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Alfred Zinnemann (April 29, 1907 – March 14, 1997) was an Austrian-born American film director. He won four Academy Awards
Academy Awards
for directing films in various genres, including thrillers, westerns, film noir and play adaptations. He made 25 feature films during his 50-year career. He was among the first directors to insist on using authentic locations and for mixing stars with civilians to give his films more realism. Within the film industry, he was considered a maverick for taking risks and thereby creating unique films, with many of his stories being dramas about lone and principled individuals tested by tragic events. According to one historian, Zinnemann's style demonstrated his sense of "psychological realism and his apparent determination to make worthwhile pictures that are nevertheless highly entertaining." Some of his most notable films were The Men (1950), High Noon
High Noon
(1952), From Here to Eternity
From Here to Eternity
(1953), Oklahoma! (1955), The Nun's Story (1959), A Man For All Seasons (1966), The Day of the Jackal (1973), and Julia (1977). His films have received 65 Oscar nominations, winning 24. Zinnemann directed and introduced a number of stars in their U.S. film debuts, including Marlon Brando, Rod Steiger, Pier Angeli, Julie Harris, Brandon deWilde, Montgomery Clift, Shirley Jones
Shirley Jones
and Meryl Streep. He directed 19 actors to Oscar nominations, including Frank Sinatra, Montgomery Clift, Audrey Hepburn, Glynis Johns, Paul Scofield, Robert Shaw, Wendy Hiller, Jason Robards, Vanessa Redgrave, Jane Fonda, Gary Cooper
Gary Cooper
and Maximilian Schell.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Career as director

2.1 Early career 2.2 1940s 2.3 1950s 2.4 1960s 2.5 1970s 2.6 1980s

3 Final years and death 4 Directing style 5 Honors and awards[4] 6 Filmography

6.1 Feature films 6.2 Short films

7 References 8 External links

Early life[edit]

In Austria, discrimination had been part of life since time immemorial. It was always there, oppressive, often snide, sometimes hostile, seldom violent. It was in the air and one sensed it at all levels, in school, at work and in society. A Jew
Jew
was an outsider, a threat to the country's culture. Born in Vienna
Vienna
Austria-Hungary, and raised as an Austrian, he would still never truly belong.

Fred Zinnemann[1]:11

Zinnemann was born in Vienna, the son of Anna (Feiwel) and Oskar Zinnemann, a doctor.[2][3] His family was Jewish[4][5] and he had one younger brother. While growing up in Austria, he wanted to become a musician, but went on to graduate with a law degree from the University of Vienna
Vienna
in 1927.[4] While studying law, he became drawn to films and convinced his parents to let him study film production in Paris. After studying for a year at the Ecole Technique de Photographie et Cinématographie in Paris, he became a cameraman and found work on a number of films in Berlin, before immigrating to Hollywood.[4] Both of his parents were killed during the Holocaust.[6]:86 Career as director[edit] Early career[edit] Zinnemann worked in Germany with several other beginners (Billy Wilder and Robert Siodmak
Robert Siodmak
also worked with him on the 1929 feature People on Sunday) after he studied filmmaking in France. His penchant for realism and authenticity is evident in his first feature The Wave (1935), shot on location in Mexico
Mexico
with mostly non-professional actors recruited among the locals, which is one of the earliest examples of social realism in narrative film. Earlier in the decade, in fact, Zinnemann had worked with documentarian Robert Flaherty, "probably the greatest single influence on my work as a filmmaker", he said.[4] Although he was fascinated by the arts culture in Germany, with its theater, music and films, he was also aware that the country was in a deep economic crisis. He became disenchanted with Berlin after continually seeing decadent ostentation and luxury existing alongside desperate unemployment. The wealthy classes were moving more to the political right and the poor to the left. "Emotion had long since begun to displace reason," he said.[1]:16 As a result of the changing political climate, along with the fact that sound films had arrived in Europe, which was technically unprepared to produce their own, film production throughout Europe slowed dramatically. Zinnemann, then only 21, got his parent's permission to go to America where he hoped filmmaking opportunities would be greater.[1]:16 He arrived in New York at the end of October, 1929, at the time of the stock market crash. Despite the financial panic then beginning, he found New York to be a different cultural environment:[1]:17

New York was a terrific experience, full of excitement, with a vitality and pace then totally lacking in Europe. It was as though I had just left a continent of zombies and entered a place humming with incredible energy and power.[1]:17

He took a Greyhound bus to Hollywood a few months later following the completion of his first directorial effort for the Mexican cultural protest film, The Wave, in Alvarado, Mexico. He established residence in North Hollywood with Henwar Rodakiewicz, Gunther von Fritsch and Ned Scott, all fellow contributors to the Mexican project.[7] One of Zinnemann's first jobs in Hollywood was as an extra in All Quiet on the Western Front (1930). He says that many of the other extras were former Russian aristocrats and high-ranking officers who fled to America after the Russian revolution
Russian revolution
in 1917.[1]:23 He was twenty-two but he said he felt older than the forty-year-olds in Hollywood. But he was jubilant because he was then certain that "this was the place one could breathe free and belong."[1]:18 But after a few years he became disillusioned with the limited talents of Hollywood's elites. 1940s[edit]

