Lloyd Wright (born Frank Lincoln Wright, June 8, 1867 – April
9, 1959) was an American architect, interior designer, writer and
educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures, 532 of which were
completed. Wright believed in designing structures that were in
harmony with humanity and its environment, a philosophy he called
organic architecture. This philosophy was best exemplified by
Fallingwater (1935), which has been called "the best all-time work of
American architecture". His creative period spanned more than 70
Wright was the pioneer of what came to be called the Prairie School
movement of architecture and he also developed the concept of the
Usonian home in Broadacre City, his unique vision for urban planning
in the United States. In addition to his houses, Wright designed
original and innovative offices, churches, schools, skyscrapers,
hotels, museums and other structures. He often designed interior
elements for these buildings as well, including furniture and stained
glass. Wright wrote 20 books and many articles and was a popular
lecturer in the United States and in Europe. Wright was recognized in
1991 by the
American Institute of Architects
American Institute of Architects as "the greatest American
architect of all time".
His colorful personal life often made headlines, notably for leaving
his first wife, Catherine Lee "Kitty" Tobin for Mamah Borthwick
Cheney, the murders at his
Taliesin estate in 1914, his tempestuous
marriage and divorce with second wife Miriam Noel, and his
relationship with Olga (Olgivanna) Lazovich Hinzenburg, whom he would
marry in 1928.
1 Early years
1.3 Education (1885–1887)
2 Early career
2.1 Silsbee and other early work experience (1887–1888)
2.2 Adler & Sullivan (1888–1893)
2.3 Transition and experimentation (1893–1900)
2.4 Prairie houses (1900–1914)
2.5 Notable public works (1900–1925)
3 Midlife problems
3.1 Family abandonment
3.2 Catastrophe at
3.3 Divorce and further troubles
4 Later career
4.2 Significant later works
5 Personal style and concepts
5.1 Design elements
5.2 Textile concrete block system
5.3 Usonian Houses
5.4 Influences and collaborations
5.5 Community planning
5.6 Japanese art
6.3 Destroyed Wright buildings
7 Selected works
8 See also
10 Further reading
10.1 Wright's philosophy
10.3 Surveys of Wright's work
10.4 Selected books about specific Wright projects
11 External links
Lloyd Wright was born Frank Lincoln Wright in the farming town
of Richland Center, Wisconsin, United States, in 1867. His father,
William Cary Wright (1825–1904), was an orator, music teacher,
occasional lawyer, and itinerant minister. Frank Lloyd Wright's
mother, Anna Lloyd Jones (1838/39 – 1923), met William Cary Wright
while working as a county school teacher when William was the
superintendent of schools for Richland County.
Originally from Massachusetts, William Wright had been a Baptist
minister, but he later joined his wife's family in the Unitarian
faith. Anna was a member of the well-known Lloyd Jones family who had
Wales to Spring Green, Wisconsin. One of Anna's
brothers was Jenkin Lloyd Jones, an important figure in the spread of
the Unitarian faith in the Midwest. Both of Wright's parents were
strong-willed individuals with artistic interests that they passed on
According to Wright's autobiography, his mother declared when she was
expecting that her first child would grow up to build beautiful
buildings. She decorated his nursery with engravings of English
cathedrals torn from a periodical to encourage the infant's
ambition. In 1870 the family moved to Weymouth, Massachusetts,
where William ministered to a small congregation.
In 1876, Anna visited the
Centennial Exhibition in
she saw an exhibit of educational blocks created by Friedrich Wilhelm
August Fröbel. The blocks, known as Froebel Gifts, were the
foundation of his innovative kindergarten curriculum. Anna, a trained
teacher, was excited by the program and bought a set with which young
Wright spent much time playing. The blocks in the set were
geometrically shaped and could be assembled in various combinations to
form three-dimensional compositions. In his autobiography, Wright
described the influence of these exercises on his approach to design:
"For several years I sat at the little
Kindergarten table-top… and
played… with the cube, the sphere and the triangle—these smooth
wooden maple blocks… All are in my fingers to this day… " Many
of Wright's buildings are notable for their geometrical clarity.
The Wright family struggled financially in Weymouth and returned to
Spring Green, Wisconsin, where the supportive Lloyd Jones clan could
help William find employment. They settled in Madison, where William
taught music lessons and served as the secretary to the newly formed
Unitarian society. Although William was a distant parent, he shared
his love of music, especially the works of Johann Sebastian Bach, with
Soon after Wright turned 14, his parents separated. Anna had been
unhappy for some time with William's inability to provide for his
family and asked him to leave. The divorce was finalized in 1885 after
William sued Anna for lack of physical affection. William left
Wisconsin after the divorce and Wright claimed he never saw his father
again. At this time he changed his middle name from Lincoln to
Lloyd in honor of his mother's family, the Lloyd Joneses.
Wright attended Madison High School, but there is no evidence of his
graduation. He was admitted to the University of
Wisconsin–Madison as a special student in 1886. There he joined Phi
Delta Theta fraternity, took classes part-time for two semesters,
and worked with a professor of civil engineering, Allan D. Conover.
Wright left the school without taking a degree, although he was
granted an honorary Doctorate of Fine Arts from the University in
Silsbee and other early work experience (1887–1888)
In 1887, Wright arrived in Chicago in search of employment. As a
result of the devastating
Great Chicago Fire of 1871
Great Chicago Fire of 1871 and a population
boom, new development was plentiful in the city. Wright later recalled
that while his first impressions of Chicago were that of grimy
neighborhoods, crowded streets, and disappointing architecture, he was
determined to find work. Within days, and after interviews with
several prominent firms, he was hired as a draftsman with the
architectural firm of Joseph Lyman Silsbee. Wright previously
collaborated with Silsbee—accredited as the draftsman and the
construction supervisor—on the 1886
Unity Chapel for Wright's family
in Spring Green, Wisconsin. While with the firm, he also worked on
two other family projects: All Souls Church in Chicago for his uncle,
Jenkin Lloyd Jones, and the
Hillside Home School I
Hillside Home School I in Spring Green for
two of his aunts. Other draftsmen who worked for Silsbee in 1887
included future architects Cecil Corwin, George W. Maher, and George
G. Elmslie. Wright soon befriended Corwin, with whom he lived until he
found a permanent home.
Feeling that he was underpaid for the quality of his work for Silsbee
(at $8 a week), the young draftsman quit and found work as a designer
at the firm of Beers, Clay, and Dutton. However, Wright soon realized
that he was not ready to handle building design by himself; he left
his new job to return to Joseph Silsbee—this time with a raise in
salary. Although Silsbee adhered mainly to Victorian and
revivalist architecture, Wright found his work to be more "gracefully
picturesque" than the other "brutalities" of the period. Wright
aspired for more progressive work.
Adler & Sullivan (1888–1893)
Wright learned that the Chicago firm of Adler & Sullivan was
"looking for someone to make the finished drawings for the interior of
the Auditorium Building". Wright demonstrated that he was a
competent impressionist of Louis Sullivan's ornamental designs and two
short interviews later, was an official apprentice in the firm.
Wright did not get along well with Sullivan's other draftsmen; he
wrote that several violent altercations occurred between them during
the first years of his apprenticeship. For that matter, Sullivan
showed very little respect for his employees as well. In spite of
this, "Sullivan took [Wright] under his wing and gave him great design
responsibility." As an act of respect, Wright would later refer to
Sullivan as Lieber Meister (German for "Dear Master"). He also
formed a bond with office foreman Paul Mueller. Wright would later
engage Mueller to build several of his public and commercial buildings
between 1903 and 1923.
Wright's home in Oak Park, Illinois
On June 1, 1889, Wright married his first wife, Catherine Lee "Kitty"
Tobin (1871–1959). The two had met around a year earlier during
activities at All Souls Church. Sullivan did his part to facilitate
the financial success of the young couple by granting Wright a
five-year employment contract. Wright made one more request: "Mr.
Sullivan, if you want me to work for you as long as five years,
couldn't you lend me enough money to build a little house?" With
Sullivan's $5,000 loan, Wright purchased a lot at the corner of
Chicago and Forest Avenues in the suburb of Oak Park. The existing
Gothic Revival house was given to his mother, while a compact Shingle
style house was built alongside for Wright and Catherine.
