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Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
Bahamonde[note 1] (/ˈfræŋkoʊ/;[2] Spanish: [fɾanˈθisko ˈfɾaŋko βa.aˈmonde];[note 2] 4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain
Spain
as a military dictator[3] from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.[4] This period in Spanish history is commonly known as Francoist Spain. As a conservative and a monarchist, Franco opposed the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a democratic secular republic in 1931. With the 1936 elections, the conservative Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups lost by a narrow margin, and the leftist Popular Front came to power. Intending to overthrow the republic, Franco followed other generals in attempting a failed coup that precipitated the Spanish Civil War. With the death of the other generals, Franco quickly became his faction's only leader. Franco gained military support from various regimes and groups, especially Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and Fascist
Fascist
Italy, while the Republican side was supported by Spanish communists and anarchists as well as the Soviet Union, Mexico, and the International Brigades. It is disputed among historians whether Franco personally ordered, requested or knew of beforehand the German and Italian aerial bombing of Guernica in 1937. In 1939, Franco won the war, which claimed half a million lives. He established a military dictatorship, which he defined as a totalitarian state.[5] Franco proclaimed himself Head of State
Head of State
and Government under the title El caudillo, a term similar to Il duce (Italian) for Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
and Der Führer
Führer
(German) for Adolf Hitler. In April 1937, Franco merged the fascist and traditionalist political parties in the rebel zone ( FE de las JONS
FE de las JONS
and Traditionalist Communion), as well as other conservative and monarchist elements, into FET y de las JONS. At the same time he outlawed all other political parties, and thus Spain
Spain
became a one-party state. Upon his rise to power, Franco implemented policies that were responsible for the repression and deaths of as many as 400,000 political opponents and dissenters[6][7][8][9][10] through the use of forced labor and executions in the concentration camps his regime operated.[11][12] Despite maintaining an official policy of neutrality during World War II, he provided military support to the Axis in numerous ways: he allowed German and Italian ships to use Spanish harbors and ports, the Abwehr
Abwehr
gained intelligence in Spain
Spain
on Allied activities, Spain
Spain
imported war materials for Germany and the Blue Division fought alongside the European Axis against the Soviet Union until 1944. His regime has frequently been identified as fascist, but Spanish history books typically categorize it as conservative and authoritarian.[13][14][15][16] Spain
Spain
was isolated by the international community for nearly a decade after World War II. By the 1950s, the nature of his regime changed from being openly totalitarian and using severe repression to an authoritarian system with limited pluralism.[17] During the Cold War, Franco was one of the world's foremost anti- Communist
Communist
figures: his regime was assisted by the West, and it was asked to join NATO. After chronic economic depression in the late 1940s and early 1950s, Franco presided over the Spanish miracle, abandoning autarky and pursuing economic liberalization, delegating authority to liberal ministers.[18] Franco died in 1975 at the age of 82. He restored the monarchy before his death, which made King Juan Carlos I his successor, who led the Spanish transition to democracy. After a referendum, a new constitution was adopted, which transformed Spain
Spain
into a parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy. A highly controversial figure within Spain, Franco is seen as a divisive leader. Supporters credit his strong anti-communist and nationalist views, economic policies, preservation of traditional Spanish practices and support of the monarchy of Spain
Spain
as positive influences over the nation. Critics disparage him as an autocratic dictator who violently suppressed opposition and dissent, banned culture seen as non-Spanish, used concentration camps and forced labour and provided much support to the Axis powers
Axis powers
during World War II.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Military career

2.1 Rif
Rif
War and advancement through the ranks 2.2 During the Second Spanish Republic

2.2.1 1936 general election

3 From the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
to World War II

3.1 The first months 3.2 Rise to power 3.3 Military command 3.4 Political command 3.5 The end of the Civil War 3.6 World War II

4 Spain
Spain
under Franco

4.1 Political oppression 4.2 Women in Francoist Spain 4.3 The Spanish colonial empire and decolonisation 4.4 Economic policy 4.5 Regions

5 Death and funeral 6 Legacy 7 Ancestors 8 In popular media

8.1 Cinema and television 8.2 Music 8.3 Literature

9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 Further reading

13.1 Primary sources

Early life[edit]

His parents with Francisco in arms, on the day of his baptism on 17 December 1892

Franco was born on 4 December 1892 at 108 Calle Frutos Saavedra in Ferrol, Galicia. He was baptised thirteen days later at the military church of San Francisco, with the baptismal name Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo; Francisco for his paternal grandfather, Paulino for his godfather, Hermenegildo for his maternal grandmother and godmother, and Teódulo for the saint day of his birth.

Arms of the Franco family until 1940[19][20]

His father was of Andalusian ancestry.[note 3] After relocating to Galicia, the family was strongly involved in the Spanish Navy, and over the span of two centuries produced naval officers for six uninterrupted generations, down to Franco's father Nicolás Franco y Salgado Araújo (22 November 1855 – 22 February 1942). His mother was María del Pilar Bahamonde y Pardo de Andrade (15 October 1865 – 28 February 1934)[22] and she was an upper middle-class Roman Catholic. His parents married in 1890. The young Franco spent much of his childhood with his two brothers, Nicolás (Ferrol, 1891–1977) and Ramón, and his two sisters, María del Pilar (Ferrol, 1894 – Madrid, 1989), and María de la Paz (Ferrol, 1899 – Ferrol, 1903). The latter died in infancy. Nicolás was later a naval officer and diplomat who in time married María Isabel Pascual del Pobil y Ravello. Ramón was a pioneer aviator, a Freemason
Freemason
with originally leftist political leanings who was killed in an air accident on a military mission in 1938. María del Pilar married Alonso Jaráiz y Jeréz. Military career[edit] Rif
Rif
War and advancement through the ranks[edit] Francisco was to follow his father into the Navy, but as a result of the Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
the country lost much of its navy as well as most of its colonies. Not needing any more officers, the Naval Academy admitted no new entrants from 1906 to 1913. To his father's chagrin, Francisco decided to try the Spanish Army. In 1907, he entered the Infantry Academy in Toledo, graduating in 1910 as a lieutenant. Two years later, he obtained a commission to Morocco. Spanish efforts to occupy their new African protectorate provoked the protracted Rif
Rif
War (from 1909 to 1927) with native Moroccans. Their tactics resulted in heavy losses among Spanish military officers, and also provided an opportunity to earn promotion through merit. It was said that officers would receive either la caja o la faja (a coffin or a general's sash). Franco quickly gained a reputation as a good officer.

Francisco and his brother Ramón in North Africa, 1925

In 1913, Franco transferred into the newly formed regulares: Moroccan colonial troops with Spanish officers, who acted as shock troops. This transfer into a perilous role may have been decided because Franco failed to win the hand of his first love, Sofía Subirán. (The letters between the two were found and she was questioned by journalists.) In 1916, aged 23 and already a captain, he was shot by enemy machine gun fire. He was badly wounded in the abdomen, specifically the liver, in a skirmish at El Biutz and possibly lost a testicle.[23] The physicians of the battle later concluded that his intestines were spared because he inhaled the moment he was shot. His survival marked him permanently in the eyes of the native troops as a man of baraka (good luck). He was recommended for Spain's highest honour for gallantry, the coveted Cruz Laureada de San Fernando, but instead received the Cross of Maria Cristina, First Class. With that he was promoted to major at the end of February 1917. This made him the youngest major in the Spanish army. From 1917 to 1920, he served in Spain. In 1920, Lieutenant Colonel
Colonel
José Millán Astray, a histrionic but charismatic officer, founded the Spanish Foreign Legion, on similar lines to the French Foreign Legion. Franco became the Legion's second-in-command and returned to Africa. On 24 July 1921, the poorly commanded and overextended Spanish Army
Spanish Army
suffered a crushing defeat at Annual from Rif
Rif
tribesmen led by the Abd el-Krim
Abd el-Krim
brothers. The Legion and supporting units relieved the Spanish enclave of Melilla
Melilla
after a three-day forced march led by Franco. In 1923, by now a lieutenant colonel, he was made commander of the Legion. On 22 October 1923, Franco married María del Carmen Polo
Carmen Polo
y Martínez-Valdès (11 June 1900 – 6 February 1988).[24] Three years later the couple had a daughter, María del Carmen.[25] Following his honeymoon Franco was summoned to Madrid
Madrid
to be presented to King Alfonso XIII.[26] This and other occasions of royal attention would mark him during the Republic as a monarchical officer. Promoted to colonel, Franco led the first wave of troops ashore at Al Hoceima
Al Hoceima
in 1925. This landing in the heartland of Abd el-Krim's tribe, combined with the French invasion from the south, spelled the beginning of the end for the short-lived Republic of the Rif. Franco's recognition eventually caught up with him and he was promoted to brigadier general on 3 February 1926. This made him the youngest general in Spain, and perhaps the youngest general of Europe. In 1928 Franco was appointed director of the newly created General
General
Military Academy of Zaragoza, a new college for all army cadets, replacing the former separate institutions for young men seeking to become officers in infantry, cavalry, artillery, and other branches of the army. Franco was removed as Director of the Zaragoza
Zaragoza
Military Academy in 1931; about 95% of his former Zaragoza
Zaragoza
cadets later came to side with him in the Civil War. During the Second Spanish Republic[edit] With the fall of the monarchy in 1931, Franco did not take any notable stand. But the closing of the Academy in June by War Minister Manuel Azaña provoked his first clash with the Spanish Republic. Azaña found Franco's farewell speech to the cadets[27] insulting. Franco stressed in his speech the Republic's need for discipline and respect. For six months Franco was without a post and under surveillance. Franco was a subscriber to the journal of Acción Española, a monarchist organisation, and a firm believer in the Jewish-Masonic-Bolshevik conspiracy or contubernio (filthy cohabitation)—'one of Franco's favourite words': a conspiracy in which Jews, Freemasons, Communists, and other leftists alike allegedly sought the destruction of Christian Europe, with Spain
Spain
the principal target.[28] On 5 February 1932, he was given a command in A Coruña. Franco avoided involvement in José Sanjurjo's attempted coup that year, and even wrote a hostile letter to Sanjurjo expressing his anger over the attempt. As a side result of Azaña's military reform, in January 1933, Franco was relegated from the first to the 24th in the list of brigadiers; the same year, on 17 February, he was given the military command of the Balearic Islands: a post above his rank, but Franco was still angered that he was purposely stuck in the positions he didn't want to be. Yet it was quite common for the Conservative
Conservative
Officers to be moved or demoted. New elections held in October 1933 resulted in a centre-right majority. In opposition to this government, a revolutionary communist/anarchist movement broke out on 5 October 1934. This uprising was rapidly quelled in most of the country, but gained a stronghold in Asturias, with the support of the miners' unions. Franco, already General
General
of Division and aide to the war minister, Diego Hidalgo, was put in command of the operations directed to suppress the insurgency. Troops of the Spanish Army
Spanish Army
of Africa carried this out, with General
General
Eduardo López Ochoa as commander in the field. After two weeks of heavy fighting (and a death toll estimated between 1,200 and 2,000), the rebellion was suppressed. The insurgency in Asturias
Asturias
(see Asturian miners' strike of 1934) sharpened the antagonism between Left and Right. Franco and López Ochoa (who, prior to the campaign in Asturias, had been seen as a left-leaning officer)[29] emerged as officers prepared to use 'troops against Spanish civilians as if they were a foreign enemy'.[30] Franco described the rebellion to a journalist in Oviedo
Oviedo
as, 'a frontier war and its fronts are socialism, communism and whatever attacks civilisation in order to replace it with barbarism.' Though the colonial units sent to the north by the government at Franco's recommendation[31] consisted of the Spanish Foreign Legion
Spanish Foreign Legion
and the Moroccan Regulares
Regulares
Indigenas, the right wing press portrayed the Asturian rebels as lackeys of a foreign Jewish-Bolshevik conspiracy.[32] At the start of the Civil War, López Ochoa was assassinated. Some time after these events, Franco was briefly commander-in-chief of the Army of Africa (from 15 February onwards), and from 19 May 1935, on, Chief of the General
General
Staff. 1936 general election[edit] Main article: Spanish general election, 1936 After the ruling centre-right coalition collapsed amid the Straperlo corruption scandal, new elections were scheduled. Two wide coalitions formed: the Popular Front on the left, ranging from Republican Union to Communists, and the Frente Nacional on the right, ranging from the centre radicals to the conservative Carlists. On 16 February 1936, the left won by a narrow margin.[33] Growing political bitterness surfaced again. The government and its supporters, the Popular Front, had launched a campaign against the Opposition whom they accused of plotting against the Republic. According to the right-wing opposition, the real enemies of the Republic were not on the Right but on the Left; Spain
Spain
was in imminent danger of falling under a "Communist dictatorship", and therefore by fighting the democratically elected Popular Front, they were merely doing their duty in defense of law and order and of the freedom and the fundamental rights of the Spanish people.[34] On 23 February Franco was sent to the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
to serve as the islands' military commander, an appointment perceived by him as a destierro (banishment).[35] Meanwhile, a conspiracy led by Emilio Mola was taking shape. In June, Franco was contacted and a secret meeting was held within the forest of La Esperanza on Tenerife
Tenerife
to discuss starting a military coup.[36] An obelisk commemorating this historic meeting was erected at the site in a clearing at Las Raíces.[37] Outwardly Franco maintained an ambiguous attitude almost until July. On 23 June 1936, he wrote to the head of the government, Casares Quiroga, offering to quell the discontent in the Spanish Republican Army, but received no reply. The other rebels were determined to go ahead con Paquito o sin Paquito (with Paquito or without Paquito; Paquito being a diminutive of Paco, which in turn is short for Francisco), as it was put by José Sanjurjo, the honorary leader of the military uprising. After various postponements, 18 July was fixed as the date of the uprising. The situation reached a point of no return and, as presented to Franco by Mola, the coup was unavoidable and he had to choose a side. He decided to join the rebels and was given the task of commanding the Army of Africa. A privately owned DH 89 De Havilland Dragon Rapide, flown by two British pilots, Cecil Bebb and Hugh Pollard,[38] was chartered in England on 11 July to take Franco to Africa. The assassination of the right-wing opposition leader José Calvo Sotelo by government police troops, possibly in retaliation for the murder of José Castillo, precipitated the uprising.[39] On 17 July, one day earlier than planned, the African Army rebelled, detaining their commanders. On 18 July, Franco published a manifesto[40] and left for Africa, where he arrived the next day to take command. A week later the rebels, who soon called themselves the Nationalists, controlled a third of Spain; however most naval units remained under control of the Republican loyalist forces, which left Franco isolated. The coup had failed in the attempt to bring a swift victory, but the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
had begun. From the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
to World War II[edit] Main articles: Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
and Spain
Spain
in World War II

