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FRANCIA or FRANKIA, also called the KINGDOM OF THE FRANKS ( Latin
Latin
: Regnum Francorum), FRANKISH KINGDOM, FRANKISH EMPIRE, FRANKISH REALM or occasionally FRANKLAND, was the territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks
Franks
, a confederation of West Germanic tribes
West Germanic tribes
, during late antiquity and the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
.

The kingdom was founded by Clovis I
Clovis I
, crowned first King of the Franks
Franks
in 496. Under the nearly continuous campaigns of Pepin of Herstal , Charles Martel
Charles Martel
, Pepin the Short
Pepin the Short
, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
, and Louis the Pious —father, son, grandson, great-grandson and great-great-grandson—the greatest expansion of the Frankish empire was secured by the early 9th century.

The tradition of dividing patrimonies among brothers meant that the Frankish realm was ruled, nominally, as one polity subdivided into several regna (kingdoms or subkingdoms). The geography and number of subkingdoms varied over time, but the particular term Francia
Francia
came generally to refer to just one regnum, that of Austrasia
Austrasia
, centred on the Rhine
Rhine
and Meuse
Meuse
in northern Europe. Even so, sometimes the term was used as well to encompass Neustria
Neustria
north of the Loire
Loire
and west of the Seine
Seine
.

Eventually, the singular use of the name Francia
Francia
shifted towards Paris
Paris
, and settled on the region of the Seine
Seine
basin surrounding Paris, which still today bears the name Île-de-France
Île-de-France
and gave its name to the entire Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
. Most Frankish Kings were buried in the Basilica of St Denis , near Paris. Modern France
France
is still named Francia
Francia
in Western European languages like Spanish and Italian. It is also known in another variant, "Francja", in the Slavic languages of Eastern Europe such as Polish, Russian and Macedonian.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Origins

* 1.2 Merovingian rise and decline, 481–687

* 1.2.1 Clovis\'s sons * 1.2.2 Chlothar * 1.2.3 Francia
Francia
split into Neustria, Austrasia, and Burgundy * 1.2.4 Rule of Chlothar II
Chlothar II
* 1.2.5 Dagobert I
Dagobert I

* 1.3 Dominance of the mayors of the palace, 687–751

* 1.3.1 Death of Pepin * 1.3.2 Islamic invasion

* 1.4 Carolingian
Carolingian
empire, 751–840 * 1.5 Divided empire, after 840

* 2 Life in Francia
Francia

* 2.1 Law * 2.2 Church * 2.3 Society * 2.4 Currency

* 3 See also * 4 References and sources * 5 External links

HISTORY

The partition of the Frankish kingdom among the four sons of Clovis with Clotilde
Clotilde
presiding, Grandes Chroniques de Saint-Denis (Bibliothèque municipale de Toulouse).

ORIGINS

The Franks
Franks
emerged in the 3rd century as a confederation of smaller Germanic tribes, such as the Sicambri
Sicambri
, Bructeri
Bructeri
, Ampsivarii
Ampsivarii
, Chamavi
Chamavi
and Chattuarii
Chattuarii
, in the area north and east of the Rhine
Rhine
. Some of these peoples, such as the Sicambri
Sicambri
and Salians , already had lands in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and delivered troops to Roman forces at the border. In 357 the Salian king entered the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and made a permanent foothold there by a treaty granted by Julian , who forced back the Chamavi
Chamavi
to Hamaland
Hamaland
.

As Frankish territory expanded, the meaning of "Francia" expanded with it. Some of the early Frankish leaders, such as Flavius Bauto and Arbogast , were committed to the cause of the Romans, but other Frankish rulers, such as Mallobaudes , were active on Roman soil for other reasons. After the fall of Arbogastes, his son Arigius succeeded in establishing a hereditary countship at Trier
Trier
and after the fall of the usurper Constantine III some Franks
Franks
supported the usurper Jovinus (411). Jovinus was dead by 413, but the Romans found it increasingly difficult to manage the Franks
Franks
within their borders.

The Frankish king Theudemer was executed by the sword, in c. 422.

Around 428, the Salian king Chlodio
Chlodio
, whose kingdom included Toxandria and the civitas Tungrorum ( Tongeren
Tongeren
), launched an attack on Roman territory and extended his realm as far as Camaracum ( Cambrai
Cambrai
) and the Somme . Though Sidonius Apollinaris
Sidonius Apollinaris
relates that Flavius Aetius fought the Franks
Franks
and temporarily drove them back (c. 431), this period marks the beginning of a situation that would endure for many centuries: the Germanic Franks
Franks
ruled over an increasing number of Gallo-Roman subjects .

The kingdom of Chlodio
Chlodio
changed the borders and the meaning of the word "Francia" permanently. Francia
Francia
was no longer barbaricum trans Rhenum (barbarians across the Rhine), but a landed political power on both sides of the river, deeply involved in Roman politics. Chlodio's family, the Merovingians , extended Francia
Francia
even further south. Due to pressure from the Saxons
Saxons
, the northeastern borders of Francia
Francia
were pressed southwest so that most of the original Frankish people came to live more southwesterly, roughly between the Somme and Münster
Münster
. The core territory of the Frankish kingdom later came to be known as Austrasia
Austrasia
(the "eastern lands").

MEROVINGIAN RISE AND DECLINE, 481–687

See also: Merovingian dynasty
Merovingian dynasty
The political divisions of Gaul at the inception of Clovis 's career (481). Note that only the Burgundian kingdom and the province of Septimania
Septimania
remained unconquered at his death (511).

Chlodio's successors are obscure figures, but what can be certain is that Childeric I
Childeric I
, possibly his grandson, ruled a Salian kingdom from Tournai
Tournai
as a foederatus of the Romans. Childeric is chiefly important to history for bequeathing the Franks
Franks
to his son Clovis , who began an effort to extend his authority over the other Frankish tribes and to expand their territorium south and west into Gaul
Gaul
. Clovis converted to Christianity and put himself on good terms with the powerful Church and with his Gallo-Roman subjects.

In a thirty-year reign (481–511) Clovis defeated the Roman general Syagrius and conquered the Kingdom of Soissons , defeated the Alemanni ( Battle of Tolbiac
Battle of Tolbiac
, 504) and established Frankish hegemony over them. Clovis defeated the Visigoths
Visigoths
( Battle of Vouillé
Battle of Vouillé
, 507) and conquered their entire kingdom (save Septimania
Septimania
) with its capital at Toulouse
Toulouse
, and conquered the Bretons
Bretons
(according to Gregory of Tours
Gregory of Tours
) and made them vassals of Francia. He conquered most or all of the neighbouring Frankish tribes along the Rhine
Rhine
and incorporated them into his kingdom.

