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Francis Albert Sinatra
Sinatra
(/sɪˈnɑːtrə/; December 12, 1915 – May 14, 1998) was an American singer, actor, and producer who was one of the most popular and influential musical artists of the 20th century. He is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, having sold more than 150 million records worldwide.[2] Born in Hoboken, New Jersey, to Italian immigrants, Sinatra
Sinatra
began his musical career in the swing era with bandleaders Harry James
Harry James
and Tommy Dorsey. Sinatra
Sinatra
found success as a solo artist after he signed with Columbia Records
Columbia Records
in 1943, becoming the idol of the "bobby soxers". He released his debut album, The Voice
The Voice
of Frank Sinatra, in 1946. Sinatra's professional career had stalled by the early 1950s, and he turned to Las Vegas, where he became one of its best known residency performers as part of the Rat Pack. His career was reborn in 1953 with the success of From Here to Eternity, with his performance subsequently winning an Academy Award and Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Supporting Actor. Sinatra released several critically lauded albums, including In the Wee Small Hours (1955), Songs for Swingin' Lovers!
Songs for Swingin' Lovers!
(1956), Come Fly with Me (1958), Only the Lonely (1958) and Nice 'n' Easy
Nice 'n' Easy
(1960). Sinatra
Sinatra
left Capitol in 1960 to start his own record label, Reprise Records, and released a string of successful albums. In 1965, he recorded the retrospective September of My Years and starred in the Emmy-winning television special Frank Sinatra: A Man and His Music. After releasing Sinatra
Sinatra
at the Sands, recorded at the Sands Hotel and Casino in Vegas with frequent collaborator Count Basie
Count Basie
in early 1966, the following year he recorded one of his most famous collaborations with Tom Jobim, the album Francis Albert Sinatra
Sinatra
& Antonio Carlos Jobim. It was followed by 1968's Francis A. & Edward K. with Duke Ellington. Sinatra
Sinatra
retired for the first time in 1971, but came out of retirement two years later and recorded several albums and resumed performing at Caesars Palace, and reached success in 1980 with "New York, New York". Using his Las Vegas
Las Vegas
shows as a home base, he toured both within the United States and internationally until shortly before his death in 1998. Sinatra
Sinatra
forged a highly successful career as a film actor. After winning an Academy Award for From Here to Eternity, he starred in The Man with the Golden Arm (1955), and received critical acclaim for his performance in The Manchurian Candidate (1962). He appeared in various musicals such as On the Town (1949), Guys and Dolls (1955), High Society (1956), and Pal Joey (1957), winning another Golden Globe for the latter. Toward the end of his career, he became associated with playing detectives, including the title character in Tony Rome
Tony Rome
(1967). Sinatra
Sinatra
would later receive the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award
Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award
in 1971. On television, The Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
Show began on ABC in 1950, and he continued to make appearances on television throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Sinatra
Sinatra
was also heavily involved with politics from the mid-1940s, and actively campaigned for presidents such as Harry S. Truman, John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
and Ronald Reagan. Despite his political connections, the FBI
FBI
investigated Sinatra
Sinatra
and his alleged relationship with the Mafia. While Sinatra
Sinatra
never formally learned how to read music, he had an impressive understanding of it, and he worked very hard from a young age to improve his abilities in all aspects of music. A perfectionist, renowned for his dress sense and performing presence, he always insisted on recording live with his band. His bright blue eyes earned him the popular nickname "Ol' Blue Eyes". Sinatra
Sinatra
led a colorful personal life, and was often involved in turbulent affairs with women, such as with his second wife Ava Gardner. He went on to marry Mia Farrow in 1966 and Barbara Marx in 1976. Sinatra
Sinatra
had several violent confrontations, usually with journalists he felt had crossed him, or work bosses with whom he had disagreements. He was honored at the Kennedy Center Honors
Kennedy Center Honors
in 1983, was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
in 1985, and the Congressional Gold Medal
Congressional Gold Medal
in 1997. Sinatra
Sinatra
was also the recipient of eleven Grammy
Grammy
Awards, including the Grammy
Grammy
Trustees Award, Grammy Legend Award and the Grammy
Grammy
Lifetime Achievement Award. After his death, American music critic Robert Christgau
Robert Christgau
called him "the greatest singer of the 20th century",[3] and he continues to be seen as an iconic figure.[4]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Music career

2.1 Hoboken Four
Hoboken Four
and Harry James
Harry James
(1935–1939) 2.2 Onset of Sinatramania and role in World War II (1942–1945) 2.3 Columbia years and career slump (1946–1952) 2.4 Career revival and the Capitol years (1953–1962) 2.5 Reprise years (1961–1981)

2.5.1 "Retirement" and return (1970–1981)

2.6 Later career (1982–1998)

3 Artistry 4 Film career

4.1 Debut, musical films, and career slump (1941–1952) 4.2 Career comeback and prime (1953–1959) 4.3 Later career (1960–1988)

5 Television and radio career 6 Personal life

6.1 Style and personality 6.2 Alleged organized-crime links and Cal Neva Lodge

7 Politics and activism 8 Death 9 Legacy and honors 10 Film and television portrayals 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 Sources 15 Further reading 16 External links

Early life[edit] Main article: Early life of Frank Sinatra

Hoboken, New Jersey, early 20th century

Francis Albert Sinatra[a] was born on December 12, 1915, in an upstairs tenement at 415 Monroe Street in Hoboken, New Jersey.[6][b] He was the only child of Italian immigrants Antonino Martino "Marty" Sinatra[9] and Natalina "Dolly" Garaventa.[10][11][c] Sinatra
Sinatra
weighed 13.5 pounds (6.1 kg) at birth and had to be delivered with the aid of forceps, which caused severe scarring to his left cheek, neck, and ear, and perforated his ear drum, damage that remained for life.[13] Due to his injuries at birth, his baptism at St. Francis Church in Hoboken was delayed until April 2, 1916.[14] A childhood operation on his mastoid bone left major scarring on his neck, and during adolescence he suffered from cystic acne that scarred his face and neck.[15] Sinatra
Sinatra
was raised Roman Catholic.[16] Sinatra's mother was energetic and driven,[17] and biographers believe that she was the dominant factor in the development of her son's personality traits and self-confidence.[18] Barbara Sinatra claims that Dolly was abusive to him as a child, and "knocked him around a lot".[19] Dolly became influential in Hoboken and in local Democratic Party circles.[20] She worked as a midwife, earning $50 for each delivery,[21] and according to Sinatra
Sinatra
biographer Kitty Kelley, also ran an illegal abortion service that catered to Italian Catholic girls for which she was nicknamed "Hatpin Dolly".[22][d] She also had a gift for languages and served as a local interpreter.[25] Sinatra's illiterate father was a bantamweight boxer who fought under the name Marty O'Brien.[26] He later worked for 24 years at the Hoboken Fire Department, working his way up to captain.[27] Sinatra
Sinatra
spent much time at his parents' tavern in Hoboken,[e] working on his homework and occasionally singing a song on top of the player piano for spare change.[29] During the Great Depression, Dolly provided money to her son for outings with friends and to buy expensive clothes, resulting in neighbors describing him as the "best-dressed kid in the neighborhood".[30] Excessively thin and small as a child and young man, Sinatra's skinny frame later became a staple of jokes during stage shows.[31][32]

"They'd fought through his childhood and continued to do so until her dying day. But I believe that to counter her steel will he'd developed his own. To prove her wrong when she belittled his choice of career ... Their friction first had shaped him; that, I think, had remained to the end and a litmus test of the grit in his bones. It helped keep him at the top of his game."

—Sinatra's daughter Nancy on the importance of his mother Dolly in his life and character.[33]

Sinatra
Sinatra
developed an interest in music, particularly big band jazz, at a young age.[34] He listened to Gene Austin, Rudy Vallée, Russ Colombo, and Bob Eberly, and idolized Bing Crosby.[35] Sinatra's maternal uncle, Domenico, gave him a ukulele for his 15th birthday, and he began performing at family gatherings.[36] Sinatra
Sinatra
attended David E. Rue Jr. High School from 1928,[37] and A. J. Demarest High School in 1931, where he arranged bands for school dances.[36] He left without graduating, having attended only 47 days before being expelled for "general rowdiness".[38] To please his mother, he enrolled at Drake Business School, but departed after 11 months.[36] Dolly found Sinatra
Sinatra
work as a delivery boy at the Jersey Observer newspaper, where his godfather Frank Garrick worked,[f] and after that, Sinatra
Sinatra
was a riveter at the Tietjen and Lang shipyard.[40] He performed in local Hoboken social clubs such as The Cat's Meow and The Comedy Club, and sang for free on radio stations such as WAAT in Jersey City.[41] In New York, Sinatra
Sinatra
found jobs singing for his supper or for cigarettes.[36] To improve his speech, he began taking elocution lessons for a dollar each from vocal coach John Quinlan, who was one of the first people to notice his impressive vocal range.[42] Music career[edit] Main article: Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
discography Hoboken Four
Hoboken Four
and Harry James
Harry James
(1935–1939)[edit]

Sinatra
Sinatra
(far right) with the Hoboken Four
Hoboken Four
on Major Bowes' Amateur Hour in 1935

Sinatra
Sinatra
began singing professionally as a teenager, but he learned music by ear and never learned to read music.[43][44] He got his first break in 1935 when his mother persuaded a local singing group, the 3 Flashes, to let him join. Fred Tamburro, the group's baritone, stated that "Frank hung around us like we were gods or something", admitting that they only took him on board because he owned a car[g] and could chauffeur the group around. Sinatra
Sinatra
soon learned they were auditioning for the Major Bowes Amateur Hour
Major Bowes Amateur Hour
show, and "begged" the group to let him in on the act.[46] With Sinatra, the group became known as the Hoboken Four, and passed an audition from Edward Bowes
Edward Bowes
to appear on the Major Bowes Amateur Hour
Major Bowes Amateur Hour
show. They each earned $12.50 for the appearance,[47] and ended up attracting 40,000 votes and won first prize—a six-month contract to perform on stage and radio across the United States.[48] Sinatra
Sinatra
quickly became the group's lead singer, and, much to the jealousy of his fellow group members, garnered most of the attention from girls.[49][h] Due to the success of the group, Bowes kept asking for them to return, disguised under different names, varying from "The Seacaucus Cockamamies" to "The Bayonne Bacalas".[31]

Harry James
Harry James
in 1942

In 1938, Sinatra
Sinatra
found employment as a singing waiter at a roadhouse called "The Rustic Cabin" in Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, for which he was paid $15 a week.[51] The roadhouse was connected to the WNEW radio station in New York City, and he began performing with a group live during the Dance Parade show.[52] Despite the low salary, Sinatra felt that this was the break he was looking for, and boasted to friends that he was going to "become so big that no one could ever touch him".[53] In March 1939, saxophone player Frank Mane, who knew Sinatra
Sinatra
from Jersey City radio station WAAT where both performed on live broadcasts, arranged for him to audition and record "Our Love", his first solo studio recording.[54][i] In June, bandleader Harry James, who had heard Sinatra
Sinatra
sing on "Dance Parade", signed a two-year contract of $75 a week one evening after a show at the Paramount Theatre in New York.[55][j] It was with the James band that Sinatra released his first commercial record "From the Bottom of My Heart" in July. No more than 8,000 copies of the record were sold,[59] and further records released with James through 1939, such as "All or Nothing At All", also had weak sales on their initial release.[60] Thanks to his vocal training, Sinatra
Sinatra
could now sing two tones higher, and developed a repertoire which included songs such as "My Buddy", "Willow Weep for Me", "It's Funny to Everyone But Me", "Here Comes the Night", "On a Little Street in Singapore", "Ciribiribin", and "Every Day of My Life".[61]

Tommy Dorsey
Tommy Dorsey
in The Fabulous Dorseys (1947)

Sinatra
Sinatra
became increasingly frustrated with the status of the Harry James band, feeling that he was not achieving the major success and acclaim he was looking for. His pianist and close friend Hank Sanicola persuaded him to stay with the group,[62] but in November 1939 he left James to replace Jack Leonard[k] as the lead singer of the Tommy Dorsey band. Sinatra
Sinatra
signed a contract with Dorsey for $125 a week at Palmer House in Chicago,[63] and James agreed amicably to release Sinatra
Sinatra
from his contract.[64][l] On January 26, 1940, he made his first public appearance with the band at the Coronado Theatre
Coronado Theatre
in Rockford, Illinois,[66] opening the show with "Stardust".[67] Dorsey recalled: "You could almost feel the excitement coming up out of the crowds when the kid stood up to sing. Remember, he was no matinée idol. He was just a skinny kid with big ears. I used to stand there so amazed I'd almost forget to take my own solos".[68] Dorsey was a major influence on Sinatra
Sinatra
and became a father figure. Sinatra
Sinatra
copied Dorsey's mannerisms and traits, becoming a demanding perfectionist like him, even adopting his hobby of toy trains. He asked Dorsey to be godfather to his daughter Nancy in June 1940.[69] Sinatra
Sinatra
later said that "The only two people I've ever been afraid of are my mother and Tommy Dorsey".[70] Though Kelley claims that Sinatra
Sinatra
and drummer Buddy Rich were bitter rivals,[m] other authors state that they were friends and even roommates when the band was on the road, but professional jealousy surfaced as both men wanted to be considered the star of Dorsey's band. Later, Sinatra
Sinatra
helped Rich form his own band with a $25,000 loan and provided financial help to Rich during times of the drummer's serious illness.[72] In his first year with Dorsey, Sinatra
Sinatra
recorded over forty songs. Sinatra's first vocal hit was the song "Polka Dots and Moonbeams" in late April 1940.[73] Two more chart appearances followed with "Say It" and "Imagination", which was Sinatra's first top-10 hit.[73] His fourth chart appearance was "I'll Never Smile Again", topping the charts for twelve weeks beginning in mid-July.[74] Other records with Tommy Dorsey
Tommy Dorsey
issued by RCA Victor
RCA Victor
include "Our Love Affair" and "Stardust" in 1940; "Oh! Look at Me Now", "Dolores", "Everything Happens to Me", and "This Love of Mine" in 1941; "Just as Though You Were There", "Take Me", and "There Are Such Things" in 1942; and "It Started All Over Again", "In the Blue of Evening", and "It's Always You" in 1943.[75] As his success and popularity grew, Sinatra
Sinatra
pushed Dorsey to allow him to record some solo songs. Dorsey eventually relented, and on January 19, 1942, Sinatra
Sinatra
recorded "Night and Day", "The Night We Called It a Day", "The Song is You", and "Lamplighter's Serenade" at a Bluebird recording session, with Axel Stordahl
Axel Stordahl
as arranger and conductor.[76] Sinatra
Sinatra
first heard the recordings at the Hollywood Palladium
Hollywood Palladium
and Hollywood Plaza and was astounded at how good he sounded. Stordahl recalled: "He just couldn't believe his ears. He was so excited, you almost believed he had never recorded before. I think this was a turning point in his career. I think he began to see what he might do on his own".[77] After the 1942 recordings, Sinatra
Sinatra
believed he needed to go solo,[78] with an insatiable desire to compete with Bing Crosby,[n] but he was hampered by his contract which gave Dorsey 43% of Sinatra's lifetime earnings in the entertainment industry.[79] A legal battle ensued, eventually settled in August 1943.[80][o] On September 3, 1942, Dorsey bid farewell to Sinatra, reportedly saying as Sinatra
Sinatra
left, "I hope you fall on your ass".[79] He replaced Sinatra
Sinatra
with singer Dick Haymes.[64] Rumors began spreading in newspapers that Sinatra's mobster godfather, Willie Moretti, coerced Dorsey to let Sinatra
Sinatra
out of his contract for a few thousand dollars, holding a gun to his head.[82][p] Sinatra
Sinatra
persuaded Stordahl to leave Dorsey with him and become his personal arranger, offering him $650 a month, five times the salary of Dorsey.[84] Dorsey and Sinatra, who had been very close, never patched up their differences before Dorsey's death in 1956, worsened by the fact that Dorsey occasionally made biting comments to the press such as "he's the most fascinating man in the world, but don't put your hand in the cage".[85] Onset of Sinatramania and role in World War II (1942–1945)[edit] By May 1941, Sinatra
Sinatra
topped the male singer polls in Billboard and Down Beat
Down Beat
magazines.[86] His appeal to bobby soxers, as teenage girls of that time were called, revealed a whole new audience for popular music, which had been recorded mainly for adults up to that time.[87] The phenomenon became officially known as "Sinatramania" after his "legendary opening" at the Paramount Theatre in New York on December 30, 1942.[79] According to Nancy Sinatra, Jack Benny
Jack Benny
later said, "I thought the goddamned building was going to cave in. I never heard such a commotion ... All this for a fellow I never heard of."[88] Sinatra
Sinatra
performed for four weeks at the theatre, his act following the Benny Goodman
Benny Goodman
orchestra, after which his contract was renewed for another four weeks by Bob Weitman due to his popularity. He became known as "Swoonatra" or "The Voice", and his fans "Sinatratics". They organized meetings and sent masses of letters of adoration, and within a few weeks of the show, some 1000 Sinatra
Sinatra
fan clubs had been reported across the US.[89] Sinatra's publicist, George Evans, encouraged interviews and photographs with fans, and was the man responsible for depicting Sinatra
Sinatra
as a vulnerable, shy, Italian–American with a rough childhood who made good.[90] When Sinatra
Sinatra
returned to the Paramount in October 1944 only 250 persons left the first show, and 35,000 fans left outside caused a near riot, known as the Columbus Day Riot, outside the venue because they were not allowed in.[91][92][93] Such was the bobby-soxer devotion to Sinatra
Sinatra
that they were known to write Sinatra's song titles on their clothing, bribe hotel maids for an opportunity to touch his bed, and accost his person in the form of stealing clothing he was wearing, most commonly his bow-tie.[94] Sinatra
Sinatra
signed with Columbia Records
Columbia Records
as a solo artist on June 1, 1943 during the 1942–44 musicians' strike.[95] Columbia Records re-released Harry James
Harry James
and Sinatra's August 1939 version of "All or Nothing at All",[65] which reached number 2 on June 2, and was on the best-selling list for 18 weeks.[96] He initially had great success,[97] and performed on the radio on Your Hit Parade
Your Hit Parade
from February 1943 until December 1944,[98] and on stage. Columbia wanted new recordings of their growing star as quickly as possible, so Alec Wilder was hired as an arranger and conductor for several sessions with a vocal group called the Bobby Tucker Singers.[99] These first sessions were on June 7, June 22, August 5, and November 10, 1943. Of the nine songs recorded during these sessions, seven charted on the best-selling list.[100] That year he also made his first solo nightclub appearance at New York's Riobamba,[101] and a successful concert in the Wedgewood Room of the prestigious Waldorf-Astoria New York that year secured his popularity in New York high society.[102] Sinatra
Sinatra
released "You'll Never Know", "Close to You", "Sunday, Monday, or Always" and "People Will Say We're in Love" as singles. By the end of 1943 he was more popular in a Down Beat
Down Beat
poll than Bing Crosby, Perry Como, Bob Eberly, and Dick Haymes.[103]

