FREDERICK I (German : _Friedrich_; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known
as FREDERICK BARBAROSSA, was the
Holy Roman Emperor
Before his imperial election, Frederick was by inheritance Duke of Swabia (1147–1152, as Frederick III). He was the son of Duke Frederick II of the Hohenstaufen dynasty and Judith , daughter of Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria , from the rival House of Welf . Frederick therefore descended from the two leading families in Germany, making him an acceptable choice for the Empire's prince-electors .
Historians consider him among the Holy Roman Empire's greatest medieval emperors. He combined qualities that made him appear almost superhuman to his contemporaries: his longevity, his ambition, his extraordinary skills at organization, his battlefield acumen and his political perspicuity. Among his contributions to Central European society and culture include the reestablishment of the _Corpus Juris Civilis _, or the Roman rule of law, which counterbalanced the papal power that dominated the German states since the conclusion of the Investiture Controversy .
* 1 Life and reign
* 1.1 Early years * 1.2 Rise to power * 1.3 First Italian Campaign: 1154–55 * 1.4 Second, Third and Fourth Italian Campaigns: 1158–1174 * 1.5 Later years * 1.6 Third Crusade and death
* 2 Frederick and the Justinian code * 3 Charismatic leader * 4 Legend * 5 Issue * 6 Ancestry * 7 In popular culture * 8 See also
* 9 References
* 9.1 Primary sources * 9.2 Secondary sources
* 10 External links
LIFE AND REIGN
Frederick was born in 1122. In 1147 he became Duke of the southern
German region of
Swabia (Herzog von Schwaben), and shortly afterwards
made his first trip to the East, accompanied by his uncle, the German
king Conrad III , on the
Second Crusade . The expedition proved to be
a disaster, but Frederick distinguished himself and won the complete
confidence of the king. When Conrad died in February 1152, only
Frederick and the prince-bishop of
Bamberg were at his deathbed. Both
asserted afterwards that Conrad had, in full possession of his mental
powers, handed the royal insignia to Frederick and indicated that
Frederick, rather than Conrad's own six-year-old son, the future
Duke of Swabia , succeed him as king. Frederick
energetically pursued the crown and at
The reigns of Henry IV and Henry V left the status of the German empire in disarray, its power waning under the weight of the Investiture controversy . For a quarter of a century following the death of Henry V in 1125, the German monarchy was largely a nominal title with no real power. The king was chosen by the princes, was given no resources outside those of his own duchy, and he was prevented from exercising any real authority or leadership in the realm. The royal title was furthermore passed from one family to another to preclude the development of any dynastic interest in the German crown. When Frederick I of Hohenstaufen was chosen as king in 1152, royal power had been in effective abeyance for over twenty-five years, and to a considerable degree for more than eighty years. The only real claim to wealth lay in the rich cities of northern Italy, which were still within the nominal control of the German king. The Salian line had died out with the death of Henry V in 1125. The German princes refused to give the crown to his nephew, the duke of Swabia, for fear he would try to regain the imperial power held by Henry V. Instead, they chose Lothair III (1125–1137), who found himself embroiled in a long-running dispute with the Hohenstaufens, and who married into the Welfs. One of the Hohenstaufens gained the throne as Conrad III of Germany (1137–1152). When Frederick Barbarossa succeeded his uncle in 1152, there seemed to be excellent prospects for ending the feud, since he was a Welf on his mother's side. The Welf duke of Saxony, Henry the Lion , would not be appeased, however, remaining an implacable enemy of the Hohenstaufen monarchy. Barbarossa had the duchies of Swabia and Franconia, the force of his own personality, and very little else to construct an empire.