He also incorporated the various Roman military settlements (laeti ) scattered over Gaul: the Saxons
Saxons
of Bessin , the Britons and the Alans of Armorica
Armorica
and Loire
Loire
valley or the Taifals
Taifals
of Poitou
Poitou
to name a few prominent ones. By the end of his life, Clovis ruled all of Gaul
Gaul
save the Gothic province of Septimania
Septimania
and the Burgundian kingdom in the southeast.

The Merovingians were a hereditary monarchy . The Frankish kings adhered to the practice of partible inheritance : dividing their lands among their sons. Even when multiple Merovingian kings ruled, the kingdom—not unlike the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
—was conceived of as a single realm ruled collectively by several kings and the turn of events could result in the reunification of the whole realm under a single king. The Merovingian kings ruled by divine right and their kingship was symbolised daily by their long hair and initially by their acclamation, which was carried out by raising the king on a shield in accordance with the ancient Germanic practice of electing a war-leader at an assembly of the warriors.

Clovis\'s Sons

At the death of Clovis, his kingdom was divided territorially by his four adult sons in such a way that each son was granted a comparable portion of fiscal land , which was probably land once part of the Roman fisc, now seized by the Frankish government. The division of Francia
Francia
on Clovis 's death (511). The kingdoms were not geographic unities because they were formed in an attempt to create equal-sized fiscs. The discrepancy in size reveals the concentration of Roman fiscal lands.

Clovis's sons made their capitals near the Frankish heartland in northeastern Gaul. Theuderic I made his capital at Reims
Reims
, Chlodomer at Orléans
Orléans
, Childebert I
Childebert I
at Paris
Paris
, and Chlothar I
Chlothar I
at Soissons
Soissons
. During their reigns, the Thuringii (532), Burgundes (534), and Saxons and Frisians
Frisians
(c. 560) were incorporated into the Frankish kingdom. The outlying trans-Rhenish tribes were loosely attached to Frankish sovereignty, and though they could be forced to contribute to Frankish military efforts, in times of weak kings they were uncontrollable and liable to attempt independence. The Romanised Burgundian kingdom, however, was preserved in its territoriality by the Franks
Franks
and converted into one of their primary divisions, incorporating the central Gallic heartland of Chlodomer's realm with its capital at Orléans.

The fraternal kings showed only intermittent signs of friendship and were often in rivalry. On the early death of Chlodomer, his brother Chlothar had his young sons murdered in order to take a share of his kingdom, which was, in accordance with custom, divided between the surviving brothers. Theuderic died in 534, but his adult son Theudebert I
Theudebert I
was capable of defending his inheritance, which formed the largest of the Frankish subkingdoms and the kernel of the later kingdom of Austrasia
Austrasia
.

Theudebert was the first Frankish king to formally sever his ties to the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
by striking gold coins with his own image on them and calling himself magnus rex (great king) because of his supposed suzerainty over peoples as far away as Pannonia
Pannonia
. Theudebert interfered in the Gothic War on the side of the Gepids
Gepids
and Lombards against the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
, receiving the provinces of Raetia
Raetia
, Noricum
Noricum
, and part of Veneto
Veneto
.

Chlothar

His son and successor, Theudebald
Theudebald
, was unable to retain them and on his death all of his vast kingdom passed to Chlothar, under whom, with the death of Childebert in 558, the entire Frankish realm was reunited under the rule of one king. The division of Gaul
Gaul
on Chlothar I
Chlothar I
's death (561). Though more geographically unified realms were created out of the second fourfold division of Francia, the complex division of Provence
Provence
created many problems for the rulers of Burgundy and Austrasia
Austrasia
.

In 561 Chlothar died and his realm was divided, in a replay of the events of fifty years prior, between his four sons, with the chief cities remaining the same. The eldest son, Charibert I
Charibert I
, inherited the kingdom with its capital at Paris
Paris
and ruled all of western Gaul. The second eldest, Guntram
Guntram
, inherited the old kingdom of the Burgundians, augmented by the lands of central France
France
around the old capital of Orléans, which became his chief city, and most of Provence
Provence
.

The rest of Provence, the Auvergne , and eastern Aquitaine
Aquitaine
were assigned to the third son, Sigebert I
Sigebert I
, who also inherited Austrasia with its chief cities of Reims
Reims
and Metz
Metz
. The smallest kingdom was that of Soissons, which went to the youngest son, Chilperic I
Chilperic I
. The kingdom Chilperic ruled at his death (584) became the nucleus of later Neustria
Neustria
.

This second fourfold division was quickly ruined by fratricidal wars, waged largely over the murder of Galswintha
Galswintha
, the wife of Chilperic, allegedly by his mistress (and second wife) Fredegund
Fredegund
. Galswintha's sister, the wife of Sigebert, Brunhilda , incited her husband to war and the conflict between the two queens continued to plague relations until the next century. Guntram
Guntram
sought to keep the peace, though he also attempted twice (585 and 589) to conquer Septimania
Septimania
from the Goths, but was defeated both times.

All the surviving brothers benefited at the death of Charibert, but Chilperic was also able to extend his authority during the period of war by bringing the Bretons
Bretons
to heel again. After his death, Guntram had to again force the Bretons
Bretons
to submit. In 587, the Treaty of Andelot —the text of which explicitly refers to the entire Frankish realm as Francia—between Brunhilda and Guntram
Guntram
secured his protection of her young son Childebert II
Childebert II
, who had succeeded the assassinated Sigebert (575). Together the territory of Guntram
Guntram
and Childebert was well over thrice as large as the small realm of Chilperic's successor, Chlothar II
Chlothar II
. During this period Francia
Francia
took on the tripartite character it was to have throughout the rest of its history, being composed of Neustria, Austrasia, and Burgundy. Gaul
Gaul
as a result of the Treaty of Andelot (587). The treaty followed the division of Charibert I
Charibert I
's kingdom between the three surviving brothers. It gave Guntram
Guntram
's portion with Poitou
Poitou
and Touraine
Touraine
to Childebert II
Childebert II
in exchange for extensive lands in southern and central Aquitaine
Aquitaine
.

Francia
Francia
Split Into Neustria, Austrasia, And Burgundy

When Guntram
Guntram
died in 592, Burgundy went to Childebert in its entirety, but he died in 595. His two sons divided the kingdom, with the elder Theudebert II
Theudebert II
taking Austrasia
Austrasia
plus Childebert's portion of Aquitaine, while his younger brother Theuderic II
Theuderic II
inherited Burgundy and Guntram's Aquitaine. United, the brothers sought to remove their father's cousin Chlothar II
Chlothar II
from power and they did succeed in conquering most of his kingdom, reducing him to only a few cities, but they failed to capture him.

In 599 they routed his forces at Dormelles and seized the Dentelin , but they then fell foul of each other and the remainder of their time on the thrones was spent in infighting, often incited by their grandmother Brunhilda, who, angered over her expulsion from Theudebert's court, convinced Theuderic to unseat him and kill him. In 612 he did and the whole realm of his father Childebert was once again ruled by one man. This was short-lived, however, as he died on the eve of preparing an expedition against Chlothar in 613, leaving a young son named Sigebert II
Sigebert II
.