By 1890 Wright had an office next to Sullivan's that he shared with
friend and draftsman George Elmslie, who had been hired by Sullivan at
Wright's request. Wright had risen to head draftsman and
handled all residential design work in the office. As a general rule,
Adler & Sullivan did not design or build houses, but they obliged
when asked by the clients of their important commercial projects.
Wright was occupied by the firm's major commissions during office
hours, so house designs were relegated to evening and weekend overtime
hours at his home studio. He would later claim total responsibility
for the design of these houses but a careful inspection of their
architectural style (and accounts from historian Robert Twombly)
suggests that it was Sullivan who dictated the overall form and motifs
of the residential works; Wright's design duties were often reduced to
detailing the projects from Sullivan's sketches. During this time,
Wright worked on Sullivan's bungalow (1890) and the James A. Charnley
bungalow (1890) in Ocean Springs Mississippi. The Berry-MacHarg House,
James A. Charnley House
James A. Charnley House (both 1891), and the Louis Sullivan's House
(1892), all in Chicago.
Walter Gale House
Walter Gale House (1893) is Queen Anne in style yet features
window bands and a cantilevered porch roof which hint at Wright's
Despite Sullivan's loan and overtime salary, Wright was constantly
short on funds. Wright admitted that his poor finances were likely due
to his expensive tastes in wardrobe and vehicles, and the extra
luxuries he designed into his house. To supplement his income and
repay his debts, Wright accepted independent commissions for at least
nine houses. These "bootlegged" houses, as he later called them, were
conservatively designed in variations of the fashionable Queen Anne
and Colonial Revival styles. Nevertheless, unlike the prevailing
architecture of the period, each house emphasized simple geometric
massing and contained features such as bands of horizontal windows,
occasional cantilevers, and open floor plans which would become
hallmarks of his later work. Eight of these early houses remain today,
including the Thomas Gale, Robert P. Parker House, George Blossom, and
Walter Gale houses.
As with the residential projects for Adler & Sullivan, he designed
his bootleg houses on his own time. Sullivan knew nothing of the
independent works until 1893, when he recognized that one of the
houses was unmistakably a Frank
Lloyd Wright design. This particular
house, built for Allison Harlan, was only blocks away from Sullivan's
townhouse in the Chicago community of Kenwood. Aside from the
location, the geometric purity of the composition and balcony tracery
in the same style as the Charnley House likely gave away Wright's
involvement. Since Wright's five-year contract forbade any outside
work, the incident led to his departure from Sullivan's firm. A
variety of stories recount the break in the relationship between
Sullivan and Wright; even Wright later told two different versions of
the occurrence. In An Autobiography, Wright claimed that he was
unaware that his side ventures were a breach of his contract. When
Sullivan learned of them, he was angered and offended; he prohibited
any further outside commissions and refused to issue Wright the deed
to his Oak Park house until after he completed his five years. Wright
could not bear the new hostility from his master and thought the
situation was unjust. He "threw down [his] pencil and walked out of
the Adler and Sullivan office never to return." Dankmar Adler, who was
more sympathetic to Wright's actions, later sent him the deed. On
the other hand, Wright told his
Taliesin apprentices (as recorded by
Edgar Tafel) that Sullivan fired him on the spot upon learning of the
Harlan House. Tafel also recounted that Wright had Cecil Corwin sign
several of the bootleg jobs, indicating that Wright was aware of their
illegal nature. Regardless of the correct series of events,
Wright and Sullivan did not meet or speak for twelve years.
Transition and experimentation (1893–1900)
After leaving Louis Sullivan's firm, Wright established his own
practice on the top floor of the Sullivan designed Schiller Building
on Randolph Street in Chicago. Wright chose to locate his office in
the building because the tower location reminded him of the office of
Adler & Sullivan. Although Cecil Corwin followed Wright and set up
his architecture practice in the same office, the two worked
independently and did not consider themselves partners.
In 1896, Wright moved out of the
Schiller Building and into the nearby
and newly completed Steinway Hall Building. The loft space was shared
with Robert C. Spencer, Jr., Myron Hunt, and Dwight H. Perkins.
These young architects, inspired by the
Arts and Crafts Movement
Arts and Crafts Movement and
the philosophies of Louis Sullivan, formed what would become known as
the Prairie School. They were joined by Perkins apprentice, Marion
Mahony, who in 1895 transferred to Wright's team of drafters and took
over production of his presentation drawings and watercolor
renderings. Mahony, the third woman to be licensed as an architect in
Illinois and one of the first licensed female architects in the U.S.,
also designed furniture, leaded glass windows, and light fixtures,
among other features, for Wright's houses. Between 1894 and the early
1910s, several other leading
Prairie School architects and many of
Wright's future employees launched their careers in the offices of
William H. Winslow House
William H. Winslow House (1893) in River Forest, Illinois
Wright's projects during this period followed two basic models. His
first independent commission, the Winslow House, combined
Sullivanesque ornamentation with the emphasis on simple geometry and
horizontal lines. The Francis Apartments (1895, demolished 1971),
Heller House (1896),
Rollin Furbeck House
Rollin Furbeck House (1897), and Husser House
(1899, demolished 1926) were designed in the same mode. For his more
conservative clients, Wright designed more traditional dwellings.
These included the Dutch Colonial Revival style Bagley House (1894),
Tudor Revival style Moore House I (1895), and Queen Anne style Charles
E. Roberts House (1896). While Wright could not afford to turn
down clients over disagreements in taste, even his most conservative
designs retained simplified massing and occasional Sullivan-inspired
Nathan G. Moore House
Nathan G. Moore House (1895), Oak Park, Illinois
Soon after the completion of the Winslow House in 1894, Edward Waller,
a friend and former client, invited Wright to meet Chicago architect
and planner Daniel Burnham. Burnham had been impressed by the Winslow
House and other examples of Wright's work; he offered to finance a
four-year education at the École des Beaux-Arts and two years in
Rome. To top it off, Wright would have a position in Burnham's firm
upon his return. In spite of guaranteed success and support of his
family, Wright declined the offer. Burnham, who had directed the
classical design of the World's Columbian Exposition, was a major
proponent of the Beaux Arts movement, thought that Wright was making a
foolish mistake. Yet for Wright, the classical education of the École
lacked creativity and was altogether at odds with his vision of modern
Wright's studio (1898) viewed from Chicago Avenue
Wright relocated his practice to his home in 1898 in order to bring
his work and family lives closer. This move made further sense as the
majority of the architect's projects at that time were in Oak Park or
neighboring River Forest. The birth of three more children —
Catherine in 1894, David in 1895, and Frances in 1898 — prompted
Wright to sacrifice his original home studio space for additional
bedrooms and necessitated his design and construction of an expansive
studio addition to the north of the main house. The space, which
included a hanging balcony within the two-story drafting room, was one
of Wright's first experiments with innovative structure. The studio
was a poster for Wright's developing aesthetics and would become the
laboratory from which the next ten years of architectural creations
Prairie houses (1900–1914)
By 1901, Wright had completed about 50 projects, including many houses
in Oak Park. As his son John
Lloyd Wright wrote:
"William Eugene Drummond, Francis Barry Byrne, Walter Burley Griffin,
Albert Chase McArthur, Marion Mahony,
Isabel Roberts and George Willis
were the draftsmen. Five men, two women. They wore flowing ties, and
smocks suitable to the realm. The men wore their hair like Papa, all
except Albert, he didn't have enough hair. They worshiped Papa! Papa
liked them! I know that each one of them was then making valuable
contributions to the pioneering of the modern American architecture
for which my father gets the full glory, headaches and recognition
Arthur Heurtley House
Arthur Heurtley House (1902), Oak Park, IL
Darwin D. Martin House
Darwin D. Martin House (1904), Buffalo, New York
Hillside Home School, 1902, Taliesin, Spring Green, Wisconsin
Between 1900 and 1901, Frank
Lloyd Wright completed four houses which
have since been identified as the onset of the "Prairie style". Two,
the Hickox and Bradley Houses, were the last transitional step between
Wright's early designs and the Prairie creations. Meanwhile, the
Thomas House and
Willits House received recognition as the first
mature examples of the new style. At the same time, Wright
gave his new ideas for the American house widespread awareness through
two publications in the Ladies' Home Journal. The articles were in
response to an invitation from the president of Curtis Publishing
Company, Edward Bok, as part of a project to improve modern house
design. "A Home in a Prairie Town" and "A Small House with Lots of
Room in it" appeared respectively in the February and July 1901 issues
of the journal. Although neither of the affordable house plans was
ever constructed, Wright received increased requests for similar
designs in following years. Wright came to Buffalo and designed
homes for three of the company's executives including the Darwin D.