Franco in Reus, 1940

The Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
began in July 1936 and officially ended with Franco's victory in April 1939, leaving 190,000[41] to 500,000[42] dead. Despite the Non-Intervention Agreement
Non-Intervention Agreement
of August 1936, the war was marked by foreign intervention on behalf of both sides, leading to international repercussions. The nationalist side was supported by Fascist
Fascist
Italy, which sent the Corpo Truppe Volontarie, and later by Nazi
Nazi
Germany, which assisted with the Condor Legion. They were opposed by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and communist, socialists and anarchists within Spain. The United Kingdom and France strictly adhered to the arms embargo,[citation needed] provoking dissensions within the French Popular Front coalition led by Léon Blum, but the Republican side was nonetheless supported by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and volunteers fighting in the International Brigades
International Brigades
(see for example Ken Loach's Land and Freedom). Because Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
and Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
used the war as a testing ground for modern warfare, some historians, such as Ernst Nolte, have considered the Spanish Civil War, along with World War II, part of a European Civil War
European Civil War
lasting from 1936 to 1945 and characterised mainly as a left/right ideological conflict. This interpretation has not found acceptance among most historians, who consider the Spanish Civil War and Second World War to be two distinct conflicts. Among other things, they point to the political heterogeneity on both sides (See Spanish Civil War: other factions) and criticise a monolithic interpretation, which overlooks the local nuances of Spanish history. The first months[edit] Following 18 July 1936 pronunciamiento, Franco assumed the leadership of the 30,000 soldiers of the Spanish Army
Spanish Army
of Africa. The first days of the insurgency were marked with a serious need to secure control over the Spanish Moroccan Protectorate. On one side, Franco had to win the support of the natives and their (nominal) authorities, and, on the other, had to ensure his control over the army. His method was the summary execution of some 200 senior officers loyal to the Republic (one of them his own cousin). His loyal bodyguard was shot by Manuel Blanco.[43] Franco's first problem was how to move his troops to the Iberian Peninsula, since most units of the Navy had remained in control of the Republic and were blocking the Strait of Gibraltar. He requested help from Benito Mussolini, who responded with an unconditional offer of arms and planes; in Germany Wilhelm Canaris, the head of the Abwehr
Abwehr
military intelligence, persuaded Hitler to support the Nationalists. From 20 July onward Franco was able, with a small group of 22 mainly German Junkers Ju 52
Junkers Ju 52
aircraft, to initiate an air bridge to Seville, where his troops helped to ensure the rebel control of the city. Through representatives, he started to negotiate with the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy for more military support, and above all for more aircraft. Negotiations were successful with the last two on 25 July and aircraft began to arrive in Tetouan
Tetouan
on 2 August. On 5 August Franco was able to break the blockade with the newly arrived air support, successfully deploying a ship convoy with some 2,000 soldiers. In early August, the situation in western Andalusia
Andalusia
was stable enough to allow him to organise a column (some 15,000 men at its height), under the command of then Lieutenant- Colonel
Colonel
Juan Yagüe, which would march through Extremadura
Extremadura
towards Madrid. On 11 August Mérida was taken, and on 15 August Badajoz, thus joining both nationalist-controlled areas. Additionally, Mussolini ordered a voluntary army, the Corpo Truppe Volontarie
Corpo Truppe Volontarie
(CTV) of some 12,000 Italians of fully motorised units to Seville
Seville
and Hitler added to them a professional squadron from the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
(2JG/88) with about 24 planes. All these planes had the Nationalist Spanish insignia painted on them, but were flown by Italian and German nationals. The backbone of Franco's aviation in those days were the Italian SM.79
SM.79
and SM.81 bombers, the biplane Fiat CR.32
CR.32
fighter and the German Junkers Ju 52 cargo-bomber and the Heinkel He 51
Heinkel He 51
biplane fighter. On 21 September, with the head of the column at the town of Maqueda (some 80 km away from Madrid), Franco ordered a detour to free the besieged garrison at the Alcázar of Toledo, which was achieved on 27 September. This controversial decision gave the Popular Front time to strengthen its defenses in Madrid
Madrid
and hold the city that year, but the holding of Alcázar was an important morale and propaganda success for the Nationalists. Rise to power[edit] The designated leader of the uprising, General
General
José Sanjurjo, died on 20 July 1936, in a plane crash. Therefore, in the nationalist zone, "Political life ceased."[44] Initially, only military command mattered; this was divided into regional commands ( Emilio Mola
Emilio Mola
in the North, Gonzalo Queipo de Llano
Gonzalo Queipo de Llano
in Seville
Seville
commanding Andalusia, Franco with an independent command and Miguel Cabanellas
Miguel Cabanellas
in Zaragoza commanding Aragon). The Spanish Army
Spanish Army
of Morocco
Morocco
itself was split into two columns, one commanded by General
General
Juan Yagüe
Juan Yagüe
and the other commanded by Colonel
Colonel
José Varela. From 24 July a coordinating junta was established, based at Burgos. Nominally led by Cabanellas, as the most senior general,[45] it initially included Mola, three other generals, and two colonels; Franco was later added in early August.[46] On 21 September it was decided that Franco was to be commander-in-chief (this unified command was opposed only by Cabanellas),[47] and, after some discussion, with no more than a lukewarm agreement from Queipo de Llano and from Mola, also head of government.[48] He was, doubtlessly, helped to this primacy by the fact that, in late July, Hitler had decided that all of Germany's aid to the nationalists would go to Franco.[49] Mola had been somewhat discredited as the main planner of the attempted coup that had now degenerated into a civil war, and was strongly identified with the Carlist monarchists and not at all with the Falange, a party with Fascist
Fascist
leanings and connections ("phalanx", a far-right Spanish political party founded by Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera), nor did he have good relations with Germany; Queipo de Llano and Cabanellas had both previously rebelled against the dictatorship of General
General
Miguel Primo de Rivera
Miguel Primo de Rivera
and were therefore discredited in some nationalist circles; and Falangist leader José Antonio Primo de Rivera was in prison in Alicante
Alicante
(he would be executed a few months later) and the desire to keep a place open for him prevented any other Falangist leader from emerging as a possible head of state. Franco's previous aloofness from politics meant that he had few active enemies in any of the factions that needed to be placated, and also he had cooperated in recent months with both Germany and Italy.[50] On 1 October 1936, in Burgos, Franco was publicly proclaimed as Generalísimo
Generalísimo
of the National army and Jefe del Estado (Head of State).[51] When Mola was killed in another air accident a year later (which some believe was an assassination) (2 June 1937), no military leader was left from those who organised the conspiracy against the Republic between 1933 and 1935.[52] Military command[edit]

Franco and other rebel commanders during the Civil War, c. 1936–1939

Franco personally guided military operations from this time until the end of the war. After the failed assault on Madrid
Madrid
in November 1936, Franco settled on a piecemeal approach to winning the war, rather than bold maneuvering. As with his decision to relieve the garrison at Toledo, this approach has been subject of some debate; some of his decisions, such as in June 1938 when he preferred to head for Valencia instead of Catalonia, remain particularly controversial from a military viewpoint. However, Valencia, Castellon and Alicante
Alicante
saw the last Republican troops defeated by Franco. Although both Germany and Italy provided military support to Franco, the degree of influence of both powers on his direction of the war seems to have been very limited. Nevertheless, the Italian troops, despite not being always effective, were present in most of the large operations in large numbers, while the German aircraft helped the Nationalist air force dominate the skies for most of the war. The Portuguese dictator Salazar also openly assisted the Nationalists from the start, contributing with 20,000 troops. Franco's direction of the German and Italian forces was limited, particularly in the direction of the Condor Legion, but he was by default their supreme commander, and they rarely made decisions on their own. For reasons of prestige it was decided to continue assisting Franco until the end of the war, and Italian and German troops paraded on the day of the final victory in Madrid.[53] Political command[edit]

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The Nazis were disappointed with Franco's resistance to installing more fascism. Historian James S. Corum states:

As an ardent Nazi, [Ambassador Wilhelm] Faupel disliked Catholicism as well as the Spanish upper classes, and encouraged the working-class extremist members of the Falange
Falange
to build a fascist party. Faupel devoted long audiences with Franco to convincing him of the necessity of remolding the Falange
Falange
in the image of the Nazi
Nazi
Party. Faupel's interference in internal Spanish politics ran counter to Franco's policy of building a nationalist coalition of businessmen, monarchists and conservative Catholics, as well as Falangists. [54]

Historian Robert H. Whealey provides more detail:

Whereas Franco's crusade was a counterrevolution, the arrogant Faupel associated the Falange
Falange
with the "revolutionary" doctrines of National Socialism. He sought to provide Spain's poor with an alternative to "Jewish internationalist Marxist-Leninism.".... The old fashioned Alfonsists and Carlists
Carlists
who surrounded Franco viewed the Falangists as classless troublemakers.[55]

From 1937 to 1948 the Franco regime was a hybrid as Franco fused the ideologically incompatible national-syndicalist Falange
Falange
("Phalanx", a fascist Spanish political party founded by José Antonio Primo de Rivera) and the Carlist monarchist parties into one party under his rule, dubbed Falange
Falange
Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (FET y de las JONS), which became the only legal party in 1939. Unlike some other fascist movements, the Falangists had developed an official program in 1934, the "Twenty-Seven Points".[56] In 1937, Franco assumed as the tentative doctrine of his regime 26 out of the original 27 points.[57] Franco made himself jefe nacional (National Chief) of the new FET (Falange Española Tradicionalista; Traditionalist Spanish Phalanx) with a secretary, Junta Political and National Council to be named subsequently by himself. Five days later (24 April) the raised-arm salute of the Falange
Falange
was made the official salute of the Nationalist regime.[58] In 1939 the personalist style heavily predominated, with ritualistic invocations of "Franco, Franco, Franco."[59] The Falangists' hymn, Cara al Sol, became the semi-national anthem of Franco's not-yet-established regime. This new political formation appeased the pro-German Falangists while tempering them with the anti-German Carlists. Franco's brother-in-law Ramón Serrano Súñer, who was his main political advisor, was able to turn the various parties under Franco against each other to absorb a series of political confrontations against Franco himself. Franco expelled the original leading members of both the Carlists
Carlists
(Manuel Fal Condé) and the Falangists (Manuel Hedilla) to secure his political future. Franco also appeased the Carlists
Carlists
by exploiting the Republicans' anti-clericalism in his propaganda, in particular concerning the "Martyrs of the war". While the loyalist forces presented the war as a struggle to defend the Republic against Fascism, Franco depicted himself as the defender of "Catholic Spain" against "atheist Communism." The end of the Civil War[edit] By early 1939 only Madrid
Madrid
(see History of Madrid) and a few other areas remained under control of the government forces. On 27 February Chamberlain's Britain and Daladier's France officially recognised the Franco regime. On 28 March 1939, with the help of pro-Franco forces inside the city (the "fifth column" General
General
Mola had mentioned in propaganda broadcasts in 1936), Madrid
Madrid
fell to the Nationalists. The next day, Valencia, which had held out under the guns of the Nationalists for close to two years, also surrendered. Victory was proclaimed on 1 April 1939, when the last of the Republican forces surrendered. On the same day, Franco placed his sword upon the altar of a church and in a vow, promised that he would never again take up his sword unless Spain
Spain
itself was threatened with invasion. According to Paul Preston, 150,000 wartime civilian executions took place in the Francoist area, as well as 50,000 in the Republican area, in addition to 20,000 civilians executed by the Franco regime after the end of the war.[60][note 4] According to Helen Graham, the Spanish working classes became to the Francoist project what the Jews were to German Volksgemeinschaft.[62] According to Stanley G. Payne, at least 70,000 people were executed during the civil war.[42][63][64] Franco's victory was followed by thousands of summary executions (from 15,000 to 25,000 people[65]) and imprisonments, while many were put to forced labour, building railways, drying out swamps, digging canals (La Corchuela, the Canal of the Bajo Guadalquivir), construction of the Valle de los Caídos monument, etc. The 1940 ordered execution of the president of the Catalan government, Lluís Companys, was one of the most notable cases of this early suppression of opponents and dissenters. According to Gabriel Jackson, the number of victims of the "White Terror" (executions and hunger or illness in prisons) only between 1939 and 1943 was 200,000.[53]

Franco arriving in San Sebastian in 1939

Stanley Payne approximates there were 50,000 Civil War executions by the Republicans and approximately 70,000 by the Nationalists. Payne further approximates there were 30,000 post-Civil War executions by the victorious Nationalists. [66]

In his history of the Spanish Civil War, Antony Beevor
Antony Beevor
"reckons Franco's ensuing 'white terror' claimed 200,000 lives. The 'red terror' had already killed 38,000."[67] Julius Ruiz concludes that "although the figures remain disputed, a minimum of 37,843 executions were carried out in the Republican zone with a maximum of 150,000 executions (including 50,000 after the war) in Nationalist Spain."[68] Despite the official end of the war, guerrilla resistance to Franco (known as "the maquis") was widespread in many mountainous regions, and continued well into the 1950s. In 1944, a group of republican veterans, which also fought in the French resistance
French resistance
against the Nazis, invaded the Val d'Aran
Val d'Aran
in northwest Catalonia, but they were quickly defeated. The end of the war led to hundreds of thousands of exiles, mostly to France (but also Mexico, Chile, Cuba, the USA and so on.).[69] On the other side of the Pyrenees, refugees were confined in internment camps of the French Third Republic, such as Camp Gurs
Camp Gurs
or Camp Vernet, where 12,000 Republicans were housed in squalid conditions (mostly soldiers from the Durruti Division[70]). The 17,000 refugees housed in Gurs were divided into four categories (Brigadists, pilots, Gudaris and ordinary 'Spaniards'). The Gudaris (Basques) and the pilots easily found local backers and jobs, and were allowed to quit the camp, but the farmers and ordinary people, who could not find relations in France, were encouraged by the Third Republic, in agreement with the Francoist government, to return to Spain. The great majority did so and were turned over to the Francoist authorities in Irún. From there they were transferred to the Miranda de Ebro
Miranda de Ebro
camp for "purification" according to the Law of Political Responsibilities. After the proclamation by Marshal Philippe Pétain
Philippe Pétain
of the Vichy France regime, the refugees became political prisoners, and the French police attempted to round up those who had been liberated from the camp. Along with other "undesirables", they were sent to the Drancy internment camp before being deported to Nazi
Nazi
Germany. 5,000 Spaniards thus died in Mauthausen concentration camp.[71] The Chilean poet Pablo Neruda, who had been named by the Chilean President Pedro Aguirre Cerda special consul for immigration in Paris, was given responsibility for what he called "the noblest mission I have ever undertaken": shipping more than 2,000 Spanish refugees, who had been housed by the French in squalid camps, to Chile
Chile
on an old cargo ship, the Winnipeg.[72] World War II[edit] Further information: Spain
Spain
during World War II

Front row in order from left to right: Karl Wolff, Heinrich Himmler, Franco and Spain's Foreign Minister Serrano Súñer in Madrid, October 1940

In September 1939 World War II
World War II
began. On 23 October 1940, Hitler and Franco met in Hendaye
Hendaye
in France to discuss the possibility of Spain's entry on the side of the Axis. However, Franco's demands, including supplies of food and fuel, as well as Spanish control of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
and French North Africa, proved too much for Hitler. At the time Hitler did not want to risk damaging his relations with the new Vichy French government. (An oft-cited remark attributed to Hitler is that the German leader said that he would rather have some of his own teeth extracted than to have to personally deal further with Franco.)[73][74] Franco had received important support from Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
during the Spanish Civil War, and he had signed the Anti-Comintern Pact. He described Spain
Spain
as part of the Axis in official documents, while offering various kinds of support to Italy and Germany. He allowed Spanish soldiers to volunteer to fight in the German Army against the USSR (the Blue Division), but forbade Spaniards to fight in the West against the democracies. Franco's common ground with Hitler was particularly weakened by Hitler's propagation of Nazi
Nazi
mysticism and his attempts to manipulate Christianity, which went against Franco's fervent commitment to defending Catholicism.[75] Contributing to the disagreement was an ongoing dispute over German mining rights in Spain. Some historians argue that Franco made demands he knew Hitler would not accede to in order to stay out of the war. Other historians argue that Franco, as the leader of a destroyed and bankrupt country in chaos following a brutal three-year civil war, simply had little to offer the Axis and that the Spanish armed forces were not ready for a major war. Yet, after the Fall of France
Fall of France
in June 1940, Spain
Spain
did adopt a pro-Axis stance (for example, German and Italian ships and U-boats were allowed to use Spanish naval facilities) before returning to a more neutral position in the autumn of 1943 when the tide of the war had turned decisively against the Axis Powers, and Italy had switched sides. Franco was initially keen to join the war before the UK was defeated.[76] In the winter of 1940–41 Franco toyed with the idea of a "Latin Bloc" formed by Spain, Portugal, Vichy France, the Vatican and Italy, without much consequence.[77] Franco had cautiously decided to enter the war on the Axis side in June 1940, and to prepare his people for war, an anti-British and anti-French campaign was launched in the Spanish media that demanded French Morocco, Cameroon
Cameroon
and the return of Gibraltar.[78] On 19 June 1940, Franco pressed along a message to Hitler saying he wanted to enter the war, but Hitler was annoyed at Franco's demand for the French colony of Cameroon, which had been German before World War I, and which Hitler was planning on taking back.[79] Franco seriously considered blocking allied access to the Mediterranean Sea by invading British-controlled Gibraltar,[73] but he abandoned the idea after learning that the plan would have likely failed due to Gibraltar
Gibraltar
being too heavily defended, and it would have given the British the grounds to declare war on Spain
Spain
and thus give the UK and its allies an excellent opportunity to take both the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
and Spanish Morocco, as well as possibly invade mainland Spain
Spain
itself.[73][80] Franco was aware that his air force would not be able to protect Spanish cities from attacks by the British Royal Air Force, and the British Royal Navy
Royal Navy
would be able to blockade Spain
Spain
to prevent imports of crucial materials such as oil. Spain
Spain
depended on oil imports from the United States, which were almost certain to be cut off if Spain
Spain
formally joined the Axis. Franco and Serrano Suñer held a meeting with Mussolini and Ciano in Bordighera, Italy on 12 February 1941.[81] Mussolini affected not to be interested in Franco's help due to the defeats his forces had suffered in North Africa and the Balkans, and he even told Franco that he wished he could find any way to leave the war. When the invasion of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
began on 22 June 1941, Franco's foreign minister Ramón Serrano Suñer
Ramón Serrano Suñer
immediately suggested the formation of a unit of military volunteers to join the invasion.[82] Volunteer Spanish troops (the División Azul, or "Blue Division") fought on the Eastern Front under German command from 1941 to 1944. Some historians have argued that not all of the Blue Division
Blue Division
were true volunteers and that Franco expended relatively small but significant resources to aid the Axis powers' battle against the Soviet Union. Franco was initially disliked by Cuban President Fulgencio Batista, who, during World War II, suggested a joint U.S.-Latin American declaration of war on Spain
Spain
in order to overthrow Franco's regime.[83] Hitler may not have really wanted Spain
Spain
to join the war, as he needed neutral harbors to import materials from countries in Latin America and elsewhere. In addition Hitler felt Spain
Spain
would be a burden as it would be dependent on Germany for help. By 1941 Vichy French forces were proving their effectiveness in North Africa, reducing the need for Spanish help, and Hitler was wary about opening up a new front on the western coast of Europe as he struggled to reinforce the Italians in Greece and Yugoslavia. Franco signed a revised Anti-Comintern Pact on 25 November 1941. After the war, the Spanish government tried to destroy all evidence of its cooperation with the Axis. However, in 2010 documents were discovered showing that on 13 May 1941, Franco ordered his provincial governors to compile a list of Jews while he sided and made an alliance with the Axis powers.[84] Franco supplied Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler, architect of the Nazis' Final Solution, with a list of 6,000 Jews in Spain.[84] Despite the creation of the list, there is no evidence of any Jew seeking refuge from Germany being sent back to Germany. Although Franco made occasional negative references to Jews, he had Jewish friends in Morocco
Morocco
and even publicly stopped an outbreak of discrimination against Jews there. When Franco became dictator, no official attacks on Jews were ever countenanced by his government, nor did he ever hand Jews over to Germany.[85] Spanish Jews in the army served Franco with the same conditions as anyone else. Furthermore, Spanish diplomats extended their diplomatic protection over Jews in Hungary, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and the Balkans.[86] On 14 June 1940, Spanish forces in Morocco
Morocco
occupied Tangier
Tangier
(a city under the rule of the League of Nations) and did not leave it until the war's end in 1945. Spain
Spain
under Franco[edit] Main article: Francoist Spain