Sinatra
Sinatra
(left) on the Armed Forces Radio in 1944

Sinatra
Sinatra
did not serve in the military during World War II. On December 11, 1943, he was officially classified 4-F ("Registrant not acceptable for military service") by his draft board because of a perforated eardrum. However, U.S. Army files reported that Sinatra
Sinatra
was "not acceptable material from a psychiatric viewpoint", but his emotional instability was hidden to avoid "undue unpleasantness for both the selectee and the induction service".[104] Briefly, there were rumors reported by columnist Walter Winchell
Walter Winchell
that Sinatra
Sinatra
paid $40,000 to avoid the service, but the FBI
FBI
found this to be without merit.[105][106][107] Toward the end of the war, Sinatra
Sinatra
entertained the troops during several successful overseas USO
USO
tours with comedian Phil Silvers.[108] During one trip to Rome he met the Pope, who asked him if he was an operatic tenor.[109] Sinatra
Sinatra
worked frequently with the popular Andrews Sisters in radio in the 1940s,[110] and many USO shows were broadcast to troops via the Armed Forces Radio Service (AFRS).[111] In 1944 Sinatra
Sinatra
released "I Couldn't Sleep a Wink Last Night" as a single and recorded his own version of Crosby's "White Christmas", and the following year he released "I Dream of You (More Than You Dream I Do)", "Saturday Night (Is the Loneliest Night of the Week)", "Dream", and "Nancy (with the Laughing Face)" as singles.[112] Columbia years and career slump (1946–1952)[edit]

Sinatra
Sinatra
in November 1950

Despite being heavily involved in political activity in 1945 and 1946, in those two years Sinatra
Sinatra
sang on 160 radio shows, recorded 36 times, and shot four films. By 1946 he was performing on stage up to 45 times a week, singing up to 100 songs daily, and earning up to $93,000 a week.[113] In 1946 Sinatra
Sinatra
released "Oh! What it Seemed to Be", "Day by Day", "They Say It's Wonderful", "Five Minutes More", and "The Coffee Song" as singles,[114] and launched his first album, The Voice
The Voice
of Frank Sinatra,[115] which reached No. 1 on the Billboard chart. William Ruhlmann of AllMusic wrote that Sinatra
Sinatra
"took the material very seriously, singing the love lyrics with utter seriousness", and that his "singing and the classically influenced settings gave the songs unusual depth of meaning".[116] He was soon selling ten million records a year.[117] Such was Sinatra's command at Columbia that his love of conducting was indulged with the release of the set Frank Sinatra
Sinatra
Conducts the Music of Alec Wilder, an offering unlikely to appeal to Sinatra's core fanbase at the time, which consisted of teenage girls.[118] The following year he released his second album, Songs by Sinatra, featuring songs of a similar mood and tempo such as Irving Berlin's "How Deep is the Ocean?" and Harold Arlen's and Jerome Kern's "All The Things You Are".[119] "Mam'selle", composed by Edmund Goulding with lyrics by Mack Gordon
Mack Gordon
for the film The Razor's Edge (1946),[120] was released as a single.[114] Sinatra
Sinatra
had competition; versions by Art Lund, Dick Haymes, Dennis Day, and The Pied Pipers also reached the top ten of the Billboard charts.[121] In December he recorded "Sweet Lorraine" with the Metronome
Metronome
All-Stars, featuring talented jazz musicians such as Coleman Hawkins, Harry Carney
Harry Carney
and Charlie Shavers, with Nat King Cole
Nat King Cole
on piano, in what Charles L. Granata describes as "one of the highlights of Sinatra's Columbia epoch".[122] Sinatra's third album, Christmas Songs by Sinatra, was originally released in 1948 as a 78 rpm album set,[123] and a 10" LP record was released two years later.[124] When Sinatra
Sinatra
was featured as a priest in The Miracle of the Bells, due to press negativity surrounding his alleged Mafia connections at the time,[q] it was announced to the public that Sinatra
Sinatra
would donate his $100,000 in wages from the film to the Catholic Church.[125] By the end of 1948, Sinatra
Sinatra
had slipped to fourth on Down Beat's annual poll of most popular singers (behind Billy Eckstine, Frankie Laine, and Bing Crosby).[127] and in the following year he was pushed out of the top spots in polls for the first time since 1943.[128] Frankly Sentimental (1949) was panned by Down Beat, who commented that "for all his talent, it seldom comes to life".[129] Though "The Hucklebuck" reached the top ten,[130] it was his last single release under the Columbia label.[114] Sinatra's last two albums with Columbia, Dedicated to You and Sing and Dance with Frank Sinatra, were released in 1950.[131] Sinatra
Sinatra
would later feature a number of the Sing and Dance with Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
album's songs, including "Lover", "It's Only a Paper Moon", "It All Depends on You", on his 1961 Capitol release, Sinatra's Swingin' Session!!!.[132] Cementing the low of his career was the death of publicist George Evans from a heart attack in January 1950 at 48. According to Jimmy Van Heusen, Sinatra's close friend and songwriter, Evans's death to him was "an enormous shock which defies words", as he had been crucial to his career and popularity with the bobbysoxers.[133] Sinatra's reputation continued to decline as reports broke out in February of his affair with Ava Gardner
Ava Gardner
and the destruction of his marriage to Nancy,[134] though he insisted that his marriage had long been over even before he had met Gardner.[135] In April, Sinatra
Sinatra
was engaged to perform at the Copa club in New York, but had to cancel five days of the booking due to suffering a submucosal hemorrhage of the throat.[136] Evans once said that whenever Sinatra
Sinatra
suffered from a bad throat and loss of voice it was always due to emotional tension which "absolutely destroyed him".[137]

The Desert Inn, Las Vegas, where Sinatra
Sinatra
began performing in 1951

In financial difficulty following his divorce and career decline, Sinatra
Sinatra
was forced to borrow $200,000 from Columbia to pay his back taxes after MCA refused to front the money.[138] Rejected by Hollywood, he turned to Las Vegas
Las Vegas
and made his debut at the Desert Inn in September 1951,[139] and also began singing at the Riverside Hotel in Reno, Nevada. Sinatra
Sinatra
became one of Las Vegas's pioneer residency entertainers,[140] and a prominent figure on the Vegas scene throughout the 1950s and 1960s onwards, a period described by Rojek as the "high-water mark" of Sinatra's "hedonism and self absorption". Rojek notes that the Rat Pack
Rat Pack
"provided an outlet for gregarious banter and wisecracks", but argues that it was Sinatra's vehicle, possessing an "unassailable command over the other performers".[141] Sinatra
Sinatra
would fly to Las Vegas
Las Vegas
from Los Angeles
Los Angeles
in Van Heusen's single-engine plane.[142] On October 4, 1953, Sinatra
Sinatra
made his first performance at the Sands Hotel and Casino, after an invitation by the manager Jack Entratter,[143] who had previously worked at the Copa in New York.[144] Sinatra
Sinatra
typically performed there three times a year, and later acquired a share in the hotel.[145][r] Sinatra's decline in popularity was evident at his concert appearances. At a brief run at the Paramount in New York he drew small audiences.[149] At the Desert Inn
Desert Inn
in Las Vegas
Las Vegas
he performed to half-filled houses of wildcatters and ranchers.[150] At a concert at Chez Paree in Chicago, only 150 people in a 1,200-seat capacity venue turned up to see him.[151] By April 1952 he was performing at the Kauai County Fair in Hawaii.[152] Sinatra's relationship with Columbia Records was also disintegrating, with A&R executive Mitch Miller claiming he "couldn't give away" the singer's records.[149][s] Though several notable recordings were made during this time period, such as "If I Could Write a Book" in January 1952, which Granata sees as a "turning point", forecasting his later work with its sensitivity,[155] Columbia and MCA dropped him later that year.[157] His last studio recording for Columbia, "Why Try To Change Me Now", was recorded in New York on September 17, 1952, with orchestra arranged and conducted by Percy Faith.[158] Journalist Burt Boyar observed, " Sinatra
Sinatra
had had it. It was sad. From the top to the bottom in one horrible lesson."[149] Career revival and the Capitol years (1953–1962)[edit]

Nelson Riddle, Sinatra's album arranger for Capitol Records

The release of the film From Here to Eternity
From Here to Eternity
in August 1953 marked the beginning of a remarkable career revival.[159] Santopietro notes that Sinatra
Sinatra
began to bury himself in his work, with an "unparalleled frenetic schedule of recordings, movies and concerts",[160] in what authors Anthony Summers and Robbyn Swan describe as "a new and brilliant phase".[161] On March 13, 1953, Sinatra
Sinatra
met with Capitol Records vice president Alan Livingston and signed a seven-year recording contract.[162] His first session for Capitol took place at KHJ studios at Studio C, 5515 Melrose Avenue in Los Angeles, with Axel Stordahl conducting.[163] The session produced four recordings, including "I'm Walking Behind You",[164] Sinatra's first Capitol single.[165] After spending two weeks on location in Hawaii
Hawaii
filming From Here to Eternity, Sinatra
Sinatra
returned to KHJ on April 30 for his first recording session with Nelson Riddle, an established arranger and conductor at Capitol who was Nat King Cole's musical director.[166] After recording the first song, "I've Got the World on a String", Sinatra
Sinatra
offered Riddle a rare expression of praise, "Beautiful!",[167] and after listening to the playbacks, he could not hide his enthusiasm, exclaiming, "I'm back, baby, I'm back!"[168] In subsequent sessions in May and November 1953,[169] Sinatra
Sinatra
and Riddle developed and refined their musical collaboration, with Sinatra providing specific guidance on the arrangements.[168] Sinatra's first album for Capitol, Songs for Young Lovers, was released on January 4, 1954, and included "A Foggy Day", "I Get a Kick Out of You", "My Funny Valentine", "Violets for Your Furs" and "They Can't Take That Away from Me",[170] songs which became staples of his later concerts.[31][171] That same month, Sinatra
Sinatra
and Doris Day
Doris Day
released the single "Young at Heart", which reached #2 and was awarded Song of the Year.[172][173][174][t] In March, he recorded and released the single "Three Coins in the Fountain", a "powerful ballad"[177] that reached #4.[178] Sinatra's second album with Riddle, Swing Easy!, which reflected his "love for the jazz idiom" according to Granata,[179] was released on August 2 of that year and included "Just One of Those Things", "Taking a Chance on Love", "Get Happy", and "All of Me".[178][180] Swing Easy!
Swing Easy!
was named Album of the Year by Billboard, and he was also named "Favorite Male Vocalist" by Billboard, Down Beat, and Metronome
Metronome
that year.[181][182] Sinatra
Sinatra
came to consider Riddle "the greatest arranger in the world",[183] and Riddle, who considered Sinatra
Sinatra
"a perfectionist",[168] offered equal praise of the singer, observing, "It's not only that his intuitions as to tempi, phrasing, and even configuration are amazingly right, but his taste is so impeccable ... there is still no one who can approach him."[183] In 1955 Sinatra
Sinatra
released In the Wee Small Hours, his first 12" LP,[184] featuring songs such as " In the Wee Small Hours
In the Wee Small Hours
of the Morning", "Mood Indigo", "Glad to Be Unhappy" and "When Your Lover Has Gone".[185] According to Granata it was the first concept album of his to make a "single persuasive statement", with an extended program and "melancholy mood".[179] Sinatra
Sinatra
embarked on his first tour of Australia the same year.[186] Another collaboration with Riddle resulted in the development of Songs for Swingin' Lovers!, sometimes seen as one of his best albums, which was released in March 1956.[187] It features a recording of "I've Got You Under My Skin" by Cole Porter,[188] something which Sinatra
Sinatra
paid meticulous care to, taking a reported 22 takes to perfect.[189] His February 1956 recording sessions inaugurated the studios at the Capitol Records
Capitol Records
Building,[190] complete with a 56-piece symphonic orchestra.[191] According to Granata his recordings of "Night and Day", "Oh! Look At Me Now" and "From This Moment On" revealed "powerful sexual overtones, stunningly achieved through the mounting tension and release of Sinatra's best-teasing vocal lines", while his recording of "River, Stay 'Way from My Door" in April demonstrated his "brilliance as a syncopational improviser".[192] Riddle said that Sinatra
Sinatra
took "particular delight" in singing "The Lady is a Tramp", commenting that he "always sang that song with a certain amount of salaciousness", making "cue tricks" with the lyrics.[193] His penchant for conducting was displayed again in 1956's Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
Conducts Tone Poems of Color, an instrumental album that has been interpreted to be a catharsis to his failed relationship with Gardner.[194] Also that year, Sinatra
Sinatra
sang at the Democratic National Convention, and performed with The Dorsey Brothers
The Dorsey Brothers
for a week soon afterwards at the Paramount Theatre.[195]

Sinatra
Sinatra
in 1957

In 1957, Sinatra
Sinatra
released Close to You, A Swingin' Affair!
A Swingin' Affair!
and Where Are You?—his first album in stereo, with Gordon Jenkins.[196] Granata considers "Close to You" to have been thematically his closest concept album to perfection during the "golden" era, and Nelson Riddle's finest work, which was "extremely progressive" by the stands of the day. It is structured like a three-act play, each commencing with the songs "With Every Breath I Take", "Blame It On My Youth" and "It Could Happen to You".[197] For Granata, Sinatra's A Swingin' Affair! and swing music predecessor Songs for Swingin' Lovers! solidified "Sinatra's image as a 'swinger', from both a musical and visual standpoint". Buddy Collette
Buddy Collette
considered the swing albums to have been heavily influenced by Sammy Davis, Jr., and stated that when he worked with Sinatra
Sinatra
in the mid-1960s he approached a song much differently than he had done in the early 1950s.[189] On June 9, 1957, he performed in a 62-minute concert conducted by Riddle at the Seattle Civic Auditorium,[198] his first appearance in Seattle
Seattle
since 1945.[171] The recording was first released as a bootleg, but in 1999 Artanis Entertainment Group
Artanis Entertainment Group
officially released it as the Sinatra
Sinatra
'57 in Concert live album, after Sinatra's death.[199] In 1958 Sinatra released the album Come Fly with Me with Billy May.[200] It reached the top spot on the Billboard album chart in its second week, remaining at the top for five weeks,[201] and was nominated for the Grammy Award for Album of the Year
Grammy Award for Album of the Year
at the inaugural Grammy Awards.[202] The title song, "Come Fly With Me", written especially for him, would become one of his best known standards.[203] On May 29 he recorded seven songs in a single session, more than double the usual yield of a recording session, and an eighth was planned, "Lush Life", but Sinatra
Sinatra
found it too technically demanding.[204] In September, Sinatra
Sinatra
released Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
Sings for Only the Lonely, a stark collection of introspective[u] saloon songs and blues-tinged ballads which proved a huge commercial success, spending 120 weeks on Billboards album chart and peaking at No. 1.[206] Cuts from this LP, such as "Angel Eyes" and "One for My Baby (and One More for the Road)", would remain staples of the "saloon song" segments of Sinatra's concerts.[207] In 1959, Sinatra
Sinatra
released Come Dance with Me!, a highly successful, critically acclaimed album which stayed on Billboard's Pop album chart for 140 weeks, peaking at #2. It won the Grammy
Grammy
Award for Album of the Year, as well as Best Vocal Performance, Male and Best Arrangement for Billy May.[208] He also released No One Cares
No One Cares
in the same year, a collection of "brooding, lonely" torch songs, which critic Stephen Thomas Erlewine thought was "nearly as good as its predecessor Where Are You?, but lacked the "lush" arrangements of it and the "grandiose melancholy" of Only the Lonely.[209] In the words of Kelley, by 1959, Sinatra
Sinatra
was "not simply the leader of the Rat Pack" but had "assumed the position of il padrone in Hollywood". He was asked by 20th Century Fox
20th Century Fox
to be the master of ceremonies at a luncheon attended by President Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
on September 19, 1959.[210] Nice 'n' Easy, a collection of ballads, topped the Billboard chart in October 1960 and remained in the charts for 86 weeks, [211] winning critical plaudits.[212][213] Granata noted the "lifelike ambient sound" quality of Nice and Easy, the perfection in the stereo balance, and the "bold, bright and snappy" sound of the band. He highlighted the "close, warm and sharp" feel of Sinatra's voice, particularly on the songs "September in the Rain", "I Concentrate on You", and "My Blue Heaven".[214] Reprise years (1961–1981)[edit]

Sinatra
Sinatra
with Dean Martin
Dean Martin
and Judy Garland
Judy Garland
in 1962

Sinatra
Sinatra
grew discontented at Capitol, and fell into a feud with Alan Livingston, which lasted over six months.[214] His first attempt at owning his own label was with his pursuit of buying declining jazz label, Verve Records, which ended once an initial agreement with Verve founder, Norman Granz, "failed to materialize."[215] He decided to form his own label, Reprise Records[216] and, in an effort to assert his new direction, temporarily parted with Riddle, May and Jenkins, working with other arrangers such as Neil Hefti, Don Costa, and Quincy Jones.[217] Sinatra
Sinatra
built the appeal of Reprise Records
Reprise Records
as one in which artists were promised creative control over their music, as well as a guarantee that they would eventually gain "complete ownership of their work, including publishing rights."[218] Under Sinatra
Sinatra
the company developed into a music industry "powerhouse", and he later sold it for an estimated $80 million.[219] His first album on the label, Ring-a-Ding-Ding! (1961), was a major success, peaking at No.4 on Billboard.[220] The album was released in February 1961, the same month that Reprise Records
Reprise Records
released Ben Webster's The Warm Moods, Sammy Davis, Jr.'s The Wham of Sam, Mavis River's Mavis and Joe E. Lewis's It is Now Post Time.[221] During the initial years of Reprise, Sinatra
Sinatra
was still under contract to record for Capitol, completing his contractual commitment with the release of Point of No Return, recorded over a two day period on September 11 and 12, 1961.[222] In an effort to maintain his commercial viability in the 1960s, Sinatra recorded Elvis Presley's hit "Love Me Tender", and later recorded works by Paul Simon
Paul Simon
such as "Mrs. Robinson", the Beatles ("Something", "Yesterday"), and Joni Mitchell
Joni Mitchell
("Both Sides, Now").[223] In 1962, Sinatra
Sinatra
released Sinatra
Sinatra
and Strings, a set of standard ballads arranged by Don Costa, which became one of the most critically acclaimed works of Sinatra's entire Reprise period. Frank Sinatra, Jr., who was present during the recording, noted the "huge orchestra", which Nancy Sinatra
Nancy Sinatra
stated "opened a whole new era" in pop music, with orchestras getting bigger, embracing a "lush string sound".[224] Sinatra
Sinatra
and Count Basie
Count Basie
collaborated for the album Sinatra-Basie the same year,[225] a popular and successful release which prompted them to rejoin two years later for the follow-up It Might as Well Be Swing, arranged by Quincy Jones.[226] The two became frequent performers together,[227] and appeared at the Newport Jazz
Jazz
Festival in 1965.[186] Also in 1962, as the owner of his own record label, Sinatra
Sinatra
was able to step on the podium as conductor again, releasing his third instrumental album Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
Conducts Music from Pictures and Plays.[190]