Martin House in 1904.
Other Wright houses considered to be masterpieces of the Prairie Style
are the Frederick
Robie House in Chicago and the Avery and Queene
Coonley House in Riverside, Illinois. The Robie House, with its
soaring, cantilevered roof lines, supported by a 110-foot-long (34 m)
channel of steel, is the most dramatic. Its living and dining areas
form virtually one uninterrupted space. With this and other buildings,
included in the publication of the
Wasmuth Portfolio (1910), Wright's
work became known to European architects and had a profound influence
on them after World War I. It is sometimes called the "cornerstone of
Wright's residential designs of this era were known as "prairie
houses" because the designs complemented the land around Chicago.
Prairie style houses often have a combination of these features: One
or two-stories with one-story projections, an open floor plan,
low-pitched roofs with broad overhanging eaves, strong horizontal
lines, ribbons of windows (often casements), a prominent central
chimney, built-in stylized cabinetry, and a wide use of natural
materials—especially stone and wood.
Notable public works (1900–1925)
In 1900 Wright designed the house of Cornell's chapter of Alpha Delta
Phi literary society. Wright designed the Larkin Administration
Building (completed in 1904, demolished in 1950.) Other early notable
public buildings include The Hillside Home School, built for his aunts
Spring Green, Wisconsin
Spring Green, Wisconsin (1902) and the Unity Temple, home of the
Unitarian Universalist congregation in Oak Park. As a lifelong
Unitarian and member of Unity Temple, Wright offered his services to
the congregation after their church burned down, working on the
building from 1905 to 1909. Wright later said that
Unity Temple was
the edifice in which he ceased to be an architect of structure, and
became an architect of space. Many architects consider it the world's
first modern building, because of its unique construction of only one
material: reinforced concrete.
Wright in 1926
Wright also designed the Geneva Inn (1911) in Lake Geneva, Wisconsin,
Midway Gardens (1913) in Chicago, Illinois), the Banff National
Park Pavilion (1914) in
Alberta, Canada and the Imperial Hotel, in
Aerial photo of Taliesin, Spring Green, Wisconsin
Local gossips noticed Wright's flirtations, and he developed a
reputation in Oak Park as a man-about-town. His family had grown to
six children, but Wright was not parental and he relied on his wife
Catherine to care for them. In 1903, Wright designed a house for Edwin
Cheney, a neighbor in Oak Park, and immediately took a liking to
Cheney's wife, Mamah. Mamah Cheney was a modern woman with interests
outside the home. She was an early feminist and Wright viewed her as
his intellectual equal. The two fell in love, and they became the talk
of the town, as they often could be seen taking rides in Wright's
automobile through Oak Park. Wright's wife, Kitty, sure that this
attachment would fade as the others had, refused to grant him a
divorce. Mamah had to live in Europe for two years in order to obtain
a divorce from Edwin on the grounds of desertion.
In 1909, even before the
Robie House was completed, Wright and Mamah
Cheney met up in Europe, leaving their spouses and children behind.
Wright had begun to reject the upper-middle class Prairie Style
single-family house model, intending to work on more democratic
architecture. He was also frustrated by not getting larger
commissions for commercial or public buildings.
What drew Wright to Europe was the chance to publish a portfolio of
his work with Berlin publisher Ernst Wasmuth. The resulting two
volumes, titled Studies and Executed Buildings of Frank Lloyd Wright,
were published in 1911 in two editions, creating the first major
exposure of Wright's work in Europe. The work contained more than 100
lithographs of Wright's designs and was commonly known as the Wasmuth
Wright remained in Europe for almost a year and set up home first in
Florence, Italy — where he lived with his eldest son Lloyd — and
later in Fiesole, Italy, where he lived with Mamah. During this time,
Edwin Cheney granted Mamah a divorce, though Kitty still refused to
grant one to her husband. After Wright returned to the United States
in October 1910, he persuaded his mother to buy land for him in Spring
Green, Wisconsin. The land, bought on April 10, 1911, was adjacent to
land held by his mother's family, the Lloyd-Joneses. Wright began to
build himself a new home, which he called Taliesin, by May 1911. The
recurring theme of
Taliesin also came from his mother's side: Taliesin
Welsh mythology was a poet, magician, and priest. The family motto,
"Y Gwir yn Erbyn y Byd" ("The Truth Against the World"), was taken
from the Welsh poet Iolo Morganwg, who also had a son named Taliesin.
The motto is still used today as the cry of the druids and chief bard
Eisteddfod in Wales.
On August 15, 1914, while Wright was working in Chicago, Julian
Carlton, a male servant from
Barbados who had been hired several
months earlier, set fire to the living quarters of
murdered seven people with an axe as the fire burned. The dead
included Mamah; her two children, John and Martha Cheney; a gardener
(David Lindblom); a draftsman (Emil Brodelle); a workman (Thomas
Brunker); and another workman's son (Ernest Weston). Two people
survived the mayhem, one of whom, William Weston, helped to put out
the fire that almost completely consumed the residential wing of the
house. Carlton swallowed hydrochloric acid immediately following the
attack in an attempt to kill himself. He was nearly lynched on the
spot, but was taken to the Dodgeville jail. Carlton died from
starvation seven weeks after the attack, despite medical
Divorce and further troubles
In 1922, Kitty Wright finally granted Wright a divorce. Under the
terms of the divorce, Wright was required to wait one year before he
could marry his then-mistress, Maude "Miriam" Noel. In 1923, Wright's
mother, Anna (Lloyd Jones) Wright, died. Wright wed Miriam Noel in
November 1923, but her addiction to morphine led to the failure of the
marriage in less than one year. In 1924, after the separation but
while still married, Wright met Olga (Olgivanna) Lazovich Hinzenburg
at a Petrograd Ballet performance in Chicago. They moved in together
Taliesin in 1925, and soon Olgivanna was pregnant with their
daughter, Iovanna, born on December 2, 1925.
On April 20, 1925, another fire destroyed the bungalow at Taliesin.
Crossed wires from a newly installed telephone system were deemed to
be responsible for the blaze, which destroyed a collection of Japanese
prints that Wright estimated to be worth $250,000 to $500,000.
Wright rebuilt the living quarters, naming the home "
In 1926, Olga's ex-husband, Vlademar Hinzenburg, sought custody of his
daughter, Svetlana. In October 1926, Wright and Olgivanna were accused
of violating the
Mann Act and arrested in Tonka Bay, Minnesota.
The charges were later dropped.
Wright and Miriam Noel's divorce was finalized in 1927, and once
again, Wright was required to wait for one year before remarrying.
Wright and Olgivanna married in 1928.
In 1932, Wright and his wife Olgivanna put out a call for students to
Taliesin to study and work under Wright while they learned
architecture and spiritual development. (Olgivanna Wright had been a
student of G. I. Gurdjieff). Twenty-three came to live and work that
year, as did many more in the years that followed. There has been
considerable controversy over the living conditions and education of
the Fellows; recent books have given conflicting and often
unflattering pictures of their treatment. The Fellowship has
evolved into what is now the Frank
Lloyd Wright School of
Architecture, an accredited school. Wright was reputedly a
difficult person to work with. One apprentice wrote: "He is devoid of
consideration and has a blind spot regarding others' qualities. Yet I
believe, that a year in his studio would be worth any sacrifice."