Franco giving a speech in Eibar
Eibar
in 1949

Franco was recognised as the Spanish head of state by Great Britain and France in February 1939. Already proclaimed Generalísimo
Generalísimo
of the Nationalists and Jefe del Estado (Head of State) in October 1936,[51] he thereafter assumed the official title of "Su Excelencia el Jefe de Estado" (" His Excellency
His Excellency
the Head of State"). However, he was also referred to in state and official documents as " Caudillo
Caudillo
de España" ("the Leader of Spain"), and sometimes called "el Caudillo
Caudillo
de la Última Cruzada y de la Hispanidad" ("the Leader of the Last Crusade and of the Hispanic heritage") and "el Caudillo
Caudillo
de la Guerra de Liberación contra el Comunismo y sus Cómplices" ("the Leader of the War of Liberation Against Communism and Its Accomplices"). On 26 July 1947 Franco proclaimed Spain
Spain
a monarchy, but did not designate a monarch. This gesture was largely done to appease the monarchists in the Movimiento Nacional
Movimiento Nacional
( Carlists
Carlists
and Alfonsists). Franco left the throne vacant until 1969, proclaiming himself as a de facto regent for life. At the same time, Franco appropriated many of the privileges of a king. He wore the uniform of a Captain General
General
(a rank traditionally reserved for the King) and resided in El Pardo Palace. In addition he began walking under a canopy, and his portrait appeared on most Spanish coins
Spanish coins
and postage stamps. He also added "by the grace of God", a phrase usually part of the styles of monarchs, to his style. Franco initially sought support from various groups. His administration marginalised fascist ideologues in favor of technocrats, many of whom were linked with Opus Dei, who promoted economic modernisation.[87] Although Franco and Spain
Spain
under his rule adopted some trappings of fascism, he, and Spain
Spain
under his rule, are generally not considered to be fascist; among the distinctions, fascism entails a revolutionary aim to transform society, where Franco did not seek to do so, and, to the contrary, although authoritarian, he was by nature conservative and traditional.[88][13][14][15] Stanley Payne notes: "scarcely any of the serious historians and analysts of Franco consider the generalissimo to be a core fascist".[88] The few consistent points in Franco's long rule were above all authoritarianism, nationalism, Catholicism, anti-Freemasonry, and anti-Communism.

Franco and the American President Dwight Eisenhower
Dwight Eisenhower
in Madrid, December 1959

With the end of World War II, Spain
Spain
suffered from the economic consequences of its isolation from the international community. Spain was excluded from the Marshall Plan,[89] unlike other neutral countries in Europe. This situation ended in part when, in the light of Cold War
Cold War
tensions and of Spain's strategic location, the United States of America entered into a trade and military alliance with Franco. This historic alliance commenced with the visit of US President Dwight Eisenhower
Dwight Eisenhower
to Spain
Spain
in 1953, which resulted in the Pact of Madrid. Spain
Spain
was then admitted to the United Nations in 1955.[90] American military facilities in Spain
Spain
built since then include Naval Station Rota, Morón Air Base, and Torrejón Air Base.[91] Political oppression[edit]

* Personal Standard Franco as Head of State * Coat of arms of Franco as Head of State * The Victor, another emblem used by Franco

The first decade of Franco's rule following the end of the Civil War in 1939 saw continued oppression and the killing of an undetermined number of political opponents. Estimation is difficult and controversial, but the number of people killed probably lies somewhere between 15,000 and 50,000. By the start of the 1950s Franco's state had become less violent, but during his entire rule, non-government trade unions and all political opponents across the political spectrum, from communist and anarchist organisations to liberal democrats and Catalan or Basque separatists, were either suppressed or tightly controlled by all means, up to and including violent police repression. The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) and the Unión General
General
de Trabajadores (UGT) trade unions were outlawed, and replaced in 1940 by the corporatist Sindicato Vertical. The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party
and the Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya
Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya
(ERC) were banned in 1939, while the Communist
Communist
Party of Spain
Spain
(PCE) went underground. The Basque Nationalist Party (PNV) went into exile, and in 1959 the ETA armed group was created to wage a low-intensity war against Franco. Franco's Spanish nationalism
Spanish nationalism
promoted a unitary national identity by repressing Spain's cultural diversity. Bullfighting
Bullfighting
and flamenco[92] were promoted as national traditions while those traditions not considered "Spanish" were suppressed. Franco's view of Spanish tradition was somewhat artificial and arbitrary: while some regional traditions were suppressed, Flamenco, an Andalusian tradition, was considered part of a larger, national identity. All cultural activities were subject to censorship, and many, such as the Sardana, the national dance of Catalunya, were plainly forbidden (often in an erratic manner). This cultural policy was relaxed over time, most notably during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Franco also used language politics in an attempt to establish national homogeneity. He promoted the use of Castilian Spanish
Castilian Spanish
and suppressed other languages such as Catalan, Galician, and Basque. The legal usage of languages other than Castilian was forbidden. All government, notarial, legal and commercial documents were to be drawn up exclusively in Castilian and any documents written in other languages were deemed null and void. The usage of any other language was forbidden in schools, in advertising, and on road and shop signs. For unofficial use, citizens continued to speak these languages. This was the situation throughout the 1940s and to a lesser extent during the 1950s, but after 1960 the non- Castilian Spanish
Castilian Spanish
languages were freely spoken and written, and they reached bookshops and stages, although they never received official status. On the other hand, the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
was upheld as the established church of the Spanish State, and it regained many of the traditional privileges it had lost under the Republic. Civil servants had to be Catholic, and some official jobs even required a "good behavior" statement by a priest. Civil marriages which had taken place in Republican Spain
Spain
were declared null and void unless they had been confirmed by the Catholic Church. Divorce
Divorce
was forbidden, along with contraceptives and abortion. Most country towns and rural areas were patrolled by pairs of Guardia Civil, a military police for civilians, which functioned as Franco's chief means of social control. Larger cities and capitals were mostly under the Policia Armada, or the grises ("greys", due to the colour of their uniforms) as they were called. Student revolts at universities in the late 1960s and early 1970s were violently repressed by the heavily armed Policía Armada (Armed Police). Plainclothes secret police worked inside Spanish universities. The enforcement by public authorities of traditional Catholic values was a stated intent of the regime, mainly by using a law (the Ley de Vagos y Maleantes, Vagrancy Act) enacted by Azaña.[93] The remaining nomads of Spain
Spain
(Gitanos and Mercheros like El Lute) were especially affected. Through this law, homosexuality and prostitution were made criminal offenses in 1954,[94] although its application was seldom consistent.[citation needed] Women in Francoist Spain[edit]

Franco and his wife, Carmen Polo
Carmen Polo
in 1968

Francoism professed a devotion to the traditional role of a woman in society, that is being a loving daughter and sister to her parents and brothers, being a faithful wife to her husband, and residing with her family. Official propaganda confined the role of women to family care and motherhood. Immediately after the war most progressive laws passed by the Republic aimed at equality between the sexes were nullified. Women could not become judges, or testify in a trial. They could not become university professors. Their affairs and economic lives had to be managed by their fathers and husbands. Until the 1970s a woman could not have a bank account without a co-sign by her father or husband.[95] In the 1960s and 1970s these restrictions were somewhat relaxed. The Spanish colonial empire and decolonisation[edit] Further information: Spanish Empire Spain
Spain
attempted to retain control of its colonial empire throughout Franco's rule. During the Algerian War
Algerian War
(1954–62), Madrid
Madrid
became the base of the Organisation armée secrète
Organisation armée secrète
(OAS) right-wing French Army group which sought to preserve French Algeria. Despite this, Franco was forced to make some concessions. When French Morocco
French Morocco
became independent in 1956, he surrendered Spanish Morocco
Spanish Morocco
to Mohammed V, retaining only a few enclaves (the Plazas de soberanía). The year after, Mohammed V invaded Spanish Sahara
Spanish Sahara
during the Ifni War
Ifni War
(known as the "Forgotten War" in Spain). Only in 1975, with the Green March, did Morocco
Morocco
take control of all of the former Spanish territories in the Sahara. In 1968, under pressure from the United Nations,[96] Franco granted Spain's colony of Equatorial Guinea
Equatorial Guinea
its independence, and the next year it ceded the exclave of Ifni
Ifni
to Morocco. Under Franco, Spain
Spain
also pursued a campaign to force a negotiation on the British overseas territory of Gibraltar, and closed its border with that territory in 1969. The border would not be fully reopened until 1985. Economic policy[edit] See also: Economic history of Spain: Economy under Franco

1963 Spanish peseta
Spanish peseta
coin with an image of Franco and lettering reading: "Francisco Franco, Leader of Spain, by the grace of God"

The Civil War ravaged the Spanish economy.[97] Infrastructure had been damaged, workers killed, and daily business severely hampered. For more than a decade after Franco's victory, the devastated economy recovered very slowly. Franco initially pursued a policy of autarky, cutting off almost all international trade. The policy had devastating effects, and the economy stagnated. Only black marketeers could enjoy an evident affluence. On the brink of bankruptcy, a combination of pressure from the United States, the IMF and, most importantly, the technocrats from Opus Dei[citation needed], managed to convince the regime to adopt a free market economy. Many of the old guard in charge of the economy were replaced by "technocrata", despite some initial opposition from Franco. From the mid-1950s there was modest acceleration in economic activity after some minor reforms and a relaxation of controls. But the growth proved too much for the economy, with shortages and inflation breaking out towards the end of the 1950s. When Franco replaced his ideological ministers with the apolitical technocrats, the regime implemented several development policies that included deep economic reforms. After a recession, growth took off from 1959, creating an economic boom that lasted until 1974, and became known as the "Spanish Miracle". Concurrent with the absence of social reforms, and the economic power shift, a tide of mass emigration commenced to other European countries, and to a lesser extent, to South America. Emigration helped the regime in two ways. The country got rid of populations it would not have been able to keep in employment, and the emigrants supplied the country with much needed monetary remittances. During the 1960s, the wealthy classes of Francoist Spain
Francoist Spain
experienced further increases in wealth, particularly those who remained politically faithful, while a burgeoning middle class became visible as the "economic miracle" progressed. International firms established factories in Spain
Spain
where salaries were low, company taxes very low, strikes forbidden and workers' health or state protections almost unheard of. State-owned firms like the car manufacturer SEAT, truck builder Pegaso
Pegaso
and oil refiner INH, massively expanded production. Furthermore, Spain
Spain
was virtually a new mass market. Spain
Spain
became the second-fastest growing economy in the world between 1959 and 1973, just behind Japan. By the time of Franco's death in 1975, Spain
Spain
still lagged behind most of Western Europe but the gap between its per capita GDP and that of the leading Western European countries had narrowed greatly, and the country had developed a large industrialised economy. Regions[edit]

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Franco's visit to Tolosa in 1948

