HOME
The Info List - Franciscans


--- Advertisement ---



The Franciscans
Franciscans
are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic
Catholic
Church, founded in 1209 by Francis of Assisi. These orders include the Order of Friars Minor, the Order of Saint Clare, and the Third Order
Third Order
of Saint Francis. These orders adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua, and Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others.[2] Francis began preaching around 1207 and traveled to Rome
Rome
to seek approval from Pope Innocent III
Pope Innocent III
in 1209 to form a new religious order. The original Rule of Saint Francis approved by the Pope
Pope
disallowed ownership of property, requiring members of the order to beg for food while preaching. The austerity was meant to emulate the life and ministry of Jesus
Jesus
Christ. Franciscans
Franciscans
traveled and preached in the streets, while boarding in church properties. Saint Clare, under Francis's guidance, founded the Poor Clares
Poor Clares
(Order of Saint Clair) in 1212, which remains a Second Order of the Franciscans. The extreme poverty required of members was relaxed in the final revision of the Rule in 1223. The degree of observance required of members remained a major source of conflict within the order, resulting in numerous secessions.[3][4] The Order of Friars Minor, previously known as the "Observant" branch, is one of the three Franciscan
Franciscan
First Orders within the Catholic Church, the others being the "Conventuals" (formed 1517) and "Capuchins" (1520). The Order of Friars Minor, in its current form, is the result of an amalgamation of several smaller orders completed in 1897 by Pope
Pope
Leo XIII.[5] The latter two, the Capuchin and Conventual, remain distinct religious institutes within the Catholic
Catholic
Church, observing the Rule of Saint Francis with different emphases. Conventual Franciscans
Conventual Franciscans
are sometimes referred to as minorites or greyfriars because of their habit. In Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
they are known as Bernardines, after Bernardino of Siena, although the term elsewhere refers to Cistercians
Cistercians
instead.

Contents

1 Name and demographics 2 History

2.1 Beginnings 2.2 Francis' last years

2.2.1 Dissensions during Francis' life 2.2.2 Custody of the Holy Land

2.3 Development after Francis' death

2.3.1 Development to 1239 2.3.2 1239–1274

2.4 14th century

2.4.1 1274–1300 2.4.2 Persecution 2.4.3 Renewed controversy on the question of poverty

2.5 Separate congregations

2.5.1 Clareni 2.5.2 Minorites of Narbonne 2.5.3 Reform of Johannes de Vallibus 2.5.4 Unification

2.5.4.1 New World missions

3 Contemporary organizations

3.1 First Order

3.1.1 Order of Friars Minor 3.1.2 Order of Friars Minor
Order of Friars Minor
Conventual 3.1.3 Order of Friars Minor
Order of Friars Minor
Capuchin

3.2 Second Order

3.2.1 Poor Clares

3.3 Third Order

3.3.1 Secular Franciscan
Franciscan
Order 3.3.2 Third Order
Third Order
Regular

3.3.2.1 Third Order
Third Order
Regular in North America

3.3.3 Brothers and Sisters of Penance of St. Francis 3.3.4 Other tertiaries

3.4 Other Franciscan
Franciscan
organizations 3.5 Other Christian traditions

4 Distinguishing characteristics

4.1 Spirituality 4.2 Visions and stigmata 4.3 Contributions to biblical scholarship 4.4 Notable members

5 See also 6 References

6.1 Books 6.2 Articles 6.3 Notes

7 External links

7.1 First Order 7.2 Second Order 7.3 Third Order 7.4 Research resources

Name and demographics[edit] The name of original order, Ordo Fratrum Minorum ("Friars Minor"), means "lesser brothers", and stems from Francis of Assisi's rejection of extravagance. Francis was the son of a wealthy cloth merchant, but gave up his wealth to pursue his faith more fully. He had cut all ties that remained with his family, and pursued a life living in solidarity with his fellow brothers in Christ.[6] Francis adopted the simple tunic worn by peasants as the religious habit for his order, and had others who wished to join him do the same. Those who joined him became the original Order of Friars Minor.[1] The modern organization of the Friars Minor comprises three separate families or groups, each considered a religious order in its own right under its own minister General and particular type of governance. They all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis.[7]

First Order

The First Order or the "Order of Friars Minor" are commonly called simply the "Franciscans". This Order is a mendicant religious order of men, some of whom trace their origin to Francis of Assisi.[7] Their official Latin
Latin
name is the Ordo Fratrum Minorum.[8] St. Francis thus referred to his followers as "Fraticelli", meaning "Little Brothers". Franciscan
Franciscan
brothers are informally called friars or the Minorites.[9] The modern organization of the Friars Minor comprises three separate families or groups, each considered a religious order in its own right under its own minister General and particular type of governance. They all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis.[7] These are

The Order of Friars Minor, known as the "Observants", most commonly simply called Franciscan
Franciscan
friars,[7] official name: "Friars Minor" (O.F.M.).[9] The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin
Order of Friars Minor Capuchin
or simply Capuchins,[7] official name: "Friars Minor Capuchin" (O.F.M. Cap).[9] The Conventual Franciscans
Conventual Franciscans
or Minorites,[7] official name: "Friars Minor Conventual" (O.F.M. Conv).[9]

Second Order

The Second Order, most commonly called Poor Clares
Poor Clares
in English-speaking countries, consists of religious sisters. The order is called the Order of St. Clare (O.S.C.), but in the thirteenth century, prior to 1263, this order was referred to as "The Poor Ladies", "The Poor Enclosed Nuns", and "The Order of San Damiano".[10]

Third Order

The Franciscan
Franciscan
third order, known as the Third Order
Third Order
of Saint Francis, has many men and women members, separated into two main branches:

The Secular Franciscan
Franciscan
Order, O.F.S., originally known as the Brothers and Sisters of Penance or Third Order
Third Order
of Penance, try to live the ideals of the movement in their daily lives outside of religious institutes. The members of the Third Order
Third Order
Regular (T.O.R.) live in religious communities under the traditional religious vows. They grew out of the Secular Franciscan
Franciscan
Order.