Montomery Clift in his debut film, The Search (1948)

After some directing success with short films, he graduated to features in 1942, turning out two crisp B mysteries, Eyes in the Night and Kid Glove Killer
Kid Glove Killer
before getting his big break with The Seventh Cross (1944), starring Spencer Tracy, which became his first hit. The film was based on Anna Seghers' novel and, while filmed entirely on the MGM
MGM
backlot, made realistic use of refugee German actors in even the smallest roles. The central character—an escaped prisoner played by Tracy—is seen as comparatively passive and fatalistic. He is, however, the subject of heroic assistance from anti-Nazi Germans. In a sense, the protagonist of the film is not the Tracy character but a humble German worker played by Hume Cronyn, who changes from Nazi sympathizer to active opponent of the regime as he aids Tracy. After World War II, Zinnemann learned that both of his parents had died in the Holocaust.[6]:86 He was further frustrated by his studio contract, which dictated that he did not have a choice in directing films like My Brother Talks to Horses (1947) and Little Mister Jim (1947) despite his lack of interest in their subject matter.[8] However, his next film, The Search (1948), won an Oscar for screenwriting and secured his position in the Hollywood establishment. Shot in war-ravaged Germany, the film stars Montgomery Clift
Montgomery Clift
in his screen debut as a GI who cares for a lost Czech boy traumatized by the war. It was followed by Act of Violence
Act of Violence
(1948), a gritty film noir starring Van Heflin
Van Heflin
as a haunted POW, Robert Ryan
Robert Ryan
as his hot-tempered former friend, Janet Leigh
Janet Leigh
as Heflin's wife, and Mary Astor
Mary Astor
as a sympathetic prostitute. Zinnemann considered Act of Violence
Act of Violence
the first project in which he "felt comfortable knowing exactly what I wanted and exactly how to get it."[8] 1950s[edit] In the critically acclaimed The Men (1950), starring newcomer Marlon Brando as a paraplegic war veteran, Zinnemann filmed many scenes in a California hospital where real patients served as extras. The film is noted for giving Brando his first screen role. It was followed by Teresa (1951), starring Pier Angeli. Perhaps Zinnemann's best-known work to come out of the 1950s is High Noon (1952), one of the first 25 American films chosen in 1989 for the National Film Registry. With its psychological and moral examinations of its lawman hero Marshall Will Kane, played by Gary Cooper
Gary Cooper
and its innovative chronology whereby screen time approximated the 80-minute countdown to the confrontational hour, the film broke the mold of the formulaic western. Working closely with cinematographer and longtime friend Floyd Crosby, he shot without filters, giving the landscape a harsh "newsreel" quality that clashed with the more painterly cinematography of John Ford's westerns.[9] During production he established a strong rapport with Gary Cooper, photographing the aging actor in many tight close-ups which showed him sweating, and at one point, even crying on screen. Screenwriter Carl Foreman
Carl Foreman
apparently intended High Noon
High Noon
to be an allegory of Senator Joseph McCarthy's vendetta against alleged Communists. However, Zinnemann disagreed, insisting, late in life, that the issues in the film, for him, were broader, and were more about conscience and independent, uncompromising fearlessness. He says, " High Noon
High Noon
is "not a Western, as far as I'm concerned; it just happens to be set in the Old West." Film critic Stephen Prince suggests that the character of Kane actually represents Zinnemann, who tried to create an atmosphere of impending threat on the horizon, a fear of potential "fascism", represented by the gang of killers soon arriving. Zinnemann explained the general context for many of his films: "One of the crucial things today [is] trying to preserve our civilization."[6]:86 Prince adds that Zinnemann, having learned that both his parents died in the Holocaust, wanted Kane willing to "fight rather than run", unlike everyone else in town. As a result, "Zinnemann allies himself" with the film's hero.[6]:86 Zinnemann explains the theme of the film and its relevance to modern times:

I saw it as a great movie yarn, full of enormously interesting people... only later did it dawn on me that this was not a regular Western myth. There was something timely -- and timeless -- about it, something that had a direct bearing on life today. To me it was the story of a man who must make a decision according to his conscience. His town -- symbol of a democracy gone soft -- faces a horrendous threat to its people's way of life. Determined to resist, and in deep trouble, he moves all over the place looking for support but finding that there is nobody who will help him; each has a reason of his own for not getting involved. In the end, he must meet his chosen fate all by himself, his town's doors and windows firmly locked against him. It is a story that still happens everywhere, every day.[1]:96–97

For his screen adaptation of the play The Member of the Wedding (1952), Zinnemann chose the 26-year-old Julie Harris as the film's 12-year-old protagonist, although she had created the role on Broadway just as the two other leading actors, Ethel Waters
Ethel Waters
and Brandon deWilde, had.[10] Zinnemann's next film, From Here to Eternity
From Here to Eternity
(1953), based on the novel by James Jones, was nominated for 13 Academy Awards
Academy Awards
and would go on to win 8, including Best Picture and Best Director. Zinnemann fought hard with producer Harry Cohn
Harry Cohn
to cast Montgomery Clift
Montgomery Clift
as the character of Prewitt, although Frank Sinatra, who was at the lowest point of his popularity, cast himself in the role of "Maggio" against Zinnemann's wishes.[11] Sinatra would later win an Oscar for Best Supporting Actor. From Here to Eternity
From Here to Eternity
also featured Deborah Kerr, best known for prim and proper roles, as a philandering Army wife. Donna Reed
Donna Reed
played the role of Alma "Lorene" Burke, a prostitute and mistress of Montgomery Clift's character which earned her an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for 1953.