During their reigns, Theudebert and Theuderic campaigned successfully in Gascony
Gascony
, where they had established the Duchy of Gascony
Gascony
and brought the Basques
Basques
to submission (602). This original Gascon conquest included lands south of the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
, namely Biscay
Biscay
and Gipuzkoa
Gipuzkoa
, but these were lost to the Visigoths
Visigoths
in 612.

On the opposite end of his realm, the Alemanni
Alemanni
had defeated Theuderic in a rebellion and the Franks
Franks
were losing their hold on the trans-Rhenish tribes. In 610 Theudebert had extorted the Duchy of Alsace from Theuderic, beginning a long period of conflict over which kingdom was to have the region of Alsace, Burgundy or Austrasia, which was only terminated in the late seventh century.

During the brief minority of Sigebert II, the office of the Mayor of the Palace , which had for sometime been visible in the kingdoms of the Franks, came to the fore in its internal politics, with a faction of nobles coalescing around the persons of Warnachar II , Rado , and Pepin of Landen , to give the kingdom over to Chlothar in order to remove Brunhilda, the young king's regent, from power. Warnachar was himself already the mayor of the palace of Austrasia, while Rado and Pepin were to find themselves rewarded with mayoral offices after Chlothar's coup succeeded and Brunhilda and the ten-year-old king were killed.

Rule Of Chlothar II

Immediately after his victory, Chlothar II
Chlothar II
promulgated the Edict of Paris
Paris
(614), which has generally been viewed as a concession to the nobility, though this view has come under recent criticism. The Edict primarily sought to guarantee justice and end corruption in government, but it also entrenched the regional differences between the three kingdoms of Francia
Francia
and probably granted the nobles more control over judicial appointments.

By 623 the Austrasians had begun to clamour for a king of their own, since Chlothar was so often absent from the kingdom and, because of his upbringing and previous rule in the Seine
Seine
basin, was more or less an outsider there. Chlothar thus granted that his son Dagobert I
Dagobert I
would be their king and he was duly acclaimed by the Austrasian warriors in the traditional fashion. Nonetheless, though Dagobert exercised true authority in his realm, Chlothar maintained ultimate control over the whole Frankish kingdom. The Frankish Kingdom of Aquitaine
Aquitaine
(628). The capital of Aquitaine
Aquitaine
was Toulouse
Toulouse
. It included Gascony
Gascony
and was the basis of the later Duchy of Aquitaine
Aquitaine
.

During the joint reign of Chlothar and Dagobert, who have been called "the last ruling Merovingians", the Saxons, who had been loosely attached to Francia
Francia
since the late 550s, rebelled under Berthoald, Duke of Saxony , and were defeated and reincorporated into the kingdom by the joint action of father and son. When Chlothar died in 628, Dagobert, in accordance with his father's wishes, granted a subkingdom to his younger brother Charibert II
Charibert II
. This subkingdom, commonly called Aquitaine, was a new creation.

Dagobert I

Francia
Francia
and neighbouring Slavic peoples
Slavic peoples
c. 650

Dagobert, in his dealings with the Saxons, Alemans, and Thuringii, as well as the Slavs
Slavs
beyond the borders of Francia, upon whom he tried to force tribute but who instead defeated him under their king Samo
Samo
at the Battle of Wogastisburg in 631, made all the far eastern peoples subject to the court of Neustria
Neustria
and not of Austrasia. This, first and foremost, incited the Austrasians to request a king of their own from the royal household.

The subkingdom of Aquitaine
Aquitaine
corresponded to the southern half of the old Roman province of Aquitaine
Aquitaine
and its capital was at Toulouse
Toulouse
. The other cities of his kingdom were Cahors
Cahors
, Agen
Agen
, Périgueux , Bordeaux , and Saintes ; the duchy of Vasconia was also part of his allotment. Charibert campaigned successfully against the Basques, but after his death they revolted again (632). At the same time the Bretons
Bretons
rose up against Frankish suzerainty. The Breton leader Judicael relented and made peace with the Franks
Franks
and paid tribute after Dagobert threatened to lead an army against him (635). That same year Dagobert sent an army to subdue the Basques, which it did.

Meanwhile, Dagobert had Charibert's infant successor Chilperic assassinated and reunited the entire Frankish realm again (632), though he was forced by the strong Austrasian aristocracy to grant his own son Sigebert III to them as a subking in 633. This act was precipitated largely by the Austrasians desire to be self-governing at a time when Neustrians dominated at the royal court. Chlothar had been the king at Paris
Paris
for decades before becoming the king at Metz
Metz
as well and the Merovingian monarchy was ever after him to be a Neustrian monarchy first and foremost.

Indeed, it is in the 640s that "Neustria" first appears in writing, its late appearance relative to "Austrasia" probably due to the fact that Neustrians (who formed the bulk of the authors of the time) called their region simply "Francia". Burgundia too defined itself in opposition to Neustria
Neustria
at about this time. However, it was the Austrasians, who had been seen as a distinct people within the realm since the time of Gregory of Tours, who were to make the most strident moves for independence.

The young Sigebert was dominated during his minority by the mayor, Grimoald the Elder , who convinced the childless king to adopt his own Merovingian-named son Childebert as his son and heir. After Dagobert's death in 639, the duke of Thuringia
Thuringia
, Radulf , rebelled and tried to make himself king. He defeated Sigebert in what was a serious reversal for the ruling dynasty (640).

The king lost the support of many magnates while on campaign and the weakness of the monarchic institutions by that time are evident in his inability to effectively make war without the support of the magnates; in fact, he could not even provide his own bodyguard without the loyal aid of Grimoald and Adalgisel . He is often regarded as the first roi fainéant : "do-nothing king", not insofar as he "did nothing", but insofar as he accomplished little.

Clovis II
Clovis II
, Dagobert's successor in Neustria
Neustria
and Burgundy, which were thereafter attached yet ruled separately, was a minor for almost the whole of his reign. He was dominated by his mother Nanthild and the mayor of the Neustrian palace, Erchinoald . Erchinoald's successor, Ebroin , dominated the kingdom for the next fifteen years of near-constant civil war. On his death (656), Sigbert's son was shipped off to Ireland, while Grimoald's son Childebert reigned in Austrasia.

Ebroin eventually reunited the entire Frankish kingdom for Clovis's successor Chlothar III
Chlothar III
by killing Grimoald and removing Childebert in 661. However, the Austrasians demanded a king of their own again and Chlothar installed his younger brother Childeric II . During Chlothar's reign, the Franks
Franks
had made an attack on northwestern Italy, but were driven off by Grimoald, King of the Lombards
Lombards
, near Rivoli .

