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Frankiella Maire and Tison 1909

Frankia
Frankia
is a genus of nitrogen-fixing, filamentous bacteria that live in symbiosis with actinorhizal plants, similar to the Rhizobium bacteria found in the root nodules of legumes in the family Fabaceae. Bacteria
Bacteria
of this genus also form root nodules. This genus was originally named by Jørgen Brunchorst
Jørgen Brunchorst
in 1886 to honor the German biologist, Albert Bernhard Frank.[2] Brunchorst considered the organism he had identified to be a filamentous fungus. Becking (de; nl) redefined the genus in 1970 as containing prokaryotic actinomycetes and created the family Frankiaceae
Frankiaceae
within the Actinomycetales. He retained the original name of Frankia
Frankia
for the genus.[3]

A section through an alder root nodule

Contents

1 Overview 2 Symbiont plants 3 References 4 External links

Overview[edit] Frankia alni
Frankia alni
is the only named species in this genus, but a great many strains are specific to different plant species. The bacteria are filamentous and convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia via the enzyme nitrogenase, a process known as nitrogen fixation. They do this while living in root nodules on actinorhizal plants. The bacteria can supply most or all of the nitrogen requirements of the host plant. As a result, actinorhizal plants colonise and often thrive in soils that are low in plant nutrients.[4] Several Frankia
Frankia
genomes are now available which may help clarify how the symbiosis between prokaryote and plant evolved, how the environmental and geographical adaptations occurred, the metabolic diversity, and the horizontal gene flow among the symbiotic prokaryotes.[4] Symbiont plants[edit]

All species in the genus Alnus in the family Betulaceae Some species in all four genera in the family Casuarinaceae Certain species in the genus Coriaria
Coriaria
in the family Coriariaceae Datisca cannabina and Datisca glomerata in the family Datiscaceae All species in the three genera in the family Elaeagnaceae, Elaeagnus, Shepherdia, and Hippophae All species in the genera Myrica, Morella, and Comptonia in the family Myricaceae. All species in six genera in the family Rhamnaceae, Ceanothus, Colletia, Discaria, Kentrothamnus, Retanilla, and Trevoa, and possibly Adolphia Some species in the family Rosaceae
Rosaceae
including all the species in the genera Cercocarpus, Cowania, Purshia, Chamaebatia, and some species of Dryas[5]

References[edit]

^ Brunchorst, J. "Uber einige Wurzelanschwellungen, besonders diejenigen von Alnus und den Elaegnaceen." Botanische Institut Tubingen (1886) 2:151-177. ^ Prokaryotic symbionts in plants by Katharina Pawlowski, p. 107 ^ Frankia
Frankia
taxonomy ^ a b Frankia
Frankia
and Actinorhizal Plants ^ Schwintzer & Tjepkema 1990

External links[edit]

Frankia
Frankia
& Actinorhizal Plants

v t e

Prokaryotes: Bacteria
Bacteria
classification (phyla and orders)

Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta

Animal Fungi)

G-/ OM

Terra-/ Glidobacteria (BV1)

Eobacteria

Deinococcus–Thermus

Deinococcales Thermales

Chloroflexi

Anaerolineales Caldilineales Chloroflexales Herpetosiphonales Dehalococcoidales Ktedonobacterales Thermogemmatisporales Thermomicrobiales Sphaerobacterales

other glidobacteria

Thermodesulfobacteria thermophiles

Aquificae Thermotogae

Cyanobacteria

Proteobacteria (BV2)

Alpha

Caulobacterales Kiloniellales Kordiimonadales Magnetococcales Parvularculales Rhizobiales Rhodobacterales Rhodospirillales Rickettsiales Sneathiellales Sphingomonadales

Beta

Burkholderiales Hydrogenophilales Methylophilales Neisseriales Nitrosomonadales Procabacteriales Rhodocyclales

Gamma

Acidithiobacillales Aeromonadales Alteromonadales Cardiobacteriales Chromatiales Enterobacteriales Legionellales Methylococcales Oceanospirillales Orbales Pasteurellales Pseudomonadales Salinisphaerales Thiotrichales Vibrionales Xanthomonadales

Delta

Bdellovibrionales Desulfarculales Desulfobacterales Desulfovibrionales Desulfurellales Desulfuromonadales Myxococcales Syntrophobacterales Syntrophorhabdales

Epsilon

Campylobacterales Nautiliales

Zeta

Mariprofundales

BV4

Spirochaetes

Spirochaetes

Sphingobacteria (FCB group)

Fibrobacteres Chlorobi

Chlorobiales Ignavibacteriales

Bacteroidetes

Bacteroidales Cytophagales Flavobacteriales Sphingobacteriales

Planctobacteria/ (PVC group)

Chlamydiae Lentisphaerae

Lentisphaerales Oligosphaerales Victivallales

Planctomycetes

Phycisphaerales Planctomycetales

Verrucomicrobia

Puniceicoccales Opitutales Chthoniobacterales Verrucomicrobiales

"Poribacteria"

Other GN

Acidobacteria

Acidobacteriales Acanthopleuribacterales Holophagales Solibacterales

Armatimonadetes

Armatimonadales Chthonomonadales Fimbriimonadales

Caldiserica Chrysiogenetes Deferribacteres Dictyoglomi Elusimicrobia Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Synergistetes

G+/ no OM

Firmicutes (BV3)

Bacilli

Bacillales Lactobacillales

Clostridia

Clostridiales Halanaerobiales Thermoanaerobacteriales Natranaerobiales

Erysipelotrichia

Erysipelotrichiales

Thermolithobacteria

Thermolithobacterales

Tenericutes/ Mollicutes

Mycoplasmatales Entomoplasmatales Anaeroplasmatales Acholeplasmatales Haloplasmatales

Negativicutes

Selenomonadales

Actinobacteria (BV5)

Actinobacteria

Actinomycetales Bifidobacteriales

Acidimicrobiia

Acidimicrobiales

Coriobacteriidae

Coriobacteriales

Nitriliruptoria

Euzebyales Nitriliruptorales

Rubrobacteria

Gaiellales Rubrobacterales Thermoleophilales Solirubrobacterales

Incertae sedis

†Archaeosphaeroides †Eobacterium †Leptotrichites

Source: Bergey's Manual (2001–2012). Alternative views: Wikispecies.

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q134931 EoL: 100510 EPPO: 1FRNKG GBIF: 3225653 ITIS:

.