Don Murray and Eva Marie Saint
Eva Marie Saint
in A Hatful of Rain
A Hatful of Rain
(1957)

Oklahoma! (1955), Zinnemann's version of the Rodgers and Hammerstein musical, is noted for the wide screen format Todd-AO
Todd-AO
making its debut, as did the film's young star, Shirley Jones. It was also an expression of Zinnemann's continued faith and optimism about America, with its energy and exuberance.[6]:3 His next film was A Hatful of Rain
A Hatful of Rain
(1957), starring Don Murray, Eva Marie Saint and Anthony Franciosa, and was based on the play by Michael V. Gazzo. It is a drama story about a young married man with a secret morphine addiction who tries to quit and suffers through painful withdrawal symptoms. The film was a risk for Zinnemann, since movie depictions of drug addiction and withdrawal was rare in the 1950s.[6]:3 Zinnemann rounded out the 1950s with The Nun's Story
The Nun's Story
(1959), casting Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
in the role of Sister Luke, a nun who eventually gives up the religious life to join the Belgian resistance in the Second World War. The film was based on the life of Marie Louise Habets. Hepburn, who gave up the chance to play Anne Frank
Anne Frank
in order to work on The Nun's Story, considered the film to be her best and most personal work. Zinnemann's style of cutting from close-up to close-up was heavily influenced by Carl Theodor Dreyer's Passion of Joan of Arc (1928), his favorite film. He was grateful that Hepburn was easy to work with:

I have never seen anyone more disciplined, more gracious or more dedicated to her work than Audrey. There was no ego, no asking for extra favors; there was the greatest consideration for her co-workers.[1]:166

1960s[edit] The Sundowners (1960), starring Robert Mitchum
Robert Mitchum
and Deborah Kerr
Deborah Kerr
as an Australian outback
Australian outback
husband and wife, led to more Academy Award nominations, including Best Picture, Best Director, Best Screenplay, Best Actress (Kerr) and Best Supporting Actress (Glynis Johns), but won none. Behold A Pale Horse (1964) was a post- Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
epic based on the book Killing A Mouse on Sunday by Emeric Pressburger
Emeric Pressburger
and starred Gregory Peck, Anthony Quinn
Anthony Quinn
and Omar Sharif, but was both a critical and commercial flop; Zinnemann would later admit that the film "didn't really come together."[12] In 1965 he was a member of the jury at the 4th Moscow International Film Festival.[13] Zinnemann's fortunes changed once again with A Man for All Seasons (1966), scripted by Robert Bolt from his own play and starring Paul Scofield as Sir Thomas More, portraying him as a man driven by conscience to his ultimate fate. The film went on to win six Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Actor (Scofield) and Best Director, Zinnemann's second such Oscar to date. The film was also entered into the 5th Moscow International Film Festival.[14] After this, Zinnemann was all set to direct an adaptation of Man's Fate for MGM. However, the project was shut down in 1969, and the studio attempted to hold Zinnemann responsible for at least $1 million of the $3.5 million that had already been spent on pre-production. In protest, Zinnemann filed a lawsuit against the studio, and it would be four years before he would make his next film.[15] 1970s[edit] By the early 1970s, Zinnemann had been out of work since the cancellation of Man's Fate; he believed it had "marked the end of an era in picture making and the dawn of a new one, when lawyers and accountants began to replace showmen as head of the studios and when a handshake was a handshake no longer."[15] However, Universal then offered him the chance to direct The Day of the Jackal (1973), based on the best-selling suspense novel by Frederick Forsyth. The film starred Edward Fox as an Englishman who is relentlessly driven to complete his mission to try to kill French president Charles de Gaulle, and Michael Lonsdale
Michael Lonsdale
as the French detective hired to stop him. Zinnemann was intrigued by the opportunity to direct a film in which the audience would already be able to guess the ending (the Jackal failing his mission), and was pleased when it ultimately became a hit with the public.[16] The Day of the Jackal was followed four years later by Julia (1977), based on a story in the book Pentimento
Pentimento
by Lillian Hellman. The film starred Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
as Hellman and Vanessa Redgrave
Vanessa Redgrave
as her best friend Julia, a doomed American heiress who forsakes the safety and comfort of great wealth to devote her life to the anti-Nazi cause in Germany. The film was nominated for 11 Academy Awards
Academy Awards
and won three, for Best Screenplay (Alvin Sargent), Best Supporting Actor (Jason Robards), and Best Supporting Actress for Redgrave, who drew scattered boos on Oscar night for her "Zionist hoodlums" acceptance speech.[17] Zinnemann felt that Fonda's acting was extraordinary and she also deserved an Oscar.[1]:226 1980s[edit] Zinnemann's final film was Five Days One Summer
Five Days One Summer
(1982), filmed in Switzerland
Switzerland
and based on the short story Maiden, Maiden by Kay Boyle. It starred Sean Connery
Sean Connery
and Betsy Brantley as a "couple" vacationing in the Alps
Alps
in the 1930s, and a young Lambert Wilson
Lambert Wilson
as a mountain-climbing guide who grows heavily suspicious of their relationship. The film was both a critical and commercial flop, although Zinnemann would be told by various critics in later years that they considered it an underrated achievement.[18] Zinnemann blamed the film's critical and commercial failure for his retirement from filmmaking: "I'm not saying it was a good picture. But there was a degree of viciousness in the reviews. The pleasure some people took in tearing down the film really hurt."[19] Final years and death[edit] Zinnemann is often regarded as striking a blow against "ageism" in Hollywood. The apocryphal story goes that, in the 1980s, during a meeting with a young Hollywood executive, Zinnemann was surprised to find the executive didn't know who he was, despite having won four Academy Awards, and directing many of Hollywood's biggest films. When the young executive callowly asked Zinnemann to list what he had done in his career, Zinnemann delivered an elegant comeback by reportedly answering, "Sure. You first." In Hollywood, the story is known as "You First", and is often alluded to when veteran creators find that upstarts are unfamiliar with their work.[20] Zinnemann insisted, "I've been trying to disown that story for years. It seems to me Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
told it to me about himself."[21] Zinnemann died of a heart attack in London, England
England
on March 14, 1997.[22] He was 89 years old. His wife died on December 18, 1997.[23] Directing style[edit]