RISE TO POWER
Eager to restore the Empire to the position it had occupied under
Otto I the Great , the new king saw clearly that the
restoration of order in
FIRST ITALIAN CAMPAIGN: 1154–55
Frederick undertook six expeditions into Italy. In the first,
beginning in October 1154, his plan was to launch a campaign against
Normans under King
William I of Sicily . He marched down and
almost immediately encountered resistance to his authority. Obtaining
the submission of
Milan , he successfully besieged
Tortona in early
1155, razing it to the ground. He moved on to
Pavia , where he
received the Iron Crown and the title of
King of Italy . Moving
As Frederick approached the gates of Rome, the Pope advanced to meet
him. At the royal tent the king received him, and after kissing the
pope's feet, Frederick expected to receive the traditional kiss of
peace. Frederick had declined to hold the Pope's stirrup while
leading him to the tent, however, so Adrian refused to give the kiss
until this protocol had been complied with. Frederick hesitated, and
Adrian IV withdrew; after a day's negotiation, Frederick agreed to
perform the required ritual, reportedly muttering, "_Pro Petro, non
Adriano_ -- For Peter, not for Adrian."
The next day, 18 June 1155, Adrian IV crowned Frederick I Holy Roman
Emperor at St Peter\'s Basilica , amidst the acclamations of the
German army. The Romans began to riot, and Frederick spent his
coronation day putting down the revolt, resulting in the deaths of
over 1,000 Romans and many more thousands injured. The next day,
Frederick, Adrian, and the German army travelled to Tivoli . From
there, a combination of the unhealthy Italian summer and the effects
of his year-long absence from
Disorder was again rampant in Germany, especially in Bavaria, but general peace was restored by Frederick's vigorous, but conciliatory, measures. The duchy of Bavaria was transferred from Henry II Jasomirgott , margrave of Austria, to Frederick's formidable younger cousin Henry the Lion , Duke of Saxony , of the House of Guelph , whose father had previously held both duchies. Henry II Jasomirgott was named Duke of Austria in compensation for his loss of Bavaria. As part of his general policy of concessions of formal power to the German princes and ending the civil wars within the kingdom, Frederick further appeased Henry by issuing him with the Privilegium Minus , granting him unprecedented entitlements as Duke of Austria . This was a large concession on the part of Frederick, who realized that Henry the Lion had to be accommodated, even to the point of sharing some power with him. Frederick could not afford to make an outright enemy of Henry.
On 9 June 1156 at Würzburg , Frederick married Beatrice of Burgundy , daughter and heiress of Renaud III , thus adding to his possessions the sizeable realm of the County of Burgundy . In an attempt to create comity, Emperor Frederick proclaimed the Peace of the Land , written between 1152 and 1157, which enacted punishments for a variety of crimes, as well as systems for adjudicating many disputes. He also declared himself the sole Augustus of the Roman world, ceasing to recognise Manuel I at Constantinople .
SECOND, THIRD AND FOURTH ITALIAN CAMPAIGNS: 1158–1174
_ Frederick Barbarossa as a crusader, miniature from a copy of the Historia Hierosolymitana_, 1188.
The retreat of Frederick in 1155 forced Pope Adrian IV to come to terms with King William I of Sicily, granting to William I territories that Frederick viewed as his dominion. This aggrieved Frederick, and he was further displeased when Papal Legates chose to interpret a letter from Adrian to Frederick in a manner that seemed to imply that the imperial crown was a gift from the Papacy and that in fact the Empire itself was a fief of the Papacy. Disgusted with the pope, and still wishing to crush the Normans in the south of Italy, in June 1158, Frederick set out upon his second Italian expedition, accompanied by Henry the Lion and his Saxon troops. This expedition resulted in the revolt and capture of Milan , the Diet of Roncaglia that saw the establishment of imperial officers and ecclesiastical reforms in the cities of northern Italy, and the beginning of the long struggle with Pope Alexander III .
The death of Pope Adrian IV in 1159 led to the election of two rival popes, Alexander III and the antipope Victor IV , and both sought Frederick's support. Frederick, busy with the siege of Crema , appeared unsupportive of Alexander III, and after the sacking of Crema demanded that Alexander appear before the emperor at Pavia and to accept the imperial decree. Alexander refused, and Frederick recognised Victor IV as the legitimate pope in 1160. In response, Alexander III excommunicated both Frederick I and Victor IV. Frederick attempted to convoke a joint council with King Louis VII of France in 1162 to decide the issue of who should be pope. Louis neared the meeting site, but when he became aware that Frederick had stacked the votes for Alexander, Louis decided not to attend the council. As a result, the issue was not resolved at that time.