DOMINANCE OF THE MAYORS OF THE PALACE, 687–751

Gaul
Gaul
at the death of Pepin of Heristal (714). At this time the vast duchy of Aquitaine
Aquitaine
(yellow) was not a part of the Frankish kingdom.

In 673, Chlothar III
Chlothar III
died and some Neustrian and Burgundian magnates invited Childeric to become king of the whole realm, but he soon upset some Neustrian magnates and he was assassinated (675). The reign of Theuderic III
Theuderic III
was to prove the end of the Merovingian dynasty's power. Thoroughly Neustrian in outlook, he allied with his mayor Berthar and made war on the Austrasian who had installed Dagobert II , Sigebert III's son, in their kingdom (briefly in opposition to Clovis III
Clovis III
).

In 687 he was defeated by Pepin of Herstal , the Arnulfing mayor of Austrasia
Austrasia
and the real power in that kingdom, at the Battle of Tertry and was forced to accept Pepin as sole mayor and dux et princeps Francorum: "Duke and Prince of the Franks
Franks
", a title which signifies, to the author of the Liber Historiae Francorum , the beginning of Pepin's "reign". Thereafter the Merovingian monarchs showed only sporadically, in our surviving records, any activities of a non-symbolic and self-willed nature.

During the period of confusion in the 670s and 680s, attempts had been made to re-assert Frankish suzerainty over the Frisians, but to no avail. In 689, however, Pepin launched a campaign of conquest in Western Frisia (Frisia Citerior) and defeated the Frisian king Radbod near Dorestad , an important trading centre. All the land between the Scheldt
Scheldt
and the Vlie was incorporated into Francia.

Then, circa 690, Pepin attacked central Frisia and took Utrecht . In 695 Pepin could even sponsor the foundation of the Archdiocese of Utrecht and the beginning of the conversion of the Frisians
Frisians
under Willibrord
Willibrord
. However, Eastern Frisia
Eastern Frisia
(Frisia Ulterior) remained outside of Frankish suzerainty.

Having achieved great successes against the Frisians, Pepin turned towards the Alemanni. In 709 he launched a war against Willehari , duke of the Ortenau
Ortenau
, probably in an effort to force the succession of the young sons of the deceased Gotfrid on the ducal throne. This outside interference led to another war in 712 and the Alemanni
Alemanni
were, for the time being, restored to the Frankish fold.

However, in southern Gaul, which was not under Arnulfing influence, the regions were pulling away from the royal court under leaders such as Savaric of Auxerre , Antenor of Provence
Provence
, and Odo of Aquitaine
Aquitaine
. The reigns of Clovis IV and Childebert III from 691 until 711 have all the hallmarks of those of rois fainéants, though Childebert is founding making royal judgements against the interests of his supposed masters, the Arnulfings.

Death Of Pepin

When Pepin died in 714, however, the Frankish realm plunged into civil war and the dukes of the outlying provinces became de facto independent. Pepin's appointed successor, Theudoald , under his widow, Plectrude
Plectrude
, initially opposed an attempt by the king, Dagobert III
Dagobert III
, to appoint Ragenfrid as mayor of the palace in all the realms, but soon there was a third candidate for the mayoralty of Austrasia
Austrasia
in Pepin's illegitimate adult son, Charles Martel
Charles Martel
.

After the defeat of Plectrude
Plectrude
and Theudoald by the king (now Chilperic II ) and Ragenfrid, Charles briefly raised a king of his own, Chlothar IV
Chlothar IV
, in opposition to Chilperic. Finally, at a battle near Soisson , Charles definitively defeated his rivals and forced them into hiding, eventually accepting the king back on the condition that he receive his father's positions (718). There were no more active Merovingian kings after that point and Charles and his Carolingian
Carolingian
heirs ruled the Franks.

After 718 Charles Martel
Charles Martel
embarked on a series of wars intended to strengthen the Franks' hegemony in western Europe. In 718 he defeated the rebellious Saxons, in 719 he overran Western Frisia, in 723 he suppressed the Saxons
Saxons
again, and in 724 he defeated Ragenfrid and the rebellious Neustrians, ending the civil war phase of his rule. In 720, when Chilperic II died, he had appointed Theuderic IV
Theuderic IV
king, but this last was a mere puppet of his. In 724 he forced his choice of Hugbert for the ducal succession upon the Bavarians of Hugbert and forced the Alemanni
Alemanni
to assist him in his campaigns in Bavaria (725 and 726), where laws were promulgated in Theuderic's name. In 730 Alemannia
Alemannia
had to be subjugated by the sword and its duke, Lantfrid , was killed. In 734 Charles fought against Eastern Frisia
Eastern Frisia
and finally subdued it.

Islamic Invasion

In the 730s the Arab conquerors of Spain , who had also subjugated Septimania
Septimania
, began advancing northwards into central Francia
Francia
and the Loire
Loire
valley . It was at this time (circa 736) that Maurontus , the dux of Provence, called in the Arabs to aid him in resisting the expanding influence of the Carolingians. However, Charles invaded the Rhône Valley
Rhône Valley
with his brother Childebrand and a Lombard army and devastated the region. It was because of the alliance against the Arabs that Charles was unable to support Pope Gregory III
Pope Gregory III
against the Lombards.

In 732 or 737—modern scholars have debated over the date—Charles marched against an Arab army between Poitiers
Poitiers
and Tours
Tours
and defeated it in a watershed battle that turned back the tide of the Arab advance north of the Pyrenees. But Charles's real interests lay in the northeast, primarily with the Saxons, from whom he had to extort the tribute which for centuries they had paid to the Merovingians.

Shortly before his death in October 741, Charles divided the realm as if he were king between his two sons by his first wife, marginalising his younger son Grifo , who did receive a small portion (it is unknown exactly what). Though there had been no king since Theuderic's death in 737, Charles's sons Pepin the Younger and Carloman were still only mayors of the palaces. The Carolingians had assumed the regal status and practice, though not the regal title, of the Merovingians. The division of the kingdom gave Austrasia
Austrasia
, Alemannia
Alemannia
, and Thuringia
Thuringia
to Carloman and Neustria, Provence, and Burgundy to Pepin. It is indicative of the de facto autonomy of the duchies of Aquitaine
Aquitaine
(under Hunoald ) and Bavaria (under Odilo ) that they were not included in the division of the regnum.

After Charles Martel
Charles Martel
was buried, in the Abbey of Saint-Denis alongside the Merovingian kings, conflict immediately erupted between Pepin and Carloman on one side and Grifo their younger brother on the other. Though Carloman captured and imprisoned Grifo, it may have been enmity between the elder brothers that caused Pepin to release Grifo while Carloman was on a pilgrimage to Rome. Perhaps in an effort to neutralise his brother ambitions, Carloman initiated the appointment of a new king, Childeric III
Childeric III
, drawn from a monastery, in 743. Others have suggested that perhaps the position of the two brothers was weak or challenged, or perhaps there Carloman was merely acting for a loyalist or legitimist party in the kingdom.