Sinatra
Sinatra
at the Grauman's Chinese Theatre in 1965

In 1963, Sinatra
Sinatra
reunited with Nelson Riddle
Nelson Riddle
for The Concert Sinatra, an ambitious album featuring a 73-piece symphony orchestra arranged and conducted by Riddle. The concert was recorded on a motion picture scoring soundstage with the use of multiple synchronized recording machines that employed an optical signal onto 35 mm film designed for movie soundtracks. Granata considers the album to have been "impeachable" [sic], "one of the very best of the Sinatra-Riddle ballad albums", in which Sinatra
Sinatra
displayed an impressive vocal range, particularly in "Ol' Man River", in which he darkened the hue.[228] In 1964 the song "My Kind of Town" was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Song.[229] Sinatra
Sinatra
released Softly, as I Leave You,[230] and collaborated with Bing Crosby
Bing Crosby
and Fred Waring
Fred Waring
on America, I Hear You Singing, a collection of patriotic songs recorded as a tribute to the assassinated President John F. Kennedy.[231][232] Sinatra
Sinatra
increasingly became involved in charitable pursuits in this period. In 1961 and 1962 he went to Mexico, with the sole purpose of putting on performances for Mexican charities,[v] and in July 1964 he was present for the dedication of the Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
International Youth Center for Arab and Jewish children in Nazareth.[234] Sinatra's phenomenal success in 1965, coinciding with his 50th birthday, prompted Billboard to proclaim that he may have reached the "peak of his eminence".[235] In June 1965, Sinatra, Sammy Davis, Jr., and Dean Martin
Dean Martin
played live in St. Louis
St. Louis
to benefit Dismas House, a prisoner rehabilitation and training center with nationwide programs that in particular helped serve African Americans. The Rat Pack concert was broadcast live via satellite to numerous movie theaters across America.[236] The album September of My Years was released September 1965, and went on to win the Grammy
Grammy
Award for best album of the year.[237] Granata considers the album to have been one of the finest of his Reprise years, "a reflective throwback to the concept records of the 1950s, and more than any of those collections, distills everything that Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
had ever learned or experienced as a vocalist".[238] One of the album's singles, "It Was a Very Good Year", won the Grammy
Grammy
Award for Best Vocal Performance, Male.[239] A career anthology, A Man and His Music, followed in November, winning Album of the Year at the Grammys the following year.[240]

The Sands Hotel and Casino
Sands Hotel and Casino
in 1959

In 1966 Sinatra
Sinatra
released That's Life, with both the single of "That's Life" and album becoming Top Ten hits in the US on Billboard's pop charts.[241] Strangers in the Night went on to top the Billboard and UK pop singles charts,[242][243] winning the award for Record of the Year at the Grammys.[244] Sinatra's first live album, Sinatra
Sinatra
at the Sands, was recorded during January and February 1966 at the Sands Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas. Sinatra
Sinatra
was backed by the Count Basie Orchestra, with Quincy Jones
Quincy Jones
conducting.[245] Sinatra
Sinatra
pulled out from the Sands the following year, when he was driven out by its new owner Howard Hughes, after a fight.[246][w] Sinatra
Sinatra
started 1967 with a series of recording sessions with Antônio Carlos Jobim. He recorded one of his most famous collaborations with Jobim, the Grammy-nominated album Francis Albert Sinatra
Sinatra
& Antônio Carlos Jobim, which was one of the best-selling albums of the year, behind the Beatles's Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band.[251] According to Santopietro the album "consists of an extraordinarily effective blend of bossa nova and slightly swinging jazz vocals, and succeeds in creating an unbroken mood of romance and regret".[252] Writer Stan Cornyn wrote that Sinatra
Sinatra
sang so softly on the album that it was comparable to the time that he suffered from a vocal hemorrhage in 1950.[253] Sinatra
Sinatra
also released the album The World We Knew, which features a chart-topping duet of "Somethin' Stupid" with daughter Nancy.[242][254] In December, Sinatra
Sinatra
collaborated with Duke Ellington on the album Francis A. & Edward K..[255] According to Granata, the recording of "Indian Summer" on the album was a favorite of Riddle's, noting the "contemplative mood [which] is heightened by a Johnny Hodges
Johnny Hodges
alto sax solo that will bring a tear to your eye".[256] With Sinatra
Sinatra
in mind, singer-songwriter Paul Anka
Paul Anka
wrote the song "My Way", using the melody of the French "Comme d'habitude" ("As Usual"), composed by Claude François
Claude François
and Jacques Revaux.[257] Sinatra
Sinatra
recorded it just after Christmas 1968.[258] "My Way", Sinatra's best-known song on the Reprise label, was not an instant success, charting at #27 in the US and #5 in the UK,[259] but it remained in the UK charts for 122 weeks, including 75 non-consecutive weeks in the Top 40, between April 1969 and September 1971, which was still a record in 2015.[260][261] Sinatra
Sinatra
told songwriter Ervin Drake
Ervin Drake
in the 1970s that he "detested" singing the song, because he believed audiences would think it was a "self-aggrandizing tribute", professing that he "hated boastfulness in others".[262] "Retirement" and return (1970–1981)[edit]

Caesars Palace
Caesars Palace
in 1970, where Sinatra
Sinatra
performed from 1967 to 1970 and 1973 onwards

In 1970, Sinatra
Sinatra
released Watertown, one of his most acclaimed concept albums, with music by Bob Gaudio (of the Four Seasons) and lyrics by Jake Holmes.[263] However, it sold a mere 30,000 copies that year and reached a peak chart position of 101.[264] He left Caesars Palace
Caesars Palace
in September that year after an incident where executive Sanford Waterman pulled a gun on him.[x] He performed several charity concerts with Count Basie
Count Basie
at the Royal Festival Hall
Royal Festival Hall
in London.[268] On November 2, 1970, Sinatra
Sinatra
recorded the last songs for Reprise Records
Reprise Records
before his self-imposed retirement,[269] announced the following June at a concert in Hollywood to raise money for the Motion Picture and TV Relief Fund.[270] He finished the concert with a "rousing" performance of "That's Life", and stated "Excuse me while I disappear" as he left the stage.[271] He told LIFE journalist Thomas Thompson that "I've got things to do, like the first thing is not to do anything at all for eight months ... maybe a year",[272] while Barbara Sinatra later claimed that Sinatra
Sinatra
had grown "tired of entertaining people, especially when all they really wanted were the same old tunes he had long ago become bored by".[273] While he was in retirement, President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
asked him to perform at a Young Voters Rally in anticipation of the upcoming campaign. Sinatra
Sinatra
obliged and chose to sing "My Kind of Town" for the rally held in Chicago
Chicago
on October 20, 1972.[274] In 1973, Sinatra
Sinatra
came out of his short-lived retirement with a television special and album. The album, entitled Ol' Blue Eyes Is Back,[264] arranged by Gordon Jenkins and Don Costa,[275] was a success, reaching number 13 on Billboard and number 12 in the UK.[276][277] The television special, Magnavox Presents Frank Sinatra, reunited Sinatra
Sinatra
with Gene Kelly. He initially developed problems with his vocal cords during the comeback due to a prolonged period without singing.[278] That Christmas he performed at the Sahara Hotel
Sahara Hotel
in Las Vegas,[279] and returned to Caesars Palace
Caesars Palace
the following month in January 1974, despite previously vowing to perform there again [sic].[280] He began what Barbara Sinatra describes as a "massive comeback tour of the United States, Europe, the Far East and Australia".[281] In July, while on a second tour of Australia,[282] he caused an uproar by describing journalists there – who were aggressively pursuing his every move and pushing for a press conference – as "bums, parasites, fags, and buck-and-a-half hookers".[283] After he was pressured to apologize, Sinatra
Sinatra
instead insisted that the journalists apologize for "fifteen years of abuse I have taken from the world press".[284] In the end, Sinatra's lawyer, Mickey Rudin, arranged a final concert which was televised to the nation, and Sinatra
Sinatra
was given the opportunity to say "I love your attitude, I love your booze" to the Australian people.[285] In October 1974 he appeared at New York City's Madison Square Garden
Madison Square Garden
in a televised concert that was later released as an album under the title The Main Event – Live. Backing him was bandleader Woody Herman and the Young Thundering Herd, who accompanied Sinatra
Sinatra
on a European tour later that month.[286][287]

At the White House, 1973

In 1975, Sinatra
Sinatra
performed in concerts in New York with Count Basie and Ella Fitzgerald, and at the London Palladium
London Palladium
with Basie and Sarah Vaughan, and in Tehran at Aryamehr Stadium, giving 140 performances in 105 days.[288] In August he held several consecutive concerts at Lake Tahoe together with the newly-risen singer John Denver,[289][290] who became a frequent collaborator.[291] Sinatra
Sinatra
had recorded Denver's "Leaving on a Jet Plane" and "My Sweet Lady" for Sinatra
Sinatra
& Company (1971),[292][293] and according to Denver, his song "A Baby Just Like You" was written at Sinatra's request for his new grandchild, Angela.[294] During the Labor Day weekend held in 1976, Sinatra
Sinatra
was responsible for reuniting old friends and comedy partners Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis
Jerry Lewis
for the first time in nearly twenty years, when they performed at the " Jerry Lewis
Jerry Lewis
MDA Telethon".[295][296] That year, the Friars Club selected him as the "Top Box Office Name of the Century", and he was given the Scopus Award by the American Friends of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
in Israel and an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from the University of Nevada.[288] Sinatra
Sinatra
continued to perform at Caesars Palace
Caesars Palace
in the late 1970s, and was performing there in January 1977 when his mother Dolly died in a plane crash on the way to see him.[297][y][299] He cancelled two weeks of shows and spent time recovering from the shock in Barbados.[300] In March, he performed in front of Princess Margaret
Princess Margaret
at the Royal Albert Hall in London, raising money for the NSPCC.[301] On March 14, he recorded with Nelson Riddle
Nelson Riddle
for the last time, recording the songs Linda, Sweet Loraine, and Barbara.[302] The two men had a major falling out, and later patched up their differences in January 1985 at a dinner organized for Ronald Reagan, when Sinatra
Sinatra
asked Riddle to make another album with him. Riddle was ill at the time, and died that October, before they had a chance to record.[303] In 1978, Sinatra
Sinatra
filed a $1 million lawsuit against a land developer for using his name in the " Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
Drive Center" in West Los Angeles.[304] During a party at Caesars in 1979, he was awarded the Grammy
Grammy
Trustees Award, while celebrating 40 years in show business and his 64th birthday.[305][306] That year, former President Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
awarded Sinatra
Sinatra
the International Man of the Year Award,[307] and he performed in front of the Egyptian pyramids
Egyptian pyramids
for Anwar Sadat, which raised more than $500,000 for Sadat's wife's charities.[301] In 1980, Sinatra's first album in six years was released, Trilogy: Past Present Future, a highly ambitious triple album that features an array of songs from both the pre-rock era and rock era.[308] It was the first studio album of Sinatra's to feature his touring pianist at the time, Vinnie Falcone, and was based on an idea by Sonny Burke.[309] The album garnered six Grammy
Grammy
nominations – winning for best liner notes – and peaked at number 17 on Billboard's album chart,[308] and spawned yet another song that would become a signature tune, "Theme from New York, New York".[302] That year, as part of the Concert of the Americas, he performed in the Maracana Stadium in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which broke records for the "largest live paid audience ever recorded for a solo performer".[310] The following year, Sinatra
Sinatra
built on the success of Trilogy
Trilogy
with She Shot Me Down, an album that was praised for embodying the dark tone of his Capitol years.[311] Also in 1981, Sinatra
Sinatra
was embroiled in controversy when he worked a ten-day engagement for $2 million in Sun City, in the internationally unrecognized Bophuthatswana, breaking a cultural boycott against apartheid-era South Africa. President Lucas Mangope awarded Sinatra
Sinatra
with the highest honor, the Order of the Leopard, and made him an honorary tribal chief.[312] Later career (1982–1998)[edit]

Sinatra
Sinatra
signed a $16 million three-year deal with the Golden Nugget Las Vegas
Las Vegas
in 1982

Santopietro stated that by the early 1980s, Sinatra's voice had "coarsened, losing much of its power and flexibility, but audiences didn't care".[313] In 1982, he signed a $16 million three-year deal with the Golden Nugget of Las Vegas. Kelley notes that by this period Sinatra's voice had grown "darker, tougher and loamier", but he "continued to captivate audiences with his immutable magic". She added that his baritone voice "sometimes cracked, but the gliding intonations still aroused the same raptures of delight as they had at the Paramount Theater".[314] That year he made a reported further $1.3 million from the Showtime television rights to his "Concert of the Americas" in the Dominican Republic, $1.6 million for a concert series at Carnegie Hall, and $250,000 in just one evening at the Chicago
Chicago
Fest. He donated a lot of his earnings to charity.[315] He put on a performance at the White House for the Italian Prime Minister, and performed at the Radio City Music Hall
Radio City Music Hall
with Luciano Pavarotti and George Shearing.[316] Sinatra
Sinatra
was selected as one of the five recipients of the 1983 Kennedy Center Honors, alongside Katherine Dunham, James Stewart, Elia Kazan, and Virgil Thomson. Quoting Henry James, President Reagan said in honoring his old friend that "art was the shadow of humanity" and that Sinatra
Sinatra
had "spent his life casting a magnificent and powerful shadow".[317] On September 21, 1983, Sinatra
Sinatra
filed a $2 million court case against Kitty Kelley, suing her in punitive damages, before her unofficial biography, His Way, was even published. The book became a best-seller for "all the wrong reasons" and "the most eye-opening celebrity biography of our time", according to William Safire
William Safire
of The New York Times.[318] Sinatra
Sinatra
was always adamant that such a book would be written on his terms, and he himself would "set the record straight" in details of his life.[319] According to Kelley, the family detested her and the book, which took its toll on Sinatra's health. Kelley claims that Tina Sinatra blamed her for her father's colon surgery in 1986.[320] He was forced to drop the case on September 19, 1984, with several leading newspapers expressing concerns about his views on censorship.[321] In 1984, Sinatra
Sinatra
worked with Quincy Jones
Quincy Jones
for the first time in nearly two decades on the album, L.A. Is My Lady, which was well received critically.[322] The album was a substitute for another Jones project, an album of duets with Lena Horne, which had to be abandoned.[z] In 1986, Sinatra
Sinatra
collapsed on stage while performing in Atlantic City
Atlantic City
and was hospitalized for diverticulitis,[324] which left him looking frail.[325] Two years later, Sinatra
Sinatra
reunited with Martin and Davis, Jr. and went on the Rat Pack
Rat Pack
Reunion Tour, during which they played a number of large arenas. When Martin dropped out of the tour early on, a rift developed between them and the two never spoke again.[326] On June 6, 1988, Sinatra
Sinatra
made his last recordings with Reprise for an album which was not released. He recorded "My Foolish Heart," "Cry Me A River," and other songs. Sinatra
Sinatra
never completed the project, but take number 18 of "My Foolish Heart" may be heard in The Complete Reprise Studio Recordings (1995).[327]

Sinatra
Sinatra
with Brendan Grace
Brendan Grace
in 1991

In 1990, Sinatra
Sinatra
was awarded the second "Ella Award" by the Los Angeles-based Society of Singers, and performed for a final time with Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
at the award ceremony.[328] Sinatra
Sinatra
maintained an active touring schedule in the early 1990s, performing 65 concerts in 1990, 73 in 1991 and 84 in 1992 in seventeen different countries.[329] In 1993, Sinatra
Sinatra
returned to Capitol Records
Capitol Records
and the recording studio for Duets, which became his best-selling album.[330] The album and its sequel, Duets II, released the following year,[331] would see Sinatra remake his classic recordings with popular contemporary performers, who added their vocals to a pre-recorded tape.[332] During his tours in the early 1990s, his memory failed him at times during concerts, and he fainted onstage in Richmond, Virginia, in March 1994.[333] His final public concerts were held in Fukuoka Dome
Fukuoka Dome
in Japan on December 19–20, 1994.[334] The following year, Sinatra
Sinatra
sang for the very last time on February 25, 1995, before a live audience of 1200 select guests at the Palm Desert Marriott Ballroom, on the closing night of the Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
Desert Classic golf tournament.[335] Esquire reported of the show that Sinatra
Sinatra
was "clear, tough, on the money" and "in absolute control".[336] Sinatra
Sinatra
was awarded the Legend Award at the 1994 Grammy
Grammy
Awards, where he was introduced by Bono, who said of him, "Frank's the chairman of the bad attitude ... Rock 'n roll plays at being tough, but this guy is the boss – the chairman of boss ... I'm not going to mess with him, are you?"[337][338] In 1995, to mark Sinatra's 80th birthday, the Empire State Building glowed blue.[339] A star-studded birthday tribute, Sinatra: 80 Years My Way, was held at the Shrine Auditorium
Shrine Auditorium
in Los Angeles, featuring performers such as Ray Charles, Little Richard, Natalie Cole
Natalie Cole
and Salt-N-Pepa
Salt-N-Pepa
singing his songs.[340] At the end of the program Sinatra graced the stage for the last time to sing the final notes of the "Theme from New York, New York" with an ensemble.[341] In recognition of his many years of association with Las Vegas, Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
was elected to the Gaming Hall of Fame in 1997.[342] Artistry[edit]

"He'd always been critical of his voice, and that only intensified as he got older. He never liked to discuss a performance afterward because he knew his voice wasn't as good as it used to be. If someone told him he'd been great, he'd reply, 'It was a nice crowd, but my reed was off' or 'I wasn't so good on the third number'. Strangely, in spite of his hearing problems, he had the most incredible ear, which often drove those he worked with nuts. There could be an orchestra of a hundred musicians, and if one played a bum note he'd know exactly who was responsible."