The political result of the struggle with Pope Alexander was an
alliance formed between the Norman state of
In 1164 Frederick took what are believed to be the relics of the "Biblical Magi" (the Wise Men or Three Kings ) from the Basilica di Sant\'Eustorgio in Milan and gave them as a gift (or as loot) to the Archbishop of Cologne , Rainald of Dassel . The relics had great religious significance and could be counted upon to draw pilgrims from all over Christendom . Today they are kept in the Shrine of the Three Kings in the Cologne cathedral . After the death of the antipope Victor IV, Frederick supported antipope Paschal III , but he was soon driven from Rome, leading to the return of Pope Alexander III in 1165.
In the meantime Frederick was focused on restoring peace in the Rhineland, where he organized a magnificent celebration of the canonization of Charles the Great ( Charlemagne ) at Aachen, under the authority of the antipope Paschal III. Concerned over rumours that Alexander III was about to enter into an alliance with the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I , in October 1166 Frederick embarked on his fourth Italian campaign, hoping as well to secure the claim of Paschal III and the coronation of his wife Beatrice as Holy Roman Empress. This time, Henry the Lion refused to join Frederick on his Italian trip, tending instead to his own disputes with neighbors and his continuing expansion into Slavic territories in northeastern Germany. In 1167 Frederick began besieging Ancona , which had acknowledged the authority of Manuel I; at the same time, his forces achieved a great victory over the Romans at the Battle of Monte Porzio . Heartened by this victory, Frederick lifted the siege of Ancona and hurried to Rome, where he had his wife crowned empress and also received a second coronation from Paschal III. Unfortunately, his campaign was halted by the sudden outbreak of an epidemic (malaria or the plague ), which threatened to destroy the Imperial army and drove the emperor as a fugitive to Germany, where he remained for the ensuing six years. During this period, Frederick decided conflicting claims to various bishoprics, asserted imperial authority over Bohemia, Poland, and Hungary, initiated friendly relations with Manuel I, and tried to come to a better understanding with Henry II of England and Louis VII of France . Many Swabian counts, including his cousin the young Duke of Swabia, Frederick IV, died in 1167, so he was able to organize a new mighty territory in the Duchy of Swabia under his reign in this time. Consequently, his younger son Frederick V became the new Duke of Swabia in 1167, while his eldest son Henry was crowned King of the Romans in 1169, alongside his father who also retained the title.
_ Frederick Barbarossa, middle, flanked by two of his children, King Henry VI (left) and Duke Frederick VI (right). From the Historia Welforum _.
Increasing anti-German sentiment swept through Lombardy, culminating
in the restoration of
Milan in 1169. In 1174 Frederick made his fifth
expedition to Italy. (It was probably during this time that the famous
Tafelgüterverzeichnis _, a record of the royal estates, was made. )
He was opposed by the pro-papal
Lombard League (now joined by
The scene was similar to that which had occurred between Pope Gregory
VII and Henry IV,
Holy Roman Emperor
In a move to consolidate his reign after the disastrous expedition
into Italy, Frederick was formally crowned
King of Burgundy at Arles
on 30 June 1178. Although traditionally the German kings had
automatically inherited the royal crown of
Frederick did not forgive Henry the Lion for refusing to come to his aid in 1176. By 1180, Henry had successfully established a powerful and contiguous state comprising Saxony, Bavaria, and substantial territories in the north and east of Germany. Taking advantage of the hostility of other German princes to Henry, Frederick had Henry tried in absentia by a court of bishops and princes in 1180, declared that imperial law overruled traditional German law, and had Henry stripped of his lands and declared an outlaw. He then invaded Saxony with an imperial army to force his cousin to surrender. Henry's allies deserted him, and he finally had to submit in November 1181. Henry spent three years in exile at the court of his father-in-law Henry II of England in Normandy before being allowed back into Germany. He finished his days in Germany, as the much-diminished Duke of Brunswick. Frederick's desire for revenge was sated. Henry the Lion lived a relatively quiet life, sponsoring arts and architecture. Frederick's victory over Henry did not gain him as much in the German feudalistic system as it would have in the English feudalistic system. While in England the pledge of fealty went in a direct line from overlords to those under them, the Germans pledged oaths only to the direct overlord, so that in Henry's case, those below him in the feudal chain owed nothing to Frederick. Thus, despite the diminished stature of Henry the Lion, Frederick did not gain his allegiances.