Franco was reluctant to enact any form of administrative and legislative decentralisation and kept a fully centralised government with a similar administrative structure to that established by the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
and General
General
Miguel Primo de Rivera
Miguel Primo de Rivera
y Orbaneja. Such structures were based on the model of the French centralised state. The main drawback of this kind of management was that government attention and initiatives were irregular, and often depended more on the goodwill of regional government representatives than on regional needs. Thus, inequalities in schooling, health care and transport facilities among regions were patent: classically affluent regions like Madrid, Catalonia, or the Basque Country fared much better than Extremadura, Galicia or Andalusia. Some regions, like Extremadura
Extremadura
or La Mancha did not have a university. The Basque Country and Catalonia
Catalonia
were among the regions that offered the strongest resistance to Franco in the Civil War. Franco dissolved the autonomy granted by the Second Spanish Republic
Second Spanish Republic
to these two regions and to Galicia. Franco abolished the centuries old fiscal privileges and autonomy (the fueros) of two of the three Basque provinces: Guipuzcoa
Guipuzcoa
and Biscay, but kept them for Álava
Álava
which had sided with the nationalists in the civil war. Franco also decided to preserve Navarre's centuries old fiscal privileges and autonomy, the so-called Fueros
Fueros
of Navarre. Navarre, the northern half of which was Basque-speaking, was one of Franco's areas of greatest support during the civil war. The regional privileges for Álava
Álava
and Navarre
Navarre
were kept because they had participated in the initial coup d'état against the Republican government on 18 July 1936. Franco abolished the official statute and recognition of the Basque, Galician, and Catalan languages that the Second Spanish Republic
Second Spanish Republic
had granted for the first time in the history of Spain. He returned to Castilian as the only official language of the state and education. The Franco era saw the popularisation of the compulsory national educational system and the development of modern mass media, both controlled by the state and both using the Castilian language, which significantly reduced the number of speakers of Basque, Catalan and Galician, as happened during the second half of the 20th century with other European minority languages which were not officially protected, such as Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
or French Breton. By the 1970s the majority of the population in urban areas could not speak the minority language or, as in some Catalan towns, their social use had been abandoned, leaving them limited to family use. Because of the already fragile situation of the Basque language
Basque language
before the Civil War, it became the most endangered language in Spain. By the 1970s Basque lacked a sufficient number of new speakers to assure its future, and moved closer to extinction. It is now recognised that the Basque language
Basque language
would have disappeared in a few more decades if the same linguistic policies had been preserved. This was the main reason that drove the Francoist provincial government of Álava
Álava
to create a network of Basque medium schools (Ikastola) in 1973 which were state-financed. Death and funeral[edit]

Carlos Arias Navarro
Carlos Arias Navarro
and Franco at his residence in October 1975, around one week before he fell into an irreversible coma

Franco decided to name a monarch to succeed his regency but the simmering tensions between the Carlists
Carlists
and the Alfonsoists continued. Franco, in a bid to avoid a repeat of the Carlist Wars, offered the throne to the Habsburg
Habsburg
archduke Otto von Habsburg; by doing so he believed that he could eliminate the question of a Bourbon succession entirely since the Habsburg
Habsburg
family which had ruled the Habsburg
Habsburg
Spain during its golden age had an alternate claim to the Spanish throne before the War of the Spanish Succession. However, Archduke Otto declined, saying that he would be seen as a German ruling Spain
Spain
and could never forget his Austrian identity. In 1969 Franco designated Prince Juan Carlos de Borbón, who had been educated by him in Spain, with the new title of Prince of Spain, as his heir-apparent. This designation came as a surprise to the Carlist pretender to the throne, as well as to Juan Carlos's father, Don Juan, the Count of Barcelona, who had a superior claim to the throne, but was feared by Franco to be too liberal. By 1973 Franco had surrendered the function of prime minister (Presidente del Gobierno), remaining only as head of state and commander in chief of the military. As his final years progressed, tensions within the various factions of the Movimiento would consume Spanish political life, as varying groups jockeyed for position in an effort to win control of the country's future. The death of prime minister Luis Carrero Blanco
Luis Carrero Blanco
on 20 December 1973 in a bombing by ETA eventually gave an edge to the liberalizing faction. On 19 July 1974, the aged Franco fell ill from various health problems, and Juan Carlos took over as Acting Head of State. Franco soon recovered, and on 2 September he resumed his duties as Head of State. One year later he fell ill once again from more health problems, including a long battle with Parkinson's disease. Franco's last public appearance was on 1 October 1975 when he, despite his gaunt and frail appearance, gave a speech to crowds in Oriente Square in Madrid. On 30 October 1975, he fell into a coma and was put on life support. Franco's family agreed to disconnect the life-support machines. Officially, he died on 20 November 1975 from heart failure, at the age of 82 — the same date as the death of José Antonio Primo de Rivera, the founder of the Falange. However, the historian Ricardo de la Cierva claimed that he had been told, around 6 pm on 19 November, that Franco had already died. Franco's body was interred at Valle de los Caídos, a colossal memorial built by the forced labour of political prisoners in order to honour the casualties of the Spanish Civil War. Franco's funeral was attended by Prince Rainier III of Monaco, and Chilean leader General Augusto Pinochet
Augusto Pinochet
– who revered Franco and modelled his leadership style on the Spanish leader.[98] Former US President Richard Nixon called Franco "a loyal friend and ally of the United States.".[99] Legacy[edit] Further information: Spanish transition to democracy

Franco is entombed in the monument of Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caídos

In Spain
Spain
and abroad, the legacy of Franco remains controversial. The Oxford Dictionary uses Franco's regime as an example of fascism.[100] Franco served as a role model for several anti-communist dictators in South America. Augusto Pinochet
Augusto Pinochet
is known to have admired Franco.[101] Similarly, as recently as 2006, Franco supporters in Spain
Spain
have made homages to Pinochet.[102] The length of Franco's rule, his suppression of opposition, and the effective propaganda he sustained through the years have made a detached evaluation almost impossible. Franco had won the hearts of many and was then able to win the Civil War. For 40 years, Spaniards, and particularly children at school, were told that Divine Providence had sent him to save Spain
Spain
from chaos and poverty. In 2006 the BBC
BBC
reported that Maciej Giertych, an MEP of the clerical-nationalist League of Polish Families, had expressed admiration for Franco, stating that he "guaranteed the maintenance of traditional values in Europe".[103] Many Spaniards, particularly those who suffered under Franco's rule, have sought to remove official recognition of his regime.[citation needed] Most government buildings and streets that were named after him during his long rule have reverted to their original names. Owing to Franco's human rights record, the Spanish government in 2007 banned all official public references to the Franco regime and began the removal of all statues, street names and memorials associated with the regime, with reportedly the last statue being removed in 2008 from Santander.[104] Churches that retain plaques commemorating Franco and the victims of his Republican opponents may lose state aid.[105] Since 1978 the national anthem of Spain, the Marcha Real, has not been accompanied by the lyrics introduced by Franco. Recent attempts to give the national anthem new lyrics have failed due to lack of consensus.

A statue of Franco in Santander which was removed in 2008

In March 2006, the Permanent Commission of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe unanimously adopted a resolution "firmly" condemning the "multiple and serious violations" of human rights committed in Spain
Spain
under the Francoist regime from 1939 to 1975.[106][107] The resolution was at the initiative of Leo Brincat and of the historian Luis María de Puig, and was the first international official condemnation of the repression enacted by Franco's regime.[106] The resolution also urged that historians (professional and amateur) be given access to the various archives of the Francoist regime, including those of the private Fundación Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
which, along with other Francoist archives, remain inaccessible to the public as of 2006.[106] The Fundación Francisco Franco received various archives from the El Pardo Palace, and is alleged to have sold some of them to private individuals.[108] Furthermore, the resolution urged the Spanish authorities to set up an underground exhibit in the Valle de los Caidos monument to explain the "terrible" conditions in which it was built.[106] Finally, it proposed the construction of monuments to commemorate Franco's victims in Madrid
Madrid
and other important cities.[106] In Spain, a commission to repair the dignity and restore the memory of the victims of Francoism (Comisión para reparar la dignidad y restituir la memoria de las víctimas del franquismo) was approved in the summer of 2004, and is directed by the socialist deputy Prime Minister María Teresa Fernández de la Vega.[106]

Sign in Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Tenerife
for a street bearing Franco's name

Recently the Association for the Recovery of Historical Memory
Association for the Recovery of Historical Memory
(ARHM) initiated a systematic search for mass graves of people executed during Franco's regime, which has been supported since the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party's (PSOE) victory during the 2004 elections by José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero's government. A Ley de la memoria histórica de España (Law on the Historical Memory of Spain) was approved on 28 July 2006, by the Council of Ministers,[109] but it took until 31 October 2007, for the Congress of Deputies to approve an amended version as "The Bill to recognise and extend rights and to establish measures in favour of those who suffered persecution or violence during the Civil War and the Dictatorship" (in common parlance still known as Law of Historical Memory).[110] The Senate approved the bill on 10 December 2007.[111] Among other things, the law is supposed to enforce an official recognition of the crimes committed against civilians during the Francoist rule and organise under state supervision the search for mass graves. Official endeavors to preserve the historical memory of the Franco regime include exhibitions like the one the Museu d'Història de Catalunya (Museum of Catalan History) organised around the prison experience.[112] Falangist supporters of Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
have been opposing the Catalan independence movement
Catalan independence movement
and declaration of Catalonia's independence from Spain.[113][114][115] The accumulated wealth of Franco's family (including much real estate inherited from Franco, such as the Pazo de Meirás, the Canto del Pico in Torrelodones
Torrelodones
and the Cornide Palace in A Coruña[108]), and its murky provenance, have also become matters of public discussion. Estimates of the family's wealth have ranged from 350 million to 600 million euros,[108] well above what could possibly be accumulated from investing his official income. When Franco was ill, the francoist Cortes voted a large public pension for his wife Carmen Polo, which the later democratic governments kept paying. At the time of her death in 1988, Carmen Polo
Carmen Polo
was receiving more than 12.5 million pesetas (four million more than Felipe González, then head of the government).[108] Ancestors[edit]

Ancestors of Francisco Franco

16. Juan Franco de Viñas de Lamadrid y Freyre de Andrade

8. Nicolás Franco y Sánchez

17. Josefa Sánchez Freyre de Andrade Canales de León y Piñeiro

4. Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
y Vietti

18. Antonio de Vietti y Roberta, Conde de Calabiana

9. Josefa Vietti Berbabé Roberta y del Busto

19. Francisca Bernabé y del Busto

2. Nicolás Franco y Salgado-Araújo

20. Antonio Salgado Araujo y Belorado

10. Isidoro Salgado-Araújo y Belorado

21. Luisa Zarate

5. Hermenegilda Salgado-Araújo y Pérez

22. Luis Perez

11. Manuela Pérez y Alins

23. Amalia Alins

1. Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
y Bahamonde Salgado Pardo de Andrade

24. Antonio Bahamonde

12. Ramón Bahamonde de Castro

25. Augusta de Castro

6. Ladislás Bahamonde y Ortega

26. Felipe Ortega

13. Josefa Ortega y Medina

27. Anna Medina

3. María del Pilar Bahamonde y Pardo de Andrade

28. Ramón Pardo de Andrade y Bermúdez de Castro

14. Francisco Javier Pardo de Andrade y Coquelin

29. Margarita Coquelin y Robin

7. María del Carmen Pardo de Andrade y Pardo de Andrade

30. Antonio Pardo de Andrade y del Río

15. Luisa Pardo de Andrade y Soto

31. Antonia Soto y Taboada

In popular media[edit] Cinema and television[edit]