In 743 Pepin campaigned against Odilo and forced him to submit to Frankish suzerainty. Carloman also campaigned against the Saxons
Saxons
and the two together defeated a rebellion led by Hunoald at the head of the Basques
Basques
and another led by Alemanni, in which Liutfrid of Alsatia probably died, either fighting for or against the brothers. In 746, however, the Frankish armies were still, as Carloman was preparing to retire from politics and enter the monastery of Mount Soratte . Pepin's position was further stabilised and the path was laid for his assumption of the crown in 751.

CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE, 751–840

The growth of Frankish power, 481–814, showing Francia
Francia
as it originally was after the crumbling of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
. It was located northeasterly of that during the time of Constantine the Great . Frankish expansion from the early kingdom of Clovis I (481) to the divisions of Charlemagne\'s Empire
Empire
(843/870). Main article: Carolingian
Carolingian
Empire
Empire

Pepin reigned as an elected king. Although such elections happened infrequently, a general rule in Germanic law stated that the king relied on the support of his leading men . These men reserved the right to choose a new "kingworthy" leader out of the ruling clan if they felt that the old one could not lead them in profitable battle. While in later France
France
the kingdom became hereditary, the kings of the later Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
proved unable to abolish the elective tradition and continued as elected rulers until the empire's formal end in 1806.

Pepin solidified his position in 754 by entering into an alliance with Pope Stephen II
Pope Stephen II
, who presented the king of the Franks
Franks
a copy of the forged " Donation of Constantine " at Paris
Paris
and in a magnificent ceremony at Saint-Denis anointed the king and his family and declared him patricius Romanorum ("protector of the Romans"). The following year Pepin fulfilled his promise to the pope and retrieved the Exarchate of Ravenna , recently fallen to the Lombards
Lombards
, and returned it to the Papacy.

Pepin donated the re-conquered areas around Rome to the Pope, laying the foundation for the Papal States
Papal States
in the " Donation of Pepin " which he laid on the tomb of St Peter. The papacy had good cause to expect that the remade Frankish monarchy would provide a deferential power base (potestas) in the creation of a new world order, centred on the Pope.

Upon Pepin's death in 768, his sons, Charles and Carloman , once again divided the kingdom between themselves. However, Carloman withdrew to a monastery and died shortly thereafter, leaving sole rule to his brother, who would later become known as Charlemagne
Charlemagne
or Charles the Great, a powerful, intelligent, and modestly literate figure who became a legend for the later history of both France
France
and Germany. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
restored an equal balance between emperor and pope.

From 772 onwards, Charles conquered and eventually defeated the Saxons
Saxons
to incorporate their realm into the Frankish kingdom. This campaign expanded the practice of non-Roman Christian rulers undertaking the conversion of their neighbours by armed force; Frankish Catholic missionaries, along with others from Ireland and Anglo-Saxon England
Anglo-Saxon England
, had entered Saxon lands since the mid-8th century, resulting in increasing conflict with the Saxons, who resisted the missionary efforts and parallel military incursions.

Charles's main Saxon opponent, Widukind
Widukind
, accepted baptism in 785 as part of a peace agreement, but other Saxon leaders continued to fight. Upon his victory in 787 at Verden , Charles ordered the wholesale killing of thousands of pagan Saxon prisoners. After several more uprisings, the Saxons
Saxons
suffered definitive defeat in 804. This expanded the Frankish kingdom eastwards as far as the Elbe
Elbe
river, something the Roman empire
Roman empire
had only attempted once, and at which it failed in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
(9 AD). In order to more effectively Christianize the Saxons, Charles founded several bishoprics , among them Bremen , Münster
Münster
, Paderborn
Paderborn
, and Osnabrück
Osnabrück
.

At the same time (773–774), Charles conquered the Lombards
Lombards
and thus included northern Italy in his sphere of influence. He renewed the Vatican donation and the promise to the papacy of continued Frankish protection.

In 788, Tassilo, dux (duke) of Bavaria rebelled against Charles. Crushing the rebellion incorporated Bavaria into Charles's kingdom. This not only added to the royal fisc, but also drastically reduced the power and influence of the Agilolfings
Agilolfings
(Tassilo's family), another leading family among the Franks
Franks
and potential rivals. Until 796, Charles continued to expand the kingdom even farther southeast, into today's Austria and parts of Croatia
Croatia
.

Charles thus created a realm that reached from the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
in the southwest (actually, including an area in Northern Spain (Marca Hispanica ) after 795) over almost all of today's France
France
(except Brittany
Brittany
, which the Franks
Franks
never conquered) eastwards to most of today's Germany, including northern Italy and today's Austria. In the hierarchy of the church, bishops and abbots looked to the patronage of the king's palace, where the sources of patronage and security lay. Charles had fully emerged as the leader of Western Christendom
Christendom
, and his patronage of monastic centres of learning gave rise to the " Carolingian
Carolingian
Renaissance " of literate culture. Charles also created a large palace at Aachen, a series of roads, and a canal.

On Christmas Day, 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charles as " Emperor
Emperor
of the Romans " in Rome in a ceremony presented as a surprise ( Charlemagne
Charlemagne
did not wish to be indebted to the bishop of Rome), a further papal move in the series of symbolic gestures that had been defining the mutual roles of papal auctoritas and imperial potestas. Though Charlemagne
Charlemagne
preferred the title "Emperor, king of the Franks and Lombards", the ceremony formally acknowledged the Frankish Empire as the successor of the Western Roman Emperor, thus triggering disputes with the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
. The pope's right to proclaim successors was based on the Donation of Constantine , a forged Roman imperial decree. After an initial protest at the usurpation, the Byzantine Emperor
Emperor
Michael I Rhangabes
Michael I Rhangabes
acknowledged in 812 Charlemagne as co-emperor, according to some. According to others, Michael I reopened negotiations with the Franks
Franks
in 812 and recognized Charlemagne
Charlemagne
as basileus (emperor), but not as emperor of the romans. The coronation gave permanent legitimacy to Carolingian
Carolingian
primacy among the Franks. The Ottonians later resurrected this connection in 962.

Upon Charlemagne's death on 28 January 814 in Aachen
Aachen
, he was buried in his own Palace Chapel at Aachen
Aachen
.

DIVIDED EMPIRE, AFTER 840

The Carolingian
Carolingian
Empire
Empire
at its greatest extent, with borders displaying the three territorial divisions of 843, from left to right:

* West Francia
West Francia
or the West Frankish Kingdom: Charles the Bald
Charles the Bald
, King of the West Franks. * Middle Francia or the Middle Frankish Kingdom: Lothair I
Lothair I
, King of the Middle Franks, nominally titled Emperor. This kingdom lasted only until 869. * East Francia
East Francia
or the East Frankish Kingdom: Louis the German , King of the East Franks.