Significant later works
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York City (1959)
Mill Run, Pennsylvania
Mill Run, Pennsylvania (1937)
Fallingwater, one of Wright's most famous private residences
(completed 1937), was built for Mr. and Mrs.
Edgar J. Kaufmann Sr., at
Mill Run, Pennsylvania. Constructed over a 30-foot waterfall, it was
designed according to Wright's desire to place the occupants close to
the natural surroundings. The house was intended to be more of a
family getaway, rather than a live-in home. The construction is a
series of cantilevered balconies and terraces, using limestone for all
verticals and concrete for the horizontals. The house cost $155,000,
including the architect's fee of $8,000. It was one of Wright's most
expensive pieces. Kaufmann's own engineers argued that the design
was not sound. They were overruled by Wright, but the contractor
secretly added extra steel to the horizontal concrete elements. In
1994, Robert Silman and Associates examined the building and developed
a plan to restore the structure. In the late 1990s, steel supports
were added under the lowest cantilever until a detailed structural
analysis could be done. In March 2002, post-tensioning of the lowest
terrace was completed.
Taliesin West, Wright's winter home and studio complex in Scottsdale,
Arizona, was a laboratory for Wright from 1937 to his death in 1959.
Now the home of the Frank
Lloyd Wright Foundation and archives, it
continues today as the site of the Frank
Lloyd Wright School of
Architecture. Wright turned 80 shortly after World War II ended, yet
remained busy. The
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York City
occupied Wright for 16 years (1943–1959) and is probably
his most recognized masterpiece. The building rises as a warm beige
spiral from its site on Fifth Avenue; its interior is similar to the
inside of a seashell. Its unique central geometry was meant to allow
visitors to easily experience Guggenheim's collection of nonobjective
geometric paintings by taking an elevator to the top level and then
viewing artworks by walking down the slowly descending, central spiral
ramp, the floor of which is embedded with circular shapes and
triangular light fixtures to complement the geometric nature of the
structure. However, when the museum was completed, a number of details
of Wright's design were ignored, such as his desire for the interior
to be painted off-white.
Price Tower in Bartlesville, Oklahoma
The only realized skyscraper designed by Wright is the Price Tower, a
19-story tower in Bartlesville, Oklahoma. It is also one of the two
existing vertically oriented Wright structures (the other is the S.C.
Johnson Wax Research Tower in Racine, Wisconsin). The
Price Tower was
commissioned by Harold C. Price of the H. C. Price Company, a local
oil pipeline and chemical firm. It opened to the public in February
1956. On March 29, 2007,
Price Tower was designated a National
Historic Landmark by the United States Department of the Interior, one
of only 20 such properties in the state of Oklahoma.
Monona Terrace, originally designed in 1937 as municipal offices for
Madison, Wisconsin, was completed in 1997 on the original site, using
a variation of Wright's final design for the exterior with the
interior design altered by its new purpose as a convention center. The
"as-built" design was carried out by Wright's apprentice Tony Puttnam.
Monona Terrace was accompanied by controversy throughout the 60 years
between the original design and the completion of the structure.
Florida Southern College, located in Lakeland, Florida, constructed 12
(out of 18 planned) Frank
Lloyd Wright buildings between 1941 and 1958
as part of the
Child of the Sun
Child of the Sun project. It is the world's largest
single-site collection of Frank
Lloyd Wright architecture.
Personal style and concepts
An open office area in Wright's Johnson Wax headquarters complex,
His Prairie houses use themed, coordinated design elements (often
based on plant forms) that are repeated in windows, carpets and other
fittings. He made innovative use of new building materials such as
precast concrete blocks, glass bricks and zinc cames (instead of the
traditional lead) for his leadlight windows, and he famously used
Pyrex glass tubing as a major element in the Johnson Wax Headquarters.
Wright was also one of the first architects to design and install
custom-made electric light fittings, including some of the very first
electric floor lamps, and his very early use of the then-novel
spherical glass lampshade (a design previously not possible due to the
physical restrictions of gas lighting). In 1897 Wright received a
patent for "Prism Glass Tiles" that were used in storefronts to direct
light toward the interior. Wright fully embraced glass in his
designs and found that it fit well into his philosophy of organic
architecture. According to Wright's organic theory, all components of
the building should appear unified, as though they belong together.
Nothing should be attached to it without considering the effect on the
whole. To unify the house to its site, Wright often used large
expanses of glass to blur the boundary between the indoors and
outdoors.Glass allowed for interaction and viewing of the outdoors
while still protecting from the elements. In 1928, Wright wrote an
essay on glass in which he compared it to the mirrors of nature:
lakes, rivers and ponds. One of Wright's earliest uses of glass in
his works was to string panes of glass along whole walls in an attempt
to create light screens to join together solid walls. By utilizing
this large amount of glass, Wright sought to achieve a balance between
the lightness and airiness of the glass and the solid, hard walls.
Arguably, Wright's best-known art glass is that of the Prairie style.
The simple geometric shapes that yield to very ornate and intricate
windows represent some of the most integral ornamentation of his
Wright also designed some of his own clothing. His fashion sense was
unique and he usually wore expensive suits, flowing neckties, and
capes. He had a fascination with automobiles, purchasing his first car
in 1909, a Stoddard-Dayton roadster, and owned many exotic vehicles
over the years. During the cash-strapped Depression, Wright drove
cheaper vehicles. Some of his last cars in the 1950s included four
Volkswagens and a Chevrolet Nomad wagon along with flashier articles
such as a Jaguar Mark VII. He owned some 50 cars between 1909 and his
death, of which ten are known to be extant.
Textile concrete block system
In the early 1920s, Wright designed a "textile" concrete block system
reinforced by an internal system of bars. Wright first used his
textile block system on the
John Storer House
John Storer House in Hollywood,
California, in 1923. The house is now used in films, television, and
print media to represent the future. Typically Wrightian is the
joining of the structure to its site by a series of terraces that
reach out into and reorder the landscape, making it an integral part
of the architect's vision. With the
Ennis House and the Samuel
Freeman House (both 1923), Wright had further opportunities to test
the limits of the textile block system, including limited use in the
Arizona Biltmore Hotel
Arizona Biltmore Hotel in 1927. Wright's son, Lloyd Wright,
supervised construction for the Storer, Freeman and Ennis Houses.
Architectural historian Thomas Hines has suggested that Lloyd's
contribution to these projects is often overlooked.
Charles Weltzheimer Residence (1948) in Oberlin, Ohio
Main article: Usonia
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Wright is responsible for a series of concepts of suburban development
united under the term Broadacre City. He proposed the idea in his book
The Disappearing City in 1932, and unveiled a 12-square-foot
(1.1 m2) model of this community of the future, showing it in
several venues in the following years. Concurrent with the development
of Broadacre City, also referred to as Usonia, Wright conceived a new
type of dwelling that came to be known as the Usonian House. Although
an early version of the form can be seen in the Malcolm Willey House
(1934) in Minneapolis, the Usonian ideal emerged most completely in
Herbert and Katherine Jacobs First House
Herbert and Katherine Jacobs First House (1937) in Madison,
Wisconsin. Designed on a gridded concrete slab that integrated the
house's radiant heating system, the house featured new approaches to
construction, including sandwich walls that consisted of layers of
wood siding, plywood cores and building paper, a significant change
from typically framed walls. Usonian houses commonly featured flat
roofs and were usually constructed without basements or attics, all
features that Wright had been promoting since the early 20th century.
Usonian houses were Wright's response to the transformation of
domestic life that occurred in the early 20th century when servants
had became less prominent or completely absent from most American
households. By developing homes with progressively more open plans,
Wright allotted the woman of the house a 'workspace', as he often
called the kitchen, where she could keep track of and be available for
the children and/or guests in the dining room. As in the Prairie
Houses, Usonian living areas had a fireplace as a point of focus.
Bedrooms, typically isolated and relatively small, encouraged the
family to gather in the main living areas. The conception of spaces
instead of rooms was a development of the Prairie ideal. The built-in
furnishings related to the Arts and Crafts movement's principles which
influenced Wright's early work. Spatially and in terms of their
construction, the Usonian houses represented a new model for
independent living, and allowed dozens of clients to live in a
Wright-designed house at relatively low cost. His Usonian homes set a
new style for suburban design that influenced countless developers.