The 2013 Annuario Pontificio
Annuario Pontificio
gave the following figures for the membership of the principal male Franciscan
Franciscan
orders:.[11]

Order of Friars Minor
Order of Friars Minor
(O.F.M.): 2,212 communities; 14,123 members; 9,735 priests Franciscan
Franciscan
Order of Friars Minor Conventual
Order of Friars Minor Conventual
(O.F.M.Conv.): 667 communities; 4,289 members; 2,921 priests Franciscan
Franciscan
Order of Friars Minor Capuchin
Order of Friars Minor Capuchin
(O.F.M.Cap.): 1,633 communities; 10,786 members; 7,057 priests Third Order
Third Order
Regular of Saint Francis (T.O.R.): 176 communities; 870 members; 576 priests

The coat of arms that is a universal symbol of Franciscans
Franciscans
"contains the Tau cross, with two crossed arms: Christ’s right hand with the nail wound and Francis’ left hand with the stigmata wound."[1] History[edit] Beginnings[edit] A sermon Francis heard in 1209 on Mt 10:9 made such an impression on him that he decided to devote himself wholly to a life of apostolic poverty. Clad in a rough garment, barefoot, and, after the Evangelical precept, without staff or scrip, he began to preach repentance.[12] He was soon joined by a prominent fellow townsman, Bernard of Quintavalle, who contributed all that he had to the work, and by other companions, who are said to have reached the number of eleven within a year. The brothers lived in the deserted leper colony of Rivo Torto near Assisi; but they spent much of their time traveling through the mountainous districts of Umbria, always cheerful and full of songs, yet making a deep impression on their hearers by their earnest exhortations. Their life was extremely ascetic, though such practices were apparently not prescribed by the first rule which Francis gave them (probably as early as 1209) which seems to have been nothing more than a collection of Scriptural passages emphasizing the duty of poverty.

Regula bullata, the Rule confirmed by Pope
Pope
Honorius III

In spite of some similarities between this principle and some of the fundamental ideas of the followers of Peter Waldo, the brotherhood of Assisi
Assisi
succeeded in gaining the approval of Pope
Pope
Innocent III.[13] What seems to have impressed first the Bishop of Assisi, Guido, then Cardinal Giovanni di San Paolo and finally Innocent himself, was their utter loyalty to the Church and the clergy. Innocent III was not only the pope reigning during the life of St. Francis of Assisi, but he was also responsible for helping to construct the church Francis was being called to rebuild. Innocent III and the Fourth Lateran Council helped maintain the church in Europe. Innocent probably saw in them a possible answer to his desire for an orthodox preaching force to counter heresy. Many legends have clustered around the decisive audience of Francis with the pope. The realistic account in Matthew Paris, according to which the pope originally sent the shabby saint off to keep swine, and only recognized his real worth by his ready obedience, has, in spite of its improbability, a certain historical interest, since it shows the natural antipathy of the older Benedictine monasticism to the plebeian mendicant orders. The group was tonsured and Francis was ordained as a deacon, allowing him to proclaim Gospel
Gospel
passages and preach in churches during Mass.[14] Francis' last years[edit] Francis had to suffer from the dissensions just alluded to and the transformation they effected in the original constitution of the brotherhood making it a regular order under strict supervision from Rome. Exasperated by the demands of running a growing and fractious Order, Francis asked Pope Honorius III
Pope Honorius III
for help in 1219. He was assigned Cardinal Ugolino as protector of the Order by the pope. Francis resigned the day-to-day running of the Order into the hands of others but retained the power to shape the Order's legislation, writing a Rule in 1221 which he revised and had approved in 1223. After about 1223, the day-to-day running of the Order was in the hands of Brother Elias of Cortona, an able friar who would be elected as leader of the friars a few years after Francis' death (1226) but who aroused much opposition because of his autocratic leadership style. He planned and built the Basilica of San Francesco d' Assisi
Assisi
in which Saint Francis is buried, a building which includes the friary Sacro Convento, still today the spiritual centre of the Order.

"The Confirmation of the Franciscan
Franciscan
Rule" by Domenico Ghirlandaio (1449-1494), Capella Sassetti, Florence.

In the external successes of the brothers, as they were reported at the yearly general chapters, there was much to encourage Francis. Caesarius of Speyer (de), the first German provincial, a zealous advocate of the founder's strict principle of poverty, began in 1221 from Augsburg, with twenty-five companions, to win for the Order the land watered by the Rhine
Rhine
and the Danube. In 1224 Agnellus of Pisa led a small group of friars to England. The branch of the Order arriving in England became known as the "greyfriars".[15] Beginning at Greyfriars at Canterbury, the ecclesiastical capital, they moved on to London, the political capital, and Oxford, the intellectual capital. From these three bases the Franciscans
Franciscans
swiftly expanded to embrace the principal towns of England. Dissensions during Francis' life[edit] The controversy about how to follow the Gospel
Gospel
life of poverty, which extends through the first three centuries of Franciscan
Franciscan
history, began in the lifetime of the founder. The ascetic brothers Matthew of Narni and Gregory of Naples, a nephew of Ugolino,[clarification needed] the two vicars-general to whom Francis had entrusted the direction of the order during his absence, carried through at a chapter which they held certain stricter regulations in regard to fasting and the reception of alms, which really departed from the spirit of the original rule. It did not take Francis long, on his return, to suppress this insubordinate tendency but he was less successful in regard to another of an opposite nature which soon came up. Elias of Cortona originated a movement for the increase of the worldly consideration of the Order and the adaptation of its system to the plans of the hierarchy which conflicted with the original notions of the founder and helped to bring about the successive changes in the rule already described. Francis was not alone in opposition to this lax and secularizing tendency. On the contrary, the party which clung to his original views and after his death took his "Testament" for their guide, known as Observantists or Zelanti, was at least equal in numbers and activity to the followers of Elias. The conflict between the two lasted many years and the Zelanti won several notable victories in spite of the favor shown to their opponents by the papal administration, until finally the reconciliation of the two points of view was seen to be impossible and the order was actually split into halves. Custody of the Holy Land[edit] Main article: Custodian of the Holy Land After an intense apostolic activity in Italy, in 1219 Francis went to Egypt
Egypt
with the Fifth Crusade
Fifth Crusade
to announce the Gospel
Gospel
to the Saracens. He met with the Sultan Malik al-Kamil, initiating a spirit of dialogue and understanding between Christianity
Christianity
and Islam. The Franciscan presence in the Holy Land started in 1217, when the province of Syria was established, with Brother Elias as Minister. By 1229 the friars had a small house near the fifth station of the Via Dolorosa. In 1272 sultan Baibars
Baibars
allowed the Franciscans
Franciscans
to settle in the Cenacle
Cenacle
on Mount Zion. Later on, in 1309, they also settled in the Holy Sepulchre and in Bethlehem. In 1335 the king of Naples
Naples
Robert of Anjou (Italian: Roberto d'Angiò) and his wife Sancha of Majorca
Sancha of Majorca
(Italian: Sancia di Maiorca) bought the Cenacle
Cenacle
and gave it to the Franciscans. Pope Clement VI by the Bulls "Gratias agimus" and "Nuper charissimae" (1342) declared the Franciscans
Franciscans
as the official custodians of the Holy Places in the name of the Catholic
Catholic
Church. The Franciscan
Franciscan
Custody of the Holy Land
Custody of the Holy Land
is still in force today.[16] Development after Francis' death[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. (May 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Development to 1239[edit]

