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The Info List - Franco-Syrian War


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France

French West Africa[1]

Arab Kingdom of Syria

Arab militias

Commanders and leaders

Henri Gouraud Mariano Goybet

King Faisal Yusuf al-'Azma † Arab militias:

Ibrahim Hananu[6] Subhi Barakat[6] Saleh al-Ali

Strength

70,000 men[1]

Casualties and losses

5,000 killed

v t e

Franco–Syrian War

Engagements

Syrian Coastal Mountains Aleppo Region Maysalun Damascus

The Franco-Syrian War
Franco-Syrian War
took place during 1920 between the Hashemite rulers of the newly established Arab Kingdom of Syria
Arab Kingdom of Syria
and France. During a series of engagements, which climaxed in the Battle of Maysalun, French forces defeated the forces of the Hashemite
Hashemite
monarch King Faisal, and his supporters, entering Damascus
Damascus
on July 24, 1920. A new pro-French government was declared in Syria
Syria
on July 25, headed by 'Alaa al-Din al-Darubi.[7] and eventually Syria
Syria
was divided into several client states under the French Mandate of Syria
French Mandate of Syria
and Lebanon. The British government, concerned for their position in the new mandate in Iraq, agreed to declare the fugitive Faisal as the new king of Iraq.

Contents

1 Background 2 Warfare chronology

2.1 Countrywide revolts 2.2 Battle of Maysalun 2.3 Final stages

3 Aftermath 4 See also 5 Bibliography 6 References

Background[edit] Main articles: Arab Revolt
Arab Revolt
and Al-Ali Revolt Near the end of World War I, the Egyptian Expeditionary forces of Edmund Allenby
Edmund Allenby
captured Damascus
Damascus
on September 30, 1918, and shortly thereafter on October 3, 1918, Hashemite
Hashemite
ruler Faisal entered Damascus as well, in the final stages of the Arab Revolt
Arab Revolt
against the Ottomans. On October 5, 1919, with the permission of General Allenby, Faisal announced the establishment of an Arab constitutional government in Damascus. Following the implementation of the 1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement, which divided the occupied remnants of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
between France
France
and Britain, French military administration was established in the Levant. General Henri Gouraud was appointed as representative of the French government in the Middle East and commander of the French Army of the Levant, centered in Syria. While events transpired in Europe that would eventually render the Arab Kingdom of Syria
Arab Kingdom of Syria
into a French mandate, it would also catalyze Syrian nationalist societies like al-Fatat (the Young Arab Society) to make preparations for a national congress. These Syrian nationalist societies advocated complete independence for an Arab Kingdom, uniting the Arab world under the Hashemite
Hashemite
ruler Faisal. The first official session of the Syrian Congress was held on June 3, 1919 and al-Fatat member Hashim al-Atassi
Hashim al-Atassi
was elected its president.[8] On June 25, the King-Crane Commission arrived in Damascus
Damascus
to a flurry of leaflets which said “Independence or Death”. On July 2, 1919, the Syrian Congress passed a number of resolutions pertaining to the formation of Syria
Syria
as a completely independent constitutional monarchy with Faisal as king, asking for assistance from the United States, and the refusal of any rights claimed by the French.[8] The hopes of Faisal that either the British or Americans would come to his aid and intervene against the French quickly faded with what many consider the defining catalyst for the creation and destruction of the Arab Kingdom of Syria: the Anglo-French Agreement. The Anglo-French Agreement provided for the withdrawal of British troops from Syria
Syria
and signaled the end of the British military involvement in Syria. Eventually, Faisal would be forced into negotiations with Clemenceau in January 1920 which stipulated that the French would uphold the existence of the Syrian state and would not station troops in Syria
Syria
as long as the French government remained the only government supplying advisers, counselors and technical experts.[9] News of this compromise did not bode well with Faisal’s vehemently anti-French and independence minded supporters who immediately pressured Faisal to reverse his commitment to France, which he did. Warfare chronology[edit] Countrywide revolts[edit]