Barbara Sinatra on Sinatra's voice and musical understanding.[343]

While Sinatra
Sinatra
never formally learned how to read music, he had a fine, natural understanding of it,[344] and he worked very hard from a young age to improve his abilities in all aspects of music.[345] He did, however, learn to follow a lead sheet during a performance by "carefully following the patterns and groupings of notes arranged on the page" and made his own notations to the music, using his ear to detect semi-tonal differences.[346] Granata states that some of the most accomplished classically trained musicians soon noticed his musical understanding, and remarked that Sinatra
Sinatra
had a "sixth sense", which "demonstrated unusual proficiency when it came to detecting incorrect notes and sounds within the orchestra".[347] Sinatra
Sinatra
was an aficionado of classical music,[348] and would often request classical strains in his music, inspired by composers such as Puccini
Puccini
and Impressionist masters. His personal favorite was Ralph Vaughan Williams.[349] He would insist on always recording live with the band because it gave him a "certain feeling" to perform live surrounded by musicians.[350] By the mid 1940s, such was his understanding of music that after hearing an air check of some compositions by Alec Wilder which were for strings and woodwinds, he became the conductor at Columbia Records
Columbia Records
for six of Wilder's compositions: "Air for Oboe", "Air for English Horn", "Air for Flute", "Air for Bassoon", "Slow Dance" and "Theme and Variations".[aa] The works, which combine elements of jazz and classical music, were considered by Wilder to have been among the finest renditions and recordings of his compositions, past or present.[344] At one recording session with arranger Claus Ogerman and an orchestra, Sinatra
Sinatra
heard "a couple of little strangers" in the string section, prompting Ogerman to make corrections to what were thought to be copyist's errors.[344] Critic Gene Lees, a lyricist and the author of the words to the Jobim melody "This Happy Madness", expressed amazement when he heard Sinatra's recording of it on Sinatra
Sinatra
& Company (1971), considering him to have delivered the lyrics to perfection.[351] Voice coach John Quinlan was impressed by Sinatra's vocal range, remarking, "He has far more voice than people think he has. He can vocalize to a B-flat on top in full voice, and he doesn't need a mic either".[42] As a singer, early on he was primarily influenced by Bing Crosby,[35] but later believed that Tony Bennett
Tony Bennett
was "the best singer in the business".[352] Bennett also praised Sinatra
Sinatra
himself, claiming that as a performer, he had "perfected the art of intimacy."[353] According to Nelson Riddle, Sinatra
Sinatra
had a "fairly rangy voice",[ab] remarking that "His voice has a very strident, insistent sound in the top register, a smooth lyrical sound in the middle register, and a very tender sound in the low. His voice is built on infinite taste, with an overall inflection of sex. He points everything he does from a sexual standpoint".[354] Despite his heavy New Jersey accent, according to Richard Schuller, when Sinatra
Sinatra
sang his accent was "virtually undetectable", with his diction becoming "precise" and articulation "meticulous".[354] His timing was impeccable, allowing him, according to Charles L. Granata, to "toy with the rhythm of a melody, bringing tremendous excitement to his reading of a lyric".[355] Tommy Dorsey
Tommy Dorsey
observed that Sinatra
Sinatra
would "take a musical phrase and play it all the way through seemingly without breathing for eight, ten, maybe sixteen bars." Dorsey was a considerable influence on Sinatra's techniques for his vocal phrasing with his own exceptional breath control on the trombone,[356] and Sinatra
Sinatra
regularly swam and held his breath underwater, thinking of song lyrics to increase his breathing power.[68]

Sinatra
Sinatra
with Axel Stordahl
Axel Stordahl
at the Liederkrantz Hall in New York, c. 1947

Arranger Nelson Riddle
Nelson Riddle
found Sinatra
Sinatra
to be a "perfectionist who drove himself and everybody around him relentlessly", and stated that his collaborators approached him with a sense of uneasiness because of his unpredictable and often volatile temperament.[357] Granata comments that Sinatra
Sinatra
was almost fanatically obsessed with perfection to the point that people began wondering if he was genuinely concerned about the music or showing off his power over others.[122] On days when he felt that his voice was not right, he would know after only a few notes and would postpone the recording session until the following day, yet still pay his musicians.[358] After a period of performing, Sinatra
Sinatra
tired of singing a certain set of songs and was always looking for talented new songwriters and composers to work with. Once he found ones that he liked, he actively sought to work with them as often as he could, and made friends with many of them. He once told Sammy Cahn, who wrote songs for Anchor's Away, "if you're not there Monday, I'm not there Monday". Over the years he recorded 87 of Cahn's songs, of which 24 were composed by Jule Styne, and 43 by Jimmy Van Heusen. The Cahn-Styne partnership lasted from 1942 until 1954, when Van Heusen succeeded him as Sinatra's main composer.[359] Unlike many of his contemporaries, Sinatra
Sinatra
insisted upon direct input regarding arrangements and tempos for his recordings. He would spend weeks thinking about the songs he wanted to record, and would keep an arranger in mind for each song. If it were a mellow love song, he would ask for Gordon Jenkins. If it were a "rhythm" number, he would think of Billy May, or perhaps Neil Hefti
Neil Hefti
or some other favored arranger. Jenkins considered Sinatra's musical sense to be unerring. His changes to Riddle's charts would frustrate Riddle, yet he would usually concede that Sinatra's ideas were superior.[360] Barbara Sinatra
Sinatra
notes that Sinatra
Sinatra
would almost always credit the songwriter at the end of each number, and would often make comments to the audience, such as "Isn't that a pretty ballad" or "Don't you think that's the most marvelous love song", delivered with "childlike delight".[361] She states that after each show, Sinatra
Sinatra
would be "in a buoyant, electrically charged mood, a post-show high that would take him hours to come down from as he quietly relived every note of the performance he'd just given".[362]

"His voice is more interesting now: he has separated his voice into different colors, in different registers. Years ago, his voice was more even, and now it is divided into at least three interesting ranges: low, middle, and high. [He's] probing more deeply into his songs than he used to. That may be due to the ten years he's put on, and the things he's been through."

Nelson Riddle
Nelson Riddle
noting the development of Sinatra's voice in 1955.[363]

Sinatra's split with Gardner in the fall of 1953 had a profound impact on the types of songs he sang and his voice. He began to console himself in songs with a "brooding melancholy", such as "I'm a Fool to Want You", "Don't Worry 'Bout Me", "My One and Only Love" and There Will Never Be Another You",[364] which Riddle believed was the direct influence of Ava Gardner. Lahr comments that the new Sinatra
Sinatra
was "not the gentle boy balladeer of the forties. Fragility had gone from his voice, to be replaced by a virile adult's sense of happiness and hurt".[365] Author Granata considered Sinatra
Sinatra
to have been a "master of the art of recording", noting that his work in the studio "set him apart from other gifted vocalists". During his career he made over 1000 recordings.[366] Recording sessions would typically last three hours, though Sinatra
Sinatra
would always prepare for it by spending at least an hour by the piano beforehand to vocalize, followed by a short rehearsal with the orchestra to ensure the balance of sound.[367] During his Columbia years Sinatra
Sinatra
would use an RCA 44 microphone, which Granata describes as "the 'old-fashioned' microphone which is closely associated with Sinatra's crooner image of the 1940s", though when performing on talk shows later he would use a bullet-shaped RCA 77.[368] At Capitol he used a Neumann U47, an "ultra-sensitive" microphone which better captured the timbre and tone of his voice.[369] In the 1950s, Sinatra's career was facilitated by developments in technology. As disc jockey Jonathan Schwartz said, "Never before had there been an opportunity for a popular singer to express emotions at an extended length". In the words of author John Lahr, "as many as sixteen songs could be held by the twelve-inch L.P., and this allowed Sinatra
Sinatra
to use song in a novelistic way, turning each track in a kind of chapter, which built and counterpointed moods to illuminate a larger theme".[370] Santopietro writes that through the 1950s, well into the 1960s, "every Sinatra
Sinatra
LP was a masterpiece of one sort of another, whether uptempo, torch song, or swingin' affairs. Track after track, the brilliant concept albums redefined the nature of pop vocal art".[371] Film career[edit] See also: Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
filmography Debut, musical films, and career slump (1941–1952)[edit]

Sinatra
Sinatra
in Till the Clouds Roll By
Till the Clouds Roll By
(1946)

Sinatra
Sinatra
attempted to pursue an acting career in Hollywood in the early 1940s. While films appealed to him,[372] being exceptionally self-confident,[373] he was rarely enthusiastic towards his own acting, once remarking that "pictures stink".[374] Sinatra
Sinatra
made his film debut in 1941, performing in an uncredited sequence in Las Vegas Nights, singing "I'll Never Smile Again" with Tommy Dorsey's The Pied Pipers.[375] In 1943 he had a cameo role along with Duke Ellington
Duke Ellington
and Count Basie
Count Basie
in Charles Barton's Reveille with Beverly, making a brief appearance singing "Night and Day".[376] The following year he was given his leading roles in Higher and Higher and Step Lively for RKO Pictures.[377][378] In 1945, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
cast Sinatra
Sinatra
opposite Gene Kelly
Gene Kelly
and Kathryn Grayson
Kathryn Grayson
in the Technicolor
Technicolor
musical Anchors Aweigh, in which he played a sailor on leave in Hollywood for four days.[379][380] A major success,[381] it garnered several Academy Award wins and nominations, and the song "I Fall in Love Too Easily", sung by Sinatra
Sinatra
in the film, was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Song.[382] In 1946, Sinatra
Sinatra
briefly appeared at the end of Richard Whorf's commercially successful Till the Clouds Roll By, a Technicolor
Technicolor
musical biopic of Jerome Kern, in which he sang "Ol' Man River.[383] In 1949, Sinatra
Sinatra
co-starred with Gene Kelly
Gene Kelly
in the Technicolor
Technicolor
musical Take Me Out to the Ball Game, a film set in 1908, in which Sinatra
Sinatra
and Kelly play baseball players who are part-time vaudevillians.[384] He teamed up with Kelly for a third time in On the Town, playing a sailor on leave in New York City. Today the film is rated very highly by critics, and in 2006 it ranked No. 19 on the American Film Institute's list of best musicals.[385] Both Double Dynamite
Double Dynamite
(1951), an RKO Irving Cummings comedy produced by Howard Hughes,[386] and Joseph Pevney's Meet Danny Wilson (1952) failed to make an impression.[387] The New York World Telegram and Sun ran the headline "Gone on Frankie in '42; Gone in '52".[388] Career comeback and prime (1953–1959)[edit]

Sinatra
Sinatra
as Maggio in From Here to Eternity
From Here to Eternity
(1953)

Sinatra
Sinatra
and Grace Kelly
Grace Kelly
on the set of High Society (1956)

Fred Zinnemann's From Here to Eternity
From Here to Eternity
deals with the tribulations of three soldiers, played by Burt Lancaster, Montgomery Clift, and Sinatra, stationed on Hawaii
Hawaii
in the months leading up to the attack on Pearl Harbor.[389] Sinatra
Sinatra
had long been desperate to find a film role which would bring him back into the spotlight, and Columbia Pictures boss Harry Cohn
Harry Cohn
had been inundated by appeals from people across Hollywood to give Sinatra
Sinatra
a chance to star as "Maggio" in the film.[390][ac] During production, Montgomery Clift
Montgomery Clift
became a close friend,[392] and Sinatra
Sinatra
later professed that he "learned more about acting from him than anybody I ever knew before".[393] After several years of critical and commercial decline, his Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor win helped him regain his position as the top recording artist in the world.[394] His performance also won a Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture.[395] The Los Angeles Examiner wrote that Sinatra
Sinatra
is "simply superb, comical, pitiful, childishly brave, pathetically defiant", commenting that his death scene is "one of the best ever photographed".[396] In 1954 Sinatra
Sinatra
starred opposite Doris Day
Doris Day
in the musical film Young at Heart,[397] and earned critical praise for his performance as a psychopathic killer posing as an FBI
FBI
agent opposite Sterling Hayden
Sterling Hayden
in the film noir Suddenly.[398] Sinatra
Sinatra
was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actor
Academy Award for Best Actor
and BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role for his role as a heroin addict in The Man With The Golden Arm
The Man With The Golden Arm
(1955).[399][ad] After roles in Guys and Dolls,[401] and The Tender Trap,[402] Sinatra
Sinatra
was nominated for a BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role
BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role
for his role as hospital orderly in Stanley Kramer's début picture, Not as a Stranger.[403] During production, Sinatra
Sinatra
got drunk with Robert Mitchum
Robert Mitchum
and Broderick Crawford and trashed Kramer's dressing room.[404] Kramer vowed to never hire Sinatra
Sinatra
again at the time, and later regretted casting him as a Spanish guerrilla leader in The Pride and the Passion (1957).[405][406] In 1956 Sinatra
Sinatra
featured alongside Bing Crosby
Bing Crosby
and Grace Kelly
Grace Kelly
in High Society for MGM, earning a reported $250,000 for the picture.[407] The public rushed to the cinemas to see Sinatra
Sinatra
and Crosby together on-screen, and it ended up earning over $13 million at the box office, becoming one of the highest-grossing pictures of 1956.[408] In 1957, Sinatra
Sinatra
starred opposite Rita Hayworth
Rita Hayworth
and Kim Novak
Kim Novak
in George Sidney's Pal Joey, for which he won for the Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy.[395] Santopietro considers the scene in which Sinatra
Sinatra
sings "The Lady Is a Tramp" to Hayworth to have been the finest moment of his film career.[409] He next portrayed comedian Joe E. Lewis
Joe E. Lewis
in The Joker Is Wild;[410] the song "All the Way" won the Academy Award for Best Original Song.[411] By 1958 Sinatra
Sinatra
was one of the ten biggest box office draws in the United States,[412] appearing with Dean Martin
Dean Martin
and Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
in Vincente Minnelli's Some Came Running and Kings Go Forth
Kings Go Forth
with Tony Curtis and Natalie Wood.[413] "High Hopes", sung by Sinatra
Sinatra
in the Frank Capra
Frank Capra
comedy, A Hole in the Head
A Hole in the Head
(1959),[414][415] won the Academy Award for Best Original Song,[416] and became a chart hit, lasting on the Hot 100 for 17 weeks.[417] Later career (1960–1988)[edit]

Sinatra
Sinatra
as Tony Rome

Due to an obligation he owed to 20th Century Fox
20th Century Fox
for walking off the set of Henry King's Carousel (1956),[ae] in 1960 Sinatra
Sinatra
starred opposite Shirley MacLaine, Maurice Chevalier
Maurice Chevalier
and Louis Jourdan
Louis Jourdan
in Can-Can. He earned $200,000 and 25% of the profits for the performance.[418] Later that year he starred in the Las Vegas-set Ocean's 11, the first film to feature the Rat Pack
Rat Pack
together and the start of a "new era of screen cool" for Santopietro.[419] Sinatra personally financed the film, and paid Martin and Davis Jr. fees of $150,000 and $125,000 respectively, sums considered exorbitant for the period.[420] In 1962, Sinatra
Sinatra
had a leading role opposite Laurence Harvey in The Manchurian Candidate, which he considered to be the role he was most excited about and the high point of his film career.[421] Vincent Canby, writing for the magazine Variety, found the portrayal of Sinatra's character to be "a wide-awake pro creating a straight, quietly humorous character of some sensitivity."[422] He appeared with the Rat Pack
Rat Pack
in the western Sergeants 3, following it with 4 for Texas in 1963.[420] For his performance in Come Blow Your Horn, he was nominated for the Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy.[395] Though 1965's Von Ryan's Express
Von Ryan's Express
was a major success,[423][424] and he had directed None but the Brave
None but the Brave
that year,[425] in the mid 1960s, Brad Dexter wanted to "breathe new life" in Sinatra's film career by helping him display the same professional pride in his films as he did his recordings. On one occasion, he gave Sinatra
Sinatra
Anthony Burgess's novel A Clockwork Orange (1962) to read, with the idea of making a film, but Sinatra
Sinatra
thought it had no potential and did not understand a word.[426][af] In the late 1960s, Sinatra
Sinatra
became known for playing detectives,[429] including Tony Rome
Tony Rome
in Tony Rome
Tony Rome
(1967) and its sequel Lady In Cement (1968).[430][431] He also played a similar role in 1968's The Detective.[432] In 1970, Sinatra
Sinatra
starred opposite George Kennedy
George Kennedy
in the western Dirty Dingus Magee, an "abysmal" affair according to Santopietro,[433] which was panned by the critics.[434][435] The following year, Sinatra received a Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille
Award[395] and had intended to play Detective Harry Callahan in Dirty Harry
Dirty Harry
(1971), but had to turn the role down due to developing Dupuytren's contracture
Dupuytren's contracture
in his hand.[436] Sinatra's last major film role was opposite Faye Dunaway
Faye Dunaway
in Brian G. Hutton's The First Deadly Sin
The First Deadly Sin
(1980). Santopietro said that as a troubled New York City homicide cop, Sinatra
Sinatra
gave an "extraordinarily rich", heavily layered characterization, one which "made for one terrific farewell" to his film career.[437] Television and radio career[edit]

Dean Martin
Dean Martin
and Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
on The Dean Martin
Dean Martin
Show in 1958

After beginning on the Major Bowes Amateur Hour
Major Bowes Amateur Hour
radio show with the Hoboken Four
Hoboken Four
in 1935, and later WNEW and WAAT in Jersey City,[52] Sinatra
Sinatra
became the star of various radio shows of his own on NBC
NBC
and CBS
CBS
from the early 1940s to the mid 1950s. In 1942 Sinatra
Sinatra
hired arranger Axel Stordahl
Axel Stordahl
away from Tommy Dorsey
Tommy Dorsey
before he began his first radio program that year, keeping Stordahl with him for all of his radio work.[438] By the end of 1942 he was named the "Most Popular Male Vocalist on Radio" in a Down Beat
Down Beat
poll.[439] Early on he frequently worked with the popular Andrews Sisters on radio, and they would appear as guests on each other's shows,[110] as well as on many USO
USO
shows broadcast to troops via the Armed Forces Radio Service (AFRS).[111] He appeared as a special guest in the sisters' ABC Eight-to-the-Bar Ranch series,[440] while the trio in turn guested on his Songs by Sinatra
Songs by Sinatra
series on CBS.[441] Sinatra
Sinatra
had two stints as a regular member of cast of Your Hit Parade;[ag] his first was from 1943 to 1945,[443] and second was from 1946 to May 28, 1949,[444] during which he was paired with the then-new girl singer, Doris Day.[445] Starting in September 1949, the BBD&O advertising agency produced a radio series starring Sinatra
Sinatra
for Lucky Strike called Light Up Time – some 176 15-minute shows which featured Frank and Dorothy Kirsten
Dorothy Kirsten
singing – which lasted through to May 1950.[446] In October 1951, the second season of The Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
Show began on CBS
CBS
Television. Ultimately, Sinatra
Sinatra
did not find the success on television for which he had hoped.[ah] Santopietro writes that Sinatra "simply never appeared fully at ease on his own television series, his edgy, impatient personality conveying a pent up energy on the verge of exploding".[448] In 1953 Sinatra
Sinatra
starred in the NBC
NBC
radio program Rocky Fortune, portraying Rocco Fortunato (a.k.a. Rocky Fortune), a "footloose and fancy free" temporary worker for the Gridley Employment Agency who stumbles into crime-solving. The series aired on NBC
NBC
radio Tuesday nights from October 1953 to March 1954.[449] In 1957, Sinatra
Sinatra
formed a three-year $3 million contract with ABC to launch The Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
Show, featuring himself and guests in 36 half hour shows. ABC agreed to allow Sinatra's Hobart Productions to keep 60% of the residuals, and bought stock in Sinatra's film production unit, Kent Productions, guaranteeing him $7 million.[450] Though an initial critical success upon its debut on October 18, 1957, it soon attracted negative reviews from Variety and The New Republic, and The Chicago
Chicago
Sun-Times thought that Sinatra
Sinatra
and frequent guest Dean Martin
Dean Martin
"performed like a pair of adult delinquents", "sharing the same cigarette and leering at girls".[451] In return, Sinatra
Sinatra
later made numerous appearances on The Dean Martin Show and Martin's TV specials.[452] Sinatra's fourth and final Timex TV special, Welcome Home Elvis was broadcast in March 1960, which earned massive viewing figures. Sinatra had previously been highly critical of Elvis Presley
Elvis Presley
and rock and roll in the 1950s, describing it as a "deplorable, a rancid smelling aphrodisiac" which "fosters almost totally negative and destructive reactions in young people."[453][ai] A CBS
CBS
News special about the singer's 50th birthday, Frank Sinatra: A Man and His Music, was broadcast on November 16, 1965, and garnered both an Emmy
Emmy
award and a Peabody Award.[455] According his musical collaboration with Jobim and Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
in 1967, Sinatra
Sinatra
appeared in the TV special, A Man and His Music + Ella + Jobim, which was broadcast on CBS
CBS
on November 13.[456] When Sinatra came out of retirement in 1973, he released both an album and appeared in a TV special named "Ol' Blue Eyes Is Back". The TV special was highlighted by a dramatic reading of "Send in the Clowns" and a song-and-dance sequence with former co-star Gene Kelly.[457] In the late 1970s, John Denver
John Denver
appeared as a guest in the Sinatra
Sinatra
and Friends ABC-TV Special, singing "September Song" as a duet.[458] In 1977, Sinatra
Sinatra
starred as a detective in Contract on Cherry Street, cited as his "one starring role in a dramatic television film".[459] Ten years later, he made a guest appearance opposite Tom Selleck
Tom Selleck
in Magnum, P.I., playing a retired policeman who teams up with Selleck to find his granddaughter's murderer. Shot in January 1987, the episode aired on CBS
CBS
on February 25.[460] Personal life[edit] See also: Personal life of Frank Sinatra Sinatra
Sinatra
had three children, Nancy (born 1940), Frank Jr. (1944–2016), and Tina (born 1948) with his first wife, Nancy Sinatra (née Barbato; born March 25, 1917[461]) (m. 1939–1951).[462] Sinatra
Sinatra
had met Barbato in Long Branch, New Jersey
Long Branch, New Jersey
in the late 1930s, where he spent most of the summer working as a lifeguard.[463] He agreed to marry her after an incident at "The Rustic Cabin" which led to his arrest.[aj] Sinatra
Sinatra
had numerous extra-marital affairs,[467] and gossip magazines published details of affairs with women including Marilyn Maxwell, Lana Turner, and Joi Lansing.[468][ak]

"Frank attracted women. He couldn't help it. Just to look at him—the way he moved, and how he behaved—was to know that he was a great lover and true gentleman. He adored the company of women and knew how to treat them. I had friends whose husbands were 'players', and every time the husbands had affairs my friends were showered with gifts. Well, I was constantly showered with gifts, but no matter what temptations Frank may have had while I wasn't around, he made me feel so safe and loved that I never became paranoid about losing him."