Anthony of Padua
Anthony of Padua
(c1195-1231) with the Infant Christ, painting by Antonio de Pereda
Antonio de Pereda
(c1611-1678)

When the General Chapter could not agree on a common interpretation of the 1223 Rule it sent a delegation including St. Anthony of Padua
Anthony of Padua
to Pope
Pope
Gregory IX for an authentic interpretation of this piece of papal legislation. The bull Quo elongati of Gregory IX declared that the Testament of St. Francis was not legally binding and offered an interpretation of poverty that would allow the Order to continue to develop. The earliest leader of the strict party was Brother Leo, the witness of the ecstasies of Francis on Monte Alverno and the author of the Speculum perfectionis, a strong polemic against the laxer party. Next to him came John Parenti, the first successor of Francis in the headship of the Order. In 1232 Elias succeeded him, and under him the Order significantly developed its ministries and presence in the towns. Many new houses were founded, especially in Italy, and in many of them special attention was paid to education. The somewhat earlier settlements of Franciscan
Franciscan
teachers at the universities (in Paris, for example, where Alexander of Hales
Alexander of Hales
was teaching) continued to develop. Contributions toward the promotion of the Order's work, and especially the building of the Basilica in Assisi, came in abundantly. Funds could only be accepted on behalf of the friars for determined, imminent, real necessities that could not be provided for from begging. Gregory IX, in Quo elongati, authorized agents of the Order to have custody of such funds where they could not be spent immediately. Elias pursued with great severity the principal leaders of the opposition, and even Bernardo di Quintavalle, the founder's first disciple, was obliged to conceal himself for years in the forest of Monte Sefro. St. Clare of Assisi, whom St. Francis saw as his "little daughter" and who is now considered the foundress of the Poor Clares, consistently backed Elias as faithfully reflecting the mind of St. Francis. 1239–1274[edit]

A Franciscan
Franciscan
Convent in Mafra in Portugal.

Elias governed the Order from the center, imposing his authority on the provinces (as had Francis). A reaction to this centralized government was led from the provinces of England and Germany. At the general chapter of 1239, held in Rome
Rome
under the personal presidency of Gregory IX, Elias was deposed in favor of Albert of Pisa, the former provincial of England, a moderate Observantist. This chapter introduced General Statutes to govern the Order and devolved power from the Minister General to the Ministers Provincial sitting in chapter. The next two Ministers General, Haymo of Faversham (1240–44) and Crescentius of Jesi (1244–47), consolidated this greater democracy in the Order but also led the Order towards a greater clericalization. The new Pope Innocent IV
Pope Innocent IV
supported them in this. In a bull of November 14, 1245, this pope even sanctioned an extension of the system of financial agents, and allowed the funds to be used not simply for those things that were necessary for the friars but also for those that were useful. The Observantist party took a strong stand in opposition to this ruling and agitated so successfully against the lax General that in 1247, at a chapter held in Lyon, France—where Innocent IV
Innocent IV
was then residing—he was replaced by the strict Observantist John of Parma (1247–57) and the Order refused to implement any provisions of Innocent IV
Innocent IV
that were laxer than those of Gregory IX. Elias, who had been excommunicated and taken under the protection of Frederick II, was now forced to give up all hope of recovering his power in the Order. He died in 1253, after succeeding by recantation in obtaining the removal of his censures. Under John of Parma, who enjoyed the favor of Innocent IV
Innocent IV
and Pope
Pope
Alexander IV, the influence of the Order was notably increased, especially by the provisions of the latter pope in regard to the academic activity of the brothers. He not only sanctioned the theological institutes in Franciscan
Franciscan
houses, but did all he could to support the friars in the Mendicant Controversy, when the secular Masters of the university of Paris
Paris
and the Bishops of France combined to attack the mendicant orders. It was due to the action of Alexander IV's envoys, who were obliged to threaten the university authorities with excommunication, that the degree of doctor of theology was finally conceded to the Dominican Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
and the Franciscan
Franciscan
Bonaventure
Bonaventure
(1257), who had previously been able to lecture only as licentiates. The Franciscan
Franciscan
Gerard of Borgo San Donnino at this time issued a Joachimite tract and John of Parma was seen as favoring the condemned theology of Joachim of Fiore. To protect the Order from its enemies, John was forced to step down and recommended Bonaventure
Bonaventure
as his successor. Bonaventure
Bonaventure
saw the need to unify the Order around a common ideology and both wrote a new life of the founder and collected the Order's legislation into the Constitutions
Constitutions
of Narbonne, so called because they were ratified by the Order at its chapter held at Narbonne, France, in 1260. In the chapter of Pisa
Pisa
three years later Bonaventure's Legenda maior was approved as the only biography of Francis and all previous biographies were ordered to be destroyed. Bonaventure
Bonaventure
ruled (1257–74) in a moderate spirit, which is represented also by various works produced by the order in his time—especially by the Expositio regulae written by David of Augsburg
Augsburg
soon after 1260.