His films are characterized by an unshakable belief in human dignity; a realist aesthetic; a preoccupation with moral and social issues; a warm and sympathetic treatment of character; an expert handling of actors; a meticulous attention to detail; consummate technical artistry; poetic restraint; and deliberately open endings.

Arthur Nolletti,[6]:1 film historian

Zinnemann's training in documentary filmmaking and his personal background contributed to his style as a "social realist." With his early films between 1937 and 1942 he began using that technique, and with High Noon
High Noon
in 1952, possibly his finest film, he created the tense atmosphere by coordinating screen time with real time.[4] Because he started his film career as a cameraman, his movies are strongly oriented toward the visual aspects. He also says that regardless of the size of an actor's part, he spends much time discussing the roles with each actor separately and in depth. "In this way we make sure long before the filming starts that we are on the same wavelength," he says.[1]:223 Zinnemann's films are mostly dramas about lone and principled individuals tested by tragic events, including High Noon
High Noon
(1952), From Here to Eternity (1953); The Nun's Story
The Nun's Story
(1959); A Man For All Seasons (1966); and Julia (1977). Regarded as a consummate craftsman, Zinnemann traditionally endowed his work with meticulous attention to detail to create realism, and had an intuitive gift for casting and a preoccupation with the moral dilemmas of his characters. His philosophy about directing influenced director Alan Parker:

My mentor was the great director, Fred Zinnemann, whom I used to show all my films to until he died. He said something to me that I always try to keep in my head every time I decide on what film to do next. He told me that making a film was a great privilege, and you should never waste it.[24]

In From Here to Eternity, for example, he effectively added actual newsreel footage of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, which enhanced and dramatized the story. Similarly, in A Hatful of Rain, he used a documentary style to present real life drug addiction in New York. Zinnemann again incorporated newsreel footage in Behold a Pale Horse, about the Spanish Civil War. The Day of the Jackal, a political thriller about an attempt to assassinate Charles de Gaulle, was shot on location in newsreel style, while Julia placed the characters in authentic settings, as in a suspenseful train journey from Paris to Moscow during World War II.[4] According to one historian, Zinnemann's style "demonstrates the director's sense of psychological realism and his apparent determination to make worthwhile pictures that are nevertheless highly entertaining."[4] Honors and awards[4][edit]

Academy Award for Best Short Subject, One-Reel: That Mothers Might Live (1938). Golden Globe for Best Film Promoting International Understanding: "The Search" (1948). Academy Award for Best Documentary Short Subject: Benjy (1951). New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Director: High Noon (1952). Academy Award for Best Director, Directors Guild of America (DGA) Award for Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Motion Pictures: From Here to Eternity (1953). New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Director: The Nun's Story (1959). Academy Award for Best Director, New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Director, and Directors Guild of America (DGA) Award for Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Motion Pictures: A Man for All Seasons (1966). D. W. Griffith Award, 1971. Order of Arts and Letters, France, 1982. U.S. Congressional Lifetime Achievement Award, 1987. John Huston
John Huston
Award, Artists Right Foundation, 1994.