Barbara Sinatra on Sinatra's popularity with women.[470]

Sinatra
Sinatra
was married to Hollywood actress Ava Gardner
Ava Gardner
from 1951 to 1957. It was a turbulent marriage, with many well-publicized fights and altercations.[471] The couple formally announced their separation on October 29, 1953, through MGM.[472] Gardner filed for divorce in June 1954, at a time when she was dating matador Luis Miguel Dominguín,[473] but the divorce was not settled until 1957.[474] Sinatra
Sinatra
continued to feel very strongly for her,[474] and they remained friends for life.[475] He was still dealing with her finances in 1976.[476] Sinatra
Sinatra
reportedly broke off engagements to Lauren Bacall
Lauren Bacall
in 1958,[477] and Juliet Prowse
Juliet Prowse
in 1962.[478] He married Mia Farrow
Mia Farrow
on July 19, 1966, a short marriage which ended with divorce in Mexico in August 1968.[479] They remained close friends for life,[480] and in a 2013 interview Farrow said that Sinatra
Sinatra
might be the father of her son, Ronan Farrow
Ronan Farrow
(born 1987).[481][482] In a 2015 CBS
CBS
Sunday Morning interview, Nancy Sinatra
Nancy Sinatra
dismissed the claims as "nonsense".[483] Sinatra
Sinatra
was married to Barbara Marx from 1976 until his death.[484] The couple married at Sunnylands, in Rancho Mirage, California, the estate of media magnate Walter Annenberg, on July 11, 1976.[485] Sinatra
Sinatra
was close friends with Jilly Rizzo,[486] songwriter Jimmy Van Heusen, golfer Ken Venturi, comedian Pat Henry and baseball manager Leo Durocher.[487] In his spare time, Sinatra
Sinatra
enjoyed listening to classical music, and would attend concerts when he could.[348] He swam daily in the Pacific Ocean, finding it to be therapeutic and giving him much-needed solitude.[488] He would often play golf with Venturi at the course in Palm Springs, where he lived,[489] and liked painting, reading, and building model railways.[490] Though Sinatra
Sinatra
was critical of the church on numerous occasions,[491] and had a pantheistic, Einstein-like view of God in his earlier life,[492] he turned to the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
for healing after his mother died in a plane crash in 1977. He died as a practicing Catholic and had a Catholic burial.[493] Style and personality[edit]

Sinatra
Sinatra
in 1955

Sinatra
Sinatra
was known for his sense of style.[494] He always dressed immaculately, both in his professional and private life. He felt that as he was the best, he had to give his best to the audience, and would wear expensive custom-tailored tuxedos on stage as a sign of respect and to look important.[495] He spent lavishly on stylish pin-striped suits and other clothing, and later said that clothing made him feel wealthy and important, bolstering his ego.[496] He was also obsessed with cleanliness—while with the Tommy Dorsey
Tommy Dorsey
band he developed the nickname "Lady Macbeth", because of frequent showering and switching his outfits.[497] His deep blue eyes earned him the popular nickname "Ol' Blue Eyes".[498] For Santopietro, Sinatra
Sinatra
was the personification of America in the 1950s: "cocky, eye on the main chance, optimistic, and full of the sense of possibility".[499] Barbara Sinatra wrote that "A big part of Frank's thrill was the sense of danger that he exuded, an underlying, ever-present tension only those closest to him knew could be defused with humor".[487] Cary Grant, a friend of Sinatra's, stated that Sinatra
Sinatra
was the "most honest person he'd ever met", who spoke "a simple truth, without artifice which scared people", and was often moved to tears by his performances.[500] Jo-Caroll Dennison commented that he possessed "great inner strength", and that his energy and drive was "enormous".[137] A workaholic, he reportedly only slept for four hours a night on average.[501] Throughout his life, Sinatra
Sinatra
had mood swings and bouts of mild to severe depression,[502] admitting to an interviewer in the 1950s that "I have an over-acute capacity for sadness as well as elation".[503] Barbara Sinatra stated that he would "snap at anyone for the slightest misdemeanor",[504] while Van Heusen said that when Sinatra
Sinatra
got drunk it was "best to disappear".[505] Sinatra's mood swings often developed into violence, directed at people he felt had crossed him, particularly journalists who gave him scathing reviews, publicists, and photographers.[506] According to Rojek he was "capable of deeply offensive behavior that smacked of a persecution complex".[507] He received negative press for fights with Lee Mortimer
Lee Mortimer
in 1947, photographer Eddie Schisser in Houston
Houston
in 1950, Judy Garland's publicist Jim Byron
Jim Byron
on the Sunset Strip
Sunset Strip
in 1954,[506][508] and for a confrontation with Washington Post journalist Maxine Cheshire in 1973, in which he implied that she was a cheap prostitute.[507][al] In contrast, Sinatra
Sinatra
was known for his generosity,[509] particularly after his comeback. Kelley notes that when Lee J. Cobb
Lee J. Cobb
nearly died from a heart attack in June 1955, Sinatra flooded him with "books, flowers, delicacies", paid his hospital bills, and visited him daily, telling him that his "finest acting" was yet to come.[510] In another instance, after an argument with manager Bobby Burns, rather than apologize, Sinatra
Sinatra
bought him a brand new Cadillac.[511] Alleged organized-crime links and Cal Neva Lodge[edit]

Mugshot of mobster Lucky Luciano
Lucky Luciano
in 1936

Sinatra
Sinatra
became the stereotype of the "tough working-class Italian American", something which he embraced. Sinatra
Sinatra
commented that if it had not been for his interest in music he would "probably have ended in a life of crime".[512] In his early days, Mafia boss Willie Moretti, Sinatra's godfather and notorious underboss of the Genovese crime family, helped him for kickbacks and was reported to have intervened in releasing him from his contract with Tommy Dorsey.[513] Sinatra
Sinatra
was present at the Mafia Havana Conference
Havana Conference
in 1946,[514] and when the press learned of Sinatra
Sinatra
being in Havana with Lucky Luciano, one newspaper published the headline, "Shame, Sinatra".[515] He was reported to be a good friend of Sam Giancana,[516] and the two were seen playing golf together.[517] Kelley quotes Jo-Carrol Silvers in saying that Sinatra
Sinatra
"adored" Bugsy Siegel, and would boast about him to friends and how many people he had killed.[518] Kelley claims that Sinatra
Sinatra
and mobster Joseph Fischetti had been good friends from 1938 onward, and acted like "Sicilian brothers".[519] She also states that Sinatra
Sinatra
and Hank Sanicola
Hank Sanicola
were financial partners with Mickey Cohen
Mickey Cohen
in the gossip magazine Hollywood Night Life.[520] The Federal Bureau of Investigation
Federal Bureau of Investigation
(FBI) kept records amounting to 2,403 pages on Sinatra, becoming a natural target with his alleged Mafia ties, his ardent New Deal
New Deal
politics and his friendship with John F. Kennedy.[521] The FBI
FBI
kept Sinatra
Sinatra
under surveillance for almost five decades beginning in the 1940s. The documents include accounts of Sinatra
Sinatra
as the target of death threats and extortion schemes.[522] The FBI
FBI
documented that Sinatra
Sinatra
was losing esteem with the Mafia as he grew closer to President Kennedy, whose younger brother Attorney General Robert Kennedy
Robert Kennedy
was leading a crackdown on organized crime.[523] Sinatra
Sinatra
denied Mafia involvement, declaring that "any report that I fraternized with goons or racketeers is a vicious lie".[524] In 1960, Sinatra
Sinatra
bought a share in the Cal Neva Lodge & Casino, a casino hotel which straddles the California- Nevada
Nevada
state line on the north shores of Lake Tahoe. Though it only opened between June and September, Sinatra
Sinatra
built the Celebrity Room theater, which attracted the Sinatra
Sinatra
show business pals, Red Skelton, Marilyn Monroe, Victor Borge, Joe E. Lewis, Lucille Ball, Lena Horne, Juliet Prowse, the McGuire Sisters
McGuire Sisters
and others. By 1962 he reportedly held a 50% share in the hotel.[525] Sinatra's gambling license was temporarily stripped by the Nevada Gaming Control Board in 1963 after Giancana was spotted on the premises.[526][am] Due to ongoing pressure from the FBI
FBI
and Nevada Gaming Commission on mobster control of casinos, Sinatra
Sinatra
agreed to give up his share in Cal Neva and the Sands.[528] That year, Sinatra's son, Frank Sinatra, Jr., was kidnapped, but was eventually released unharmed.[529] Sinatra
Sinatra
restored his gaming license in February 1981, following support from Ronald Reagan.[530] Politics and activism[edit] Main article: Political life of Frank Sinatra

Sinatra, pictured here with Eleanor Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt
in 1960, was an ardent supporter of the Democratic Party until the early 1970s.

Sinatra
Sinatra
held differing political views throughout his life. His mother, Dolly Sinatra
Dolly Sinatra
(1896–1977), was a Democratic Party ward leader.[531] Sinatra
Sinatra
met President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
in 1944, and subsequently heavily campaigned for the Democrats in the 1944 presidential election.[532] According to Jo Carroll Silvers, in his younger years Sinatra
Sinatra
had "ardent liberal" sympathies, and was "so concerned about poor people that he was always quoting Henry Wallace".[533] He was outspoken about racism, particularly toward blacks and Italians, from early on. In November 1945 Sinatra
Sinatra
was invited by the mayor of Gary, Indiana, to try to settle a strike by white students of Froebel High School against the "Pro-Negro" policies of the new principal.[534] His comments, while praised by liberal publications, led to accusations by some that he was a Communist, which he strongly denied.[535] In the 1948 presidential election, Sinatra
Sinatra
actively campaigned for President Harry S. Truman.[536] In 1952 and 1956, he also campaigned for Adlai Stevenson.[536] Of all the U.S. Presidents he associated with during his career, he was closest to John F. Kennedy.[536] Sinatra
Sinatra
often invited Kennedy to Hollywood and Las Vegas, and the two would womanize and enjoy parties together.[537] In January 1961 Sinatra
Sinatra
and Peter Lawford
Peter Lawford
organized the Inaugural Gala in Washington, D.C., held on the evening before President Kennedy was sworn into office.[536] In 1962, Sinatra
Sinatra
was snubbed by Kennedy during his visit to Palm Springs when he decided to stay with the Republican Bing Crosby, due to FBI
FBI
concerns about Sinatra's alleged connections to organized crime.[an] Sinatra
Sinatra
had invested a lot of his own money in upgrading the facilities at his home in anticipation of the President's visit, fitting it with a heliport, which he later reportedly smashed up with a sledgehammer upon being rejected.[539] Despite the snub, when he learned of Kennedy's assassination he reportedly sobbed in his bedroom for three days.[536][ao]

Sinatra
Sinatra
is awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom
by President Ronald Reagan.

Sinatra
Sinatra
worked with Hubert H. Humphrey
Hubert H. Humphrey
in 1968,[541] and remained a supporter of the Democratic Party until the early 1970s. Although still a registered Democrat, Sinatra
Sinatra
endorsed Republican Ronald Reagan for a second term as Governor of California
Governor of California
in 1970.[542][536] He officially changed allegiance in July 1972 when he supported Richard Nixon for re-election in the 1972 presidential election.[536] In the 1980 presidential election, Sinatra
Sinatra
supported Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
and donated $4 million to Reagan's campaign.[543] Sinatra
Sinatra
arranged Reagan's Presidential gala, as he had done for Kennedy 20 years previously.[544][545] In 1985, Reagan presented Sinatra
Sinatra
with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, remarking, "His love of country, his generosity for those less fortunate ... make him one of our most remarkable and distinguished Americans."[318] Santopietro notes that Sinatra
Sinatra
was a "lifelong sympathizer with Jewish causes".[546] He was awarded the Hollzer Memorial Award
Hollzer Memorial Award
by the Los Angeles Jewish Community in 1949.[130] He gave a series of concerts in Israel in 1962, and donated his entire $50,000 fee for appearing in a cameo role in Cast a Giant Shadow
Cast a Giant Shadow
(1966) to the Youth Center in Jerusalem.[546] On November 1, 1972, he raised $6.5 million in bond pledges for Israel,[274] and was given the Medallion of Valor for his efforts.[268] The Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
Student Center at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem was dedicated in his name in 1978.[307] From his youth, Sinatra
Sinatra
displayed sympathy for African Americans and worked both publicly and privately all his life to help them win equal rights. He blamed racial prejudice on the parents of children.[547] Sinatra
Sinatra
played a major role in the desegregation of Nevada
Nevada
hotels and casinos in the 1950s and 1960s.[548] At the Sands in 1955, Sinatra went against policy by inviting Nat King Cole
Nat King Cole
into the dining room,[549] and in 1961, after an incident where an African-American couple entered the lobby of the hotel and were blocked by the security guard, Sinatra
Sinatra
and Sammy Davis, Jr. forced the hotel management to begin hiring black waiters and busboys.[550] On January 27, 1961, Sinatra
Sinatra
played a benefit show at Carnegie Hall
Carnegie Hall
for Martin Luther King, Jr. and led his fellow Rat Pack
Rat Pack
members and Reprise label mates in boycotting hotels and casinos that refused entry to black patrons and performers. According to his son, Frank Sinatra, Jr., King sat weeping in the audience at one of his father's concerts in 1963 as Sinatra sang "Ol' Man River", a song from the musical Show Boat
Show Boat
that is sung by an African-American stevedore.[551] When he changed his political affiliations in 1970, Sinatra
Sinatra
became less outspoken on racial issues.[317] Though he did much towards civil rights causes, it did not stop the occasional racial jibe from him and the other Rat Pack members toward Davis at concerts.[199][552] Death[edit]

Sinatra's gravestone at Desert Memorial Park in Cathedral City, California

Sinatra
Sinatra
died with his wife at his side at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
on May 14, 1998, aged 82, after a heart attack.[553][554] Sinatra
Sinatra
was in ill health during the last few years of his life, and was frequently hospitalized for heart and breathing problems, high blood pressure, pneumonia and bladder cancer. He was further diagnosed as having dementia.[555] He had made no public appearances following a heart attack in February 1997.[553] Sinatra's wife encouraged him to "fight" while attempts were made to stabilize him, and reported that his final words were, "I'm losing."[556] Sinatra's daughter, Tina, later wrote that she and her sister, Nancy, had not been notified of their father's final hospitalization, and it was her belief that "the omission was deliberate. Barbara would be the grieving widow alone at her husband's side."[557] The night after Sinatra's death, the lights on the Empire State Building
Empire State Building
in New York City were turned blue, the lights at the Las Vegas
Las Vegas
Strip were dimmed in his honor, and the casinos stopped spinning for a minute.[554][558] Sinatra's funeral was held at the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
of the Good Shepherd in Beverly Hills, California, on May 20, 1998, with 400 mourners in attendance and thousands of fans outside.[559] Gregory Peck, Tony Bennett, and Sinatra's son, Frank Jr., addressed the mourners, who included many notable people from film and entertainment.[556][559] Sinatra
Sinatra
was buried in a blue business suit with mementos from family members—cherry-flavored Life Savers, Tootsie Rolls, a bottle of Jack Daniel's, a pack of Camel cigarettes, a Zippo
Zippo
lighter, stuffed toys, a dog biscuit, and a roll of dimes that he always carried—next to his parents in section B-8 of Desert Memorial Park in Cathedral City, California.[560] His close friends Jilly Rizzo
Jilly Rizzo
and Jimmy Van Heusen
Jimmy Van Heusen
are buried nearby. The words "The Best Is Yet to Come", plus "Beloved Husband & Father" are imprinted on Sinatra's grave marker.[561] Significant increases in recording sales worldwide were reported by Billboard in the month of his death.[235] Legacy and honors[edit] See also: List of awards and nominations received by Frank Sinatra

Sinatra, c. 1943

American music critic Robert Christgau
Robert Christgau
referred to Sinatra
Sinatra
as "the greatest singer of the 20th century".[3] His popularity was later matched only by Elvis Presley, The Beatles, and Michael Jackson.[553] For Santopietro, Sinatra
Sinatra
was the "greatest male pop singer in the history of America",[562] who amassed "unprecedented power onscreen and off", and "seemed to exemplify the common man, an ethnic twentieth-century American male who reached the 'top of the heap', yet never forgot his roots". Santopietro argues that Sinatra
Sinatra
created his own world, which he was able to dominate—his career was centred around power, perfecting the ability to capture an audience.[563] Composer Gus Levene commented that Sinatra's strength was that when it came to lyrics, telling a story musically, Sinatra
Sinatra
displayed a "genius" ability and feeling, which with the "rare combination of voice and showmanship" made him the "original singer" which others who followed most tried to emulate.[564] George Roberts, a trombonist in Sinatra's band, remarked that Sinatra
Sinatra
had a "charisma, or whatever it is about him, that no one else had".[565] Biographer Arnold Shaw considered that "If Las Vegas
Las Vegas
had not existed, Sinatra
Sinatra
could have invented it". He quoted reporter James Bacon in saying that Sinatra was the "swinging image on which the town is built", adding that no other entertainer quite "embodied the glamour" associated with Las Vegas as him.[139] Sinatra
Sinatra
continues to be seen as one of the icons of the 20th century,[4] and has three stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his work in film and music. There are stars on east and west sides of the 1600 block of Vine Street
Vine Street
respectively, and one on the south side of the 6500 block of Hollywood Boulevard
Hollywood Boulevard
for his work in television.[566]

Frank Sinatra's television star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, located on 1637 Vine Street