Bonaventure
Bonaventure
(1221-1274), painting by Claude François, ca. 1650-1660.

14th century[edit] 1274–1300[edit] The successor to Bonaventure, Jerome
Jerome
of Ascoli or Girolamo Masci (1274–79), (the future Pope
Pope
Nicholas IV), and his successor, Bonagratia of Bologna (1279–85), also followed a middle course. Severe measures were taken against certain extreme Spirituals who, on the strength of the rumor that Pope
Pope
Gregory X was intending at the Council of Lyon (1274–75) to force the mendicant orders to tolerate the possession of property, threatened both pope and council with the renunciation of allegiance. Attempts were made, however, to satisfy the reasonable demands of the Spiritual party, as in the bull Exiit qui seminat of Pope
Pope
Nicholas III (1279), which pronounced the principle of complete poverty meritorious and holy, but interpreted it in the way of a somewhat sophistical distinction between possession and usufruct. The bull was received respectfully by Bonagratia and the next two generals, Arlotto of Prato (1285–87) and Matthew of Aqua Sparta (1287–89); but the Spiritual party under the leadership of the Bonaventuran pupil and apocalyptic Pierre Jean Olivi regarded its provisions for the dependence of the friars upon the pope and the division between brothers occupied in manual labor and those employed on spiritual missions as a corruption of the fundamental principles of the Order. They were not won over by the conciliatory attitude of the next general, Raymond Gaufredi (1289–96), and of the Franciscan
Franciscan
Pope
Pope
Nicholas IV (1288–92). The attempt made by the next pope, Celestine V, an old friend of the order, to end the strife by uniting the Observantist party with his own order of hermits (see Celestines) was scarcely more successful. Only a part of the Spirituals joined the new order, and the secession scarcely lasted beyond the reign of the hermit-pope. Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII annulled Celestine's bull of foundation with his other acts, deposed the general Raymond Gaufredi, and appointed a man of laxer tendency, John de Murro, in his place. The Benedictine section of the Celestines
Celestines
was separated from the Franciscan
Franciscan
section, and the latter was formally suppressed by Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII in 1302. The leader of the Observantists, Olivi, who spent his last years in the Franciscan
Franciscan
house at Tarnius and died there in 1298, had pronounced against the extremer "Spiritual" attitude, and given an exposition of the theory of poverty which was approved by the more moderate Observantists, and for a long time constituted their principle. Persecution[edit] Under Pope Clement V
Pope Clement V
(1305–14) this party succeeded in exercising some influence on papal decisions. In 1309 Clement had a commission sit at Avignon
Avignon
for the purpose of reconciling the conflicting parties. Ubertino of Casale, the leader, after Olivi's death, of the stricter party, who was a member of the commission, induced the Council of Vienne to arrive at a decision in the main favoring his views, and the papal constitution Exivi de paradiso (1313) was on the whole conceived in the same sense. Clement's successor, Pope John XXII
Pope John XXII
(1316–34), favored the laxer or conventual party. By the bull Quorundam exigit he modified several provisions of the constitution Exivi, and required the formal submission of the Spirituals. Some of them, encouraged by the strongly Observantist general Michael of Cesena, ventured to dispute the pope's right so to deal with the provisions of his predecessor. Sixty-four of them were summoned to Avignon
Avignon
and the most obstinate delivered over to the Inquisition, four of them being burned (1318). Shortly before this all the separate houses of the Observantists had been suppressed. Renewed controversy on the question of poverty[edit]