Filmography[edit] Feature films[edit]

Year Film Oscar Nominations Oscar Wins BAFTA Nominations BAFTA Wins Golden Globe Nominations Golden Globe Wins

1930 Menschen am Sonntag
Menschen am Sonntag
(Documentary)

n/a n/a n/a n/a

1936 Redes (aka The Wave)

1942 Kid Glove Killer

Eyes in the Night

1944 The Seventh Cross 1

1945 The Clock (uncredited)

1946 Little Mister Jim

1947 My Brother Talks to Horses

1948 The Search 4 1 1 1

1949 Act of Violence

1950 The Men 1

1

1951 Teresa 1

1 1

1952 High Noon 7 4

7 4

The Member of the Wedding 1

1953 From Here to Eternity 13 8 1

2 2

1955 Oklahoma! 4 2

1957 A Hatful of Rain 1

1

3

1958 The Old Man and the Sea (uncredited) 3 1

1

1959 The Nun's Story 8

5 1 5

1960 The Sundowners 5

3

1

1964 Behold a Pale Horse

1966 A Man For All Seasons 8 6 7 7 5 4

1973 The Day of the Jackal 1

7 1 3

1977 Julia 11 3 10 4 7 2

1982 Five Days One Summer

Total (doesn't include uncredited films) 66 24 36 14 34 13

Short films[edit]

Year Film Oscar Nominations Oscar Wins

1937 Friend Indeed

1938 They Live Again

That Mothers Might Live 1 1

The Story of Doctor Carver

1939 Weather Wizards

While America Sleeps

Help Wanted

One Against the World

The Ash Can Fleet

Forgotten Victory

1940 Stuffie

The Great Meddler

The Old South

A Way in the Wilderness

1941 Forbidden Passage 1

Your Last Act

1942 The Greenie

The Lady or the Tiger?

1951 Benjy (Documentary) 1 1

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i j k Fred Zinnemann, A Life in the Movies. An Autobiography, Macmillan Books, (1992) ^ Google Books ^ [1] ^ a b c d e f g h Hillstrom, Laurie Collier. International Dictionary of Films and filmmakers-2: Directors, 3rd ed. St. James Press (1997) p. 1116-1119 ^ the London
London
telegraph: "The music behind Hollywood's golden age - As the Proms pays tribute to Hollywood's golden age, Tim Robey looks at the composers who redefined the film score" By Tim Robey] 24 Aug 2013 ^ a b c d e f g Nolletti, Arthur, ed. The Films of Fred Zinnemann: Critical Perspectives, State Univ. of N.Y. Press (1999) ^ Ned Scott Biography ^ a b Google Books ^ J. E. Smyth, " Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
and the Cinema of Resistance", Univ. Press of Mississippi, 2014. Pages 103-04. ^ The Member of the Wedding
The Member of the Wedding
review, The Digital Bits, July 28, 2016 ^ Google Books ^ Google Books ^ " 4th Moscow International Film Festival (1965)". MIFF. Archived from the original on January 16, 2013. Retrieved December 2, 2012.  ^ " 5th Moscow International Film Festival (1967)". MIFF. Archived from the original on January 16, 2013. Retrieved December 15, 2012.  ^ a b Gray, Timothy M.; Natale, Richard (March 17, 1997). "Zinnemann dies at 89". Variety.  ^ Arthur Nolletti, ed., The Films of Fred Zinnemann: Critical Perspectives, SUNY Press, 1999, p. 20 ^ YouTube ^ Google Books ^ Gritten, David (June 21, 1992). "MOVIES : A Lion in His Winter : At 85, Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
looks back on a life in film; his anecdote-rich autobiography earns the rave reviews his last movie didn't". Los Angeles Times.  ^ Weinraub, Bernard (September 14, 1994). "At Lunch with: John Gregory Dunne; The Bad Old Days in All Their Glory". The New York Times. Retrieved October 9, 2007.  ^ Gritten, David (June 21, 1992). "MOVIES : A Lion in His Winter : At 85, Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
looks back on a life in film; his anecdote-rich autobiography earns the rave reviews his last movie didn't". Los Angeles Times.  ^ "Zinnemann, Fred 1907-1997". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2017-04-20.  ^ "Overview for Fred Zinnemann". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 2017-04-20.  ^ Emery, Robert J. The Directors, Allworth Press, N.Y. (2003) pp. 133–154

External links[edit]

Biography portal

Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
on IMDb Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
at Find a Grave Literature on Fred Zinnemann Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
papers, Margaret Herrick Library, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences

Awards for Fred Zinnemann

v t e

Academy Award for Best Director

1927–1950

Frank Borzage
Frank Borzage
(1927) Lewis Milestone
Lewis Milestone
(1928) Frank Lloyd
Frank Lloyd
(1929) Lewis Milestone
Lewis Milestone
(1930) Norman Taurog
Norman Taurog
(1931) Frank Borzage
Frank Borzage
(1932) Frank Lloyd
Frank Lloyd
(1933) Frank Capra
Frank Capra
(1934) John Ford
John Ford
(1935) Frank Capra
Frank Capra
(1936) Leo McCarey (1937) Frank Capra
Frank Capra
(1938) Victor Fleming
Victor Fleming
(1939) John Ford
John Ford
(1940) John Ford
John Ford
(1941) William Wyler
William Wyler
(1942) Michael Curtiz
Michael Curtiz
(1943) Leo McCarey (1944) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1945) William Wyler
William Wyler
(1946) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1947) John Huston
John Huston
(1948) Joseph L. Mankiewicz
Joseph L. Mankiewicz
(1949) Joseph L. Mankiewicz
Joseph L. Mankiewicz
(1950)