Many features of modern American homes date back to Wright: open
plans, slab-on-grade foundations, and simplified construction
techniques that allowed more mechanization and efficiency in building.
Influences and collaborations
Wright-designed window in Robie House, Chicago (1906)
Wright strongly believed in individualism and did not affiliate with
American Institute of Architects
American Institute of Architects during his career, going so far
as to call the organization "a harbor of refuge for the incompetent,"
and "a form of refined gangsterism." When an associate referred to him
as "an old amateur" Wright confirmed, "I am the oldest." Wright
rarely credited any influences on his designs, but most architects,
historians and scholars agree he had five major influences:
Louis Sullivan, whom he considered to be his Lieber Meister (dear
Nature, particularly shapes/forms and colors/patterns of plant life,
Music (his favorite composer was Ludwig van Beethoven),
Japanese art, prints and buildings,
Froebel Gifts
He also routinely claimed the work of architects and architectural
designers who were his employees as his own designs, and also claimed
that the rest of the
Prairie School architects were merely his
followers, imitators and subordinates. But, as with any architect,
Wright worked in a collaborative process and drew his ideas from the
work of others. In his earlier days, Wright worked with some of the
top architects of the Chicago School, including Sullivan. In his
Prairie School days, Wright's office was populated by many talented
architects including William Eugene Drummond, John Van Bergen, Isabel
Roberts, Francis Barry Byrne, Albert McArthur, Marion Mahony Griffin
and Walter Burley Griffin.
The Czech-born architect Antonin Raymond, recognized as the father of
modern architecture in Japan, worked for Wright at
Taliesin and led
the construction of the Imperial Hotel in Tokyo. He subsequently
stayed in Japan and opened his own practice. Rudolf Schindler also
worked for Wright on the Imperial hotel. His own work is often
credited as influencing Wright's Usonian houses. Schindler's friend
Richard Neutra also worked briefly for Wright and became an
internationally successful architect.
Later, in the
Taliesin days, Wright employed many architects and
artists who later become notable, such as Aaron Green, John Lautner,
E. Fay Jones,
Henry Klumb and Paolo Soleri.
Lloyd Wright was interested in site and community planning
throughout his career. His commissions and theories on urban design
began as early as 1900 and continued until his death. He had 41
commissions on the scale of community planning or urban design.
His thoughts on suburban design started in 1900 with a proposed
subdivision layout for
Charles E. Roberts
Charles E. Roberts entitled the "Quadruple
Block Plan." This design strayed from traditional suburban lot layouts
and set houses on small square blocks of four equal-sized lots
surrounded on all sides by roads instead of straight rows of houses on
parallel streets. The houses, which used the same design as published
in "A Home in a Prairie Town" from the Ladies' Home Journal, were set
toward the center of the block to maximize the yard space and included
private space in the center. This also allowed for far more
interesting views from each house. Although this plan was never
realized, Wright published the design in the
Wasmuth Portfolio in
The more ambitious designs of entire communities were exemplified by
his entry into the City Club of Chicago Land Development Competition
in 1913. The contest was for the development of a suburban quarter
section. This design expanded on the Quadruple Block Plan and included
several social levels. The design shows the placement of the upscale
homes in the most desirable areas and the blue collar homes and
apartments separated by parks and common spaces. The design also
included all the amenities of a small city: schools, museums, markets,
etc. This view of decentralization was later reinforced by
Broadacre City design. The philosophy behind his community
planning was decentralization. The new development must be away from
the cities. In this decentralized America, all services and facilities
could coexist "factories side by side with farm and home."
Notable community planning designs:
1900–03 – Quadruple Block Plan, 24 homes in Oak Park, Illinois
1909 – Como Orchard Summer Colony, town site development for new
town in the Bitterroot Valley, Montana
1913 – Chicago Land Development competition, suburban Chicago
1934–59 – Broadacre City, theoretical decentralized city plan,
exhibits of large-scale model
1938 – Suntop Homes, also known as Cloverleaf Quadruple Housing
Project – commission from Federal Works Agency, Division of Defense
Housing, a low-cost multifamily housing alternative to suburban
1942 – Cooperative Homesteads, commissioned by a group of auto
workers, teachers and other professionals, 160-acre farm co-op was to
be the pioneer of rammed earth and earth berm construction
Usonia Homes, 47 homes (three designed by Wright) in
Pleasantville, New York
1949 – The Acres, also known as Galesburg Country Homes, five homes
(four designed by Wright) in Charleston Township, Michigan
1949 – Parkwyn neighborhood, a plat in Kalamazoo, Michigan developed
by Wright containing mostly Usonian homes on circular lots with common
spaces in between (since replatted)
Though most famous as an architect, Wright was an active dealer in
Japanese art, primarily ukiyo-e woodblock prints. He frequently served
as both architect and art dealer to the same clients; he designed a
home, then provided the art to fill it. For a time, Wright made
more from selling art than from his work as an architect. Wright was
also an avid collector of Japanese prints and used them as teaching
aids with his apprentices in what were called "print parties".
Wright first traveled to Japan in 1905, where he bought hundreds of
prints. The following year, he helped organize the world's first
retrospective exhibition of works by Hiroshige, held at the Art
Institute of Chicago. For many years, he was a major presence in
the Japanese art world, selling a great number of works to prominent
collectors such as John Spaulding of Boston, and to prominent
museums such as the
Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. He
penned a book on Japanese art in 1912.
In 1920, however, rival art dealers began to spread rumors that Wright
was selling retouched prints; this combined with Wright's tendency to
live beyond his means, and other factors, led to great financial
troubles for the architect. Though he provided his clients with
genuine prints as replacements for those he was accused of retouching,
this marked the end of the high point of his career as an art
dealer. He was forced to sell off much of his art collection in
1927 to pay off outstanding debts; the Bank of Wisconsin claimed his
Taliesin home the following year, and sold thousands of his prints,
for only one dollar a piece, to collector Edward Burr Van Vleck.
Wright continued to collect and deal in prints until his death in
1959, using prints as collateral for loans, often relying upon his art
business to remain financially solvent.
The extent of his dealings in Japanese art went largely unknown, or
underestimated, among art historians for decades until, in 1980, Julia
Meech, then associate curator of Japanese art at the Metropolitan
Museum, began researching the history of the museum's collection of
Japanese prints. She discovered "a three-inch-deep 'clump of 400
cards' from 1918, each listing a print bought from the same
seller—'F. L. Wright'" and a number of letters exchanged between
Wright and the museum's first curator of Far Eastern Art, Sigisbert C.
Bosch Reitz, in 1918-22. These discoveries, and subsequent
research, led to a renewed understanding of Wright's career as an art
On April 4, 1959, Wright was hospitalized for abdominal pains and was
operated on April 6. He seemed to be recovering but he died quietly on
April 9. After his death Wright's legacy was plagued with turmoil
for years. His third wife Olgivanna's dying wish had been that
Wright, she, and her daughter by her first marriage all be cremated
and interred together in a memorial garden being built at Taliesin
West. According to his own wishes, Wright's body had lain in the
Lloyd-Jones cemetery, next to the Unity Chapel, near
Wisconsin. Although Olgivanna had taken no legal steps to move
Wright's remains and against the wishes of other family members as
well as the Wisconsin legislature, in 1985 Wright's remains were
removed from his grave by members of the
Taliesin Fellowship, cremated
and sent to Scottsdale where they were later interred in the memorial
garden. The original grave site in Wisconsin, now empty, is still
marked with Wright's name.
After Wright’s death, most of his archives were stored at the Frank
Lloyd Wright Foundation in
Taliesin (in Wisconsin), and
(in Arizona.) These collections included more than 23,000
architectural drawings, about 40 large-scale architectural models,
some 44,000 photographs, 600 manuscripts and more than 300,000 pieces
of office and personal correspondence. Most of these models were
constructed for MoMA's retrospective of Wright in 1940. In 2012,
in order to guarantee a high level of conservation and access as well
as to transfer the considerable financial burden of maintaining the
archive, the Frank
Lloyd Wright Foundation partnered with the
Museum of Modern Art
Museum of Modern Art and the Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library
to move the archive's content to New York. Wright's furniture and art
collection remains with The Foundation, which will also have a role in
monitoring the archive. These three parties established an advisory
group to oversee exhibitions, symposiums, events and publications.