Map of the Arab Kingdom of Syria, declared on 8 March 1920

See also: Hananu Revolt
Hananu Revolt
and Alawite Revolt of 1919 In the aftermath of the Clemenceau negotiations in January 1920, violent attacks against French forces occurred sporadically across Syria
Syria
and effectively the Syrian Congress assembled in March 1920 to declare Faisal the king of Syria, as well as to officially set up the Arab Kingdom of Syria
Arab Kingdom of Syria
with Hashim al-Atassi
Hashim al-Atassi
as Prime Minister. An independent Arab Kingdom of Syria
Arab Kingdom of Syria
was proclaimed in Damascus
Damascus
on March 8, 1920, in an apparent dispute with the French over the nature of its rule. This action was immediately repudiated by the British and French and the San Remo Conference
San Remo Conference
was called together by the League of Nations in April 1920 to explicitly establish the mandate of the French over Syria. Shortly, the war of Syrian Arab nationalists with the French became a devastating campaign for the new proclaimed Arab Kingdom of Syria. Several violent incidents in the region initiated by Arab militias, like the Battle of Tel Hai, led to further international support of the French. The League of Nations
League of Nations
having given the French Mandate of Syria
French Mandate of Syria
as planned, the French General Gouraud issued an ultimatum to the Syrian government to disband its troops and submit to French control. Worried about the results of a long bloody fight with the French, King Faisal himself surrendered on July 14, 1920,[8] but his message would not reach the general and King Faisal’s defense minister Yusuf al-'Azma, who ignoring the King, led an army to Maysalun to defend Syrian Arab Kingdom from French advance. The Hashemite
Hashemite
government of Damascus submitted reluctantly to the French ultimatum and disbanded its troops. Battle of Maysalun[edit] Main article: Battle of Maysalun In spite of King Faisal's acceptance of France's ultimatum, Yusuf al-'Azma refused to give in. He raised a small body of disbanded troops and civilians, poorly armed relative to the modern, well-equipped professional French Army, and led them to Maysalun. Although he had no illusions about the outcome of the battle, al-'Azma wanted to make it clear that Syria
Syria
would not surrender without fighting, in order to deny the French occupation any legitimacy. The Battle of Maysalun
Battle of Maysalun
resulted in a crushing Syrian defeat. The French forces under the command of General Mariano Goybet
Mariano Goybet
easily defeated the Syrian forces. Yusuf al-'Azma
Yusuf al-'Azma
was killed in the battle. Final stages[edit]

Award to French veterans - the Cilicia Levant medal law 18 July 1922

Main article: Siege of Damascus
Damascus
(1920) The final stage of the war took place on July 24, 1920,[citation needed] when the French forces entered Damascus
Damascus
without any resistance. The next day, the Arab Kingdom of Syria
Arab Kingdom of Syria
was abolished, and French rule officially reinstalled. Aftermath[edit] Main article: French Mandate for Syria
Syria
and the Lebanon Following the San Remo conference and the defeat of King Faisal's short-lived monarchy in Syria
Syria
at the Battle of Maysalun, the French general Henri Gouraud established civil administration in the territory. The mandate region was subdivided into six states. They were the states of Damascus
Damascus
(1920), State of Aleppo
State of Aleppo
(1920), Alawite State (1920), Jabal Druze (1921), the autonomous Sanjak of Alexandretta (1921) (modern-day Hatay) and the State of Greater Lebanon (1920), which became later the modern country of Lebanon. See also[edit]

Syrian Revolution Sultan al-Atrash List of modern conflicts in the Middle East

Bibliography[edit]

France
France
Syria
Syria
Occupation 1919-1920

References[edit]

^ a b Caroline Camille Attié: Struggle in the Levant: Lebanon in the 1950s, I.B.Tauris, 2004, ISBN 1860644678, page 15-16. ^ "The Franco-Syrian War
Franco-Syrian War
of 1920 Participants: France
France
vs. Syrians Dates: March, 1920, to August 7, 1920 Battle-Related Deaths: France—3,500; Syria—unknown; Where Fought: Middle East Initiator: France." [1] ^ Peretz "In the meantime in 1919 Faisal's Arab force began to clash with French troops. In March 1920, the Syrian congress in Damascus directly challenged France
France
by proclaiming Syria- including Lebanon, Palestine and Transjordan - independent and offering Faisal the crown... both sides immediately began to prepare for war." [2] ^ Benny Morris. Victims. the date of the first attack of Arabs against French interest on March, 1st. ^ Tom Segev in One Palestine. Complete. the date of the first attack of Arabs against French interest on March, 1st. ^ a b Tauber E. The Formation of Modern Syria
Syria
and Iraq. p.22 ^ Eliezer Tauber The Formation of Modern Syria
Syria
and Iraq. p.37 ^ a b c Eliezer Tauber. The Formation of Modern Syria
Syria
and Iraq. Frank Cass and Co. Ltd. Portland, Oregon. 1995. ^ Elie Kedourie. England and the Middle East: The Destruction of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
1914-1921. Mansell Publishing Limited. London, England. 1987.