1951–1975

George Stevens
George Stevens
(1951) John Ford
John Ford
(1952) Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
(1953) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1954) Delbert Mann
Delbert Mann
(1955) George Stevens
George Stevens
(1956) David Lean
David Lean
(1957) Vincente Minnelli
Vincente Minnelli
(1958) William Wyler
William Wyler
(1959) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1960) Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
and Robert Wise
Robert Wise
(1961) David Lean
David Lean
(1962) Tony Richardson
Tony Richardson
(1963) George Cukor
George Cukor
(1964) Robert Wise
Robert Wise
(1965) Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
(1966) Mike Nichols
Mike Nichols
(1967) Carol Reed
Carol Reed
(1968) John Schlesinger
John Schlesinger
(1969) Franklin J. Schaffner
Franklin J. Schaffner
(1970) William Friedkin
William Friedkin
(1971) Bob Fosse
Bob Fosse
(1972) George Roy Hill (1973) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
(1974) Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(1975)

1976–2000

John G. Avildsen
John G. Avildsen
(1976) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
(1977) Michael Cimino
Michael Cimino
(1978) Robert Benton (1979) Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(1980) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(1981) Richard Attenborough
Richard Attenborough
(1982) James L. Brooks
James L. Brooks
(1983) Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(1984) Sydney Pollack
Sydney Pollack
(1985) Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
(1986) Bernardo Bertolucci
Bernardo Bertolucci
(1987) Barry Levinson
Barry Levinson
(1988) Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
(1989) Kevin Costner
Kevin Costner
(1990) Jonathan Demme
Jonathan Demme
(1991) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1992) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1993) Robert Zemeckis
Robert Zemeckis
(1994) Mel Gibson
Mel Gibson
(1995) Anthony Minghella
Anthony Minghella
(1996) James Cameron
James Cameron
(1997) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1998) Sam Mendes
Sam Mendes
(1999) Steven Soderbergh
Steven Soderbergh
(2000)

2001–present

Ron Howard
Ron Howard
(2001) Roman Polanski
Roman Polanski
(2002) Peter Jackson
Peter Jackson
(2003) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(2004) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2005) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2006) Joel Coen and Ethan Coen (2007) Danny Boyle
Danny Boyle
(2008) Kathryn Bigelow
Kathryn Bigelow
(2009) Tom Hooper
Tom Hooper
(2010) Michel Hazanavicius
Michel Hazanavicius
(2011) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2012) Alfonso Cuarón
Alfonso Cuarón
(2013) Alejandro G. Iñárritu (2014) Alejandro G. Iñárritu (2015) Damien Chazelle
Damien Chazelle
(2016) Guillermo del Toro
Guillermo del Toro
(2017)

v t e

BAFTA Fellowship recipients

1971–2000

Alfred Hitchcock
Alfred Hitchcock
(1971) Freddie Young (1972) Grace Wyndham Goldie (1973) David Lean
David Lean
(1974) Jacques Cousteau
Jacques Cousteau
(1975) Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1976) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1976) Denis Forman (1977) Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
(1978) Lew Grade
Lew Grade
(1979) Huw Wheldon
Huw Wheldon
(1979) David Attenborough
David Attenborough
(1980) John Huston
John Huston
(1980) Abel Gance
Abel Gance
(1981) Michael Powell
Michael Powell
& Emeric Pressburger
Emeric Pressburger
(1981) Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
(1982) Richard Attenborough
Richard Attenborough
(1983) Hugh Greene (1984) Sam Spiegel
Sam Spiegel
(1984) Jeremy Isaacs (1985) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1986) Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini
(1987) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1988) Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1989) Paul Fox (1990) Louis Malle
Louis Malle
(1991) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1992) David Plowright (1992) Sydney Samuelson (1993) Colin Young (1993) Michael Grade
Michael Grade
(1994) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1995) Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
(1996) Ronald Neame
Ronald Neame
(1996) John Schlesinger
John Schlesinger
(1996) Maggie Smith
Maggie Smith
(1996) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
(1997) Steven Bochco
Steven Bochco
(1997) Julie Christie
Julie Christie
(1997) Oswald Morris (1997) Harold Pinter
Harold Pinter
(1997) David Rose (1997) Sean Connery
Sean Connery
(1998) Bill Cotton
Bill Cotton
(1998) Eric Morecambe
Eric Morecambe
& Ernie Wise
Ernie Wise
(1999) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1999) Michael Caine
Michael Caine
(2000) Stanley Kubrick
Stanley Kubrick
(2000) Peter Bazalgette
Peter Bazalgette
(2000)