Raza or Espíritu de una Raza (Spirit of a Race) (1941), based on a script by "Jaime de Andrade" (Franco himself), is the semi-autobiographical story of a military officer played by Alfredo Mayo. Franco, ese hombre
Franco, ese hombre
(That man, Franco) (1964) is a pro-Franco documentary film directed by José Luis Sáenz de Heredia Franco was a running gag during the first two seasons of Saturday Night Live (1975–1977), where Weekend Update anchor Chevy Chase would frequently report that " Generalissimo
Generalissimo
Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
is still dead". Franco was referenced in the British TV series Fawlty Towers (1975–1979). In one episode, Basil Fawlty (John Cleese) explains to the Barcelona-born waiter Manuel (Andrew Sachs) that a local "hamster" is in fact a rat. Under his breath, Cleese mutters: "You do have rats in Spain, or did Franco have 'em all shot?" In another episode, a hotel guest asks where the Generalissimo
Generalissimo
is (referring to Basil), to which Manuel incredulously replies, "In Madrid!" The movie Dragon Rapide
Dragon Rapide
(1986) deals with the events previous to the Spanish Civil War, with the actor Juan Diego playing Franco Argentine actor José "Pepe" Soriano played both Franco and his double in Espérame en el cielo (Wait for Me in Heaven) (1988). The Goya Winner Juan Echanove
Juan Echanove
played the dictator in the surrealistic movie MadreGilda (MotherGilda) (1993). Franco is referenced in the 1998 romantic-comedy You've Got Mail, starring Tom Hanks
Tom Hanks
and Meg Ryan, as being a love interest of the shop assistant Birdie (Jean Stapleton). The comic actor Xavier Deltell played Franco in the movie Operacion Gonada (Operation Gonad) (2000) The Swedish film Together depicts a celebration triggered by the radio announcement of Franco's death. Ramon Fontserè played him in ¡Buen Viaje, Excelencia! (Bon Voyage, Your Excellency!) (2003). Manuel Alexandre
Manuel Alexandre
played Franco in the TV movie 20-N: Los ultimos dias de Franco (20-N: The Last Days of Franco) (2008) Pan's Labyrinth
Pan's Labyrinth
(2006) takes place in Spain
Spain
in May–June 1944, five years after the Spanish Civil War, during the early Francoist period. Juan Viadas played Franco in Álex de la Iglesia's movie Balada triste de trompeta (The Last Circus) (2010) Franco is often referenced in the Spanish TV series Cuéntame cómo pasó. Behold a Pale Horse is a film set approximately 20 years after the end of the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
starring Anthony Quinn
Anthony Quinn
which portrays a segment of the continuing hatred and bloodshed between members of the Franco regime and veterans of the Republican cause. The first-season episode "Cómo se reescribe el tiempo" of the Spanish television series El Ministerio del Tiempo
El Ministerio del Tiempo
(2015) sets events around Franco's October 1940 meeting with Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
at Hendaye. Franco is portrayed by actor Pep Mirás. Franco is often referenced in the Spanish TV series Cuéntame cómo pasó.

Music[edit]

French singer-songwriter and anarchist Léo Ferré
Léo Ferré
wrote "Franco la muerte", a song he recorded for his 1964 album Ferré 64. In this highly confrontational song, he directly shouts at the dictator and lavishes him with contempt. Ferré refused to sing in Spain
Spain
until Franco was dead. Franco is referenced in Andrew Lloyd Webber's musical Evita, in the song "Rainbow Tour".

Literature[edit]

Franco is a character in CJ Sansom's book Winter in Madrid ...Y al tercer año resucitó (...And On the Third Year He Rose Again) (1980) describes what would happen if Franco rose from the dead. Franco is featured in the novel Triage (1998) by Scott Anderson. Franco makes a brief appearance in Swedish author Jonas Jonasson's 2009 novel, The Hundred-Year-Old Man Who Climbed Out the Window and Disappeared. Franco is the centrepiece of the satirical work El general Franquisimo o La muerte civil de un militar moribundo by Andalusian political cartoonist and journalist Andrés Vázquez de Sola.[116] Franco features several novels by Caroline Angus Baker, including Vengeance in the Valencian Water, visiting the aftermath of the 1957 Valencia
Valencia
floods, and Death in the Valencian Dust, about the final executions handed down before his death in 1975. The 2010 book, "Agentes Secretos y el Mural De Picasso," has Franco mentioned as the man who hired the Main antagonists, Mario y Javier(fictional).

See also[edit]

Biography portal Cold War
Cold War
portal Fascism
Fascism
portal Spain
Spain
portal Politics portal

Luis Carrero Blanco Generalissimo
Generalissimo
Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
is still dead History of Spain Language politics in Francoist Spain Spanish Legion Movimiento Nacional Emilio Mola Francoist Spain Ramón Serrano Súñer Symbols of Francoism Dictator#List of dictators in modern times

Notes[edit]

^ His baptismal name was Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde Salgado-Araujo y Pardo de Lama.[1] ^ In isolation, Bahamonde is pronounced [ba.aˈmonde]. ^ After the Spanish Government allowed Sephardi and other Jews to seek refuge via Spain
Spain
from National Socialist areas, an urban legend appeared as a form of derision claiming that the Francos were of Sephardi ancestry. However Payne explains; "Persistent rumors about Franco's alleged Jewish ancestry have no clear foundation, and Harry S. May, Francisco Franco: The Jewish Connection is somewhat fanciful".[21] Furthermore, "a significant portion of the Spanish and Portuguese populations have some remote Jewish ancestry; if this were true of Franco he would simply be in the position of millions of other Spaniards."[21] ^ The 150.000 executions put the amount of killings for political reasons over more than ten times bigger than those in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and 1000 times bigger than those of Fascist
Fascist
Italy. Reig Tapia points out that Franco signed more decrees of execution than any other previous head of State in Spain.[61]

References[edit]