Frederick was faced with the reality of disorder among the German
states, where continuous civil wars were waged between pretenders and
the ambitious who wanted the crown for themselves. Italian unity under
German rule was more myth than truth. Despite proclamations of German
hegemony, the pope was the most powerful force in Italy. When
Frederick returned to
Although the Italian city states had achieved a measure of
independence from Frederick as a result of his failed fifth expedition
into Italy, the emperor had not given up on his Italian dominions. In
1184, he held a massive celebration when his two eldest sons were
knighted, and thousands of knights were invited from all over Germany.
While payments upon the knighting of a son were part of the
expectations of an overlord in England and France, only a "gift" was
THIRD CRUSADE AND DEATH
Pope Urban III died shortly after, and was succeeded by Gregory VIII, who was more concerned with troubling reports from the Holy Land than with a power struggle with Barbarossa. After making his peace with the new pope, Frederick vowed to take up the cross at the Diet of Mainz in 1188. Frederick embarked on the Third Crusade (1189–92), a massive expedition in conjunction with the French, led by King Philip Augustus , and the English, under King Richard the Lionheart . Frederick organized a grand army of 100,000 men (including 20,000 knights) and set out on the overland route to the Holy Land; Some historians believe that this is an exaggeration, however, and that the true figure might be closer to 15,000 men, including 3,000 knights. The Saleph River, now known as the Göksu
The Crusaders passed through Hungary , Serbia , and Bulgaria before entering Byzantine territory and arriving at Constantinople in the autumn of 1189. Matters were complicated by a secret alliance between the Emperor of Constantinople and Saladin, warning of which was supplied by a note from Sibylla , ex-Queen of Jerusalem. While in Hungary, Barbarossa personally asked the Hungarian Prince Géza , brother of King Béla III of Hungary , to join the Crusade. The king agreed, and a Hungarian army of 2,000 men led by Géza escorted the German emperor's forces. The armies coming from western Europe pushed on through Anatolia , where they were victorious in taking Aksehir and defeating the Turks in the Battle of Iconium , and entered Cilician Armenia . The approach of the immense German army greatly concerned Saladin and the other Muslim leaders, who began to rally troops of their own to confront Barbarossa's forces.
On 10 June 1190, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa drowned near Silifke Castle in the Saleph river. Accounts of the event are conflicting. Some historians believe he may have had a heart attack that complicated matters. Some of Frederick's men put him in a barrel of vinegar to preserve his body.
Frederick's death plunged his army into chaos. Leaderless, panicking,
and attacked on all sides by Turks, many Germans deserted, were
killed, or committed suicide. Only 5,000 soldiers, a small fraction of
the original force, arrived in Acre . Barbarossa's son, Frederick VI
of Swabia, carried on with the remnants of the German army, along with
the Hungarian army under the command of Prince Géza, with the aim of
burying the emperor in
The unexpected demise of Frederick left the Crusader army under the
command of the rivals Philip II and Richard, who had traveled to
Palestine separately by sea, and ultimately led to its dissolution.
Richard continued to the East where he fought Saladin, winning
territories along the shores of Palestine, but ultimately failed to
win the war by conquering
FREDERICK AND THE JUSTINIAN CODE
The increase in wealth of the trading cities of northern Italy led to a revival in the study of the Justinian Code , a Latin legal system that had become extinct centuries earlier. Legal scholars renewed its application. It is speculated that Pope Gregory VII personally encouraged the Justinian rule of law and had a copy of it. The historian Norman Cantor described Corpus Iuris Civilis (Justinian Body of Civil Law) as "the greatest legal code ever devised". It envisaged the law of the state as a reflection of natural moral law (as seen by the men of the Justinian system), the principle of rationality in the universe. By the time Frederick assumed the throne, this legal system was well established on both sides of the Alps. He was the first to utilize the availability of the new professional class of lawyers. The Civil Law allowed Frederick to use these lawyers to administer his kingdom in a logical and consistent manner. It also provided a framework to legitimize his claim to the right to rule both Germany and northern Italy. In the old days of Henry V and Henry VI, the claim of divine right of kings had been severely undermined by the Investiture controversy . The Church had won that argument in the common man's mind. There was no divine right for the German king to also control the church by naming both bishops and popes. The institution of the Justinian code was used, perhaps unscrupulously, by Frederick to lay claim to divine powers.