Franciscan
Franciscan
friary in Katowice, Poland

A few years later a new controversy, this time theoretical, broke out on the question of poverty. In his 14 August 1279 bull Exiit qui seminat,[17] Pope Nicholas III
Pope Nicholas III
had confirmed the arrangement already established by Pope
Pope
Innocent IV, by which all property given to the Franciscans
Franciscans
was vested in the Holy See, which granted the friars the mere use of it. The bull declared that renunciation of ownership of all things "both individually but also in common, for God's sake, is meritorious and holy; Christ, also, showing the way of perfection, taught it by word and confirmed it by example, and the first founders of the Church militant, as they had drawn it from the fountainhead itself, distributed it through the channels of their teaching and life to those wishing to live perfectly."[18][19][20] Although Exiit qui seminat banned disputing about its contents, the decades that followed saw increasingly bitter disputes about the form of poverty to be observed by Franciscans, with the Spirituals (so called because associated with the Age of the Spirit that Joachim of Fiore had said would begin in 1260)[21] pitched against the Conventual Franciscans.[22] Pope
Pope
Clement V's bull Exivi de Paradiso of 20 November 1312[23] failed to effect a compromise between the two factions.[21] Clement V's successor, Pope John XXII
Pope John XXII
was determined to suppress what he considered to be the excesses of the Spirituals, who contended eagerly for the view that Christ and his apostles had possessed absolutely nothing, either separately or jointly, and who were citing Exiit qui seminat in support of their view.[24] In 1317, John XXII formally condemned the group of them known as the Fraticelli.[21] On 26 March 1322, with Quia nonnunquam, he removed the ban on discussion of Nicholas III's bull[25][26] and commissioned experts to examine the idea of poverty based on belief that Christ and the apostles owned nothing. The experts disagreed among themselves, but the majority condemned the idea on the grounds that it would condemn the Church's right to have possessions.[21] The Franciscan chapter held in Perugia
Perugia
in May 1322 declared on the contrary: "To say or assert that Christ, in showing the way of perfection, and the Apostles, in following that way and setting an example to others who wished to lead the perfect life, possessed nothing either severally or in common, either by right of ownership and dominium or by personal right, we corporately and unanimously declare to be not heretical, but true and catholic."[21] By the bull Ad conditorem canonum of 8 December 1322,[27] John XXII, declaring it ridiculous to pretend that every scrap of food given to the friars and eaten by them belonged to the pope, refused to accept ownership over the goods of the Franciscans
Franciscans
in the future and granted them exemption from the rule that absolutely forbade ownership of anything even in common, thus forcing them to accept ownership.[28] And, on 12 November 1323, he issued the short bull Quum inter nonnullos[29] which declared "erroneous and heretical" the doctrine that Christ and his apostles had no possessions whatever.[20][24][30] John XXII's actions thus demolished the fictitious structure that gave the appearance of absolute poverty to the life of the Franciscan
Franciscan
friars.[31] Influential members of the order protested, such as the minister general Michael of Cesena, the English provincial William of Ockham, and Bonagratia of Bergamo. In 1324, Louis the Bavarian sided with the Spirituals and accused the pope of heresy. In reply to the argument of his opponents that Nicholas III's bull Exiit qui seminat was fixed and irrevocable, John XXII issued the bull Quia quorundam on 10 November 1324[32] in which he declared that it cannot be inferred from the words of the 1279 bull that Christ and the apostles had nothing, adding: "Indeed, it can be inferred rather that the Gospel
Gospel
life lived by Christ and the Apostles
Apostles
did not exclude some possessions in common, since living 'without property' does not require that those living thus should have nothing in common." In 1328 Michael of Cesena
Michael of Cesena
was summoned to Avignon
Avignon
to explain the Order's intransigence in refusing the pope's orders and its complicity with Louis of Bavaria. Michael was imprisoned in Avignon, together with Francesco d'Ascoli, Bonagratia, and William of Ockham. In January of that year Louis of Bavaria entered Rome
Rome
and had himself crowned emperor. Three months later he declared John XXII deposed and installed the Spiritual Franciscan
Franciscan
Pietro Rainalducci as antipope. The Franciscan
Franciscan
chapter that opened in Bologna
Bologna
on 28 May reelected Michael of Cesena, who two days before had escaped with his companions from Avignon. But in August Louis the Bavarian and his pope had to flee Rome
Rome
before an attack by Robert, King of Naples. Only a small part of the Franciscan
Franciscan
Order joined the opponents of John XXII, and at a general chapter held in Paris
Paris
in 1329 the majority of all the houses declared their submission to the Pope. With the bull Quia vir reprobus of 16 November 1329,[33] John XXII replied to Michael of Cesena's attacks on Ad conditorem canonum, Quum inter nonnullos, and Quia quorundam. In 1330, Antipope Nicholas V submitted, followed later by the ex-general Michael, and finally, just before his death, by Ockham.[21] Separate congregations[edit] Out of all these dissensions in the 14th century sprang a number of separate congregations, or almost sects, to say nothing of the heretical parties of the Beghards
Beghards
and Fraticelli, some of which developed within the Order on both hermit and cenobitic principles and may here be mentioned: Clareni[edit] The Clareni or Clarenini, an association of hermits established on the river Clareno in the march of Ancona
Ancona
by Angelo da Clareno
Angelo da Clareno
after the suppression of the Franciscan
Franciscan
Celestines
Celestines
by Boniface VIII. It maintained the principles of Olivi, and, outside of Umbria, spread also in the kingdom of Naples, where Angelo died in 1337. Like several other smaller congregations, it was obliged in 1568 under Pope
Pope
Pius V to unite with the general body of Observantists. Minorites of Narbonne[edit] As a separate congregation, this originated through the union of a number of houses which followed Olivi after 1308. It was limited to southwestern France and, its members being accused of the heresy of the Beghards, was suppressed by the Inquisition during the controversies under John XXII. Reform of Johannes de Vallibus[edit]

Franciscan
Franciscan
convent at Lopud in Croatia

This was founded in the hermitage of St. Bartholomew at Brugliano near Foligno
Foligno
in 1334. The congregation was suppressed by the Franciscan general chapter in 1354; reestablished in 1368 by Paolo de' Trinci of Foligno; confirmed by Gregory XI in 1373, and spread rapidly from Central Italy to France, Spain, Hungary, and elsewhere. Most of the Observantist houses joined this congregation by degrees, so that it became known simply as the "brothers of the regular Observance." It acquired the favor of the popes by its energetic opposition to the heretical Fraticelli, and was expressly recognized by the Council of Constance (1415). It was allowed to have a special vicar-general of its own and legislate for its members without reference to the conventual part of the Order. Through the work of such men as Bernardino of Siena, Giovanni da Capistrano, and Dietrich Coelde (b. 1435? at Munster; was a member of the Brethren of the Common Life, died December 11, 1515), it gained great prominence during the 15th century. By the end of the Middle Ages, the Observantists, with 1,400 houses, comprised nearly half of the entire Order. Their influence brought about attempts at reform even among the Conventuals, including the quasi-Observantist brothers living under the rule of the Conventual ministers (Martinianists or "Observantes sub ministris"), such as the male Colletans, later led by Boniface de Ceva in his reform attempts principally in France and Germany; the reformed congregation founded in 1426 by the Spaniard Philip de Berbegal and distinguished by the special importance they attached to the little hood (cappuciola); the Neutri, a group of reformers originating about 1463 in Italy, who tried to take a middle ground between the Conventuals and Observantists, but refused to obey the heads of either, until they were compelled by the pope to affiliate with the regular Observantists, or with those of the Common Life; the Caperolani, a congregation founded about 1470 in North Italy by Peter Caperolo, but dissolved again on the death of its founder in 1481; the Amadeists, founded by the noble Portuguese Amadeo, who entered the Franciscan
Franciscan
order at Assisi
Assisi
in 1452, gathered around him a number of adherents to his fairly strict principles (numbering finally twenty-six houses), and died in the odor of sanctity in 1482. Unification[edit]

