston Doumergue * Paul Doumer * _ André Tardieu _ * Albert Lebrun
VICHY FRANCE (1940–1944)
PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT (1944–1947)
FOURTH REPUBLIC (1947–1959)
FIFTH REPUBLIC (1959–PRESENT)
_Italics_ indicate interim officeholder
* v * t * e
* CAUSES * TIMELINE * ANCIEN RéGIME * REVOLUTION * CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY * REPUBLIC * DIRECTORY * CONSULATE * GLOSSARY
SIGNIFICANT CIVIL AND POLITICAL EVENTS BY YEAR
* _ What Is the Third Estate? _ (Jan 1789) * Réveillon riots (28 Apr 1789) * Convocation of the Estates-General (5 May 1789) * National Assembly (17 Jun – 9 Jul 1790) * Tennis Court Oath (20 Jun 1789) * National Constituent Assembly (9 Jul – 30 Sep 1791) * Storming of the Bastille (14 Jul 1789) * Great Fear (20 Jul – 5 Aug 1789) * Abolition of Feudalism (4-11 Aug 1789) * Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (27 Aug 1789) * Women\'s March on Versailles (5 Oct 1789)
* Abolition of the Parlements (Feb–Jul 1790) * Abolition of the Nobility (19 Jun 1790) * Civil Constitution of the Clergy (12 Jul 1790)
* Flight to Varennes (20–21 Jun 1791) * Champ de Mars Massacre (17 Jul 1791) * Declaration of Pillnitz (27 Aug 1791) * The Constitution of 1791 (3 Sep 1791) * Legislative Assembly (1 Oct 1791 – Sep 1792)
* France declares war (20 Apr 1792) * Brunswick Manifesto (25 Jul 1792) * Paris Commune becomes insurrectionary (Jun 1792) * 10th of August (10 Aug 1792) * September Massacres (Sep 1792) * National Convention (20 Sep 1792 – 26 Oct 1795) * First republic declared (22 Sep 1792)
* Reign of Terror (27 Jun 1793 – 27 Jul 1794)
* Fall of the Girondists (2 Jun 1793) * Assassination of Marat (13 Jul 1793) * Levée en masse (23 Aug 1793) * Law of Suspects (17 Sep 1793) * Marie Antoinette is guillotined (16 Oct 1793) * Anti-clerical laws (throughout the year)
* Danton and Desmoulins guillotined (5 Apr 1794) * Law of 22 Prairial (10 Jun 1794) * Thermidorian Reaction (27 Jul 1794) * Robespierre guillotined (28 Jul 1794) * White Terror (Fall 1794) * Closing of the Jacobin Club (11 Nov 1794)
* Directoire (1795–99)
* Verdun * Thionville * Valmy
* Royalist Revolts
* Lille * Siege of Mainz * Jemappes * Namur (fr)
* First Coalition * Siege of Toulon (18 Sep – 18 Dec 1793) * War in the Vendée * Battle of Neerwinden) * Battle of Famars (23 May 1793) * Capture of San Pietro and Sant\'Antioco (25 May 1793) * Battle of Kaiserslautern * Siege of Mainz * Battle of Wattignies * Battle of Hondschoote * Siege of Bellegarde * Battle of Peyrestortes (Pyrenees) * First Battle of Wissembourg (13 Oct 1793) * Battle of Truillas (Pyrenees) * Second Battle of Wissembourg (26–27 Dec 1793)
* Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies (24 Apr 1794) * Battle of Boulou (Pyrenees) (30 Apr – 1 May 1794) * Battle of Tournay (22 May 1794) * Battle of Fleurus (26 Jun 1794) * Chouannerie * Battle of Tourcoing (18 May 1794) * Battle of Aldenhoven (2 Oct 1794)
* Battle of Lonato (3–4 Aug 1796) * Battle of Castiglione (5 Aug 1796) * Battle of Theiningen * Battle of Neresheim (11 Aug 1796) * Battle of Amberg (24 Aug 1796) * Battle of Würzburg (3 Sep 1796) * Battle of Rovereto (4 Sep 1796) * First Battle of Bassano (8 Sep 1796) * Battle of Emmendingen (19 Oct 1796) * Battle of Schliengen (26 Oct 1796) * Second Battle of Bassano (6 Nov 1796) * Battle of Calliano (6–7 Nov 1796) * Battle of the Bridge of Arcole (15–17 Nov 1796) * The Ireland Expedition (Dec 1796)
* Naval Engagement off Brittany (13 Jan 1797) * Battle of Rivoli (14–15 Jan 1797) * Battle of the Bay of Cádiz (25 Jan 1797) * Treaty of Leoben (17 Apr 1797) * Battle of Neuwied (18 Apr 1797) * Treaty of Campo Formio (17 Oct 1797)
* French invasion of Switzerland (28 January – 17 May 1798) * French Invasion of Egypt (1798–1801) * Irish Rebellion of 1798 (23 May – 23 Sep 1798) * Quasi-War (1798–1800) * Peasants\' War (12 Oct – 5 Dec 1798)
* Second Coalition (1798–1802) * Siege of Acre (20 Mar – 21 May 1799) * Battle of Ostrach (20–21 Mar 1799) * Battle of Stockach (25 Mar 1799) * Battle of Magnano (5 Apr 1799) * Battle of Cassano (27 Apr 1799) * First Battle of Zurich (4–7 Jun 1799) * Battle of Trebbia (19 Jun 1799) * Battle of Novi (15 Aug 1799) * Second Battle of Zurich (25–26 Sep 1799)
* Treaty of Amiens (25 Mar 1802)
* Eustache Charles d\'Aoust * Pierre Augereau * Alexandre de Beauharnais * Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte * Louis-Alexandre Berthier * Jean-Baptiste Bessières * Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune * Jean François Carteaux * Jean Étienne Championnet * Chapuis de Tourville * Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine * Louis-Nicolas Davout * Louis Desaix * Jacques François Dugommier * Thomas-Alexandre Dumas * Charles François Dumouriez * Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino * Louis-Charles de Flers * Paul Grenier * Emmanuel de Grouchy * Jacques Maurice Hatry * Lazare Hoche * Jean-Baptiste Jourdan * François Christophe de Kellermann * Jean-Baptiste Kléber * Pierre Choderlos de Laclos * Jean Lannes * Charles Leclerc * Claude Lecourbe * François Joseph Lefebvre * Jacques MacDonald * Jean-Antoine Marbot * Jean Baptiste de Marbot * François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers * Auguste de Marmont * André Masséna * Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey * Jean Victor Marie Moreau * Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise * Joachim Murat * Michel Ney * Pierre-Jacques Osten (fr) * Nicolas Oudinot * Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon * Jean- Charles Pichegru * Józef Poniatowski * Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr * Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer * Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier * Joseph Souham * Jean-de-Dieu Soult * Louis-Gabriel Suchet * Belgrand de Vaubois * Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno
* Charles-Alexandre Linois
* József Alvinczi * Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen * Count of Clerfayt (Walloon) * Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg * Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze (Swiss) * Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth * Pál Kray (Hungarian) * Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc (French) * Maximilian Baillet de Latour (Walloon) * Karl Mack von Leiberich * Rudolf Ritter von Otto (Saxon) * Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld * Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich * Prince Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen * Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló (Hungarian) * Karl Philipp Sebottendorf * Dagobert von Wurmser
* Luis Firmin de Carvajal * Antonio Ricardos
OTHER SIGNIFICANT FIGURES AND FACTIONS
SOCIETY OF 1789
* Jean Sylvain Bailly * Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette * François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt * Isaac René Guy le Chapelier * Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau * Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès * Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord * Nicolas de Condorcet
Feuillants and _monarchiens _
* Madame de Lamballe * Madame du Barry * Louis de Breteuil * Loménie de Brienne * Charles Alexandre de Calonne * de Chateaubriand * Jean Chouan * Grace Elliott * Arnaud de La Porte * Jean-Sifrein Maury * Jacques Necker * François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy * Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas * Antoine Barnave * Lafayette * Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth * Charles Malo François Lameth * André Chénier * Jean-François Rewbell * Camille Jordan * Madame de Staël * Boissy d\'Anglas * Jean- Charles Pichegru * Pierre Paul Royer-Collard
* Jacques Pierre Brissot * Roland de La Platière * Madame Roland * Father Henri Grégoire * Étienne Clavière * Marquis de Condorcet * Charlotte Corday * Marie Jean Hérault * Jean Baptiste Treilhard * Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud * Bertrand Barère de Vieuzac * Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve * Jean Debry * Jean-Jacques Duval d\'Eprémesnil * Olympe de Gouges * Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet * Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux
* Abbé Sieyès * de Cambacérès * Charles François Lebrun * Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot * Philippe Égalité * Louis Philippe I * Mirabeau * Antoine Christophe Merlin de Thionville * Jean Joseph Mounier * Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours * François de Neufchâteau
* Maximilien Robespierre * Georges Danton * Jean-Paul Marat * Camille Desmoulins * Louis Antoine de Saint-Just * Paul Nicolas, vicomte de Barras * Louis Philippe I * Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau * Jacques-Louis David * Marquis de Sade * Jacques-Louis David * Georges Couthon * Roger Ducos * Jean-Marie Collot d\'Herbois * Jean-Henri Voulland * Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai * Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville * Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas * Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier * Jean-Pierre-André Amar * Prieur de la Côte-d\'Or * Prieur de la Marne * Gilbert Romme * Jean Bon Saint-André * Jean-Lambert Tallien * Pierre Louis Prieur * Bertrand Barère de Vieuzac * Antoine Christophe Saliceti
* Jacques Hébert * Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne * Pierre Gaspard Chaumette * Charles-Philippe Ronsin * Antoine-François Momoro * François-Nicolas Vincent * François Chabot * Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte * Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel * François Hanriot * Jacques Roux * Stanislas-Marie Maillard * Charles-Philippe Ronsin * Jean-François Varlet * Theophile Leclerc * Claire Lacombe * Pauline Léon * Gracchus Babeuf * Sylvain Maréchal
* Charles X * Louis XVI * Louis XVII * Louis XVIII * Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien * Louis Henri, Prince of Condé * Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé * Marie Antoinette * Napoléon Bonaparte * Lucien Bonaparte * Joseph Bonaparte * Joseph Fesch * Joséphine de Beauharnais * Joachim Murat * Jean Sylvain Bailly * Jacques-Donatien Le Ray * Guillaume-Chrétien de Malesherbes * Talleyrand * Thérésa Tallien * Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target * Catherine Théot * List of people associated with the French Revolution
* _Les Lumières _ * Beaumarchais * Edmund Burke * Anacharsis Cloots * Charles-Augustin de Coulomb * Pierre Claude François Daunou * Diderot * Benjamin Franklin * Thomas Jefferson * Antoine Lavoisier * Montesquieu * Thomas Paine * Jean-Jacques Rousseau * Abbé Sieyès * Voltaire * Mary Wollstonecraft
* v * t * e
French Consulate (10 November 1799 – 18 May 1804)
Bonaparte First Consul
FINANCE Martin-Michel-Charles Gaudin
POLICE Joseph Fouché
NAVY AND COLONIES
SECRETARY OF STATE Hugues-Bernard Maret, duc de Bassano
TREASURY François Barbé-Marbois
WAR ADMINISTRATION Jean François Aimé Dejean
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