In Germany, Frederick was a political realist, taking what he could
and leaving the rest. In Italy, he tended to be a romantic
reactionary, reveling in the antiquarian spirit of the age,
exemplified by a revival of classical studies and Roman law. It was
through the use of the restored Justinian code that Frederick came to
view himself as a new Roman emperor. Roman law gave a rational
purpose for the existence of Frederick and his imperial ambitions. It
was a counterweight to the claims of the Church to have authority
because of divine revelation. The Church was opposed to Frederick for
ideological reasons, not the least of which was the humanist nature
found in the revival of the old Roman legal system. When Pepin the
Short sought to become king of the Franks in the 8th century, the
church needed military protection, so Pepin found it convenient to
make an ally of the pope. Frederick, however, desired to put the pope
aside and claim the crown of old
Historians have compared Frederick to Henry II of England . Both were considered the greatest and most charismatic leaders of their age. Each possessed a rare combination of qualities that made him appear superhuman to his contemporaries: longevity, boundless ambition, extraordinary organizing skill, and greatness on the battlefield. Both were handsome and proficient in courtly skills, without appearing effeminate or affected. Both came to the throne in the prime of manhood. Each had an element of learning, without being considered impractical intellectuals but rather more inclined to practicality. Each found himself in the possession of new legal institutions that were put to creative use in governing. Both Henry and Frederick were viewed to be sufficiently and formally devout to the teachings of the Church, without being moved to the extremes of spirituality seen in the great saints of the 12th century. In making final decisions, each relied solely upon his own judgment, and both were interested in gathering as much power as they could.
In keeping with this view of Frederick, his uncle, Otto of Freising , wrote an account of Frederick's reign entitled _Gesta Friderici I imperatoris_ (Deeds of the Emperor Frederick). Otto died after finishing the first two books, leaving the last two to Rahewin , his provost. The text is in places heavily dependent on classical precedent. For example, Rahewin's physical description of Frederick reproduces word-for-word (except for details of hair and beard) a description of another monarch written nearly eight hundred years earlier by Sidonius Apollinaris:
His character is such that not even those envious of his power can belittle its praise. His person is well-proportioned. He is shorter than very tall men, but taller and more noble than men of medium height. His hair is golden, curling a little above his forehead ... His eyes are sharp and piercing, his beard reddish , his lips delicate ... His whole face is bright and cheerful. His teeth are even and snow-white in color ... Modesty rather than anger causes him to blush frequently. His shoulders are rather broad, and he is strongly built ...
Frederick's charisma led to a fantastic juggling act that, over a quarter of a century, restored the imperial authority in the German states. His formidable enemies defeated him on almost every side, yet in the end he emerged triumphant. When Frederick came to the throne, the prospects for the revival of German imperial power were extremely thin. The great German princes had increased their power and land holdings. The king had been left with only the traditional family domains and a vestige of power over the bishops and abbeys. The backwash of the Investiture controversy had left the German states in continuous turmoil. Rival states were in perpetual war. These conditions allowed Frederick to be both warrior and occasional peace-maker, both to his advantage.
Frederick sends out the boy to see whether the ravens still fly.
Frederick is the subject of many legends, including that of a
sleeping hero , like the much older British Celtic legends of Arthur
Bran the Blessed . Legend says he is not dead, but asleep with his
knights in a cave in the
Kyffhäuser mountain in
Thuringia or Mount
Untersberg in Bavaria, Germany, and that when the ravens cease to fly
around the mountain he will awake and restore
In medieval Europe, the Golden Legend became refined by Jacopo da Voragine . This was a popularized interpretation of the Biblical end of the world. It consisted of three things: (1) terrible natural disasters; (2) the arrival of the Antichrist ; (3) the establishment of a good king to combat the anti-Christ. These millennial fables were common and freely traded by the populations on Continental Europe. End-time accounts had been around for thousands of years, but entered the Christian tradition with the writings of the Apostle Peter. German propaganda played into the exaggerated fables believed by the common people by characterizing Frederick Barbarossa and Frederick II as personification of the "good king".