^ Payne & Palacios 2014, p. 263. ^ "Franco". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica: Or, A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Miscellaneous Literature, Enlarged and Improved. Archibald Constable. 1823. p. 484.  ^ Payne (2000), p. 67 ^ El "ideal supremo" totalitario de Franco que bendicen con dinero público los académicos de la Historia. Elplural.com. 26 May 2012. (in Spanish) ^ Sinova, J. (2006) La censura de prensa durante el franquismo [The Media Censorship During Franco Regime]. Random House Mondadori. ISBN 84-8346-134-X. ^ Lázaro, A. (2001). "James Joyce's Encounters with Spanish Censorship, 1939–1966". Joyce Studies Annual. 12: 38. doi:10.1353/joy.2001.0008.  ^ Rodrigo, J. (2005) Cautivos: Campos de concentración en la España franquista, 1936–1947, Editorial Crítica. ISBN 8484326322 ^ Gastón Aguas, J. M. & Mendiola Gonzalo, F. (eds.) Los trabajos forzados en la dictadura franquista: Bortxazko lanak diktadura frankistan. ISBN 978-84-611-8354-8 ^ Duva, J. (9 November 1998) "Octavio Alberola, jefe de los libertarios ajusticiados en 1963, regresa a España para defender su inocencia". Diario El País ^ Richards, Michael (1998) A Time of Silence: Civil War and the Culture of Repression in Franco's Spain, 1936–1945, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521594014. p. 11. ^ Jackson, Gabriel (2005) La república española y la guerra civil RBA, Barcelona. ISBN 8474230063. p. 466. ^ a b De Meneses, Filipe Ribeiro (2001) Franco and the Spanish Civil War. Routledge. p. 87. ISBN 0415239257. ^ a b Gilmour, David (1985) The Transformation of Spain: From Franco to the Constitutional Monarchy. Quartet Books. p. 7. ISBN 070432461X. ^ a b Payne (1999), pp. 347, 476 ^ Murado, Miguel-Anxo (2 June 2011) "F is for Franco but not for fascist, apparently". The Guardian ^ Payne (2000), p. 645 ^ Reuter, Tim (19 May 2014). "Before China's Transformation, There Was The 'Spanish Miracle'". Forbes Magazine. Retrieved 22 August 2017.  ^ Vidal y de Barnola, Luis Alfonso. Ortegal genealogy. Retrieved 13 August 2012. (in Galician) ^ Arms of the Franco Bahamonde family. Franco. Ed. Ariel. ISBN 978-8434467811. Retrieved 13 August 2012. ^ a b Payne (2000), p. 68 ^ https://gw.geneanet.org/sanchiz?lang=es&n=bahamonde+pardo+de+andrade&p=pilar ^ "Spain's Franco 'had one testicle'". BBC
BBC
News. 18 May 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2010.  ^ https://sites.jmu.edu/spanishcivilwar/carmenpolo/ ^ Carmen Franco y Polo, 1st Duquesa de Franco. thePeerage.com. Retrieved 8 August 2006. ^ Preston, pp. 42, 62 ^ "Discurso de Franco a los cadetes de la academia militar de Zaragoza" (in Spanish). 14 June 1931. Retrieved 21 July 2006.  ^ Preston, Paul (2010) "The Theorists of Extermination", essay in Unearthing Franco's Legacy, pp. 42, 45. University of Notre Dame Press, ISBN 0-268-03268-8 ^ Preston, p. 103 ^ Preston, Paul (2010) "The Theorists of Extermination", essay in Unearthing Franco's Legacy, p. 61. University of Notre Dame Press, ISBN 0-268-03268-8 ^ Thomas, p. 132 ^ Balfour, Sebastian (2002). Deadly Embrace: Morocco
Morocco
and the Road to the Spanish Civil War, Oxford University Press. pp. 252–254. ISBN 0199252963. ^ "Riots Sweep Spain
Spain
on Left's Victory; Jails Are Stormed", The New York Times, 18 February 1936. ^ Muggeridge, Malcolm, editor, Ciano's Diplomatic Papers, Odhams, London, 1948: 17–18 ^ Preston, p. 120 ^ "Las raíces insulares de Franco (The island roots of Franco)" (in Spanish). Elpais. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2013.  ^ "El monumento a Franco en Las Raíces será retirado (Monument to Franco's meeting to be removed)" (in Spanish). Laopinion. 29 September 2008. Retrieved 15 April 2013.  ^ Mathieson, David (18 July 2006). "article in the Guardian about Cecil Bebb". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 2 March 2010.  ^ Cortada, James W. (2011). Modern Warfare in Spain. Potomac Books, Inc. p. 43. ISBN 1612341012.  ^ "Manifesto de las palmas" (in Spanish). 18 July 1936. Retrieved 21 July 2006.  ^ Santos, Juliá (1999). Víctimas de la guerra civil, Madrid, ISBN 84-8460-333-4 ^ a b "Spanish Civil War". Enyclopædia Britannica.  ^ "La Memoria de los Nuestros" (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 July 2006. [permanent dead link] ^ Thomas, p. 258 ^ Thomas, p. 282: "to pacify, rather than to dignify, him." ^ Thomas, p. 282 ^ Thomas, p. 421 ^ Thomas, pp. 423–424 ^ Thomas, p. 356 ^ Thomas, pp. 420–422. ^ a b Thomas, p. 424. ^ Thomas, pp. 689–690. ^ a b Jackson, Gabriel (1967). The Spanish Republic and the Civil War, 1931–1939. Princeton University Press. p. 539. ISBN 0691007578. ^ James S. Corum, "The Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
and the coalition air war in Spain, 1936–1939," Journal of Strategic Studies, (1995) 18:1, 68-90 quotation at p. 75. ^ Robert H. Whealey (2015). Hitler And Spain: The Nazi
Nazi
Role in the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939. p. 64.  ^ Payne, Stanley G. (1961). Falange: A History of Spanish Fascism. pp. 68–69. ISBN 9780804700580.  ^ Payne (1999), p. 269 ^ Payne (1987), p. 172 ^ Payne (1987), p. 234 ^ Graham, Helen; Labanyi, Jo; Marco, Jorge; Preston, Paul; Richards, Michael (2014). "Paul Preston, The Spanish holocaust: inquisition and extermination in twentieth-century Spain
Spain
(London: Harper Collins, 2012)". Journal of Genocide Research. 16: 141–144. doi:10.1080/14623528.2014.878120.  ^ Romero Salvadó, Francisco J. (2005). The Spanish Civil War: Origins, Course and Outcomes. Palgrave Macmillan.  ^ Graham, Helen (2002). The Spanish Republic at War 1936-1939. Cambridge University Press. p. 123. ISBN 0-521-45314-3.  ^ Payne, Stanley (2012). The Spanish Civil War. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 110. ISBN 0521174708.  ^ Tremlett, Giles (1 December 2003). " Spain
Spain
torn on tribute to victims of Franco". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 2 March 2010.  ^ Recent searches conducted with parallel excavations of mass graves in Spain
Spain
(in particular by the Association for the Recovery of Historical Memory, ARMH) estimate that the total of people executed after the war may arrive at a number between 15,000 to 35,000. See for example Fosas Comunes – Los desaparecidos de Franco. La Guerra Civil no ha terminado, El Mundo, 7 July 2002 (in Spanish) ^ https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702303302504577325594229771470 ^ "Men of La Mancha". Rev. of Antony Beevor, The Battle for Spain. The Economist (22 June 2006). ^ Ruiz, J. (2007). "Defending the Republic: The Garcia Atadell Brigade in Madrid, 1936". Journal of Contemporary History. 42: 97. doi:10.1177/0022009407071625.  ^ Caistor, Nick (28 February 2003). " Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
fighters look back". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 2 March 2010.  ^ "'Camp Vernet' Website" (in French). Cheminsdememoire.gouv.fr. Archived from the original on 16 April 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2010.  ^ Film documentary on the website of the Cité nationale de l'histoire de l'immigration (in French) ^ "Pablo Neruda: The Poet's Calling". Redpoppy.net. Retrieved 2 March 2010.  ^ a b c Lochner, Louis P. (ed.) (1948). The Goebbels Diaries, London: Hamish Hamilton, 25 October 1940, 153. ^ Reagan, Geoffrey (1992) Military Anecdotes. Guinness Publishing. ISBN 0-85112-519-0. p. 51 ^ Meyers, William P. "Pius XI and the Rise of General
General
Franco". III Publishing.  ^ Preston, Paul (1992). "Franco and Hitler: The Myth of Hendaye
Hendaye
1940". Contemporary European History. 1 (1): 1–16 (5). doi:10.1017/s0960777300005038. JSTOR 20081423.  ^ Lukacs, John (2001). The Last European War: September 1939 – December 1941. Yale University Press, p. 364. ISBN 0300089155. ^ Weinberg, Gerhard A World In Arms, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005 page 133. ^ Weinberg, Gerhard A World In Arms, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005 page 177. ^ Sager, Murray (July 2009). "Franco, Hitler & the play for Gibraltar: how the Spanish held firm on the Rock". Esprit de Corps. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012.  ^ Pike, David Wingeate (2008). Franco and the Axis Stigma. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 48. doi:10.1057/9780230205444. ISBN 978-1-349-30089-1.  ^ 250. Infanterie-Division. Axishistory.com. Retrieved on 17 December 2017. ^ "Batista's Boost". Time. 18 January 1943. Retrieved 2 March 2010.  ^ a b "WWII document reveals: General
General
Franco handed Nazis list of Spanish Jews". Haaretz.com. 22 June 2010.  ^ Aderet, Ofer. " World War II
World War II
document reveals: General
General
Franco handed Nazis list of Spanish Jews." Haaretz
Haaretz
News Agency. 22 June 2010 ^ Alpert, Michael (2009). " Spain
Spain
and the Jews in World War II". Jewish Historical Society. 42: 201–210. JSTOR 29780130.  ^ "The Franco Years: Policies, Programs, and Growing Popular Unrest". A Country Study: Spain. Library of Congress Country Studies.  ^ a b Laqueur, Walter (1996) Fascism: Past, Present, Future. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195092457. p. 13 ^ Carrasco-Gallego, José A (2012). "The Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
and the Spanish postwar economy: a welfare loss analysis1". The Economic History Review. 65: 91–119. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0289.2010.00576.x.  ^ Calvo-Gonzalez, O. (2006). "Neither a Carrot nor a Stick: American Foreign Aid and Economic Policymaking in Spain
Spain
during the 1950s". Diplomatic History. 30 (3): 409. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.2006.00561.x.  ^ Rubottom, R. Richard and Murphy, J. Carter (1984) Spain
Spain
and the United States: Since World War II. Praeger. ^ Roman, Mar (27 October 2007). " Spain
Spain
frets over future of flamenco." Associated Press. ^ "Gazeta histórica: Referencia: Páginas TIFF". Boletín Oficial del Estado. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007.  ^ "4862 – 17 julio 1954 – B.O. del E. – Núm. 198". Boletín Oficial del Estado. Archived from the original on 26 June 2008.  ^ Tremlett, Giles (2006). Ghosts of Spain. Faber and Faber Ltd. London. ISBN 0802716741. p. 211. ^ Campos, Alicia (2003). "The Decolonization of Equatorial Guinea: The Relevance of the International Factor". The Journal of African History. 44 (1): 95–116. doi:10.1017/s0021853702008319.  ^ Collier, Paul (1999). "On the economic consequences of civil war". Oxford Economic Papers 51: 168–183.  ^ Official journal of the European Communities. 19. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. 1976. p. 18.  ^ Rubottom, R. Richard and Murphy, J. Carter (1984) Spain
Spain
and the United States: Since World War II. Praeger. ^ "fascism, Oxford dictionaries". Oxford University Press. Franco in Spain
Spain
were also Fascist  ^ Cedéo Alvarado, Ernesto (4 February 2008). "Rey Juan Carlos abochornó a Pinochet". Panamá América. Retrieved 4 April 2016.  ^ "Viudos de Franco" homenajearon a Pinochet en España Archived 5 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Europe diary: Franco and Finland, BBC
BBC
News, 6 July 2006 ^ Santander retira la estatua de Franco, El País, 18 December 2008 ^ Hamilos, Paul (19 October 2007). "Rallies banned at Franco's mausoleum". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 3 January 2010.  ^ a b c d e f Primera condena al régimen de Franco en un recinto internacional, EFE, El Mundo, 17 March 2006 (in Spanish) ^ Von Martyna Czarnowska, Almunia, Joaquin: EU-Kommission (4): Ein halbes Jahr Vorsprung, Weiner Zeitung, 17 February 2005 (German). Retrieved 26 August 2006. Archived 13 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c d Gomez, Luis and Galaz, Mabel (9 September 2007) La cosecha del dictador, El País, (in Spanish) ^ " Spain
Spain
OKs Reparations to Civil War Victims", Associated Press, 28 July 2006 ^ Politics As Usual? The Trials and Tribulations of The Law of Historical Memory in Spain
Spain
Archived 5 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine., Georgina Blakeley (The Open University), 7 September 2008 ^ Proyecto de Ley por la que se reconocen y amplían derechos y se establecen medidas en favor de quienes padecieron persecución o violencia durante la Guerra Civil y la Dictadura (in Spanish) Archived 29 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Franco's Prisons. The Museum maintains a permanent online version of the exhibition titled Les Presons de Franco ^ " Madrid
Madrid
Unity Rally Mired by Fascist
Fascist
Salutes From Far-right Falange Party Members". Haaretz. 8 October 2017. ^ "Catalonia: Fascists caught making Nazi
Nazi
salutes during anti-Catalan independence protest". The Independent. 30 October 2017. ^ "Spanish anti-separatists in Madrid
Madrid
protest with fascist arm salutes while singing far-right song". The Independent. 1 October 2017. ^ El general franquisimo de Vazquez de Sola. Duntempsdunpais.cat. Retrieved on 17 December 2017.

Bibliography[edit]

Payne, Stanley G. (1987). The Franco Regime. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0299110702.  Payne, Stanley G. (1999). Fascism
Fascism
in Spain, 1923–1977. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0299165647.  Payne, Stanley G (2000). The Phoenix: Franco Regime 1936–1975. Phoenix Press. ISBN 1-84212-046-8.  Payne, Stanley G.; Palacios, Jesús (2014). Franco: A Personal and Political Biography. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-30210-8.  Preston, Paul (1995). Franco. ISBN 0-00-686210-1.  Thomas, Hugh (1977). The Spanish Civil War. ISBN 0060142782. .

Further reading[edit]

Blinkhorn, Martin (1988). Democracy and civil war in Spain 1931–1939. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-00699-6.  Carroll, Warren H (2004). The Last Crusade: Spain
Spain
1936. Christendom Press. ISBN 0-931888-67-0.  Cerdá, Néstor. "Political Ascent and Military Commander: General Franco in the Early Months of the Spanish Civil War, July–October 1936," American Revolutionary war with the PVMJournal of Military History 75#4 (October 2011): 1125–57. Lines, Lisa. " Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
as Warrior: Is It Time for a Reassessment of His Military Leadership?." Journal of Military History 81.2 (2017). Tusell, Javier (1995). Franco, España y la II Guerra Mundial: Entre el Eje y la Neutralidad (in Spanish). Ediciones Temas de Hoy. ISBN 9788478805013. 

Primary sources[edit]

Hayes, Carlton J.H. (1945). Wartime mission in Spain, 1942–1945. Macmillan Company 1st Edition. ISBN 9781121497245.  Hayes, Carlton J.H. (1951). The United States
United States
and Spain. An Interpretation. Sheed & Ward; 1ST edition. ASIN B0014JCVS0.  Hoare, Sir Samuel (1946). Ambassador on Special
Special
Mission. UK: Collins; First Edition. pp. 124–125.  Hoare, Sir Samuel (1947). Complacent Dictator. A.A. Knopf. ASIN B0007F2ZVU. 

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has original text related to this article: Adolf Hitler's Letter to General
General
Franco (6 February 1941)

Political offices

Preceded by Manuel Azaña as President of Spain Head of the Spanish State 1 October 1936 – 20 November 1975 Succeeded by Alejandro Rodríguez de Valcárcel as President of the Regency

Preceded by Juan Negrín Prime Minister of Spain 30 January 1938 – 8 June 1973 Succeeded by Luis Carrero Blanco

v t e

Prime Ministers of Spain

Acting prime ministers shown in italics.