Franciscan
Franciscan
Church from 15th century in Przeworsk, Poland

Projects for a union between the two main branches of the Order were put forth not only by the Council of Constance
Council of Constance
but by several popes, without any positive result. By direction of Pope
Pope
Martin V, John of Capistrano drew up statutes which were to serve as a basis for reunion, and they were actually accepted by a general chapter at Assisi
Assisi
in 1430; but the majority of the Conventual houses refused to agree to them, and they remained without effect. At John of Capistrano's request Eugenius IV issued a bull (Ut sacra minorum, 1446) aimed at the same result, but again nothing was accomplished. Equally unsuccessful were the attempts of the Franciscan
Franciscan
Pope
Pope
Sixtus IV, who bestowed a vast number of privileges on both the original mendicant orders, but by this very fact lost the favor of the Observants and failed in his plans for reunion. Julius II
Julius II
succeeded in reducing some of the smaller branches, but left the division of the two great parties untouched. This division was finally legalized by Leo X, after a general chapter held in Rome
Rome
in 1517, in connection with the reform-movement of the Fifth Lateran Council, had once more declared the impossibility of reunion. The less strict principles of the Conventuals, permitting the possession of real estate and the enjoyment of fixed revenues, were recognized as tolerable, while the Observants, in contrast to this usus moderatus, were held strictly to their own usus arctus or pauper. All of the groups that followed the Franciscan
Franciscan
Rule literally were united to the Observants, and the right to elect the Minister General of the Order, together with the seal of the Order, was given to this united grouping.[when?] This grouping, since it adhered more closely to the rule of the founder, was allowed to claim a certain superiority over the Conventuals. The Observant general (elected now for six years, not for life) inherited the title of "Minister-General of the Whole Order of St. Francis" and was granted the right to confirm the choice of a head for the Conventuals, who was known as "Master-General of the Friars Minor Conventual"—although this privilege never became practically operative. New World missions[edit] Main articles: Spanish missions in California, Spanish missions in New Mexico, Junipero Serra, Franciscan
Franciscan
missions to the Maya, Franciscan Missions in the Sierra Gorda, and Mexican secularization act of 1833 Contemporary organizations[edit] First Order[edit] Order of Friars Minor[edit] Main article: Order of Friars Minor The Order of Friars Minor
Order of Friars Minor
has 1,500 houses in about 100 provinces and Custodiae, with about 16,000 members. In 1897 distinctions between the Observants, Discalced (Alcantarines), Recollects, and Riformati were dissolved by Pope Leo XIII
Pope Leo XIII
and they were joined under general constitutions. The Capuchins and Conventuals wanted the reunited Observants to be referred to as The Order of Friars Minor
Order of Friars Minor
of the Leonine Union. Instead they were called simply the Order of Friars Minor. Despite the tensions caused by this forced union the Order grew from 1897 to reach a peak of 26,000 members in the 1960s before declining from the 1970s onwards. The Order is headed by a Minister General, who from 2003 was Father José Rodríguez Carballo. However, on Saturday, 6 April 2013, Pope
Pope
Francis, in his first appointment to a senior post in the Roman Curia, appointed Father Carballo as Titular Archbishop
Archbishop
of Belcastro and Secretary, or deputy sueprior, of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life (the Congregation for Religious). The vacancy this created in the Order was resolved when Father Michael Anthony Perry was elected as Minister General on May 2013 and the appointment confirmed by Pope
Pope
Francis. .[34] Order of Friars Minor
Order of Friars Minor
Conventual[edit] The Conventual Franciscans
Conventual Franciscans
consists of 290 houses worldwide with a total of almost 5000 friars. They have experienced growth in this century throughout the world. They are located in Italy, the United States, Canada, Australia, and throughout Latin
Latin
America, and Africa. They are the largest in number in Poland
Poland
because of the work and inspiration of St. Maximilian Kolbe.

Bernardino Ochino
Bernardino Ochino
(1487-1564), co-founder of the Capuchin Order.

Order of Friars Minor
Order of Friars Minor
Capuchin[edit] The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin
Order of Friars Minor Capuchin
are the youngest branch of Franciscans, founded in 1525 by Matteo Serafini (Matteo Bassi, Matteo da Bascio), an Observant friar, who felt himself called to an even stricter observance of Franciscan
Franciscan
austerity to be closer to the original intentions of St. Francis. Thanks to the support of the Papal Court the new branch received early recognition and grew fast, first in Italy and after 1574 all over Europe and throughout the world. After many tribulations, the Capuchins became a separate order in 1619. The name Capuchins refers to the particular shape of the long hood or capuce; originally a popular nickname, it has become a part of the official name of the Order, which now exists in 106 countries all over the world, with around 10,500 brothers living in more than 1700 communities (fraternities, friaries). Second Order[edit] Poor Clares[edit]

Clare of Assisi
Clare of Assisi
(1194-1253), founder of the Poor Clares, in a painting by Simone Martini
Simone Martini
(1284-1344) in the Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi.

