* Japanese-mediated ceasefire
COMMANDERS AND LEADERS
12,000 regulars 38,000 colonials 20 light tanks ~100 aircraft 1 light cruiser 4 avisos (sloop) 60,000 regulars 134 tanks ~140 aircraft 2 coastal defence ships 12 torpedo boats 4 submarines
CASUALTIES AND LOSSES
LAND: 321 killed or wounded 178 missing 222 captured 22 aircraft destroyed SEA: 11 killed 1 light cruiser damaged LAND: 54 killed 307 wounded 21 captured 8–13 aircraft destroyed SEA: 36 killed 2 torpedo boats sunk 1 coastal defense ship grounded
* v * t * e
* v * t * e
* Indochina (1940)
* Indian Ocean (1940–45)
* Philippines 1941–42
* Franco-Thai War
* Dutch East Indies 1941–42 * Portuguese Timor * Australia * New Guinea * Philippines 1944–45 * Borneo 1945
* Air raids
* Mariana Islands
* Volcano & Ryukyu Is
* v * t * e
The FRANCO-THAI WAR (Thai :
กรณีพิพาทอินโดจีน French : Guerre
franco-thaïlandaise) (1940–1941) was fought between
The German military occupation of a large part of
* 1 Opposing forces
* 1.1 French * 1.2 Thai
* 2 Campaign
* 3 Results
* 3.1 Armistice * 3.2 Treaty * 3.3 Casualties
* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links
The French military forces in Indochina consisted of an army of approximately 50,000 men, 12,000 of whom were French, organised into forty-one infantry battalions, two artillery regiments, and a battalion of engineers. The most obvious deficiency of the French army was its shortage of armour. It could field only 20 Renault FT tanks against the nearly one hundred armoured vehicles of the Royal Thai Army . The bulk of the French forces stationed near the Thai border consisted of the Indochinese troops of the 3rd and 4th Tirailleurs Tonkinois , together with a battalion of Montagnards , French regulars of the Colonial Infantry , and French Foreign Legion units.
The French navy in Indochina had one light cruiser and four
The Armée de l\'Air had approximately 100 aircraft, of which about
60 could be considered front line. These included thirty
Plaek Phibunsongkhram inspecting troops during the Franco Thai War.
The slightly larger Thai Army was a relatively well-equipped force. Consisting of 60,000 men, it was made up of four armies. The largest was the Burapha Army with five divisions and the Isan Army with three divisions. Independent formations under direct control of the army high command included two motorised cavalry battalions, one artillery battalion, one signals battalion, one engineer battalion, and one armoured regiment. The artillery was a mixture of Krupp guns and modern Bofors guns and Howitzers, while 60 Carden Loyd tankettes and 30 Vickers 6-ton tanks made up the bulk of the army's tank force.
Royal Thai Navy
While nationalist demonstrations and anti-French rallies were being
On 5 January 1941, following the report of a French attack on the
Thai border town of
Aranyaprathet , the Thai Burapha and
launched an offensive on
At dawn on 16 January 1941 the French launched a large counterattack on the Thai-held villages of Yang Dang Khum and Phum Preav, initiating the fiercest battle of the war. Due to poor co-ordination and non-existent intelligence against the entrenched and prepared Thai forces, the French operation was stopped and fighting ended with a French retreat from the area. However, the Thais were unable to pursue the retreating French, as their forward tanks were kept in check by the gunnery of French Foreign Legion artillery.
With the situation on land rapidly deteriorating for the French,
Admiral Decoux ordered all available French naval forces into action
in the Gulf of
On 24 January, the final air battle took place when Thai bombers
raided the French airfield at
Japan stepped in to mediate the conflict. A Japanese-sponsored
"Conference for the Cessation of Hostilities" was held at Saigon and
preliminary documents for a ceasefire between the governments of
The resolution of the conflict was received with wide acclaim among
the Thai people and was seen as a personal triumph for Phibun. For the
Japanese wanted to maintain both her working relationship with Vichy and the status quo, the Thais were forced to accept only a quarter of the territory that they had lost to the French, in addition to having to pay six million piastres as a concession to the French.
However, the real beneficiaries of the conflict were the Japanese.
They were able to expand their influence in both
To commemorate the victory Phibun had the Victory Monument built.
After the war, in October 1946, northwestern
The French army suffered a total of 321 casualties, of whom 15 were officers. The total number of missing after 28 January was 178 (six officers, 14 non-commissioned officers, and 158 enlisted men). The Thais had captured 222 men (17 North Africans, 80 Frenchmen, and 125 Indochinese).
The Thai army suffered 54 men killed in action and 307 wounded. 41 sailors and marines of the Thai navy were killed, and 67 wounded. At the Battle of Ko Chang, 36 men were killed, of whom 20 belonged to HTMS Thonburi , 14 to HTMS Songkhla, and two to HTMS Chonburi. The Thai air force lost 13 men. The number of Thai military personnel captured by the French numbered just 21.
About 30 percent of French aircraft were rendered unserviceable by the end of the war, some as a result of minor damage sustained in air raids that remained unrepaired. The Armée de l'Air admitted the loss of one Farman F221 and two Morane M.S.406s destroyed on the ground, but in reality its losses were greater.
In its first experience of combat, the
Royal Thai Air Force
* ^ Tucker, World War II: The Definitive Encyclopedia and Document Collection p. 649 * ^ Fall, p.22. "On the seas, one old French cruiser sank one-third of the whole Thai fleet ...,Japan, seeing that the war was turning against its pupil and ally, imposed its "mediation" between the two parties." * ^ Fall, Bernard B. (1994). Street Without Joy: The French Debacle in Indochina. Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-1700-3 . * ^ Windrow, Martin (2004). The Last Valley. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-306-81386-6 . * ^ A B C D Royal Thai Air Force. (1976) The History of the Air Force in the Conflict with French Indochina. Bangkok. * ^ A B Sorasanya Phaengspha (2002) The Indochina War: Thailand Fights France. Sarakadee Press. * ^ Stone, Bill. "Vichy Indo-China vs Siam, 1940-41". * ^ Rives, Maurice. Les Linh Tap. ISBN 2-7025-0436-1 page 90 * ^ A B C Ehrengardt, Christian J; Shores, Christopher (1985). L'Aviation de Vichy au combat: Tome 1: Les campagnes oubliées, 3 juillet 1940 - 27 novembre 1942. Charles-Lavauzelle. * ^ A B C Hesse d'Alzon, Claude (1985). La Présence militaire française en Indochine. Vincennes: Publications du service historique de l'Armée de Terre. * ^ A B C D E Young, Edward M. (1995) Aerial Nationalism: A History of Aviation in Thailand. Smithsonian Institution Press. * ^ Elphick, Peter. (1995) Singapore: the Pregnable Fortress: A Study in Deception, Discord and Desertion. Coronet Books. * ^ Vichy versus Asia: The Franco-Siamese War of 1941 * ^ Charivat Santaputra (1985) Thai Foreign Policy 1932-1946. Thammasat University Press. * ^ Judith A. Stowe. (1991) Siam becomes Thailand: A Story of Intrigue. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1393-6 * ^ Terwiel, B.J. (2005) Thailand's Political History: From the Fall of Ayutthaya to Recent Times. River Books.
* Wong, Ka F. Visions of a Nation: Public Monuments in
Twentieth-Century Thailand, White Lotus,