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
had several sons, but only one survived him. This son, Louis the Pious
Louis the Pious
, followed his father as the ruler of a united empire. But sole inheritance remained a matter of chance, rather than intent. When Louis died in 840, the Carolingians adhered to the custom of partible inheritance , and after a brief civil war between the three sons, they made an agreement in 843, the Treaty of Verdun , which divided the empire in three:

* Louis's eldest surviving son Lothair I
Lothair I
became Emperor
Emperor
in name but de facto only the ruler of the Middle Frankish Kingdom , or Middle Francia, known as King of the Central or Middle Franks. His three sons in turn divided this kingdom between them into Lotharingia
Lotharingia
(centered on Lorraine ), Burgundy , and (Northern) Italy Lombardy
Lombardy
. These areas with different cultures, peoples and traditions would later vanish as separate kingdoms, which would eventually become Belgium
Belgium
, the Netherlands
Netherlands
, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
, Lorraine , Switzerland, Lombardy
Lombardy
and the various departments of France
France
along the Rhône
Rhône
drainage basin and Jura massif . * Louis's second son, Louis the German , became King of the East Frankish Kingdom or East Francia. This area formed the kernel of the later Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
by way of the Kingdom of Germany
Kingdom of Germany
enlarged with some additional territories from Lothair's Middle Frankish Realm: much of these territories eventually evolved into modern Austria, Switzerland and Germany. For a list of successors, see the List of German monarchs . * His third son Charles the Bald
Charles the Bald
became King of the West Franks, of the West Frankish Kingdom or West Francia. This area, most of today's southern and western France, became the foundation for the later France
France
under the House of Capet . For his successors, see the List of French monarchs .

Subsequently, at the Treaty of Mersen (870) the partitions were recast, to the detriment of Lotharingia. On 12 December 884, Charles the Fat (son of Louis the German ) reunited most of the Carolingian Empire, aside from Burgundy . In late 887, his nephew, Arnulf of Carinthia revolted and assumed the title as King of the East Franks. Charles retired and soon died on 13 January 888.

Odo, Count of Paris
Paris
was chosen to rule in the west, and was crowned the next month. At this point, West Francia
West Francia
was composed of Neustria in the west and in the east by Francia
Francia
proper, the region between the Meuse
Meuse
and the Seine
Seine
. The Carolingians were restored ten years later in West Francia, and ruled until 987, when the last Frankish King, Louis V , died.

West Francia
West Francia
was the land under the control of Charles the Bald
Charles the Bald
. It is the precursor of modern France. It was divided into the following great fiefs: Aquitaine
Aquitaine
, Brittany
Brittany
, Burgundy, Catalonia
Catalonia
, Flanders
Flanders
, Gascony
Gascony
, Gothia , the Île-de-France
Île-de-France
, and Toulouse
Toulouse
. After 987, the kingdom came to be known as France, because the new ruling dynasty (the Capetians ) were originally dukes of the Île-de-France.

Middle Francia was the territory ruled by Lothair I
Lothair I
, wedged between East and West Francia. The kingdom, which included the Kingdom of Italy , Burgundy, the Provence
Provence
, and the west of Austrasia
Austrasia
, was an unnatural creation of the Treaty of Verdun, with no historical or ethnic identity. The kingdom was split on the death of Lothair II in 869 into those of Lotharingia
Lotharingia
, Provence
Provence
(with Burgundy divided between it and Lotharingia), and north Italy.

East Francia
East Francia
was the land of Louis the German . It was divided into four duchies: Swabia ( Alamannia
Alamannia
), Franconia , Saxony and Bavaria ; to which after the death of Lothair II were added the eastern parts of Lotharingia
Lotharingia
. This division persisted until 1268, the end of the Hohenstaufen
Hohenstaufen
dynasty. Otto I was crowned on 2 February 962, marking the beginning of the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(translatio imperii ). From the 10th century, East Francia
East Francia
became also known as regnum Teutonicum ("Teutonic kingdom" or " Kingdom of Germany
Kingdom of Germany
"), a term that became prevalent in Salian times. The title of Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
was used from that time, beginning with Conrad II .

LIFE IN FRANCIA

LAW

The different Frankish tribes, such as the Salii, Ripuarii, and Chamavi, had different legal traditions, which were only lately codified, largely under Charlemagne. The Leges Salica , Ribuaria , and Chamavorum were Carolingian
Carolingian
creations, their basis in earlier Frankish reality being difficult for scholars to discern at the present distance. Under Charlemagne
Charlemagne
codifications were also made of the Saxon law and the Frisian law .

It was also under Frankish hegemony that the other Germanic societies east of the Rhine
Rhine
began to codify their tribal law, in such compilations as the Lex Alamannorum and Lex Bajuvariorum for the Alemanni
Alemanni
and Bavarii respectively. Throughout the Frankish kingdoms there continued to be Gallo-Romans
Gallo-Romans
subject to Roman law
Roman law
and clergy subject to canon law . After the Frankish conquest of Septimania
Septimania
and Catalonia
Catalonia
, those regions which had formerly been under Gothic control continued to utilise the Visigothic law code .

During the early period Frankish law was preserved by the rachimburgs, officials trained to remember it and pass it on. The Merovingians adopted the capitulary as a tool for the promulgation and preservation of royal ordinances. Its usage was to continue under the Carolingians and even the later Spoletan emperors Guy and Lambert under a programme of renovation regni Francorum ("renewal of the Frankish kingdom").

The last Merovingian capitulary was one of the most significant: the edict of Paris
Paris
, issued by Chlothar II
Chlothar II
in 614 in the presence of his magnates, had been likened to a Frankish Magna Carta
Magna Carta
entrenching the rights of the nobility, but in actuality it sought to remove corruption from the judiciary and protect local and regional interests. Even after the last Merovingian capitulary, kings of the dynasty continued to independently exercise some legal powers. Childebert III even found cases against the powerful Arnulfings and became renowned among the people for his justness. But law in Francia was to experience a renaissance under the Carolingians .

Among the legal reforms adopted by Charlemagne
Charlemagne
were the codifications of traditional law mentioned above. He also sought to place checks on the power of local and regional judiciaries by the method of appointing missi dominici in pairs to oversee specific regions for short periods of time. Usually missi were selected from outside their respective regions in order to prevent conflicts of interest. A capitulary of 802 gives insight into their duties. They were to execute justice, enforce respect for the royal rights, control the administration of the counts and dukes (then still royal appointees), receive the oath of allegiance, and supervise the clergy.