v t e

French Mandate of Syria

States

State of Syria

State of Aleppo State of Damascus Al-Jazira Province

Jabal Druze State Alawite State Sanjak of Alexandretta Greater Lebanon

Conflicts

1919 revolt Franco-Syrian War

Battle of Maysalun

1925–1927 revolt

Capture of Salkhad Battle of al-Kafr Battle of al-Mazraa Battle of al-Musayfirah 1925 Hama uprising

1936 general strike Syria–Lebanon Campaign Levant Crisis

Treaties

Sykes–Picot Agreement
Sykes–Picot Agreement
(1916) Paulet–Newcombe Agreement
Paulet–Newcombe Agreement
(1920) Franco-Syrian Treaty of Independence
Franco-Syrian Treaty of Independence
(1936)

People

Syrian

Hashim al-Atassi Shukri al-Quwatli Khalid al-Azm Jamil Mardam Bey Sultan al-Atrash Yusuf al-'Azma Ibrahim Hananu Abd al-Rahman Shahbandar

French

French High Commissioner Charles de Gaulle Henri Gouraud

v t e

French colonial conflicts

16th–17th centuries

Brazil (1557–60) Florida (1562–65) Brazil (1612–15) Morocco (1629) Beaver Wars
Beaver Wars
(1641–1701) French colonization of Texas
French colonization of Texas
(1685–89) Siam (1688) King William's War
King William's War
(1689–97)

18th century

Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War
(1702–13) Chickasaw Wars
Chickasaw Wars
(1721–52) Dummer's War
Dummer's War
(1721–25) Burma– France
France
relations (1729–56) King George's War
King George's War
(1744–48) First Carnatic War
First Carnatic War
(1746–48) Second Carnatic War (1749–54) Nova Scotia (1749–55) French and Indian War
French and Indian War
(1754–60) East Indies (1757–63) Larache expedition
Larache expedition
1765 Vietnam (1777–1820) North America (1778–83) Caribbean and East Indies (1778–83) Haitian Revolution
Haitian Revolution
(1791–1804) Siege of Pondicherry (1793) French acquisition of Santo Domingo (1795–1809) French campaign in Egypt and Syria
Syria
(1798–1801)

19th century

West Indies (1804–10) Indian Ocean (1809–11) Java (1811) Algeria (1830–47) Algeria (1835–1903) Río de la Plata (1838–40) Mexico (1838–39) Argentina–Uruguay (1845–50) Morocco (1844) Philippines (1844–45) Bombardment of Tourane
Bombardment of Tourane
Vietnam (1847) Franco-Tahitian War
Franco-Tahitian War
(1844–47) French conquest of Senegal
French conquest of Senegal
(1854) Cochinchina Campaign
Cochinchina Campaign
(1858–62) Second Opium War
Second Opium War
(1860) Intervention in Mexico (1861–67) Japan (1863–64) Korea (1866) North Vietnam (1873–74) Tunisia (1881) Madagascar (1883) Ivory Coast (1883–98) Tonkin Campaign
Tonkin Campaign
(1883–86) Sino-French War
Sino-French War
(1884–85) North Vietnam (1886–96) Leewards War
Leewards War
(1888–97) First Franco-Dahomean War (1890) Second Franco-Dahomean War
Second Franco-Dahomean War
(1892–94) Franco-Siamese War
Franco-Siamese War
(1893) Second Madagascar expedition (1895) Voulet–Chanoine Mission
Voulet–Chanoine Mission
(1898)