2001–present

Albert Finney
Albert Finney
(2001) John Thaw
John Thaw
(2001) Judi Dench
Judi Dench
(2001) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(2002) Merchant Ivory Productions (2002) Andrew Davies (2002) John Mills
John Mills
(2002) Saul Zaentz
Saul Zaentz
(2003) David Jason (2003) John Boorman
John Boorman
(2004) Roger Graef (2004) John Barry (2005) David Frost
David Frost
(2005) David Puttnam
David Puttnam
(2006) Ken Loach
Ken Loach
(2006) Anne V. Coates (2007) Richard Curtis
Richard Curtis
(2007) Will Wright (2007) Anthony Hopkins
Anthony Hopkins
(2008) Bruce Forsyth
Bruce Forsyth
(2008) Dawn French
Dawn French
& Jennifer Saunders
Jennifer Saunders
(2009) Terry Gilliam
Terry Gilliam
(2009) Nolan Bushnell
Nolan Bushnell
(2009) Vanessa Redgrave
Vanessa Redgrave
(2010) Shigeru Miyamoto
Shigeru Miyamoto
(2010) Melvyn Bragg
Melvyn Bragg
(2010) Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
(2011) Peter Molyneux
Peter Molyneux
(2011) Trevor McDonald (2011) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2012) Rolf Harris
Rolf Harris
(2012) Alan Parker
Alan Parker
(2013) Gabe Newell
Gabe Newell
(2013) Michael Palin
Michael Palin
(2013) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(2014) Rockstar Games
Rockstar Games
(2014) Julie Walters
Julie Walters
(2014) Mike Leigh
Mike Leigh
(2015) David Braben (2015) Jon Snow (2015) Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
(2016) John Carmack
John Carmack
(2016) Ray Galton & Alan Simpson (2016) Mel Brooks
Mel Brooks
(2017) Joanna Lumley
Joanna Lumley
(2017) Ridley Scott
Ridley Scott
(2018)

v t e

Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding Directing – Feature Film

1948–1975

Joseph L. Mankiewicz
Joseph L. Mankiewicz
(1948) Robert Rossen
Robert Rossen
(1949) Joseph L. Mankiewicz
Joseph L. Mankiewicz
(1950) George Stevens
George Stevens
(1951) John Ford
John Ford
(1952) Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
(1953) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1954) Delbert Mann
Delbert Mann
(1955) George Stevens
George Stevens
(1956) David Lean
David Lean
(1957) Vincente Minnelli
Vincente Minnelli
(1958) William Wyler
William Wyler
(1959) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1960) Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
and Robert Wise
Robert Wise
(1961) David Lean
David Lean
(1962) Tony Richardson
Tony Richardson
(1963) George Cukor
George Cukor
(1964) Robert Wise
Robert Wise
(1965) Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
(1966) Mike Nichols
Mike Nichols
(1967) Anthony Harvey (1968) John Schlesinger
John Schlesinger
(1969) Franklin J. Schaffner
Franklin J. Schaffner
(1970) William Friedkin
William Friedkin
(1971) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
(1972) George Roy Hill (1973) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
(1974) Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(1975)

1976–2000

John G. Avildsen
John G. Avildsen
(1976) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
(1977) Michael Cimino
Michael Cimino
(1978) Robert Benton (1979) Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(1980) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(1981) Richard Attenborough
Richard Attenborough
(1982) James L. Brooks
James L. Brooks
(1983) Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(1984) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1985) Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
(1986) Bernardo Bertolucci
Bernardo Bertolucci
(1987) Barry Levinson
Barry Levinson
(1988) Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
(1989) Kevin Costner
Kevin Costner
(1990) Jonathan Demme
Jonathan Demme
(1991) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1992) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1993) Robert Zemeckis
Robert Zemeckis
(1994) Ron Howard
Ron Howard
(1995) Anthony Minghella
Anthony Minghella
(1996) James Cameron
James Cameron
(1997) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1998) Sam Mendes
Sam Mendes
(1999) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2000)

2001–present

Ron Howard
Ron Howard
(2001) Rob Marshall
Rob Marshall
(2002) Peter Jackson
Peter Jackson
(2003) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(2004) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2005) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2006) Joel Coen and Ethan Coen (2007) Danny Boyle
Danny Boyle
(2008) Kathryn Bigelow
Kathryn Bigelow
(2009) Tom Hooper
Tom Hooper
(2010) Michel Hazanavicius
Michel Hazanavicius
(2011) Ben Affleck
Ben Affleck
(2012) Alfonso Cuarón
Alfonso Cuarón
(2013) Alejandro G. Iñárritu (2014) Alejandro G. Iñárritu (2015) Damien Chazelle
Damien Chazelle
(2016) Guillermo del Toro
Guillermo del Toro
(2017)

v t e

Golden Globe Award for Best Director

Henry King (1943) Leo McCarey (1944) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1945) Frank Capra
Frank Capra
(1946) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1947) John Huston
John Huston
(1948) Robert Rossen
Robert Rossen
(1949) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1950) László Benedek (1951) Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille
(1952) Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
(1953) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1954) Joshua Logan (1955) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1956) David Lean
David Lean
(1957) Vincente Minnelli
Vincente Minnelli
(1958) William Wyler
William Wyler
(1959) Jack Cardiff
Jack Cardiff
(1960) Stanley Kramer
Stanley Kramer
(1961) David Lean
David Lean
(1962) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1963) George Cukor
George Cukor
(1964) David Lean
David Lean
(1965) Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
(1966) Mike Nichols
Mike Nichols
(1967) Paul Newman
Paul Newman
(1968) Charles Jarrott (1969) Arthur Hiller
Arthur Hiller
(1970) William Friedkin
William Friedkin
(1971) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
(1972) William Friedkin
William Friedkin
(1973) Roman Polanski
Roman Polanski
(1974) Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(1975) Sidney Lumet
Sidney Lumet
(1976) Herbert Ross (1977) Michael Cimino
Michael Cimino
(1978) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
(1979) Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(1980) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(1981) Richard Attenborough
Richard Attenborough
(1982) Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
(1983) Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(1984) John Huston
John Huston
(1985) Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
(1986) Bernardo Bertolucci
Bernardo Bertolucci
(1987) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1988) Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
(1989) Kevin Costner
Kevin Costner
(1990) Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
(1991) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1992) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1993) Robert Zemeckis
Robert Zemeckis
(1994) Mel Gibson
Mel Gibson
(1995) Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(1996) James Cameron
James Cameron
(1997) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1998) Sam Mendes
Sam Mendes
(1999) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2000) Robert Altman
Robert Altman
(2001) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2002) Peter Jackson
Peter Jackson
(2003) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(2004) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2005) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2006) Julian Schnabel
Julian Schnabel
(2007) Danny Boyle
Danny Boyle
(2008) James Cameron
James Cameron
(2009) David Fincher
David Fincher
(2010) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2011) Ben Affleck
Ben Affleck
(2012) Alfonso Cuarón
Alfonso Cuarón
(2013) Richard Linklater
Richard Linklater
(2014) Alejandro G. Iñárritu (2015) Damien Chazelle
Damien Chazelle
(2016) Guillermo del Toro
Guillermo del Toro
(2017)