Photographs and other archival materials are held by the Ryerson &
Burnham Libraries at the Art Institute of Chicago. The architect's
personal archives are located at
Taliesin West in Scottsdale, Arizona.
Lloyd Wright archives include photographs of his drawings,
indexed correspondence beginning in the 1880s and continuing through
Wright's life, and other ephemera. The Getty Research Center, Los
Angeles, also has copies of Wright's correspondence and photographs of
his drawings in their "Frank
Wright's correspondence is indexed in An Index to the Taliesin
Correspondence, ed. by Professor Anthony Alofsin, which is available
at larger libraries.
Destroyed Wright buildings
Wright designed over 400 built structures of which about 300
survive as of 2005[update]. Four have been lost to forces of nature:
the waterfront house for W. L. Fuller in Pass Christian, Mississippi,
Hurricane Camille in August 1969; the Louis Sullivan
Bungalow of Ocean Springs, Mississippi, destroyed by Hurricane Katrina
in 2005; and the
Arinobu Fukuhara House
Arinobu Fukuhara House (1918) in Hakone, Japan,
destroyed in the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake. In January 2006, the
Wilbur Wynant House
Wilbur Wynant House in
Gary, Indiana was destroyed by fire.
Imperial Hotel, Tokyo
Imperial Hotel, Tokyo (1923)
Notable Wright buildings intentionally demolished: Midway Gardens
(built 1913, demolished 1929), the Larkin Administration Building
(built 1903, demolished 1950), the Francis Apartments and Francisco
Terrace Apartments (Chicago, built 1895, demolished 1971 and 1974,
respectively), the Geneva Inn (Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, built 1911,
demolished 1970), and the
Banff National Park Pavilion
Banff National Park Pavilion (built 1914,
demolished 1934). The Imperial Hotel (built 1923) survived the 1923
Great Kantō earthquake but was demolished in 1968 due to urban
1966 U.S. postage stamp honoring Frank Lloyd Wright
Later in his life and well after his death in 1959, Wright received
much honorary recognition for his lifetime achievements. He received a
Gold Medal award from The
Royal Institute of British Architects
Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA)
in 1941. The
American Institute of Architects
American Institute of Architects awarded him the AIA Gold
Medal in 1949. That medal was a symbolic "burying the hatchet" between
Wright and the AIA. In a radio interview he commented, "Well, the AIA
I never joined, and they know why. When they gave me the gold medal in
Houston, I told them frankly why. Feeling that the architecture
profession is all that's the matter with architecture, why should I
join them?" He was awarded the Franklin Institute's Frank P. Brown
Medal in 1953. He received honorary degrees from several universities
(including his "alma mater", the University of Wisconsin) and several
nations named him as an honorary board member to their national
academies of art and/or architecture. In 2000,
Fallingwater was named
"The Building of the 20th century" in an unscientific "Top-Ten" poll
taken by members attending the AIA annual convention in Philadelphia.
On that list, Wright was listed along with many of the USA's other
greatest architects including Eero Saarinen, I.M. Pei, Louis Kahn,
Philip Johnson and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe; he was the only architect
who had more than one building on the list. The other three buildings
were the Guggenheim Museum, the Frederick C.
Robie House and the
Johnson Wax Building.
In 1992, the
Madison Opera in Madison, Wisconsin, commissioned and
premiered the opera Shining Brow, by composer
Daron Hagen and
Paul Muldoon based on events early in Wright's life. The
work has since received numerous revivals, including a June 2013
revival at Fallingwater, in Bull Run, Pennsylvania, by Opera Theater
of Pittsburgh. In 2000, Work Song: Three Views of Frank Lloyd Wright,
a play based on the relationship between the personal and working
aspects of Wright's life, debuted at the Milwaukee Repertory Theater.
In 1966, the
United States Postal Service
United States Postal Service honored Wright with a
Americans series 2¢ postage stamp. Several of Wright's
buildings have been proposed by the United States to be UNESCO World
'So Long, Frank Lloyd Wright' is a song written by Paul Simon. Art
Garfunkel has stated that the origin of the song came from his request
Paul Simon write a song about the famous architect Frank Lloyd
Wright. Simon himself stated that he knew nothing about Wright, but
proceeded to write the song anyway.
In 1957, Arizona made plans to construct a new Capitol building.
Believing that the submitted plans for the new Capitol were tombs to
the past, Frank
Lloyd Wright offered Oasis as an alternative to the
people of Arizona. In 2004, one of the spires included in his
design was erected in Scottsdale.
Lloyd Wright was married three times and fathered seven
children, four sons and three daughters. He also adopted Svetlana
Milanoff, the daughter of his third wife, Olgivanna Lloyd Wright.
His wives were:
Catherine "Kitty" (Tobin) Wright (1871–1959); social worker,
socialite (married in June 1889; divorced November 1922)
Maude "Miriam" (Noel) Wright (1869–1930), artist (married in
November 1923; divorced August 1927)
Olga Ivanovna "Olgivanna" (Lazovich Milanoff) Lloyd Wright
(1897–1985), dancer and writer (married in August 1928)
One of Wright's sons, Frank Lloyd Wright, Jr., known as Lloyd Wright
(d. 1978), was also a notable architect in Los Angeles. Lloyd Wright's
son (and Wright's grandson), Eric Lloyd Wright, is currently an
Malibu, California where he has a practice of mostly
residences, but also civic and commercial buildings.
Another son and architect, John
Lloyd Wright (d. 1972), invented
Lincoln Logs in 1918, and practiced extensively in the San Diego area.
Elizabeth Wright Ingraham
Elizabeth Wright Ingraham (d. 2013), was an architect
in Colorado Springs, Colorado. She was the mother of Christine, an
interior designer in Connecticut, and Catherine, an architecture
professor at the Pratt Institute.
The house that Wright designed for his son
David Samuel Wright
David Samuel Wright and his
wife Gladys was rescued from demolition and given to the Frank Lloyd
Wright School of Architecture.
The Oscar-winning actress
Anne Baxter was Wright's granddaughter.
Baxter was the daughter of Catherine Baxter, a child born of Wright's
first marriage. Baxter's daughter, Melissa Galt, currently lives and
works in Atlanta as an interior designer.
His step-daughter Svetlana (daughter of Olgivanna) and her son Daniel
died in an automobile accident in 1946. Her widower, William Wesley
Peters, was later briefly married to Svetlana Alliluyeva, the youngest
child and only daughter of Joseph Stalin. Peters served as Chairman of
Lloyd Wright Foundation from 1985 to 1991.