Queen Isabella II (1833–1868)

Martínez de la Rosa Toreno Álava Álvarez Mendizábal Istúriz Calatrava Espartero Bardají Heredia-Spínola Frías Alaix Pérez de Castro A. González Ferraz Cortázar Sancho Espartero Ferrer A. González Rodil J. M. López Gómez Becerra Olózaga González-Bravo Narváez Miraflores Narváez Sotomayor Pacheco Salamanca García Goyena Narváez Clonard Bravo Murillo Roncali Lersundi Sartorius Mendigorría Rivas Espartero O'Donnell Narváez Armero Istúriz O'Donnell Arrazola Mon Narváez O'Donnell Narváez González-Bravo Havana

Democratic Sexennium (1868–1874)

Madoz Serrano Prim Topete Serrano Ruiz Zorrilla Malcampo Sagasta Topete Serrano Mendigorría Ruiz Zorrilla Figueras Pi Salmerón Castelar Serrano Sierra Bullones Sagasta

The Restoration (1874–1931)

Cánovas Jovellar Martínez Campos Sagasta Posada Azcárraga Silvela Fernández-Villaverde Maura Montero Moret López Domínguez Vega de Armijo Canalejas García Prieto Romanones Dato Maura Sánchez de Toca Bugallal Sánchez-Guerra Primo de Rivera Berenguer Aznar-Cabañas

Second Republic (1931–1939)

Alcalá-Zamora Azaña Lerroux Martínez Barrio Samper Chapaprieta Portela Barcía Casares Martínez Barrio Giral Largo Negrín

Spain
Spain
under Franco (1936–1975)

Franco Carrero Fernández-Miranda Arias

Since 1975

Arias Santiago Suárez Calvo-Sotelo F. González Aznar Zapatero Rajoy

v t e

Franco-Spanish conquest of Morocco
Morocco
(1893–1932)

French protectorate in Morocco Spanish protectorate in Morocco

Major conflicts

Rif
Rif
War (1920–26) Zaian War
Zaian War
(1914–21)

Battles

Tetuan War (1859–60) Melilla
Melilla
War (1893–94) Battle of Casablanca (1908) Melilla
Melilla
War (1909–10) Battle of Sidi Bou Othman
Battle of Sidi Bou Othman
(1912) Battle of El Ksiba (1913) Battle of El Herri
Battle of El Herri
(1914) Battle of Annual
Battle of Annual
(1921)

Key people

Moroccans

Mohammed Ameziane Mulai Ahmed er Raisuni Mouha ou Hammou Zayani Moha ou Said Mhand n'Ifrutant Ali Amhaouch Sidi Ahmed El Hiba Ma al-'Aynayn Abd el-Krim Assou Oubasslam Aït Atta Zayanes Beni Ouryaghel

French

General
General
Mangin General
General
Lyautey General
General
Henrys General
General
Poeymirau Marshal Pétain Henry de Bournazel

French allies

Thami El Glaoui Sultan Moulay Youssef

Spaniards

Juan García y Margallo Martínez-Campos Manuel Fernández Silvestre Dámaso Berenguer José Millán Astray Miguel Primo de Rivera José Sanjurjo Generalísimo
Generalísimo
Francisco Franco

Spanish allies

Mohamed Meziane

Treaties

Treaty of Fez (1894) Algeciras Conference
Algeciras Conference
(1906) Pact of Cartagena (1907) Treaty of Fes (1912) Franco-Spanish Treaty (1912)

Crises

First Moroccan Crisis
First Moroccan Crisis
(1905) Agadir Crisis
Agadir Crisis
(1911)

v t e

Fascism

Theory

Core tenets

Nationalism Imperialism Authoritarianism One-party state Dictatorship Social Darwinism Social interventionism Proletarian nation Propaganda Eugenics Heroism Militarism Economic interventionism Anti-communism

Topics

Definitions Economics Fascism
Fascism
and ideology Fascism
Fascism
worldwide Symbolism

Ideas

Actual Idealism Class collaboration Corporatism Heroic capitalism National Socialism National syndicalism State capitalism Supercapitalism Third Position Totalitarianism Social order

Variants

Italian National Socialism Japanese fascism Islamofascism Falangism British Austrian Metaxism National Radicalism Rexism Clerical Legionarism Integralism

Movements

Africa

Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging Greyshirts Ossewabrandwag

Asia

Brit HaBirionim Ganap Party Sakurakai Tōhōkai Blue Shirts Society

Northern / Northwestern Europe

Ailtirí na hAiséirghe Black Front (Netherlands) Blueshirts Breton Social-National Workers' Movement British Fascists British People's Party (1939) British Union of Fascists La Cagoule Clerical People's Party Faisceau Flemish National Union French Popular Party General
General
Dutch Fascist
Fascist
League Imperial Fascist
Fascist
League Lapua Movement Nasjonal Samling National Corporate Party
National Corporate Party
(Greenshirts) National Fascisti Nationalist Party (Iceland) National Socialist Bloc National Socialist Dutch Workers Party National Socialist League National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands National Socialist Movement of Norway National Socialist Workers' Party (Sweden) New Party (UK) Patriotic People's Movement (Finland) Pērkonkrusts Rexism

Central Europe

Arrow Cross Party Austrian National Socialism Fatherland Front (Austria) Hungarian National Socialist Party National Front (Switzerland) Nazism Nazi
Nazi
Party Sudeten German Party

Southern Europe

Albanian Fascist
Fascist
Party Democratic Fascist
Fascist
Party Falange Greek National Socialist Party Italian Fascism Italian Social Republic Metaxism National Fascist
Fascist
Party National Union (Portugal) Republican Fascist
Fascist
Party Sammarinese Fascist
Fascist
Party Ustaše ZBOR

Eastern and Southeastern Europe

Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party Crusade
Crusade
of Romanianism Iron Guard National Fascist
Fascist
Community National Fascist
Fascist
Movement National Italo-Romanian Cultural and Economic Movement National Social Movement (Bulgaria) National Radical Camp Falanga National Romanian Fascio National Renaissance Front Ratniks
Ratniks
(Bulgaria) Romanian Front Russian Fascist
Fascist
Party Russian Women's Fascist
Fascist
Movement Slovak People's Party Union of Bulgarian National Legions Vlajka

North America

Fascism
Fascism
in Canada

Canadian Union of Fascists Parti national social chrétien

Gold shirts German American Bund Silver Legion of America

South America

Falangism
Falangism
in Latin America Brazilian Integralism Bolivian Socialist Falange National Socialist Movement of Chile Revolutionary Union

People

Abba Ahimeir Nimio de Anquín Sadao Araki Marc Augier Maurice Bardèche Jacques Benoist-Méchin Henri Béraud Zoltán Böszörmény Giuseppe Bottai Robert Brasillach Alphonse de Châteaubriant Corneliu Zelea Codreanu Gustavs Celmiņš Enrico Corradini Carlo Costamagna Richard Walther Darré Marcel Déat Léon Degrelle Pierre Drieu La Rochelle Gottfried Feder Giovanni Gentile Joseph Goebbels Hans F. K. Günther Heinrich Himmler Adolf Hitler Ikki Kita Fumimaro Konoe Vihtori Kosola Agostino Lanzillo Dimitrije Ljotić Leopoldo Lugones Curzio Malaparte Ioannis Metaxas Robert Michels Oswald Mosley Benito Mussolini Eoin O'Duffy Gearóid Ó Cuinneagáin Sergio Panunzio Giovanni Papini Ante Pavelić William Dudley Pelley Alfred Ploetz Robert Poulet Vidkun Quisling José Antonio Primo de Rivera Lucien Rebatet Dionisio Ridruejo Alfredo Rocco Konstantin Rodzaevsky Alfred Rosenberg Plínio Salgado Rafael Sánchez Mazas Margherita Sarfatti Carl Schmitt Ardengo Soffici Othmar Spann Ugo Spirito Ferenc Szálasi Hideki Tojo Gonzalo Torrente Ballester Georges Valois Anastasy Vonsyatsky

Works

Literature

The Doctrine of Fascism Fascist
Fascist
Manifesto Manifesto of the Fascist
Fascist
Intellectuals Mein Kampf My Life The Myth of the Twentieth Century Zweites Buch Zaveshchanie russkogo fashista

Periodicals

La Conquista del Estado Das Reich Der Angriff Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung Deutsche Zeitung in Norwegen Deutsche Zeitung in den Niederlanden Figli d'Italia Fronten Gândirea Gioventù Fascista Je suis partout La France au travail Münchener Beobachter Novopress NS Månedshefte Norsk-Tysk Tidsskrift Das Schwarze Korps Der Stürmer Il Popolo d'Italia Sfarmă-Piatră Signal Vlajka Völkischer Beobachter Nash Put' Fashist l'Alba

Film

Der Sieg des Glaubens Tag der Freiheit: Unsere Wehrmacht Triumph of the Will

Sculpture

Allach

Related topics

Art of the Third Reich Fascist
Fascist
architecture Heroic realism Nazi
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architecture Nazism
Nazism
and cinema Nazi
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Organizations

Institutional

Ahnenerbe Chamber of Fasci and Corporations Grand Council of Fascism Imperial Way Faction Italian Nationalist Association Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen Quadrumvirs

Activist

Fascist
Fascist
Union of Youth German American Bund National Youth Organisation (Greece) Russian Fascist
Fascist
Organization Union of Fascist
Fascist
Little Ones Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (boys) Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (girls)

Paramilitary

Albanian Militia Black Brigades Blackshirts Blueshirts Einsatzgruppen Gold shirts Greenshirts Greyshirts Hitler Youth Heimwehr Iron Wolf (organization) Lăncieri Makapili Silver Legion of America Schutzstaffel Sturmabteilung Waffen-SS Werwolf

International

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History

1910s

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1920s

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1930s

March of the Iron Will German federal election, November 1932 German federal election, March 1933 Enabling Act 6 February 1934 crisis 1934 Montreux Fascist
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1940s

World War II The Holocaust End in Italy Denazification Nuremberg Trials

Lists

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Germany

Category Portal

v t e

    Philippine Legion of Honor recipients    

Chief Commander (Punong Komandante)

Emilio Aguinaldo Hassanal Bolkiah Chiang Kai-shek Dwight D. Eisenhower Leonardo Espina Francisco Franco José P. Laurel Douglas MacArthur Ferdinand Marcos Imelda Marcos Sergio Osmeña Jesse Robredo Chino Roces Franklin D. Roosevelt Jaime Sin Achmad Sukarno Lorenzo Tañada Maxwell D. Taylor Claudio Teehankee

Grand Commander (Marangal na Komandante)

Gilbert Teodoro Emilio Yap Fernando Zóbel de Ayala Jaime Zóbel de Ayala Jaime Augusto Zóbel de Ayala II

Grand Officer (Marangal na Pinuno)

Teodoro Locsin Jr.

Commander (Komandante)

Benigno Aquino Jr. Eulogio Balao Alfredo Montelibano Sr.

Officer (Pinuno)

Benigno Aquino Jr. Manny Pacquiao

Legionnaire (Lehiyonaryo)

Escuadrón 201 Teddy Boy Locsin Edith Nourse Rogers Richard Sakakida

v t e

Post-war flight of Axis fugitives

Fugitives

German / Austrian

Ludolf von Alvensleben Klaus Barbie Hermine Braunsteiner Alois Brunner Adolf Eichmann Aribert Heim Walter Kutschmann Johann von Leers Josef Mengele Hermann Michel Erich Priebke Walter Rauff Eduard Roschmann Walter Schreiber Horst Schumann Josef Schwammberger Franz Stangl Gustav Wagner

Croatian

Milivoj Ašner Andrija Artuković Anton Geiser Ante Pavelić Dinko Šakić Vjekoslav Vrančić

Belgian

Pierre Daye Léon Degrelle René Lagrou

Ukrainian

John Demjanjuk Feodor Fedorenko Mykola Lebed

Danish

Søren Kam Carl Værnet

Estonian

Aleksander Laak Karl Linnas

Latvian

Viktors Arājs Herberts Cukurs

Other nationalities

Tscherim Soobzokov (Circassian)

Assistance

Organizations

Ratlines

State involvement

Colonia Dignidad (Chile) Franco (Spain) Perón (Argentina) Videla (Argentina) Operation Paperclip
Operation Paperclip
(USA) Robert Leiber
Robert Leiber
(Holy See) Banzer (Bolivia) Stroessner (Paraguay)

Other persons

Rodolfo Freude Alois Hudal Charles Lescat Hans-Ulrich Rudel Otto Skorzeny

Hunters

Serge and Beate Klarsfeld Eli Rosenbaum Simon Wiesenthal Efraim Zuroff

Disputed / dubious

Krunoslav Draganović ODESSA Stille Hilfe

See also

List of Most Wanted Nazi
Nazi
War Criminals

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 44334635 LCCN: n79043066 ISNI: 0000 0001 2130 3535 GND: 11853470X SELIBR: 206340 SUDOC: 088342840 BNF: cb12142874p (data) BIBSYS: 90058263 NLA: 35099242 NDL: 00819662 NKC: jn20000700552 ICCU: ITICCUCUBV68531 BNE: XX1635699 RKD: 343

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