v t e

Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama

1940s

The Song of Bernadette (1943) Going My Way
Going My Way
(1944) The Lost Weekend (1945) The Best Years of Our Lives
The Best Years of Our Lives
(1946) Gentleman's Agreement (1947) Johnny Belinda / The Treasure of the Sierra Madre (1948) All the King's Men (1949)

1950s

Sunset Boulevard (1950) A Place in the Sun (1951) The Greatest Show on Earth (1952) On the Waterfront
On the Waterfront
(1954) East of Eden (1955) Around the World in 80 Days (1956) The Bridge on the River Kwai
The Bridge on the River Kwai
(1957) The Defiant Ones (1958) Ben-Hur (1959)

1960s

Spartacus (1960) The Guns of Navarone (1961) Lawrence of Arabia (1962) The Cardinal
The Cardinal
(1963) Becket (1964) Doctor Zhivago (1965) A Man for All Seasons (1966) In the Heat of the Night (1967) The Lion in Winter (1968) Anne of the Thousand Days (1969)

1970s

Love Story (1970) The French Connection (1971) The Godfather
The Godfather
(1972) The Exorcist (1973) Chinatown (1974) One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (1975) Rocky
Rocky
(1976) The Turning Point (1977) Midnight Express (1978) Kramer vs. Kramer
Kramer vs. Kramer
(1979)

1980s

Ordinary People
Ordinary People
(1980) On Golden Pond (1981) E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
(1982) Terms of Endearment
Terms of Endearment
(1983) Amadeus (1984) Out of Africa (1985) Platoon (1986) The Last Emperor
The Last Emperor
(1987) Rain Man
Rain Man
(1988) Born on the Fourth of July (1989)

1990s

Dances with Wolves
Dances with Wolves
(1990) Bugsy
Bugsy
(1991) Scent of a Woman (1992) Schindler's List
Schindler's List
(1993) Forrest Gump
Forrest Gump
(1994) Sense and Sensibility (1995) The English Patient (1996) Titanic (1997) Saving Private Ryan
Saving Private Ryan
(1998) American Beauty (1999)

2000s

Gladiator (2000) A Beautiful Mind (2001) The Hours (2002) The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003) The Aviator (2004) Brokeback Mountain
Brokeback Mountain
(2005) Babel (2006) Atonement (2007) Slumdog Millionaire
Slumdog Millionaire
(2008) Avatar (2009)

2010s

The Social Network
The Social Network
(2010) The Descendants
The Descendants
(2011) Argo (2012) 12 Years a Slave (2013) Boyhood (2014) The Revenant (2015) Moonlight (2016) Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri
Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri
(2017)

v t e

Films directed by Fred Zinnemann

Redes (1936) That Mothers Might Live (1938) Stuffie
Stuffie
(1940) Forbidden Passage (1941) Kid Glove Killer
Kid Glove Killer
(1942) Eyes in the Night
Eyes in the Night
(1942) The Seventh Cross (1944) Little Mister Jim (1946) My Brother Talks to Horses (1947) The Search (1948) Act of Violence
Act of Violence
(1949) The Men (1950) Benjy (1951) Teresa (1951) High Noon
High Noon
(1952) The Member of the Wedding
The Member of the Wedding
(1952) From Here to Eternity
From Here to Eternity
(1953) Oklahoma! (1955) A Hatful of Rain
A Hatful of Rain
(1957) The Nun's Story
The Nun's Story
(1959) The Sundowners (1960) Behold a Pale Horse (1964) A Man for All Seasons (1966) Man's Fate
Man's Fate
(unfinished) The Day of the Jackal (1973) Julia (1977) Five Days One Summer
Five Days One Summer
(1982)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 10038177 LCCN: n88244899 ISNI: 0000 0001 0869 4236 GND: 117005398 SUDOC: 059749741 BNF: cb13940548b (data) BIBSYS: 90910810 NLA: 35952029 NDL: 00477740 NKC: xx0119936 BNE: XX1296125 RKD: 385532 SNAC: w6c550nc

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