Main article: List of Frank
Lloyd Wright works
Robie House on the
University of Chicago
University of Chicago campus
Frank W. Thomas House (1901), 210 Forest Avenue, Oak Park, IL
Taliesin West Panorama from the "prow" looking at the "ship"
Gammage Auditorium viewed from one of the pedestrian ramps
Beth Sholom Synagogue, the only synagogue Wright ever designed
Annunciation Greek Orthodox Church, Wauwatosa, Wisconsin, 1956–1961
Beth Sholom Synagogue, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania, 1954
Child of the Sun, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida,
1941–1958, site of the largest collection of the architect's work
Dana-Thomas House, Springfield, Illinois, 1902
Darwin D. Martin House, Buffalo, New York, 1903–1905
Dr. G.C. Stockman House, Mason City, Iowa, 1908
Edward E. Boynton House, Rochester, New York, 1908
Ennis House, Los Angeles, 1923
Edgar J. Kaufmann Sr. Residence), Bear Run,
First Unitarian Society of Madison, Shorewood Hills, Wisconsin, 1947
Lloyd Wright Home and Studio, Oak Park, Illinois, 1889–1909
Frank Thomas House, Oak Park, Illinois, 1901
Gammage Auditorium, Tempe, Arizona, 1959–1964
Graycliff. Derby, New York, 1926
First Jacobs House, Madison, Wisconsin, 1936–1937
Herbert F. Johnson Residence
Herbert F. Johnson Residence ("Wingspread"), Wind Point, Wisconsin,
Hollyhock House (Aline Barnsdall Residence), Los Angeles, 1919–1921
Imperial Hotel, Tokyo, Japan, 1923 (demolished, 1968; entrance hall
Meiji Mura near Nagoya, Japan, 1976)
Johnson Wax Headquarters, Racine, Wisconsin, 1936
Kenneth Laurent House, Rockford, Illinois, only home Wright designed
to be handicapped accessible, 1951
Kentuck Knob, Ohiopyle, Pennsylvania, 1956
Larkin Administration Building, Buffalo, New York, 1903 (demolished,
Marin County Civic Center, San Rafael, California, 1957–1966
Marshall Erdman Prefab Houses, various locations, 1956–1960
Midway Gardens, Chicago, Illinois, 1913 (demolished, 1929)
Clubhouse at the Nakoma Golf Resort, Plumas County, California,
designed in 1923; opened in 2000
Park Inn Hotel, the last standing Wright designed hotel, Mason City,
Price Tower, Bartlesville, Oklahoma, 1952–1956
Frederick C. Robie Residence, Chicago, Illinois, 1909
R.W. Lindholm Service Station, Cloquet, Minnesota, 1958
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York City, 1956–1959
Taliesin, Spring Green, Wisconsin, 1911 & 1925
Taliesin West, Scottsdale, Arizona, 1937
The Illinois, mile-high tower in Chicago, 1956 (unbuilt)
Unity Temple, Oak Park, Illinois, 1904
Usonian homes, various locations, 1930s–1950s
V. C. Morris Gift Shop, San Francisco, 1948
Westhope (Richard Lloyd Jones Residence, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1929
William H. Winslow House, River Forest, Illinois, 1894
Ward Winfield Willits Residence, and Gardener's Cottage and Stables,
Highland Park, Illinois, 1901
Lloyd Wright buildings
Jaroslav Joseph Polivka
Lloyd Wright Home and Studio
Lloyd Wright Building Conservancy
Frank Lloyd Wright-
Prairie School of Architecture Historic District
List of Frank
Lloyd Wright works
List of Frank
Lloyd Wright works by location
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^ Lind, Carla (1995). Frank Lloyd Wright's glass designs. San
Francisco: Pomegranate Artbooks. p. 57.
^ a b American Treasures of the Library of Congress. "The Genius of
Frank Lloyd Wright". Library of Congress. Retrieved February 28,
^ Sanderson, Arlene, Wright Sites, Princeton Architectural Press,
1995, p. 16,
^ Hines, Thomas S. (2010). Architecture of the sun : Los Angeles
modernism, 1900-1970. New York: Rizzoli.
^ a b "Biography in Sound: Frank Lloyd Wright". Old Time Radio.
Retrieved September 9, 2012.
^ "The Magic of America", Marion Mahony Griffin
^ Wrightscapes: Frank Lloyd Wright's Landscape Designs, Charles E. and
Berdeana Aguar, McGraw-Hill, 2002, p.344
^ Aguar, Charles E.; Aguar, Berdeana (2002). Wrightscapes: Frank Lloyd
Wright's Landscape Designs. McGraw-Hill. pp. 51–56.
^ "Undoing the City: Frank Lloyd Wright's Planned Communities".
American Quarterly. 24 (4): 544. October 1972.
^ "Undoing the City: Frank Lloyd Wright's Planned Communities".
American Quarterly. 24 (4): 542. October 1972.
^ Treasures of Taliesin: Seventy Seven Unbuilt Designs, Bruce Brooks
Pfeiffer, Director of the Frank
Lloyd Wright Archive
^ a b c d Cotter, Holland (April 6, 2001). "Seeking Japan's Prints,
Out of Love and Need". New York Times.
^ Julia Meech. Frank
Lloyd Wright and the Art of Japan: The
Architect's Other Passion. New York: Abrams, 2000.
^ a b c d e Reif, Rita (March 18, 2001). "Frank Lloyd Wright's Love of
Japanese Prints Helped Pay the Bills". New York Times.
^ Huxtable, p.245
Lloyd Wright Dies; Famed
Architect Was 89". nytimes.com<!.
April 10, 1959. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
^ Secrest, p. 213
^ a b Robin Pogrebin (September 3, 2012), A Vast Frank Lloyd Wright
Archive Is Moving to New York New York Times.
^ Robin Pogrebin (March 9, 2014), Models Preserve Wright's Dreams New
^ The Architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright: A Complete Catalog, by
William Allin Storrer,
University of Chicago
University of Chicago Press, 1992 (third
^ "Preservation Online: Today's News Archives: Fire Guts Rare FLW
House in Indiana". Nationaltrust.org. Archived from the original on
February 20, 2008. Retrieved October 16, 2009.
^ Berstein, Fred A. "Near Nagoya, Architecture From When the East
Looked West," New York Times. April 2, 2006.
^ Browne, D (2011). Fire and Rain: The Beatles, Simon and Garfunkel,
James Taylor, CSNY, and the Bittersweet Story of 1970. Da Capo Press.
pp. 45–46, 164–65. ISBN 978-0-306-81850-9.
^ "Oasis - Frank Lloyd Wright's Design for the Capitol". Arizona
Library. Arizona Capitol Museum. Archived from the original on
September 26, 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2014.
^ ascedia.com. "
Taliesin Preservation, Inc. – Frank
Lloyd Wright –
FAQs". Taliesinpreservation.org. Archived from the original on June
10, 2008. Retrieved October 16, 2009.
^ a b Mann, Leslie (February 1, 2008). "Reflecting pools: Descendants
follow in Frank Lloyd Wright's footsteps". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved
March 28, 2008.
^ Kimmelman, Michael (October 2, 2012). "Wright Masterwork Is Seen in
a New Light: A Fight for Its Life". New York Times.
^ Rose, Jaimee (March 14, 2009). "Growing up Wright". The Arizona
Hoffmann, Donald. Understanding Frank Lloyd Wright's Architecture. New
York: Dover Publications, 1995. ISBN 0-486-28364-X
Kienitz, John Fabian. "Fifty-two years of Frank Lloyd Wright's
progressivism, 1893-1945". Wisconsin Magazine of History, vol. 29, no.
1 (September 1945):61-71.
McCarter, Robert (ed.). Frank Lloyd Wright: A Primer on Architectural
Principles. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1991.
Meehan, Patrick, ed. Truth Against the World: Frank Lloyd Wright
Speaks for an Organic Architecture. New York: Wiley, 1987.
Rosenbaum, Alvin. Usonia : Frank Lloyd Wright's Design for
America. Washington, DC: Preservation Press, 1993.
Sergeant, John. Frank Lloyd Wright's Usonian Houses: The Case for
Organic Architecture. New York: Watson-Guptill, 1984.
Wright, Frank Lloyd (1947). Heywood, Robert B., ed. The Works of the
Mind: The Architect. Chicago:
University of Chicago
University of Chicago Press.
Wright, Frank Lloyd. "In the Cause of Architecture", Architectural
Record, March 1908. Reprinted in Frank Lloyd Wright: Collected
Writings, vol. 1: 1894–1930. New York: Rizzoli, 1992.
Wright, Frank Lloyd. The Natural House. New York: Horizon Press, 1954.
Alofsin, Anthony. Frank Lloyd Wright-the Lost Years, 1910-1922: A
Study of Influence. Chicago:
University of Chicago
University of Chicago Press, 1993.