20th century

Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
(1901) Holy Man's Rebellion (1901-36) Ouaddai War (1909–11) Morocco (1911) Zaian War
Zaian War
(1914-1921) Volta-Bani War
Volta-Bani War
(1915-1916) Kaocen Revolt
Kaocen Revolt
(1916-1917) Syria
Syria
(1919–21) Cilicia (1920–21) Rif War
Rif War
(1920–26) Kongo-Wara rebellion (1928–31) Franco-Thai War
Franco-Thai War
(1940–41) Indochina (1945) South Vietnam (1945–46) First Indochina War
First Indochina War
(1946–54) Malagasy Uprising
Malagasy Uprising
(1947–48) Tunisian independence
Tunisian independence
(1952–56) Algerian War
Algerian War
(1954–62) Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
(1956) Ifni War
Ifni War
(1957–58) Cameroonian Independence War (1955-1960) Bizerte crisis
Bizerte crisis
(1961) Ouvéa cave hostage taking (1988)

v t e

List of modern conflicts in the Middle East

1910s

World War I

Middle Eastern theatre Arab Revolt Armenian Genocide Assyrian genocide

Unification of Saudi Arabia Simko Shikak revolt Egyptian revolution of 1919 Turkish War of Independence

Greco-Turkish War Turkish–Armenian War Franco-Turkish War Revolts

Mahmud Barzanji revolts

1920s

Franco-Syrian War Iraqi revolt against the British Sectarian conflict in Mandatory Palestine Adwan Rebellion Arab separatism in Khuzestan Great Syrian Revolt Sheikh Said rebellion 1921 Persian coup d'état

1930s

Ararat rebellion Ahmed Barzani revolt Simele massacre Saudi–Yemeni War (1934) Goharshad Mosque rebellion 1935–36 Iraqi Shia revolts 1935 Yazidi revolt Dersim rebellion

1940s

World War II

Italian bombing of Palestine Anglo-Iraqi War Syria–Lebanon Campaign Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran

1943 Barzani revolt Alwaziri coup Al-Wathbah uprising Kurdish separatism in Iran

Iran crisis of 1946

Arab–Israeli conflict

Israeli–Palestinian conflict

1950s

Egyptian revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Jebel Akhdar War Cypriot ethnic crisis Yemeni–Adenese clan violence 1958 Lebanon crisis 1958 Iraqi revolution 1959 Mosul uprising

1960s

Iraqi–Kurdish conflict

First Iraqi-Kurdish War

Dhofar Rebellion North Yemen Civil War Feb. 1963 Iraqi coup 8th March Syrian Revolution Nov. 1963 Iraqi coup Aden Emergency 1964 Hama riot 1966 Syrian coup d'état

1970s

Black September
Black September
in Jordan 1972 North Yemen–South Yemen war Turkish invasion of Cyprus Lebanese Civil War Political violence in Turkey (1976–80) Libyan–Egyptian War Islamist uprising in Syria NDF Rebellion Iranian Revolution

Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution

1979 Qatif Uprising Grand Mosque seizure

1980s

Sadr uprising (1980) Iran–Iraq War 1980 Turkish coup d'état Kurdish separatism in Turkey

Turkey-PKK conflict

South Yemen Civil War 1986 Egyptian conscripts riot 1986 Damascus
Damascus
bombings Mecca massacre Abu Nidal's executions

1990s

Gulf War
Gulf War
(1990–1991) 1991 uprisings in Iraq Terror campaign in Egypt (1990s) Yemeni Civil War (1994) Islamic insurgency in Saudi Arabia (2000–present) Operation Desert Fox al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen 1999 Shia uprising in Iraq

2000s

Iraq War Balochi insurgency in Iran 2004 al-Qamishli riots Houthi insurgency in Yemen Iran–Israel proxy conflict

2006 Lebanon War

Fatah–Hamas conflict Nahr al-Bared fighting 2008 conflict in Lebanon South Yemen insurgency 2009–10 Iranian election protests

2010s

Bahraini uprising of 2011 Egyptian Crisis

Sinai insurgency Insurgency in Egypt (2013–present)

Syrian Civil War Syrian War spillover in Lebanon Iraqi insurgency (2011–13) Iraqi Civil War (2014–present) Yemeni Crisis Turkish involvement in Syria

This list includes post-Ottoman conflicts (after 1918) of at least 100 fatalities each Prolonged conflicts are listed in the decade when initiated; ongoing conflicts are marked italic and conflict with +100,000

.