CHURCH

Further information: Christianity in Merovingian Gaul
Gaul
, Christianity in France
France
, and Gregory of Tours
Gregory of Tours
Further information: Christianity in the 6th century , Christianity in the 7th century , Christianity in the 8th century , and Christianity in the 9th century
Christianity in the 9th century

The Frankish Church grew out of the Church in Gaul
Gaul
in the Merovingian period, which was given a particularly Germanic development in a number of "Frankish synods" throughout the 6th and 7th centuries, and with the Carolingian
Carolingian
Renaissance , the Frankish Church became a substantial influence of the medieval Western Church .

In the 7th century, the territory of the Frankish realm was (re-)Christianized with the help of Irish and Scottish missionaries . The result was the establishment of numerous monasteries, which would become the nucleus of Old High German
Old High German
literacy in the Carolingian Empire
Empire
. Columbanus
Columbanus
was active in the Frankish Empire
Empire
from 590, establishing monasteries until his death at Bobbio
Bobbio
in 615. He arrived on the continent with twelve companions and founded Annegray, Luxeuil , and Fontaines in France
France
and Bobbio
Bobbio
in Italy. During the 7th century the disciples of Columbanus
Columbanus
and other Scottish and Irish missionaries founded several monasteries or Schottenklöster in what are now France, Germany, Belgium, and Switzerland. The Irish influence in these monasteries is reflected in the adoption of Insular style in book production, visible in 8th-century works such as the Gelasian Sacramentary . The Insular influence on the uncial script of the later Merovingian period eventually gave way to the development of the Carolingian
Carolingian
minuscule in the 9th century.

SOCIETY

The most dramatic change in medieval Gaul
Gaul
was the collapse of trade and town life. While many "towns" existed in the Dark Ages , they were usually only the fortified villages or market-centers surrounding government or religious buildings; many of these towns were descended from Roman cities. There were, however, improvements in agriculture, notably the adoption of a new heavy plough and the growing use of the three-field system .

CURRENCY

Byzantine coinage was in use in Francia
Francia
before Theudebert I
Theudebert I
began minting his own money at the start of his reign. The solidus and triens were minted in Francia
Francia
between 534 and 679. The denarius (or denier ) appeared later, in the name of Childeric II and various non-royals around 673–675. A Carolingian
Carolingian
denarius replaced the Merovingian one, and the Frisian penning , in Gaul
Gaul
from 755 to the eleventh century.

The denarius subsequently appeared in Italy issued in the name of Carolingian
Carolingian
monarchs after 794, later by so-called "native" kings in the tenth century, and later still by the German Emperors from Otto I (962). Finally, denarii were issued in Rome in the names of pope and emperor from Leo III and Charlemagne
Charlemagne
onwards to the late tenth century.

SEE ALSO

* List of modern countries within the Frankish Empire * List of Frankish kings

REFERENCES AND SOURCES

References

* ^ Taagepera, Rein (1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly. 41 (3): 475–504. doi :10.1111/0020-8833.00053 – via JSTOR. * ^ Spufford, Peter (1989) . "Appendix I". Money and its use in medieval Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 398, 400–402. ISBN 0-521-30384-2 .

Primary sources

* Ammianus Marcellinus
Ammianus Marcellinus
. Roman History. trans. by Roger Pearse. London: Bohn, 1862. * Procopius
Procopius
. History of the Wars. trans. by H. B. Dewing. * Fredegar
Fredegar
. The Fourth Book of the Chronicle of Fredegar
Fredegar
with its Continuations. trans. by John Michael Wallace-Hadrill . Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1960. * Fredegar
Fredegar
. Historia Epitomata. Woodruff, Jane Ellen. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, 1987. * Gregory of Tours
Gregory of Tours
. Historia Francorum. * Gregory of Tours
Gregory of Tours
. The History of the Franks. trans. by Ernest Brehaut. 1916. Excerpts here * Gregory of Tours
Gregory of Tours
. The History of the Franks. 2 vol. trans. O. M. Dalton . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967. * Bachrach, Bernard S. (trans.) Liber Historiae Francorum . 1973.

Secondary sources

* Bachrach, Bernard S. Merovingian Military Organization, 481–751. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1971. ISBN 0-8166-0621-8 * Collins, Roger. Early Medieval Europe 300–1000. London: MacMillan, 1991. * Fouracre, Paul. "The Origins of the Nobility in Francia." Nobles and Nobility in Medieval Europe: Concepts, Origins, Transformations, ed. Anne J. Duggan. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 2000. ISBN 0-85115-769-6 . * Geary, Patrick J. Before France
France
and Germany: the Creation and Transformation of the Merovingian World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-19-504458-4 * James, Edward . The Franks. (Peoples of Europe series) Basil Blackwell, 1988. ISBN 0-631-17936-4 * Lewis, Archibald R. "The Dukes
Dukes
in the Regnum Francorum, A.D. 550–751." Speculum, Vol. 51, No 3 (July 1976), pp 381–410. * McKitterick, Rosamond. The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians, 751–987. London: Longman, 1983. ISBN 0-582-49005-7 . * Murray, Archibald C. and Goffart, Walter A. After Rome's Fall: Narrators and Sources of Early Medieval History. 1999. * Nixon, C. E. V. and Rodgers, Barbara. In Praise of Later Roman Emperors. Berkeley, 1994. * Laury Sarti, "Perceiving War and the Military in Early Christian Gaul
Gaul
(ca. 400–700 A.D.)" (= Brill's Series on the Early Middle Ages, 22), Leiden/Boston 2013, ISBN 978-9004-25618-7 . * Schutz, Herbert. The Germanic Realms in Pre- Carolingian
Carolingian
Central Europe, 400–750. American University Studies, Series IX: History, Vol. 196. New York: Peter Lang, 2000. * Wallace-Hadrill, J. M. The Long-Haired Kings. London: Butler ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Kingdoms established after Migration Period
Migration Period

* Alamannian Kingdom * Alani Kingdom * Avar Khaganate * Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy
Heptarchy
* Bavarian Duchy * Bro Gwened * Great Bulgaria
Great Bulgaria
* Bulgar Khanate * Burgundian Kingdom * Cantabri
Cantabri
* Carantian Principality * Cornouaille
Cornouaille
* Domnonée
Domnonée
* Frankish Kingdom * Frisian Kingdom
Frisian Kingdom
* Gepid Kingdom * Hen Ogledd
Hen Ogledd
* Hunnic Empire
Empire
* Kingdom of Italy * Gaelic Ireland * Khazar Khaganate
Khazar Khaganate
* Lombard Kingdom * Petty kingdoms of Norway
Petty kingdoms of Norway
* Suevian Kingdom * Ostrogothic Kingdom
Ostrogothic Kingdom
* Rugian Kingdom * Saxonian Duchy * Thuringii Kingdom * Vandal Kingdom
Vandal Kingdom
* Visigothic Kingdom
Visigothic Kingdom