Main article: Poor Clares The Poor Clares, officially the Order of Saint Clare, are members of a contemplative order of nuns in the Catholic
Catholic
Church. The Poor Clares were the second Franciscan
Franciscan
order to be established. Founded by Saints Clare of Assisi
Clare of Assisi
and Francis of Assisi
Francis of Assisi
on Palm Sunday
Palm Sunday
in the year 1212, they were organized after the Order of Friars Minor
Order of Friars Minor
(the first order), and before the Third Order
Third Order
of Saint Francis. As of 2011 there were over 20,000 Poor Clare nuns in over 75 countries throughout the world. They follow several different observances and are organized into federations.[35] The Poor Clares
Poor Clares
follow the Rule of St. Clare
Rule of St. Clare
which was approved by Pope Innocent IV
Pope Innocent IV
the day before Clare's death in 1253. The main branch of the Order (O.S.C.) follows the observance of Pope
Pope
Urban. Other branches established since that time, who operate under their own unique Constitutions, are the Colettine Poor Clares
Poor Clares
(P.C.C. – founded 1410), the Capuchin Poor Clares
Poor Clares
(O.S.C. Cap – founded 1538), and the Poor Clares
Poor Clares
of Perpetual Adoration (P.C.P.A. – founded 1854). Third Order[edit] Main article: Third Order
Third Order
of St. Francis

The Blessed Luchesius Modestini, honored as the first Franciscan tertiary

Various contemporary groups go back to the Third Order
Third Order
of St. Francis (T.O.R.), the Secular Franciscan
Franciscan
Order, founded by St Francis. These were people who desired to grow in holiness in their daily lives without entering monastic life. After founding the Friars Minor and seeing a need, Francis created the Secular Franciscan
Franciscan
Order, also known as Brothers and Sisters of Penance. During his lifetime, many married men and women and even clergy and hermits were drawn to the vision of life offered by Francis, but due to their life commitments they were not able to enter the Friars Minor or the Poor Clares. For this reason, he founded a way of life to which married men and women, as well as the single and the secular clergy, could belong and live according to the Gospel. According to the traditions of the Order, the original Rule was given by St. Francis in 1221 to a married couple, Luchesius Modestini
Luchesius Modestini
and his wife, Buonadonna, who wished to follow him but did not feel called to separate as a married couple. Secular Franciscan
Franciscan
Order[edit] Main article: Secular Franciscan
Franciscan
Order The Secular Franciscan
Franciscan
Order, known as the Third Order
Third Order
Secular of St. Francis prior to 1978, is an order founded by St. Francis in 1212 for brothers and sisters who do not live in a religious community. Members of the order continue to live secular lives, however they do gather regularly for fraternal activities. In the United States alone there are 17,000 professed members of the order. Members of the Order live according to a Rule composed by St Francis in 1221. The Rule was slightly modified during the centuries to be adapted to the changing times and replaced at the turn of the 20th century by Pope
Pope
Leo XIII, himself a member of the Order. A new and current Rule was approved by Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI
in 1978, and the Third Order
Third Order
was renamed the Secular Franciscan
Franciscan
Order. It is an international organization with its own Minister General based in Rome. Third Order
Third Order
Regular[edit]

Blessed Mary Frances Schervier
Mary Frances Schervier
(1819-1876) was a member of the Third Order of St. Francis who became the foundress of the Poor Sisters of St. Francis, founded to serve the needy.

Within a century of the death of St. Francis, members of the Third Order began to live in common, in an attempt to follow a more ascetical way of life. The Blessed Angela of Foligno
Foligno
(+1309) was foremost among those who achieved great depths in their lives of prayer and service of the poor, while living in community with other women of the Order. Among the men, the Third Order
Third Order
Regular of St. Francis of Penance[36] was formed in 1447 by a papal decree that united several communities of hermits following the Third Order
Third Order
Rule into a single Order with its own Minister General. Today it is an international community of friars who desire to emphasize the works of mercy and on-going conversion. The community is also known as the Franciscan
Franciscan
Friars, T.O.R., and they strive to "rebuild the Church" in areas of high school and college education, parish ministry, church renewal, social justice, campus ministry, hospital chaplaincies, foreign missions, and other ministries in places where the Church is needed.[37] Following the formal recognition of the members of religious tertiary communities, the following centuries saw a steady growth of such communities across Europe. Initially, the women's communities took a monastic form of life, either voluntarily or under pressure from ecclesiastical superiors. The great figure of this development was St. Hyacintha Mariscotti, T.O.R. As Europe entered the upheavals of the modern age, new communities arose which were able to focus more exclusively on social service, especially during the immediate post-Napoleonic period which devastated much of Western Europe. An example of this is the Blessed Mary Frances Schervier, S.P.S.F. Third Order
Third Order
Regular in North America[edit] This movement continued in North America as various congregations arose from one coast to another, in answer to the needs of the large emigrant communities that were flooding the cities of the United States and Canada. The Third Order
Third Order
Regular of the Brothers of the Poor of St. Francis of Assisi, C.F.P., are an active community based in the United States with houses in Belgium, The Netherlands, Germany, and Brazil. These Franciscans
Franciscans
strive to live an integrated life through prayer, community, and ministry to the poor, neglected and disadvantaged youth, the powerless, people in need, and the elderly. The Brothers of the Poor live by their vows of poverty (living a simple lifestyle), consecrated chastity (loving all, possessing no one, striving sincerely, for singleness of heart, a celibate way of loving and being loved), and obedience (to God, to the community, to the Church, and to self). The Brothers of the Poor also serve persons with AIDS and people who ask for help, regardless of their religion or their social/economic background. They are teachers, childcare workers, social workers, counselors, pastoral ministers, retreat ministers, religious educators, and school administrators, along with other tasks. The Regular Tertiaries, officially the Third Order
Third Order
Regular of St. Francis of Penance, who operate the Franciscan
Franciscan
University of Steubenville, follow a rule approved by Pope
Pope
Leo X. Today this group is present in 17 countries: Italy, Croatia, Spain, France, Germany, Austria, USA, India, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Brazil, Paraguay, Mexico, Peru, Sweden, Bangladesh, and the Philippines.[38] Brothers and Sisters of Penance of St. Francis[edit] The Brothers and Sisters of Penance of St. Francis, is a private confraternity of the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
whose members strive to model their lives according to the Rule and Statutes of the Primitive Rule of the Third Order
Third Order
of St. Francis, which was written for lay people in 1221 by St. Francis of Assisi. Right now there are several hundred members within the United States and a few hundred more throughout the world. The order was originally started in 1996 by members of the Archdiocese of St. Paul in Minnesota. Other tertiaries[edit]

In 1435, Saint Francis of Paola
Francis of Paola
founded the "Poor Hermits of Saint Francis of Assisi," later known as the "Hermits of the Order of Minims," and then renamed the "Order of Minims" in 1506 by Pope
Pope
Julius II. There are mendicant friars, contemplative nuns, and lay tertiaries. The Society of the Atonement, also known as Graymoor Friars and Graymoor Sisters, started in 1898 as a religious community in the Episcopal Church, and came into union with the Holy See
Holy See
in 1909. The Franciscan
Franciscan
Friars of the Immaculate started in 1970, and became an institute with Pontifical Right in 1998. In that same year, the Franciscan
Franciscan
Sisters of the Immaculate also became an institute with Pontifical Right. There are also Third Order
Third Order
Franciscan
Franciscan
Sisters of the Immaculate, an offshoot of the Franciscan
Franciscan
Tertiaries of the Immaculate.