Frederick's uncle, Otto, bishop of Freising wrote a biography entitled _The Deeds of Frederick Barbarosa_, which is considered to be an accurate history of the king. Otto's other major work, _The Two Cities_ was an exposition of the work of St. Augustine of Hippo of a similar title. The latter work was full of Augustinian negativity concerning the nature of the world and history. His work on Frederick is of opposite tone, being an optimistic portrayal of the glorious potentials of imperial authority. (See description supra.)
Another legend states that when Barbarossa was in the process of seizing Milan in 1158, his wife, the Empress Beatrice , was taken captive by the enraged Milanese and forced to ride through the city on a donkey in a humiliating manner. Some sources of this legend indicate that Barbarossa implemented his revenge for this insult by forcing the magistrates of the city to remove a fig from the anus of a donkey using only their teeth. Another source states that Barbarossa took his wrath upon every able-bodied man in the city, and that it was not a fig they were forced to hold in their mouth, but excrement from the donkey. To add to this debasement, they were made to announce, "Ecco la fica", (meaning "behold the fig"), with the feces still in their mouths. It used to be said that the insulting gesture, (called fico), of holding one's fist with the thumb in between the middle and forefinger came by its origin from this event.
Frederick's first marriage, to Adelheid of Vohburg , did not produce any issue and was annulled.
From his second marriage, to Beatrice of Burgundy , he had the following children:
* Beatrice (1162–1174). She was betrothed to King William II of
ANCESTORS OF FREDERICK I, HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR
16. Frederick, Count Palatine of Swabia
8. Frederick von Büren, Count Palatine of Swabia
17. Adelheid vom Filsgau
4. Frederick I, Duke of Swabia
18. Gerhard III, Count of Egisheim-Dagsburg ?
9. Hildegard von Egisheim
19. Hildegard von Schlettstadt ?
20. Henry III,
Holy Roman Emperor
10. Henry IV,
Holy Roman Emperor
21. Agnes de Poitou
11. Bertha of Savoy
23. Adelaide of Susa
1. FREDERICK I, HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR
24. Albert Azzo II, Margrave of Milan
13. Judith of Flanders
3. Judith of Bavaria
28. Ordulf, Duke of Saxony
14. Magnus, Duke of Saxony
31. Richeza of Poland
IN POPULAR CULTURE
Victor Hugo 's romantic play _
Les Burgraves _ (1843), Frederick
(as character Frédéric de Hohenstaufen) returns many years after he
was presumed dead, as expected by some medieval legends.
Cyrus Townsend Brady 's _Hohenzollern; a Story of the Time of
Frederick Barbarossa_ (1901) begins with a dedication to "the
descendants of the great Germanic race who in Europe, in America, and
in the Far East rule the world".
Land of Unreason _ (1941), by
L. Sprague de Camp and Fletcher
Pratt , mentions the castle of the Kyffhäuser.
John Crowley 's novel _
Little, Big _ (1981) features Frederick
Barbarossa as a character in modern times, awoken from his centuries
of sleep. In the book, he becomes the President of the United States
and rules as a tyrant.
Umberto Eco 's novel _
Baudolino _ (2000) is set partly at
Frederick's court, and also deals with the mystery of Frederick's
death. The imaginary hero, Baudolino, is the Emperor's adopted son and
* In 1999 film _The Thomas Crown Affair _, the title character is
said to be in possession of "an ornament worn by Frederick Barbarossa
at his coronation in 1152."