In Sinatra's native New Jersey, Hoboken's Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
Park, the Hoboken Post Office,[567] and a residence hall at Montclair State University were named in his honor.[568] Other buildings named for Sinatra
Sinatra
include the Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
School of the Arts in Astoria, Queens, the Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
International Student Center at Israel's Hebrew University
Hebrew University
in Jerusalem dedicated in 1978,[569] and the Frank Sinatra
Sinatra
Hall at the USC School of Cinematic Arts
USC School of Cinematic Arts
in Los Angeles, California, dedicated in 2002.[570] Wynn Resorts' Encore Las Vegas resort features a restaurant dedicated to Sinatra
Sinatra
which opened in 2008.[571] Items of memorabilia from Sinatra's life and career are displayed at USC's Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
Hall and Wynn Resort's Sinatra restaurant.[570][571] Near the Las Vegas
Las Vegas
Strip is a road named Frank Sinatra
Sinatra
Drive in his honor.[572] The United States Postal Service issued a 42-cent postage stamp in honor of Sinatra
Sinatra
in May 2008, commemorating the tenth anniversary of his death.[567][573] The United States Congress passed a resolution introduced by Representative Mary Bono
Bono
Mack on May 20, 2008, designating May 13 as Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
Day to honor his contributions to American culture.[574] Sinatra
Sinatra
received three honorary degrees during his lifetime. In May 1976, he was invited to speak at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) graduation commencement held at Sam Boyd Stadium. It was at this commencement that he was bestowed an Honorary Doctorate litterarum humanarum by the university.[575] During his speech, Sinatra
Sinatra
stated that his education had come from "the school of hard knocks" and was suitably touched by the award. He went on to describe that "this is the first educational degree I have ever held in my hand. I will never forget what you have done for me today".[576] A few years later in 1984 and 1985, Sinatra
Sinatra
also received an Honorary Doctorate of Fine Arts from Loyola Marymount University
Loyola Marymount University
as well as an Honorary Doctorate of Engineering from the Stevens Institute of Technology.[577][578] Film and television portrayals[edit] Sinatra
Sinatra
has been portrayed on numerous occasions in film and on television. A television miniseries based on Sinatra's life, titled Sinatra, was aired by CBS
CBS
in 1992. The series was directed by James Steven Sadwith, who won an Emmy
Emmy
Award for Outstanding Individual Achievement in Directing for a Miniseries or a Special, and starred Philip Casnoff as Sinatra. Sinatra
Sinatra
was written by Abby Mann and Philip Mastrosimone, and produced by Sinatra's daughter, Tina.[579] Sinatra
Sinatra
has subsequently been portrayed on screen by Ray Liotta
Ray Liotta
(The Rat Pack, 1998),[580] James Russo (Stealing Sinatra, 2003),[581] Dennis Hopper
Dennis Hopper
(The Night We Called It a Day, 2003),[582] and Robert Knepper (My Way, 2012),[583] and spoofed by Joe Piscopo
Joe Piscopo
and Phil Hartman on Saturday Night Live.[584] A biographical film directed by Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
has long been in production.[585] A 1998 episode of the BBC documentary series Arena, The Voice
The Voice
of the Century, focused on Sinatra.[586] Alex Gibney
Alex Gibney
directed a four-part biographical series on Sinatra, All or Nothing At All, for HBO in 2015.[587] A musical tribute was aired on CBS
CBS
television in December 2015 to mark Sinatra's centenary.[588] See also[edit]

Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
bibliography Frank Sinatra's recorded legacy The Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
Show (radio program)

Biography portal Film portal Jazz
Jazz
portal Pop music portal Television in the United States portal Music portal

Notes[edit]

^ On his original birth certificate, Sinatra's name was recorded incorrectly as "Frank Sinestro", a clerical error. In May 1945, he officially corrected the name on his birth certificate to "Francis A. Sinatra".[5] ^ The house at 415 Monroe Street burned down and no longer exists.[7] The site is marked by a brick archway with a bronze plaque on the sidewalk that reads, "Francis Albert Sinatra: The Voice".[7] The building at 417 Monroe Street has a sign that reads "From Here to Eternity", with images of an Oscar statue.[8] It was opened as a museum by Ed Shirak in 2001, but closed after five years due to maintenance issues.[7] ^ Other sources incorrectly say Catania.[12] ^ Dolly was reportedly arrested six or seven times and convicted twice for providing illegal abortions,[23] the first of which was in 1937.[24] ^ In 1920, Prohibition of alcohol became law in the US. Dolly and Marty ran a tavern during those years, allowed to operate openly by local officials who refused to enforce the law.[28] ^ Sinatra's loss of employment at the newspaper led to a life-long rift with Garrick. Dolly said of it: "My son is like me. You cross him, he never forgets."[39] ^ Nancy Sinatra
Nancy Sinatra
notes that he owned a Chrysler and people would show amazement that such a young kid could afford it.[45] ^ The jealousy exhibited by the group members often led to brawls in which they would beat up the small, skinny young Sinatra.[50] ^ Only one copy of this recording was made, a 78 rpm disc. Mane wrote "Frank Sinatra" on the record label and kept the recording in a drawer through the years, giving Sinatra
Sinatra
a copy on a cassette tape as a gift in 1979. Mane died in 1998, only months after Sinatra's death; in 2006, Mane's widow offered the recording for sale through Gurnsey's auction house in New York.[54] ^ The only sticking point was that James wanted Sinatra
Sinatra
to change his name to Frankie Satin, as he thought that Sinatra
Sinatra
sounded too Italian.[56] Neither Sinatra, nor his mother, would agree to this; he told James that his cousin, Ray Sinatra, was a bandleader in Boston, kept his own name and was doing well with it. James knew of Ray Sinatra, so he did not press the issue.[57][58] ^ the vocalist, not to be confused with the comedian Jack E. Leonard. ^ Sinatra
Sinatra
acknowledged his debt to James throughout his life, and upon hearing of James' death in 1983, stated: "he is the one that made it all possible."[65] ^ Kelley claims that arguments and fights regularly broke out between Sinatra
Sinatra
and Rich, who were both arrogant with volatile tempers. In one incident witnessed by Stafford backstage at the Astor Hotel
Astor Hotel
in New York, Rich called Sinatra
Sinatra
a name and Sinatra
Sinatra
threw a heavy glass pitcher filled with water and ice at Rich's head. In another incident at the Golden Gate Theater
Golden Gate Theater
in San Francisco, Rich reportedly attempted to ram Sinatra
Sinatra
against the wall with his high F cymbal.[71] ^ Sinatra
Sinatra
said: "The reason I wanted to leave Tommy's band was that Crosby was Number One, way up on top of the pile. In the open field, you might say, were some awfully good singers with the orchestras. Bob Eberly (with Jimmy Dorsey) was a fabulous vocalist. Mr. Como (with Ted Weems) is such a wonderful singer. I thought, if I don't make a move out of this and try to do it on my own soon, one of those guys will do it, and I'll have to fight all three of them to get a position".[79] ^ Sinatra's lawyer, Henry Jaffe, met with Dorsey's lawyer N. Joseph Ross in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
in August 1943. In the words of Kelley: "In the end, MCA, an agency representing Dorsey and courting Sinatra, made Dorsey a $60,000 offer that he accepted. To obtain Frank as a client, the agency paid Dorsey $35,000 while Sinatra
Sinatra
paid $25,000, which he borrowed from Manie Sacks as an advance against his royalties from Columbia Records. MCA agreed that until 1948 it would split its commissions on Sinatra
Sinatra
with GAC, the agency that Frank had signed with when he left the Dorsey band."[80] However, during a 1979 concert at the Universal Amphitheatre
Universal Amphitheatre
in Los Angeles, Sinatra
Sinatra
claimed that it took him years to escape the contract, and that Dorsey had cost him seven million dollars.[81] ^ The incident started rumors of Sinatra's involvement with the Mafia, and was fictionalized in the book and film The Godfather.[83] ^ Sinatra
Sinatra
was spotted in Havana in 1946 with mobster Lucky Luciano, which started a series of negative press articles, implicating Sinatra with the Mafia.[125] In 1947 he was involved in a violent incident with journalist Lee Mortimer, who had written some of the most scathing articles on his alleged connections. Kelley claims that his articles grew so offensive that Sinatra
Sinatra
pounced on him outside Ciro's and punched him behind the left ear in response to an insult in which he was called a "dago". Sinatra
Sinatra
was taken to court, and according to Kelley, Mortimer received Mafia threats to drop the case or lose his life.[126] ^ Sinatra
Sinatra
bought a two percent share in the hotel for $54,000.[146] At one point the share reached nine percent.[147] He was reportedly ordered to sell his interest in the Sands in 1963, due to his association with mobster Sam Giancana.[148] ^ Miller tried to offset Sinatra's declining record sales by introducing "gimmicky novel tunes" into the singer's repertoire such as "Mama Will Bark" to appeal to younger audiences.[153][154] "Mama Will Bark" is often cited as the worst of Sinatra's career. Miller thought he would try this novelty approach for Sinatra
Sinatra
because he felt the singer's "great records" weren't selling.[155] Initially, Sinatra went along with this approach, but eventually he came to resent Miller for the poor quality of material he was being offered.[156] ^ Sinatra
Sinatra
was not very enthusiastic about the song initially. His friend, Jimmy Van Heusen, convinced him that the song would be a success.[175] Young at Heart was produced by Day's husband at the time, Marty Melcher, whom Sinatra
Sinatra
detested. Their feud grew worse when Melcher suggested that Day sing "Young at Heart" as the film's title song when Sinatra's recording of the song was already a hit. Day conceded that she did not care whose voice was heard singing the film's title song. Because of the rift, the Young at Heart soundtrack album contains all the songs heard in the film but the title Young at Heart. Sinatra's hit recording is heard at the beginning and end of the film.[176] ^ Granata noted that Riddle himself believed that the album came across as darker and more introspective than normal due to the due of his own mother who had recently died earlier in the month that it was recorded.[205] ^ Nancy Sinatra
Nancy Sinatra
notes that her father had a falling out with a bureaucrat in the country, who refused to admit Sinatra
Sinatra
into his house. She claims that though he was not formally banned from the country, the bureaucrat "made it seem so" and stated that the situation caused much humiliation to the family.[233] ^ Hughes still resented Sinatra
Sinatra
for marrying Ava Gardner, the subject of his own affections.[246] After Hughes saw to it that the hotel imposed restrictions on what he could gamble in the casino,[247] Sinatra
Sinatra
began what The Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times describes as a "weekend-long tirade" against the "hotel's management, employees and security forces",[248] culminating in a punch from executive Carl Cohen that knocked the caps off Sinatra's front teeth.[249] He began performing at Caesars Palace.[250] ^ Sinatra
Sinatra
was playing a high stakes baccarat at Caesars Palace, where he was performing at the time, in the early morning hours of September 6, 1970. Normal limits for the game are US$2,000 per hand; Sinatra
Sinatra
had been playing for US$8,000 and wanted the stakes to be raised to US$16,000.[265] When Sinatra
Sinatra
began shouting, hotel executive Sanford Waterman came to talk with him. Witnesses to the incident said the two men both made threats, with Waterman producing a gun and pointing it at Sinatra. Sinatra
Sinatra
walked out of the casino and returned to his Palm Springs home without fulfilling the rest of his three week engagement there. Waterman was booked on a charge of assault with a deadly weapon, but was released without bail.[266] The local district attorney's office declined to file charges against Waterman for pulling the gun, stating that Sinatra
Sinatra
had refused to make a statement regarding the incident.[267] ^ On January 6, 1977, Dolly was aboard a Lear Jet which had just taken off from Palm Springs Airport
Palm Springs Airport
when crashed into 10,000 square feet (930 m2) Ridge in the eastern area of the San Gorgonio Wilderness.[298] ^ Horne developed vocal problems and Sinatra, committed to other engagements, could not wait to record.[323] ^ Mitch Miller
Mitch Miller
played English horn and oboe on the Sinatra-led recordings.[344] ^ Riddle notes that Sinatra's range was from the low G to the high F, almost two octaves, but that his practical range was the low A-flat to a D, in comparison to Bing Crosby
Bing Crosby
whose range was G to C. Sinatra could "surpass him by probably as much as four tones at the top".[354] Though Riddle stated that Sinatra's lowest was G, he often hit the low F in concerts, and hit the low F at 0:41 in the recording of "What Is This Thing Called Love?" for the 1955 album In the Wee Small Hours. ^ Sinatra
Sinatra
successfully later sued a BBC interviewer who claimed that he'd used his Mafia connections to get the part.[391] ^ Sinatra
Sinatra
later remarked that he had always considered his performance in The Man With The Golden Arm
The Man With The Golden Arm
to have been the greatest of his film career, and that he'd won the Oscar for the wrong role.[400] ^ Sinatra
Sinatra
had stormed off the set when he learned that the film was to be shot in both Cinemascope and a new 55-millimeter process. Refusing to make "two pictures for the price of one", he left the production and did not return. Fox initially sued Sinatra
Sinatra
for a million dollars for breach of contract and replaced him with Gordon MacRae. Fox agreed to drop the charges on condition that he appear in another picture of theirs.[405] ^ The film was later made by Stanley Kubrick
Stanley Kubrick
in 1971 and is now considered to be one of the greatest films of all time.[427][428] ^ Your Hit Parade
Your Hit Parade
was a popular weekly radio and television program from 1935 to 1958. Sponsored by American Tobacco Company's Lucky Strike brand of cigarettes, the show featured the top ten songs of each week.[442] ^ Producer Irving Mansfield described Sinatra
Sinatra
as being obsessed with the thought that his wife, Ava Gardner, was having an affair with her former husband, Artie Shaw. He often started shouting about this on the set of the television show when he phoned his home and could not reach Gardner. Mansfield had to communicate with Sinatra
Sinatra
through the entourage that always accompanied him to CBS. Sinatra
Sinatra
was always late to work and did not care to spend any time at rehearsal; he blamed all those connected with the program for the poor ratings it received. Mansfield was at his wits' end with Sinatra
Sinatra
and his television show and quit the program. Mansfield informed him that he was man of great talent but a failure as a person, which led to Sinatra
Sinatra
attempting to angrily fire him. Mansfield replied that he was too late, as he had resigned that morning.[447] ^ Presley had responded to the criticism: "... [Sinatra] is a great success and a fine actor, but I think he shouldn't have said it ... [rock and roll] is a trend, just the same as he faced when he started years ago."[454] ^ While working at "The Rustic Cabin", in 1939 he became involved in a dispute between his girlfriend Toni Della Penta, who suffered a miscarriage, and Nancy Barbato, a stonemason's daughter. After Della Penta attempted to tear off Barbato's dress, Sinatra
Sinatra
ordered Barbato away and told Della Pinta that he would marry Barbato, several years his junior, because she was pregnant. Della Penta went to the police, and Sinatra
Sinatra
was arrested on a morals charge for seduction. After a fight between Della Penta and Dolly, Della Penta was later arrested herself.[464] Sinatra
Sinatra
married Barbato that year,[465] and Nancy Sinatra
Sinatra
was born the following year.[466] ^ Turner later denied the claims in her 1992 autobiography, saying that "the closest things to dates Frank and I enjoyed were a few box lunches at MGM".[469] ^ Rojek states that Sinatra
Sinatra
verbally assaulted Cheshire at a party in 1973, remarking "Get away from me, you scum. Go home and take a bath ... You're nothing but a two-dollar cunt. You know what that means, don't you? You've been laying down for two dollars all your life". According to Rojek, Sinatra
Sinatra
then proceeded to place two dollar bills into her wine glass and remarked "Here's two dollars baby, that's what you're used to".[507] ^ According to Kelley, Giancana blamed Sinatra
Sinatra
for the ordeal and was fuming at the abuse he had given to the commission's chairman, Ed Olsen. The two men never spoke again.[527] ^ At the time, President Kennedy's brother, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, was intensifying his own investigations into organized crime figures such as Chicago
Chicago
mob boss Sam Giancana, who had earlier stayed at Sinatra's home. Kennedy was strongly advised by Henry Petersen, a senior official of the Justice Department, to avoid staying with Sinatra.[538] ^ When Sinatra
Sinatra
learned that Kennedy's killer Lee Harvey Oswald
Lee Harvey Oswald
had watched Suddenly just days before the assassination, he withdrew it from circulation, and it only became distributed again in the late 1980s.[540]

References[edit]

^ " Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
obituary". BBC News. May 16, 1998. Retrieved May 15, 2008.  ^ Leach, Robin (June 8, 2015). "Steve Wynn to celebrate 100th birthday of the late Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
in Las Vegas". Las Vegas
Las Vegas
Sun. Retrieved June 28, 2015.  ^ a b Christgau, Robert (1998). " Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
1915–1998". Details. Retrieved January 10, 2015.  ^ a b Rojek 2004, p. 1. ^ Sinatra
Sinatra
1995, p. 17; Summers & Swan 2010, p. 15. ^ Sinatra
Sinatra
1995, p. 15. ^ a b c "Frank Sinatra's dwindling tourist turf in Hoboken". The Jersey Journal. March 31, 2010. Retrieved October 6, 2015.  ^ "415 Monroe Street". Google Maps. Retrieved October 6, 2015.  ^ Sinatra
Sinatra
1986, p. 3. ^ Petkov & Mustazza 1995, p. 113. ^ "Italy, Palermo, Termini Imerese, Civil Registration (Tribunale), 1862–1910 Image Italy, Palermo, Termini Imerese, Civil Registration (Tribunale), 1862–1910; pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1942-27311-11205-85". familysearch.org. Retrieved October 9, 2015.  ^ Howlett 1980, p. 5; Summers & Swan 2010, pp. 22–25; Kaplan 2011, p. 8: 415 Monroe Street. ^ Kelley 1986, p. 13; Travis 2001, p. 1; Turner 2004, p. 4. ^ Sinatra
Sinatra
1995, p. 16. ^ Kaplan 2011, pp. 4–5. ^ Talese, Gay (October 8, 2007). " Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
Has a Cold". Esquire. Retrieved October 12, 2010.  ^ Kaplan 2011, p. 6. ^ Rojek 2004, p. 25; Santopietro 2008, p. 15. ^ Sinatra
Sinatra
2011, p. 86. ^ Sann 1967, p. 351. ^ Kaplan 2011, pp. 8–9. ^ Kelley 1986, p. 28. ^ Kuntz & Kuntz 2000, p. 36; Summers & Swan 2010, p. 16. ^ Kelley 1986, p. 29. ^ Kaplan 2011, pp. 6, 8–9. ^ Howlett 1980, p. 5; Kaplan 2011, p. 7. ^ Goldstein 1982, p. 2. ^ Kaplan 2011, pp. 9–11. ^ Kaplan 2011, p. 11. ^ Kelley 1986, pp. 20–23. ^ a b c Sinatra at the Sands
Sinatra at the Sands
(1966), Reprise Records ^ Sinatra
Sinatra
2011, p. 193. ^ Santopietro 2008, p. 427. ^ Rojek 2004, p. 135. ^ a b Lahr 2000, p. 56. ^ a b c d Donnelley 2003, p. 642. ^ Sinatra
Sinatra
1986, p. 8. ^ Hodge 1992, p. 8; Rojek 2004, p. 135. ^ Lahr 2000, p. 54. ^ Summers & Swan 2010, pp. 44, 47. ^ Kelley 1986, pp. 44–45. ^ a b Kelley 1986, p. 45. ^ D'Andrea, Niki (July 7, 2011). "Top Ten Things That Make Frank Sinatra
Sinatra
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Further reading[edit]

Freedland, Michael (1998). All the Way: A Biography of Frank Sinatra. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-19108-5 Kaplan, James (2015). Sinatra: The Chairman. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0385535392 Pickard, Roy (1994). Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
at the Movies. Hale. ISBN 978-0-7090-5105-3

External links[edit]

Find more aboutFrank Sinatraat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Textbooks from Wikibooks Data from Wikidata

Official website Sinatra
Sinatra
family website Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
at Encyclopædia Britannica Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
webradio Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
at AllMovie Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
at AllMusic Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
at the New Jersey Hall of Fame Frank Sinatra
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on IMDb Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
at Find a Grave Frank Sinatra
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at FBI
FBI
Records: The Vault The Sinatra
Sinatra
Report, a special section of Billboard's November 20, 1965, issue – beginning immediately after page 34

v t e

Frank Sinatra

Early life Political life Records Songs Filmography Awards Personal life Style Concerts

Studio albums

Columbia

The Voice
The Voice
of Frank Sinatra Songs by Sinatra Christmas Songs by Sinatra Frankly Sentimental Dedicated to You Sing and Dance with Frank Sinatra

Capitol

Songs for Young Lovers Swing Easy! In the Wee Small Hours Songs for Swingin' Lovers! Close to You A Swingin' Affair! Where Are You? A Jolly Christmas from Frank Sinatra Come Fly with Me Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
Sings for Only the Lonely Come Dance with Me! No One Cares Nice 'n' Easy Sinatra's Swingin' Session!!! Come Swing with Me! Point of No Return Duets Duets II