* v * t * e

Empires

ANCIENT

* Akkadian * Egyptian * Assyrian * Babylonian * Carthaginian

* Chinese

* Qin * Han * Jin * Northern Wei
Northern Wei

* Hellenistic * Hittite

* Indian

* Nanda * Maurya * Satavahana * Shunga * Gupta * Harsha

* Persian

* Median * Achaemenid * Parthian * Sasanian

* Kushan

* Macedonian * Seleucid

* Mongol

* Xianbei * Xiongnu
Xiongnu

* Roman

* Western * Eastern

* Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan

POST-CLASSICAL

* Arab

* Rashidun * Umayyad * Abbasid * Fatimid * Córdoba

* Aragonese * Angevin * Aztec * Benin * Bornu * Bruneian

* Bulgarian

* First * Second

* Byzantine

* Nicaea * Trebizond

* Carolingian
Carolingian

* Chinese

* Sui * Tang * Song * Yuan

* Ethiopian

* Zagwe * Solomonic

* Georgian * Hunnic * Inca

* Indian

* Chola * Gurjara-Pratihara
Gurjara-Pratihara
* Pala * Eastern Ganga dynasty * Delhi * Vijayanagara

* Persian

* Tahirid * Samanid * Buyid * Sallarid * Ziyarid

* Kanem * Khmer * Latin
Latin
* Majapahit
Majapahit
* Malaccan * Mali

* Mongol

* Yuan * Golden Horde
Golden Horde
* Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
* Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate

* Moroccan

* Idrisid * Almoravid * Almohad * Marinid

* North Sea * Oyo * Roman * Serbian

* Somali

* Ajuran * Ifatite * Adalite * Mogadishan * Warsangali

* Songhai * Srivijaya
Srivijaya
* Tibetan * Tondo

* Turko-Persian

* Ghaznavid * Great Seljuk * Khwarezmian * Timurid

* Vietnamese

* Ly * Tran * Le

* Wagadou

MODERN

* Ashanti * Austrian * Austro-Hungarian * Brazilian * Central African

* Chinese

* Ming * Qing * China * Manchukuo
Manchukuo

* Ethiopian

* French

* First * Second

* German

* Second Reich * Third Reich

* Haitian

* First * Second

* Indian

* Maratha * Sikh * Mughal * British Raj
British Raj

* Persian

* Safavid * Afsharid * Zand * Qajar * Pahlavi

* Japanese * Johor * Korean

* Mexican

* First * Second

* Moroccan

* Saadi * Alaouite

* Russian

* Somali

* Gobroon * Majeerteen * Hobyo * Dervish

* Swedish * Tongan

* Turkish

* Ottoman * Karaman * Ramazan

* Vietnamese

* Tay Son * Nguyen * Vietnam

COLONIAL

* American * Belgian

* British

* English

* Danish * Dutch * French * German * Italian * Japanese * Norwegian * Portuguese * Spanish * Swedish

LISTS

* Empires

* largest

* ancient great powers * medieval great powers * modern great powers

* v * t * e

European Middle Ages
Middle Ages

Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages

* Migration Period
Migration Period
* Decline of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
* Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
* Decline of Hellenistic religion * Christianization
Christianization
* Rise of Islam * First Bulgarian Empire
Empire
* Frankish Empire * Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
* Anglo-Saxon England
Anglo-Saxon England
* Viking Age
Viking Age
* Carolingian
Carolingian
Empire
Empire
* Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic
* Civitas Schinesghe
Civitas Schinesghe
* Kievan Rus\' * Growth of the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire

High Middle Ages
Middle Ages

* Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
* Second Bulgarian Empire
Empire
* Georgian Empire
Empire
* Kingdom of Poland * Feudalism
Feudalism
* Great Schism * Investiture Controversy * Crusades
Crusades
* Scholasticism
Scholasticism
* Monasticism * Communalism * Manorialism
Manorialism
* Medieval Warm Period
Medieval Warm Period
* Mongol invasion of Europe
Mongol invasion of Europe

Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages

* Hundred Years\' War * Wars of the Roses
Wars of the Roses
* Hussite Wars
Hussite Wars
* Burgundy * House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
* Western Schism
Western Schism
* Fall of Constantinople
Fall of Constantinople
* Rise of the Ottoman Empire
Empire
* Swiss mercenaries
Swiss mercenaries
* Chivalry * Renaissance Humanism * Universities * Crisis of the Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* Little Ice Age
Little Ice Age

CULTURE

* Architecture * Art * Church and State * Cuisine * Demography * Household * Literature * Medicine * Music * Philosophy * Poetry * Science * Slavery * Technology * Warfare

SEE ALSO

* Dark Ages * Disability in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* Basic topics list * Medievalism
Medievalism
* Medieval reenactment
Medieval reenactment
* Medieval studies * Neo-medievalism * Timeline * Global history of same period of time

* v * t * e

European Middle Ages
Middle Ages
by region

Medieval histories of current political units

Western and Northern Europe

* Corsica * Denmark * England (Early , High , Late ) * France
France
* Germany * Ireland (400–800 , 800–1169 , 1169–1536 ) * Italy * Scotland (Early , High , Late ) * Spain * Sweden * Wales (Early , High , Late )

Central, Eastern Europe and Near East

* Armenia * Bosnia and Herzegovina * Croatia
Croatia
* Czech lands * Georgia * Greece (Byzantine and Ottoman ) * Hungary (High Medieval Kingdom and Late Medieval Kingdom ) * Poland * Romania * Serbia * Turkey ( Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm
Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm
and Ottoman )

MEDIEVAL TERRITORIES

Western and Northern Europe

* Frankish Empire * Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
( Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
, Kingdom of Italy , Swiss Confederacy ) * Papal States
Papal States
* Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily
* Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of Naples
* Duchy of Burgundy (Burgundian Netherlands
Netherlands
) * Kingdom of Aragon * Portugal (County and Kingdom of Portugal
Kingdom of Portugal
) * Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
* Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
* Lordship of Ireland
Lordship of Ireland
* al-Andalus ( Caliphate
Caliphate
of Córdoba , Taifa
Taifa
, Almoravids ) * Hereditary Kingdom of Norway
Hereditary Kingdom of Norway

Central, Eastern Europe and Near East

* Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
* Bulgarian Empire
Empire
(First Empire
Empire
, Second Empire
Empire
) * Croatia
Croatia
(Dalmatia , Pannonia
Pannonia
, Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
) * Crusader states
Crusader states
(Cyprus , Jerusalem ) * Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Kingdom of Bosnia
Kingdom of Bosnia
, Duchy of Saint Sava ) * Ukraine (Kievan Rus\' , Kingdom of Rus\' , Principality of Chernigov ) * Russia (Rus\' Khaganate , Novgorod Republic
Novgorod Republic
, Ryazan , Moscow ) * Serbia (Principality , Grand Principality , Kingdom , Empire
Empire
, Lordship , Despotate )

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 241440362 * GND : 4071332-5 * HDS : 8249

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Francia
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