* The 1999 real-time strategy video game _Age of Empires II: The Age
of Kings _ developed by
Ensemble Studios has a campaign which follows
Fredrick Barbarossa from the period of his struggles in
* _ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Frederick I., Roman Emperor". Encyclopædia Britannica _ (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
* ^ Peter Moraw, _Heiliges Reich_, in: _Lexikon des Mittelalters_,
Munich & Zurich: Artemis 1977–1999, vol. 4, pp. 2025–28.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Canduci (2010) , p. 263
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 199
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Comyn (1851) , p. 200
* ^ Le Goff (2000) , p. 266
* ^ Dahmus (1969) , pp. 300–302
* ^ Bryce (1913) , p. 166
* ^ Cantor (1969) , pp. 302–303
* ^ _A_ _B_ Cantor (1969) , pp. 428–429
* ^ Dahmus (1969) , p. 359
* ^ Brown (1972)
* ^ Davis (1957) , pp. 318–319
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 202
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 201
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Comyn (1851) , p. 230
* ^ Falco (1964) , pp. 218 et seq.
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 227
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 228
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 229
* ^ Cantor (1969) , pp. 368–369
* ^ _A_ _B_ Comyn (1851) , p. 231
* ^ _A_ _B_ Comyn (1851) , p. 232
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 233
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 203
* ^ Davis (1957) , p. 319
* ^ "
Peace of the Land Established by Frederick Barbarossa Between
1152 and 1157 A.D.". _The
Avalon Project _.
Yale Law School .
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 234
* ^ _ Ua Clerigh, Arthur (1913). "Pope Adrian IV". In Herbermann,
Catholic Encyclopedia _. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 235
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 236
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 238
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 240
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 241
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 242
* ^ _A_ _B_ Comyn (1851) , p. 243
* ^ Dahmus (1969) , p. 295
* ^ Munz (1969) , p. 228
* ^ Davis (1957) , pp. 326–327
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 245
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 246
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 247
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 248
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 249
* ^ _A_ _B_ Comyn (1851) , p. 250
* ^ _A_ _B_ Comyn (1851) , p. 251
* ^ See entry for the contemporary chroniclers, Ottone and Acerbo
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 252
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 253
* ^ Leyser (1988) , p. 157
* ^ _A_ _B_ Kampers, Franz. "Frederick I (Barbarossa)". _The
Catholic Encyclopedia_. Vol. 6. New York: Robert Appleton Company,
1909. 21 May 2009.
* ^ Le Goff (2000) , p. 104
* ^ Reprint of B. Arthaud. _La civilization de l'Occident
medieval_, Paris, 1964.
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 257
* ^ Davis (1957) , pp. 332 et seq.
* ^ Brown (1972) , pp. 164–165
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 260
* ^ See Yale Avalon project.
* ^ Le Goff (2000) , pp. 96–97
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 263
* ^ Davis (1957) , p. 333
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 264
* ^ Cantor (1969) , pp. 433–434
* ^ Le Goff (2000) , pp. 102–103
* ^ Cantor (1969) , p. 429
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 262
* ^ Dahmus (1969) , p. 240
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 265
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 266
* ^ J. Phillips, _The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of
* ^ Konstam, _Historical Atlas of the Crusades_, 162
* ^ The Crusade of Frederick Barbarossa: Letters, Fordham
* ^ Comyn (1851) , p. 267
* ^ Cantor, Norman F. (1993). _The Civilization of the Middle
Ages_. New York: HarperCollins. p. 309. ISBN 0060170336 . Retrieved 24
* ^ Cantor (1969) , pp. 340–342
* ^ Davis (1957) , p. 332
* ^ Davis (1957) , p. 324
* ^ Davis (1957) , p. 325
* ^ Cantor (1969) , pp. 422–423
* ^ Cantor (1969) , p. 424
* ^ Cantor (1969) , p. 360
Sidonius Apollinaris , _Epistles_ 1.2, a description of
Theodoric II of the
Visigoths (453–66). See Mierow and Emery (1953)
* ^ Brown (1972) , p. 172
* ^ Kantorowicz , _Frederick II_; last chapter
* ^ Jarausch (1997) , p. 35
* ^ Le Goff (2000) , p. 190
* ^ Cantor (1969) , pp. 359–360
* ^ Walford, Cox & Apperson (1885) , p. 119
* ^ Novobatzky & Shea (2001)
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Gislebertus (of Mons), _Chronicle
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* ^ Brady (1901)
* ^ Crowley (2006) , pp. 346, 429
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