Reprise

Ring-a-Ding-Ding! Sinatra
Sinatra
Swings I Remember Tommy Sinatra
Sinatra
and Strings Sinatra
Sinatra
and Swingin' Brass All Alone Sinatra
Sinatra
Sings Great Songs from Great Britain Sinatra–Basie: An Historic Musical First The Concert Sinatra Sinatra's Sinatra Sinatra
Sinatra
Sings Days of Wine and Roses, Moon River, and Other Academy Award Winners America, I Hear You Singing It Might as Well Be Swing 12 Songs of Christmas Softly, as I Leave You September of My Years My Kind of Broadway A Man and His Music Moonlight Sinatra Strangers in the Night That's Life Francis Albert Sinatra
Sinatra
& Antônio Carlos Jobim The World We Knew Francis A. & Edward K. The Sinatra
Sinatra
Family Wish You a Merry Christmas Cycles My Way A Man Alone Watertown Sinatra
Sinatra
& Company Ol' Blue Eyes Is Back Some Nice Things I've Missed Trilogy: Past Present Future She Shot Me Down

Qwest

L.A. Is My Lady

Live albums

Sinatra
Sinatra
at the Sands The Main Event – Live Sinatra
Sinatra
Saga Sinatra
Sinatra
Saga, Vol. 2 Sinatra
Sinatra
& Sextet: Live in Paris Sinatra
Sinatra
80th: Live in Concert With Red Norvo Quintet: Live in Australia, 1959 Sinatra
Sinatra
'57 in Concert Live from Las Vegas Sinatra: Vegas Frank Sinatra: The Greatest Concerts Live at the Meadowlands Sinatra: New York Best of Vegas Sinatra: London Sinatra: World On a String

Compilations

This Is Sinatra! This Is Sinatra
Sinatra
Vol. 2 Look to Your Heart All the Way Sinatra
Sinatra
Sings of Love and Things Sinatra
Sinatra
'65: The Singer Today Frank Sinatra's Greatest Hits Frank Sinatra's Greatest Hits, Vol. 2 Portrait of Sinatra
Sinatra
– Forty Songs from the Life of a Man Sinatra–Jobim Sessions Screen Sinatra All-Time Greatest Dorsey/ Sinatra
Sinatra
Hits, Vol. 1-4 Capitol Collector's Series Sinatra
Sinatra
Reprise: The Very Good Years Sinatra
Sinatra
Sings the Songs of Van Heusen & Cahn Sinatra: Soundtrack to the CBS
CBS
Mini-Series The Best of the Capitol Years Christmas Songs by Sinatra Gold Collection Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
Sings the Select Johnny Mercer Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
Sings the Select Rodgers & Hart The Complete Recordings Nineteen Thirty-Nine Sinatra
Sinatra
80th: All the Best Everything Happens to Me Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
Sings the Select Cole Porter Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
Sings the Select Sammy Cahn Greatest Hits: Early Years The Very Best of Frank Sinatra Portrait of Sinatra: Columbia Classics Lucky Numbers Classic Sinatra: His Greatest Performances 1953–1960 Super Hits My Way: The Best of Frank Sinatra Love Songs Greatest Love Songs Christmas with the Rat Pack Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
Christmas Collection Romance Duets/ Duets II: 90th Birthday Limited Collector's Edition Romance: Songs from the Heart Sinatra
Sinatra
at the Movies Nothing but the Best Seduction: Sinatra
Sinatra
Sings of Love Classic Sinatra
Sinatra
II Christmas with Sinatra
Sinatra
& Friends 36 Greatest Hits! Come Fly Away Sinatra/Jobim: The Complete Reprise Recordings Sinatra/Basie: The Complete Reprise Studio Recordings Sinatra: Best of the Best Best of Duets Sinatra, with Love

Soundtrack albums

High Society Young at Heart Robin and the 7 Hoods

Other albums

Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
Conducts the Music of Alec Wilder Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
Conducts Tone Poems of Color The Man I Love Sleep Warm Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
Conducts Music from Pictures and Plays Syms by Sinatra

Box sets

Sinatra–Jobim Sessions The Reprise Collection The Capitol Years Concepts The Complete Recordings The Song Is You The Complete Reprise Studio Recordings The Complete Capitol Singles Collection 1943-1952 1943-1952: The V-Discs Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
& the Tommy Dorsey
Tommy Dorsey
Orchestra The Capitol Years Reprise Musical Repertory Theatre Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
in Hollywood The Real Complete Columbia Years V-Discs The Voice: Frank Sinatra, the Columbia Years (1943–1952) The Reprise Years Duets: 20th Anniversary Deluxe Edition Ultimate Sinatra

Tribute albums

A Jazz
Jazz
Portrait of Frank Sinatra Perfectly Frank Manilow Sings Sinatra ...Allow Us to Be Frank Bolton Swings Sinatra A Tribute to Frank Sinatra

Tribute films

The Rat Pack The Night We Called It a Day

Videography

A Man and His Music A Man and His Music – Part II A Man and His Music + Ella + Jobim Francis Albert Sinatra
Sinatra
Does His Thing Sinatra Sinatra
Sinatra
in Concert at the Royal Festival Hall Ol' Blue Eyes Is Back Sinatra
Sinatra
– The Main Event Sinatra
Sinatra
and Friends The First 40 Years The Man and His Music

Concert tours

Together Again Tour (1988) The Diamond Jubilee World Tour (1990-1991)

Related

Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
and Jewish activism " Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
Has a Cold" Hoboken Four Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
Park My Way
My Way
killings Nelson Riddle None but the Brave Rat Pack Sinatra
Sinatra
Doctrine

Book Category

v t e

Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
singles discography

Columbia singles (1939-1940)

"All or Nothing at All"

RCA Victor
RCA Victor
singles (1940-1942)

"Imagination" "East of the Sun (and West of the Moon)" "The One I Love (Belongs to Somebody Else)" "Stardust" "Oh! Look at Me Now" "Without a Song" "Let's Get Away from It All" "Blue Skies" "Pale Moon (An Indian Love Song)" "Embraceable You" "How About You?" "There Are Such Things"

Bluebird singles (1942-1943)

"Night and Day" "The Night We Called It a Day" "The Song Is You"

Columbia singles (1943-1953)

"Close to You" "You'll Never Know" "Sunday, Monday, or Always" "People Will Say We're in Love" "Oh, What a Beautiful Mornin'" "A Lovely Way to Spend an Evening" "White Christmas" "Saturday Night (Is the Loneliest Night of the Week)" "I Dream of You (More Than You Dream I Do)" "Ol' Man River" "Stormy Weather" "When Your Lover Has Gone" "Dream" "If I Loved You" "You'll Never Walk Alone" "Mighty Lak' a Rose" "Nancy (with the Laughing Face)" "America the Beautiful" "Day by Day" "Full Moon and Empty Arms" "Soliloquy (Part 1 & 2)" "Begin the Beguine" "Silent Night" "Adeste Fideles" "Jingle Bells" "September Song" "Sweet Lorraine" "Time after Time" "Mam'selle" "Almost Like Being in Love" "Tea for Two" "My Romance" "So Far" "A Fellow Needs a Girl" "But Beautiful" "I've Got a Crush on You" "All of Me" "Nature Boy" "Everybody Loves Somebody" "My Melancholy Baby" "Autumn in New York" "Why Can't You Behave?" "Some Enchanted Evening" "Bali Ha'i" "Let's Take an Old Fashioned Walk" "I Only Have Eyes for You" "The Old Master Painter" "Goodnight, Irene" "Nevertheless (I'm in Love with You)" "Let It Snow! Let It Snow! Let It Snow!" "We Kiss in a Shadow" "April in Paris" "I Could Write a Book" "The Birth of the Blues"

Capitol singles (1953-1961)

"I'm Walking Behind You" "I've Got the World on a String" "My One and Only Love" "South of the Border (Down Mexico Way)" "I Love You" "Young at Heart" "Don't Worry 'bout Me" "Three Coins in the Fountain" "The Gal That Got Away" "Someone to Watch Over Me" "Melody of Love" "Two Hearts, Two Kisses (Make One Love)" "Learnin' the Blues" "Love and Marriage" "(Love Is) The Tender Trap" "You're Sensational" "True Love" "Well, Did You Evah!" "Mind If I Make Love to You?" "Hey! Jealous Lover" "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?" "All the Way" " Chicago
Chicago
(That Toddlin' Town)" "Witchcraft" "French Foreign Legion" "High Hopes" "Old MacDonald" "My Blue Heaven" "I'll Remember April" "I Love Paris"

Reprise singles (1961-1983)

"Granada" "I'll Be Seeing You" "The One I Love (Belongs to Somebody Else)" "I'm Getting Sentimental Over You" "Polka Dots and Moonbeams" "Without a Song" "Stardust" "Come Rain or Come Shine" "I Left My Heart in San Francisco" "Me and My Shadow" "Call Me Irresponsible" "I Have Dreamed" "Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas" "My Kind of Town" "Softly, as I Leave You" "I Heard the Bells on Christmas Day" "The Little Drummer Boy" "It Was a Very Good Year" "Strangers in the Night" "Summer Wind" "You Make Me Feel So Young" "That's Life" "The September of My Years" "Somethin' Stupid" " The World We Knew (Over and Over)" "My Way" "Goin' Out of My Head" "Something" "Bein' Green" "Send in the Clowns" "Bad, Bad Leroy Brown" "Theme from New York, New York" "Here's to the Band" "To Love a Child"

Qwest singles (1983-1984)

"Teach Me Tonight" "Mack the Knife" "It's All Right with Me" "Until the Real Thing Comes Along"

Compositions

"This Love of Mine" "Sheila" "Peachtree Street" "Take My Love" "I'm a Fool to Want You" "Mistletoe and Holly" "Mr. Success"

Book Category

v t e

Rat Pack

Frank Sinatra Dean Martin Sammy Davis Jr. Peter Lawford Joey Bishop Humphrey Bogart

Films

Some Came Running Ocean's 11 Sergeants 3 4 for Texas Robin and the 7 Hoods Marriage on the Rocks Texas Across the River

Albums

Christmas with the Rat Pack The Ultimate Rat Pack
Rat Pack
Collection: Live & Swingin'

Related articles

The Rat Pack
Rat Pack
(film) The Rat Pack: Live from Las Vegas

Book

v t e

Nancy Sinatra

Discography

Studio albums

Boots How Does That Grab You? Nancy in London Nancy Woman Nancy Sinatra Shifting Gears

Soundtrack albums

Movin' with Nancy

Collaboration albums

Nancy & Lee The Sinatra
Sinatra
Family Wish You a Merry Christmas

Singles

"Like I Do" "These Boots Are Made for Walkin'" "Sugar Town" "Summer Wine" (with Lee Hazlewood) "Somethin' Stupid" (with Frank Sinatra) "Jackson" (with Lee Hazlewood) "You Only Live Twice" "Tony Rome" "Some Velvet Morning" (with Lee Hazlewood) "Here We Go Again" "Let Me Kiss You"

Related

Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
(father) Frank Sinatra, Jr.
Frank Sinatra, Jr.
(brother) Tina Sinatra (sister) Tommy Sands (former husband)

Awards for Frank Sinatra

v t e

Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor

1936–1950

Walter Brennan
Walter Brennan
(1936) Joseph Schildkraut
Joseph Schildkraut
(1937) Walter Brennan
Walter Brennan
(1938) Thomas Mitchell (1939) Walter Brennan
Walter Brennan
(1940) Donald Crisp
Donald Crisp
(1941) Van Heflin
Van Heflin
(1942) Charles Coburn
Charles Coburn
(1943) Barry Fitzgerald
Barry Fitzgerald
(1944) James Dunn (1945) Harold Russell
Harold Russell
(1946) Edmund Gwenn
Edmund Gwenn
(1947) Walter Huston
Walter Huston
(1948) Dean Jagger
Dean Jagger
(1949) George Sanders
George Sanders
(1950)

1951–1975

Karl Malden
Karl Malden
(1951) Anthony Quinn
Anthony Quinn
(1952) Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
(1953) Edmond O'Brien
Edmond O'Brien
(1954) Jack Lemmon
Jack Lemmon
(1955) Anthony Quinn
Anthony Quinn
(1956) Red Buttons
Red Buttons
(1957) Burl Ives
Burl Ives
(1958) Hugh Griffith
Hugh Griffith
(1959) Peter Ustinov
Peter Ustinov
(1960) George Chakiris
George Chakiris
(1961) Ed Begley
Ed Begley
(1962) Melvyn Douglas
Melvyn Douglas
(1963) Peter Ustinov
Peter Ustinov
(1964) Martin Balsam
Martin Balsam
(1965) Walter Matthau
Walter Matthau
(1966) George Kennedy
George Kennedy
(1967) Jack Albertson
Jack Albertson
(1968) Gig Young
Gig Young
(1969) John Mills
John Mills
(1970) Ben Johnson (1971) Joel Grey
Joel Grey
(1972) John Houseman
John Houseman
(1973) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(1974) George Burns
George Burns
(1975)

1976–2000

Jason Robards
Jason Robards
(1976) Jason Robards
Jason Robards
(1977) Christopher Walken
Christopher Walken
(1978) Melvyn Douglas
Melvyn Douglas
(1979) Timothy Hutton
Timothy Hutton
(1980) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1981) Louis Gossett Jr.
Louis Gossett Jr.
(1982) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1983) Haing S. Ngor
Haing S. Ngor
(1984) Don Ameche
Don Ameche
(1985) Michael Caine
Michael Caine
(1986) Sean Connery
Sean Connery
(1987) Kevin Kline
Kevin Kline
(1988) Denzel Washington
Denzel Washington
(1989) Joe Pesci
Joe Pesci
(1990) Jack Palance
Jack Palance
(1991) Gene Hackman
Gene Hackman
(1992) Tommy Lee Jones
Tommy Lee Jones
(1993) Martin Landau
Martin Landau
(1994) Kevin Spacey
Kevin Spacey
(1995) Cuba Gooding Jr.
Cuba Gooding Jr.
(1996) Robin Williams
Robin Williams
(1997) James Coburn
James Coburn
(1998) Michael Caine
Michael Caine
(1999) Benicio del Toro
Benicio del Toro
(2000)

2001–present

Jim Broadbent
Jim Broadbent
(2001) Chris Cooper
Chris Cooper
(2002) Tim Robbins
Tim Robbins
(2003) Morgan Freeman
Morgan Freeman
(2004) George Clooney
George Clooney
(2005) Alan Arkin
Alan Arkin
(2006) Javier Bardem
Javier Bardem
(2007) Heath Ledger
Heath Ledger
(2008) Christoph Waltz
Christoph Waltz
(2009) Christian Bale
Christian Bale
(2010) Christopher Plummer
Christopher Plummer
(2011) Christoph Waltz
Christoph Waltz
(2012) Jared Leto
Jared Leto
(2013) J. K. Simmons
J. K. Simmons
(2014) Mark Rylance
Mark Rylance
(2015) Mahershala Ali
Mahershala Ali
(2016) Sam Rockwell
Sam Rockwell
(2017)

v t e

Jean Hersholt
Jean Hersholt
Humanitarian Award

Y. Frank Freeman (1956) Samuel Goldwyn (1957) Bob Hope (1959) Sol Lesser (1960) George Seaton (1961) Steve Broidy (1962) Edmond L. DePatie (1965) George Bagnall (1966) Gregory Peck (1967) Martha Raye (1968) George Jessel (1969) Frank Sinatra (1970) Rosalind Russell (1972) Lew Wasserman (1973) Arthur B. Krim (1974) Jules C. Stein (1975) Charlton Heston (1977) Leo Jaffe (1978) Robert Benjamin (1979) Danny Kaye (1981) Walter Mirisch (1982) M. J. Frankovich (1983) David L. Wolper (1984) Charles "Buddy" Rogers (1985) Howard W. Koch (1989) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
/ Elizabeth Taylor (1992) Paul Newman (1993) Quincy Jones (1994) Arthur Hiller (2001) Roger Mayer (2005) Sherry Lansing (2007) Jerry Lewis (2009) Oprah Winfrey (2011) Jeffrey Katzenberg (2012) Angelina Jolie (2013) Harry Belafonte (2014) Debbie Reynolds (2015)

v t e

Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille
Award

Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille
(1952) Walt Disney
Walt Disney
(1953) Darryl F. Zanuck
Darryl F. Zanuck
(1954) Jean Hersholt
Jean Hersholt
(1955) Jack L. Warner
Jack L. Warner
(1956) Mervyn LeRoy
Mervyn LeRoy
(1957) Buddy Adler (1958) Maurice Chevalier
Maurice Chevalier
(1959) Bing Crosby
Bing Crosby
(1960) Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire
(1961) Judy Garland
Judy Garland
(1962) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
(1963) Joseph E. Levine
Joseph E. Levine
(1964) James Stewart
James Stewart
(1965) John Wayne
John Wayne
(1966) Charlton Heston
Charlton Heston
(1967) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
(1968) Gregory Peck
Gregory Peck
(1969) Joan Crawford
Joan Crawford
(1970) Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
(1971) Alfred Hitchcock
Alfred Hitchcock
(1972) Samuel Goldwyn
Samuel Goldwyn
(1973) Bette Davis
Bette Davis
(1974) Hal B. Wallis
Hal B. Wallis
(1975) Walter Mirisch (1977) Red Skelton
Red Skelton
(1978) Lucille Ball
Lucille Ball
(1979) Henry Fonda
Henry Fonda
(1980) Gene Kelly
Gene Kelly
(1981) Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
(1982) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1983) Paul Newman
Paul Newman
(1984) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1985) Barbara Stanwyck
Barbara Stanwyck
(1986) Anthony Quinn
Anthony Quinn
(1987) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1988) Doris Day
Doris Day
(1989) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
(1990) Jack Lemmon
Jack Lemmon
(1991) Robert Mitchum
Robert Mitchum
(1992) Lauren Bacall
Lauren Bacall
(1993) Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(1994) Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
(1995) Sean Connery
Sean Connery
(1996) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
(1997) Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
(1998) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1999) Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
(2000) Al Pacino
Al Pacino
(2001) Harrison Ford
Harrison Ford
(2002) Gene Hackman
Gene Hackman
(2003) Michael Douglas
Michael Douglas
(2004) Robin Williams
Robin Williams
(2005) Anthony Hopkins
Anthony Hopkins
(2006) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(2007) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(2009) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2010) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(2011) Morgan Freeman
Morgan Freeman
(2012) Jodie Foster
Jodie Foster
(2013) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
(2014) George Clooney
George Clooney
(2015) Denzel Washington
Denzel Washington
(2016) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(2017) Oprah Winfrey
Oprah Winfrey
(2018)

v t e

Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy

1950–1975

Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire
(1950) Danny Kaye
Danny Kaye
(1951) Donald O'Connor
Donald O'Connor
(1952) David Niven
David Niven
(1953) James Mason
James Mason
(1954) Tom Ewell
Tom Ewell
(1955) Mario Moreno (1956) Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
(1957) Danny Kaye
Danny Kaye
(1958) Jack Lemmon
Jack Lemmon
(1959) Jack Lemmon
Jack Lemmon
(1960) Glenn Ford
Glenn Ford
(1961) Marcello Mastroianni
Marcello Mastroianni
(1962) Alberto Sordi
Alberto Sordi
(1963) Rex Harrison
Rex Harrison
(1964) Lee Marvin
Lee Marvin
(1965) Alan Arkin
Alan Arkin
(1966) Richard Harris
Richard Harris
(1967) Ron Moody
Ron Moody
(1968) Peter O'Toole
Peter O'Toole
(1969) Albert Finney
Albert Finney
(1970) Chaim Topol
Chaim Topol
(1971) Jack Lemmon
Jack Lemmon
(1972) George Segal
George Segal
(1973) Art Carney
Art Carney
(1974) Walter Matthau
Walter Matthau
/ George Burns
George Burns
(1975)