Farr, Finis. Frank Lloyd Wright: A Biography. New York: Scribner,
Friedland, Roger and Harold Zellman. The Fellowship: The Untold Story
Lloyd Wright and the
Taliesin Fellowship. New York: Regan
Books, 2006. ISBN 0-06-039388-2
Gill, Brendan. Many Masks: A Life of Frank Lloyd Wright. New York:
Putnam, 1987. ISBN 0-399-13232-5
Huxtable, Ada Louise. Frank Lloyd Wright. New York: Lipper/Viking,
2004. ISBN 0-670-03342-1
Taliesin Reflections: My Years Before, During, and After
Living with Frank Lloyd Wright. Petaluma, Calif.: Meridian Press,
2006. ISBN 0-9778951-0-6
Russell, Virginia L. "You Dear Old Prima Donna: The Letters of Frank
Lloyd Wright and Jens Jensen", Landscape Journal, 20.2 (2001):
Secrest, Meryle. Frank Lloyd Wright: a Biography. New York: Knopf,
1992. ISBN 0-394-56436-7
Treiber, Daniel. Frank Lloyd Wright. 2nd ed. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2008.
Twombly, Robert C. Frank Lloyd Wright: His Life and Architecture. New
York: Wiley, 1979. ISBN 0-471-03400-2
Wright, Frank Lloyd. Frank Lloyd Wright: An Autobiography. New York:
Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1943.
Wright, Iovanna Lloyd. Architecture: Man in Possession of His Earth.
Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1962.
Wright, John Lloyd. My Father Who Is On Earth. New York: G.P. Putnam's
sons, 1946. ISBN 0-8093-1749-4
Surveys of Wright's work
Aguar, Charles and Berdeana Aguar. Wrightscapes: Frank Lloyd Wright's
Landscape Designs. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002.
Blake, Peter. Frank Lloyd Wright: Architecture and Space. Baltimore,
MD: Penguin Books, 1964.
Fell, Derek. The Gardens of Frank Lloyd Wright. London: Frances
Lincoln, 2009. ISBN 978-0-7112-2967-9
Heinz, Thomas A. Frank
Lloyd Wright Field Guide. Chichester, West
Sussex: Academy Editions, 1999. ISBN 0-8101-2244-8
Hildebrand, Grant. The Wright Space: Pattern and Meaning in Frank
Lloyd Wright's Houses. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1991.
Larkin, David and Bruce Brooks Pfeiffer. Frank Lloyd Wright: The
Masterworks. New York: Rizzoli, 1993. ISBN 0-8478-1715-6
Levine, Neil. The Architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright. Princeton, NJ:
Princeton University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-691-03371-4
Lind, Carla. Frank Lloyd Wright's Glass Designs. San Francisco:
Pomegranate Artbooks, 1995. ISBN 0-87654-468-5
McCarter, Robert. Frank Lloyd Wright. London: Phaidon Press, 1997.
Pfeiffer, Bruce Brooks. Frank Lloyd Wright, 1867–1959: Building for
Democracy. Los Angeles: Taschen, 2004. ISBN 3-8228-2757-6
Pfeiffer, Bruce Brooks and Peter Gössel (eds.). Frank Lloyd Wright:
The Complete Works. Los Angeles: Taschen, 2009.
Riley, Terence and Peter Reed (eds.). Frank Lloyd Wright: Architect.
New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1994. ISBN 0-87070-642-X
Smith, Kathryn. Frank Lloyd Wright: America's Master Architect. New
York: Abbeville Press, 1998. ISBN 0-7892-0287-5
Storrer, William Allin. The Architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright: A
Complete Catalog. 3rd ed. Chicago:
University of Chicago
University of Chicago Press, 2007.
Storrer, William Allin. The Frank
Lloyd Wright Companion. Chicago:
University of Chicago
University of Chicago Press, 1993. ISBN 0-226-77621-2
Selected books about specific Wright projects
Lind, Carla. Frank Lloyd Wright's Usonian Houses. San Francisco:
Promegranate Artbooks, 1994. ISBN 1-56640-998-5
Fallingwater Rising: Frank Lloyd Wright, E. J.
Kaufmann, and America's Most Extraordinary House. New York: Alford A.
Knopf, 2003. ISBN 1-4000-4026-4
Whiting, Henry, II. At Nature's Edge: Frank Lloyd Wright's Artist
Studio. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2007.
Library resources about
Frank Lloyd Wright
Resources in your library
Resources in other libraries
By Frank Lloyd Wright
Resources in your library
Resources in other libraries
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Frank Lloyd Wright.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Frank Lloyd Wright
Lloyd Wright at the archINFORM database
Lloyd Wright Foundation official website
Lloyd Wright at Encyclopædia Britannica
Taliesin Preservation, stewards of Wright's home Taliesin
Lloyd Wright Foundation Archives at Columbia University
Lloyd Wright documents at the Wisconsin Historical Society
Lloyd Wright Building Conservancy
Works by or about Frank
Lloyd Wright in libraries (
Lloyd Wright Preservation Trust – FLW Home and Studio, Robie
Lloyd Wright School of Architecture
Lloyd Wright Wisconsin Heritage Tourism Program
Lloyd Wright – PBS documentary by
Ken Burns and resources
Frank Lloyd Wright. Designs for an American Landscape 1922–1932
Lloyd Wright Buildings Recorded by the Historic American
Complete list of Wright buildings by location
Sullivan, Wright, Prairie School, & Organic Architecture
Audio interview with Martin Filler on Frank
Lloyd Wright from The New
York Review of Books
Article on the 50th anniversary of Wright's only automobile service
Lloyd Wright and Quebec
Lloyd Wright interviewed by
Mike Wallace on The Mike Wallace
Interview recorded September 1 & 28, 1957
Interactive Map of Frank
Lloyd Wright Buildings, created in the
Harvard WorldMap Platform
Map of the Frank
Lloyd Wright works - Wikiartmap, the art map of the
Appearance on What's My Line?, June 3, 1956
Fay Jones and Frank Lloyd Wright: Organic Architecture Comes to
Arkansas digital exhibit, University of Arkansas Libraries
Chauncey L. and Johanna Griggs Residence, Tacoma Lakewood Washington
Frank Lloyd Wright's Personal Manuscripts and Letters
Lloyd Wright advice to a young devotee, Taliesin, 1954
Frank Lloyd Wright
Adams, W. and J.
Smith, G. W.
Wright, D. and G.
Wright, D. and J.
American System-Built Homes
Erdman Prefab Houses
Fireproof House for $5000
Galesburg Country Homes
Ravine Bluffs Development
Anderton Court Shops
Annunciation Greek Orthodox Church
Arizona Biltmore Hotel
Coonley School Playhouse
Banff National Park Pavilion
Beth Sholom Synagogue
Child of the Sun
Community Christian Church
Como Orchard Summer Colony
E-Z Polish Factory
Fasbender Medical Clinic
Hoffman Auto Showroom
Horse Show Fountain
Jiyu Gakuen Girls' School
Johnson Wax Headquarters
Kundert Medical Clinic
Larkin Administration Building
Lawrence Memorial Library
Lindholm Service Station
Marin County Civic Center
Park Inn Hotel
Pilgrim Congregational Church
Frank L. Smith Bank
Unitarian Society Meeting House
Morris Gift Shop
Blue Sky Mausoleum
Gammage Memorial Auditorium
King Kamehameha Golf Course Clubhouse
Monona Terrace Community and Convention Center
Sharp Family Tourism and Education Center
Gordon Strong Automobile Objective
Plan for Greater Baghdad
Point Park Civic Center
Lloyd Wright Home and Studio
Taliesin Associated Architects
Wright Building Conservancy
Prairie School of Architecture Historic District
Olgivanna Lloyd Wright
Olgivanna Lloyd Wright (3rd wife)
Jenkin Lloyd Jones
Jenkin Lloyd Jones (uncle)
Lloyd Wright (son)
Lloyd Wright (son)
Maginel Wright Enright
Maginel Wright Enright (sister)
Lloyd Wright (grandson)
Anne Baxter (granddaughter)
Richard Bock (associate)
Walter Burley Griffin
Walter Burley Griffin (associate)
Marion Griffin (associate)
Jaroslav Josef Polívka
Jaroslav Josef Polívka (associate)
Mamah Borthwick (client and lover)
The Last Wright: Frank
Lloyd Wright and the Park Inn Hotel
"So Long, Frank Lloyd Wright"
Work Song: Three Views of Frank Lloyd Wright
The Wright 3
ISNI: 0000 0001 2100 0710
BNF: cb12388569w (data)