1976–2000

Kris Kristofferson
Kris Kristofferson
(1976) Richard Dreyfuss
Richard Dreyfuss
(1977) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(1978) Peter Sellers
Peter Sellers
(1979) Ray Sharkey
Ray Sharkey
(1980) Dudley Moore
Dudley Moore
(1981) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
(1982) Michael Caine
Michael Caine
(1983) Dudley Moore
Dudley Moore
(1984) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1985) Paul Hogan
Paul Hogan
(1986) Robin Williams
Robin Williams
(1987) Tom Hanks
Tom Hanks
(1988) Morgan Freeman
Morgan Freeman
(1989) Gérard Depardieu
Gérard Depardieu
(1990) Robin Williams
Robin Williams
(1991) Tim Robbins
Tim Robbins
(1992) Robin Williams
Robin Williams
(1993) Hugh Grant
Hugh Grant
(1994) John Travolta
John Travolta
(1995) Tom Cruise
Tom Cruise
(1996) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1997) Michael Caine
Michael Caine
(1998) Jim Carrey
Jim Carrey
(1999) George Clooney
George Clooney
(2000)

2001–present

Gene Hackman
Gene Hackman
(2001) Richard Gere
Richard Gere
(2002) Bill Murray
Bill Murray
(2003) Jamie Foxx
Jamie Foxx
(2004) Joaquin Phoenix
Joaquin Phoenix
(2005) Sacha Baron Cohen
Sacha Baron Cohen
(2006) Johnny Depp
Johnny Depp
(2007) Colin Farrell
Colin Farrell
(2008) Robert Downey Jr.
Robert Downey Jr.
(2009) Paul Giamatti
Paul Giamatti
(2010) Jean Dujardin
Jean Dujardin
(2011) Hugh Jackman
Hugh Jackman
(2012) Leonardo DiCaprio
Leonardo DiCaprio
(2013) Michael Keaton
Michael Keaton
(2014) Matt Damon
Matt Damon
(2015) Ryan Gosling
Ryan Gosling
(2016) James Franco
James Franco
(2017)

v t e

Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture

Akim Tamiroff
Akim Tamiroff
(1943) Barry Fitzgerald
Barry Fitzgerald
(1944) J. Carrol Naish
J. Carrol Naish
(1945) Clifton Webb
Clifton Webb
(1946) Edmund Gwenn
Edmund Gwenn
(1947) Walter Huston
Walter Huston
(1948) James Whitmore
James Whitmore
(1949) Edmund Gwenn
Edmund Gwenn
(1950) Peter Ustinov
Peter Ustinov
(1951) Millard Mitchell
Millard Mitchell
(1952) Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
(1953) Edmond O'Brien
Edmond O'Brien
(1954) Arthur Kennedy
Arthur Kennedy
(1955) Earl Holliman
Earl Holliman
(1956) Red Buttons
Red Buttons
(1957) Burl Ives
Burl Ives
(1958) Stephen Boyd
Stephen Boyd
(1959) Sal Mineo
Sal Mineo
(1960) George Chakiris
George Chakiris
(1961) Omar Sharif
Omar Sharif
(1962) John Huston
John Huston
(1963) Edmond O'Brien
Edmond O'Brien
(1964) Oskar Werner
Oskar Werner
(1965) Richard Attenborough
Richard Attenborough
(1966) Richard Attenborough
Richard Attenborough
(1967) Daniel Massey (1968) Gig Young
Gig Young
(1969) John Mills
John Mills
(1970) Ben Johnson (1971) Joel Grey
Joel Grey
(1972) John Houseman
John Houseman
(1973) Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire
(1974) Richard Benjamin
Richard Benjamin
(1975) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1976) Peter Firth
Peter Firth
(1977) John Hurt
John Hurt
(1978) Melvyn Douglas/ Robert Duvall
Robert Duvall
(1979) Timothy Hutton
Timothy Hutton
(1980) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1981) Louis Gossett Jr.
Louis Gossett Jr.
(1982) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1983) Haing S. Ngor
Haing S. Ngor
(1984) Klaus Maria Brandauer
Klaus Maria Brandauer
(1985) Tom Berenger
Tom Berenger
(1986) Sean Connery
Sean Connery
(1987) Martin Landau
Martin Landau
(1988) Denzel Washington
Denzel Washington
(1989) Bruce Davison
Bruce Davison
(1990) Jack Palance
Jack Palance
(1991) Gene Hackman
Gene Hackman
(1992) Tommy Lee Jones
Tommy Lee Jones
(1993) Martin Landau
Martin Landau
(1994) Brad Pitt
Brad Pitt
(1995) Edward Norton
Edward Norton
(1996) Burt Reynolds
Burt Reynolds
(1997) Ed Harris
Ed Harris
(1998) Tom Cruise
Tom Cruise
(1999) Benicio del Toro
Benicio del Toro
(2000) Jim Broadbent
Jim Broadbent
(2001) Chris Cooper
Chris Cooper
(2002) Tim Robbins
Tim Robbins
(2003) Clive Owen
Clive Owen
(2004) George Clooney
George Clooney
(2005) Eddie Murphy
Eddie Murphy
(2006) Javier Bardem
Javier Bardem
(2007) Heath Ledger
Heath Ledger
(2008) Christoph Waltz
Christoph Waltz
(2009) Christian Bale
Christian Bale
(2010) Christopher Plummer
Christopher Plummer
(2011) Christoph Waltz
Christoph Waltz
(2012) Jared Leto
Jared Leto
(2013) J. K. Simmons
J. K. Simmons
(2014) Sylvester Stallone
Sylvester Stallone
(2015) Aaron Taylor-Johnson
Aaron Taylor-Johnson
(2016) Sam Rockwell
Sam Rockwell
(2017)

v t e

Grammy
Grammy
Award for Album of the Year

1959–1979

The Music from Peter Gunn
The Music from Peter Gunn
Henry Mancini
Henry Mancini
(1959) Come Dance with Me! – Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
(1960) The Button-Down Mind of Bob Newhart
The Button-Down Mind of Bob Newhart
Bob Newhart
Bob Newhart
(1961) Judy at Carnegie Hall
Carnegie Hall
Judy Garland
Judy Garland
(1962) The First Family – Vaughn Meader
Vaughn Meader
(1963) The Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
Album – Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
(1964) Getz/Gilberto
Getz/Gilberto
– Stan Getz, João Gilberto
João Gilberto
(1965) September of My Years Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
(1966) A Man and His Music Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
(1967) Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
The Beatles
The Beatles
(1968) By the Time I Get to Phoenix – Glen Campbell
Glen Campbell
(1969) Blood, Sweat & Tears – Blood, Sweat & Tears (1970) Bridge over Troubled Water
Bridge over Troubled Water
– Simon & Garfunkel (1971) Tapestry – Carole King
Carole King
(1972) The Concert for Bangladesh – Various (1973) Innervisions
Innervisions
Stevie Wonder
Stevie Wonder
(1974) Fulfillingness' First Finale
Fulfillingness' First Finale
Stevie Wonder
Stevie Wonder
(1975) Still Crazy After All These Years
Still Crazy After All These Years
Paul Simon
Paul Simon
(1976) Songs in the Key of Life
Songs in the Key of Life
Stevie Wonder
Stevie Wonder
(1977) Rumours – Fleetwood Mac
Fleetwood Mac
(1978) Saturday Night Fever – Bee Gees/Various (1979)

1980–2000

52nd Street – Billy Joel
Billy Joel
(1980) Christopher Cross
Christopher Cross
Christopher Cross
Christopher Cross
(1981) Double Fantasy
Double Fantasy
John Lennon
John Lennon
and Yoko Ono
Yoko Ono
(1982) Toto IV
Toto IV
– Toto (1983) Thriller – Michael Jackson
Michael Jackson
(1984) Can't Slow Down – Lionel Richie
Lionel Richie
(1985) No Jacket Required
No Jacket Required
Phil Collins
Phil Collins
(1986) Graceland – Paul Simon
Paul Simon
(1987) The Joshua Tree
The Joshua Tree
– U2 (1988) Faith – George Michael
George Michael
(1989) Nick of Time – Bonnie Raitt
Bonnie Raitt
(1990) Back on the Block
Back on the Block
Quincy Jones
Quincy Jones
and various artists (1991) Unforgettable... with Love Natalie Cole
Natalie Cole
(1992) Unplugged – Eric Clapton
Eric Clapton
(1993) The Bodyguard – Whitney Houston
Houston
(1994) MTV Unplugged – Tony Bennett
Tony Bennett
(1995) Jagged Little Pill
Jagged Little Pill
Alanis Morissette
Alanis Morissette
(1996) Falling into You
Falling into You
Celine Dion
Celine Dion
(1997) Time Out of Mind – Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
(1998) The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill
The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill
Lauryn Hill
Lauryn Hill
(1999) Supernatural – Santana (2000)

2001–present

Two Against Nature
Two Against Nature
Steely Dan
Steely Dan
(2001) O Brother, Where Art Thou? Soundtrack (2002) Come Away with Me
Come Away with Me
Norah Jones
Norah Jones
(2003) Speakerboxxx/The Love Below
Speakerboxxx/The Love Below
Outkast
Outkast
(2004) Genius Loves Company
Genius Loves Company
Ray Charles
Ray Charles
and various artists (2005) How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb
How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb
– U2 (2006) Taking the Long Way
Taking the Long Way
Dixie Chicks
Dixie Chicks
(2007) River: The Joni Letters – Herbie Hancock
Herbie Hancock
(2008) Raising Sand
Raising Sand
Robert Plant
Robert Plant
& Alison Krauss
Alison Krauss
(2009) Fearless – Taylor Swift
Taylor Swift
(2010) The Suburbs
The Suburbs
Arcade Fire
Arcade Fire
(2011) 21 – Adele
Adele
(2012) Babel – Mumford & Sons (2013) Random Access Memories
Random Access Memories
Daft Punk
Daft Punk
(2014) Morning Phase
Morning Phase
Beck
Beck
(2015) 1989 – Taylor Swift
Taylor Swift
(2016) 25 – Adele
Adele
(2017) 24K Magic – Bruno Mars
Bruno Mars
(2018)

v t e

Grammy
Grammy
Award for Record of the Year

1959−1980

"Nel Blu Dipinto Di Blu (Volare)" by Domenico Modugno
Domenico Modugno
(1959) "Mack the Knife" by Bobby Darin
Bobby Darin
(1960) "Theme from A Summer Place" by Percy Faith
Percy Faith
(1961) "Moon River" by Henry Mancini
Henry Mancini
(1962) "I Left My Heart in San Francisco" by Tony Bennett
Tony Bennett
(1963) "Days of Wine and Roses" by Henry Mancini
Henry Mancini
(1964) "The Girl from Ipanema" by Astrud Gilberto
Astrud Gilberto
& Stan Getz
Stan Getz
(1965) "A Taste of Honey" by Herb Alpert
Herb Alpert
and the Tijuana Brass (1966) "Strangers in the Night" by Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
(1967) "Up, Up and Away" by The 5th Dimension
The 5th Dimension
(Billy Davis, Jr., Florence LaRue, Marilyn McCoo, Lamont McLemore, Ron Townson) (1968) "Mrs. Robinson" by Simon & Garfunkel (Art Garfunkel, Paul Simon) (1969) "Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In" by The 5th Dimension
The 5th Dimension
(Billy Davis, Jr., Florence LaRue, Marilyn McCoo, Lamont McLemore, Ron Townson) (1970) "Bridge over Troubled Water" by Simon & Garfunkel (Art Garfunkel, Paul Simon) (1971) "It's Too Late" by Carole King
Carole King
(1972) "The First Time Ever I Saw Your Face" by Roberta Flack
Roberta Flack
(1973) "Killing Me Softly with His Song" by Roberta Flack
Roberta Flack
(1974) "I Honestly Love You" by Olivia Newton-John
Olivia Newton-John
(1975) "Love Will Keep Us Together" by Captain & Tennille (Daryl Dragon, Toni Tennille) (1976) "This Masquerade" by George Benson
George Benson
(1977) "Hotel California" by Eagles (Don Felder, Glenn Frey, Don Henley, Randy Meisner, Joe Walsh) (1978) "Just the Way You Are" by Billy Joel
Billy Joel
(1979) "What a Fool Believes" by The Doobie Brothers
The Doobie Brothers
(Jeffrey Baxter, John Hartman, Keith Knudsen, Michael McDonald, Tiran Porter, Patrick Simmons) (1980)

1981−2000

"Sailing" by Christopher Cross
Christopher Cross
(1981) " Bette Davis
Bette Davis
Eyes" by Kim Carnes
Kim Carnes
(1982) "Rosanna" by Toto (Bobby Kimball, Steve Lukather, David Paich, Jeff Porcaro, David Hungate, Steve Porcaro) (1983) "Beat It" by Michael Jackson
Michael Jackson
(1984) "What's Love Got to Do with It" by Tina Turner
Tina Turner
(1985) "We Are the World" by USA for Africa
USA for Africa
(1986) "Higher Love" by Steve Winwood
Steve Winwood
(1987) "Graceland" by Paul Simon
Paul Simon
(1988) "Don't Worry, Be Happy" by Bobby McFerrin
Bobby McFerrin
(1989) "Wind Beneath My Wings" by Bette Midler
Bette Midler
(1990) "Another Day in Paradise" by Phil Collins
Phil Collins
(1991) "Unforgettable" by Natalie Cole
Natalie Cole
with Nat King Cole
Nat King Cole
(1992) "Tears in Heaven" by Eric Clapton
Eric Clapton
(1993) "I Will Always Love You" by Whitney Houston
Houston
(1994) "All I Wanna Do" by Sheryl Crow
Sheryl Crow
(1995) "Kiss from a Rose" by Seal (1996) "Change the World" by Eric Clapton
Eric Clapton
(1997) "Sunny Came Home" by Shawn Colvin
Shawn Colvin
(1998) "My Heart Will Go On" by Celine Dion
Celine Dion
(1999) "Smooth" by Santana (Rodney Holmes, Tony Lindsay, Karl Perazzo, Raul Rekow, Benny Rietveld, Carlos Santana, Chester Thompson) featuring Rob Thomas (2000)

2001−present

"Beautiful Day" by U2 (Bono, Adam Clayton, The Edge, Larry Mullen Jr.) (2001) "Walk On" by U2 (Bono, Adam Clayton, The Edge, Larry Mullen Jr.) (2002) "Don't Know Why" by Norah Jones
Norah Jones
(2003) "Clocks" by Coldplay
Coldplay
(Guy Berryman, Jon Buckland, Will Champion, Phil Harvey, Chris Martin) (2004) "Here We Go Again" by Ray Charles
Ray Charles
and Norah Jones
Norah Jones
(2005) "Boulevard of Broken Dreams" by Green Day
Green Day
(Billie Joe Armstrong, Mike Dirnt, Frank Edwin Wright III) (2006) "Not Ready to Make Nice" by Dixie Chicks
Dixie Chicks
(Martie Maguire, Natalie Maines, Emily Robison) (2007) "Rehab" by Amy Winehouse
Amy Winehouse
(2008) "Please Read the Letter" by Alison Krauss
Alison Krauss
and Robert Plant
Robert Plant
(2009) "Use Somebody" by Kings of Leon
Kings of Leon
(Caleb Followill, Jared Followill, Matthew Followill, Nathan Followill) (2010) "Need You Now" by Lady Antebellum
Lady Antebellum
(Hillary Scott, Charles Kelley, Dave Haywood) (2011) "Rolling in the Deep" by Adele
Adele
(2012) "Somebody That I Used to Know" by Gotye
Gotye
featuring Kimbra
Kimbra
(2013) "Get Lucky" by Daft Punk
Daft Punk
featuring Pharrell Williams
Pharrell Williams
& Nile Rodgers (2014) "Stay with Me" (Darkchild version) by Sam Smith (2015) "Uptown Funk" by Mark Ronson
Mark Ronson
featuring Bruno Mars
Bruno Mars
(2016) "Hello" by Adele
Adele
(2017) "24K Magic" by Bruno Mars
Bruno Mars
(2018)

v t e

Kennedy Center Honorees (1980s)

1980

Leonard Bernstein James Cagney Agnes de Mille Lynn Fontanne Leontyne Price

1981

Count Basie Cary Grant Helen Hayes Jerome Robbins Rudolf Serkin

1982

George Abbott Lillian Gish Benny Goodman Gene Kelly Eugene Ormandy

1983

Katherine Dunham Elia Kazan Frank Sinatra James Stewart Virgil Thomson

1984

Lena Horne Danny Kaye Gian Carlo Menotti Arthur Miller Isaac Stern

1985

Merce Cunningham Irene Dunne Bob Hope Alan Jay Lerner
Alan Jay Lerner
& Frederick Loewe Beverly Sills

1986

Lucille Ball Hume Cronyn
Hume Cronyn
& Jessica Tandy Yehudi Menuhin Antony Tudor Ray Charles

1987

Perry Como Bette Davis Sammy Davis Jr. Nathan Milstein Alwin Nikolais

1988

Alvin Ailey George Burns Myrna Loy Alexander Schneider Roger L. Stevens

1989

Harry Belafonte Claudette Colbert Alexandra Danilova Mary Martin William Schuman

Complete list 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

v t e

Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award

1962: Eddie Cantor 1963: Stan Laurel 1965: Bob Hope 1966: Barbara Stanwyck 1967: William Gargan 1968: James Stewart 1969: Edward G. Robinson 1970: Gregory Peck 1971: Charlton Heston 1972: Frank Sinatra 1973: Martha Raye 1974: Walter Pidgeon 1975: Rosalind Russell 1976: Pearl Bailey 1977: James Cagney 1978: Edgar Bergen 1979: Katharine Hepburn 1980: Leon Ames 1982: Danny Kaye 1983: Ralph Bellamy 1984: Iggie Wolfington 1985: Paul Newman
Paul Newman
and Joanne Woodward 1986: Nanette Fabray 1987: Red Skelton 1988: Gene Kelly 1989: Jack Lemmon 1990: Brock Peters 1991: Burt Lancaster 1992: Audrey Hepburn 1993: Ricardo Montalbán 1994: George Burns 1995: Robert Redford 1996: Angela Lansbury 1997: Elizabeth Taylor 1998: Kirk Douglas 1999: Sidney Poitier 2000: Ossie Davis
Ossie Davis
and Ruby Dee 2001: Ed Asner 2002: Clint Eastwood 2003: Karl Malden 2004: James Garner 2005: Shirley Temple 2006: Julie Andrews 2007: Charles Durning 2008: James Earl Jones 2009: Betty White 2010: Ernest Borgnine 2011: Mary Tyler Moore 2012: Dick Van Dyke 2013: Rita Moreno 2014: Debbie Reynolds 2015: Carol Burnett 2016: Lily Tomlin 2017: Morgan Freeman

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 27253198 LCCN: n50026395 ISNI: 0000 0001 0882 3528 GND: 118765574 SELIBR: 207853 SUDOC: 028697251 BNF: cb13899814w (data) ULAN: 500330862 MusicBrainz: 197450cd-0124-4164-b723-3c22dd16494d NLA: 35658484 NDL: 00621480 NKC: jn20000720277 BNE: XX875

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