Other Franciscan
Franciscan
organizations[edit]

The Community of the Franciscan
Franciscan
Friars of the Renewal started in 1987, and the Franciscan
Franciscan
Sisters of the Renewal in 1988. The Franciscan
Franciscan
Missionaries of the Eternal Word started in 1987, and are now a Public Clerical Association of the Faithful. Franciscans
Franciscans
International[39] is a Non-governmental organization
Non-governmental organization
(NGO) with General Consultative status at the United Nations, uniting the voices of Franciscan
Franciscan
brothers and sisters from around the world. It operates under the sponsorship of the Conference of the Franciscan Family (CFF) and serves all Franciscans
Franciscans
and the global community by bringing grassroots Franciscans
Franciscans
to the United Nations
United Nations
forums in New York City and Geneva. It brings the spiritual and ethical values of the Franciscans
Franciscans
to the United Nations
United Nations
and international organisations.

Other Christian traditions[edit] Main article: Franciscan
Franciscan
orders in Protestantism One of the results of the Oxford
Oxford
Movement in the Anglican Church during the 19th century was the re-establishment of religious orders, including some of Franciscan
Franciscan
inspiration. The principal Anglican communities in the Franciscan
Franciscan
tradition are the Community of St. Francis (women, founded 1905), the Poor Clares
Poor Clares
of Reparation (P.C.R.), the Society of Saint Francis
Society of Saint Francis
(men, founded 1934), and the Community of St. Clare (women, enclosed). There is also a Third Order
Third Order
known as the Third Order
Third Order
Society of St Francis (T.S.S.F.), The Order of Saint Francis
Order of Saint Francis
(OSF) is a U.S.-founded order within the Anglican world communion, an open, inclusive, and contemporary expression Franciscan
Franciscan
life by Anglican Friars. There is also an order of Clares in Seattle (Diocese of Olympia) The Little Sisters of St. Clare,.[40] There are also some small Franciscan
Franciscan
communities within European Protestantism
Protestantism
and the Old Catholic
Catholic
Church.[41] There are some Franciscan
Franciscan
orders in Lutheran Churches, including the Order of Lutheran Franciscans, the Evangelical Sisterhood of Mary, and the Evangelische Kanaan Franziskus-Bruderschaft (Kanaan Franciscan Brothers). In addition, there are associations of Franciscan inspiration not connected with a mainstream Christian tradition and describing themselves as ecumenical or dispersed. Distinguishing characteristics[edit] Spirituality[edit] Franciscan
Franciscan
theology conforms to broader doctrine with the Catholic Church, but involves several unique emphases. Franciscan
Franciscan
theologians view creation, the natural world, as good and joyous, and avoid dwelling on the "stain of original sin." Saint Francis expressed great affection towards animals and inanimate natural objects as fellow inhabitants of God's creation, in his work Canticle of the Creatures. Special
Special
emphasis is put on the Incarnation of Christ
Incarnation of Christ
viewed as a special act of humility, as Francis was struck by God's great charity in sacrificing his son for the salvation of man; they also exhibit great devotion to the Eucharist. The Rule of Saint Francis calls for members to practice simple living and detachment from material possessions in emulation of Jesus' life and earthly ministry. The simple lifestyle helps members of the order, in whichever branch, to experience solidarity with the poor and to work for social justice. Franciscan
Franciscan
spirituality also strongly emphasizes working to preserve the Church, and remain loyal to it.[42][43] Visions and stigmata[edit]

The stigmatization of St. Francis

Among Catholic
Catholic
religious, Franciscans
Franciscans
have proportionally reported higher ratios of stigmata and have claimed proportionally higher ratios of visions of Jesus
Jesus
and Mary.[citation needed] Saint Francis of Assisi
Assisi
himself was one of the very first reported cases of stigmata, and perhaps the most famous stigmatic of modern times is Saint Padre Pio, a Capuchin, who also reported visions of Jesus
Jesus
and Mary. Pio's stigmata persisted for over fifty years and he was examined by numerous physicians in the 20th century, who confirmed the existence of the wounds, but none of whom could produce a medical explanation for the fact that his bleeding wounds would never get infected. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, his wounds healed once, but reappeared.[44] According to the Columbia Encyclopedia[45][better source needed] some medical authorities who examined Padre Pio's wounds were inclined to believe that the stigmata were connected with nervous or cataleptic hysteria. According to Answers.com[46][better source needed] the wounds were examined by Luigi Romanelli, chief physician of the City Hospital of Barletta, for about one year; Giorgio Festa, a private practitioner who examined them in 1920 and 1925; Giuseppe Bastianelli, a physician to Pope
Pope
Benedict XV, who agreed that the wounds existed but made no other comment; and pathologist Amico Bignami
Amico Bignami
who also observed the wounds but made no diagnosis. Contributions to biblical scholarship[edit]

Gabriele Allegra
Gabriele Allegra
(1907–1976) of the Studium Biblicum Franciscanum

The Franciscans
Franciscans
established the Studium Biblicum Franciscanum
Studium Biblicum Franciscanum
as an academic society based in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Hong Kong
Hong Kong
for the study of scripture. The Hong Kong
Hong Kong
branch founded by the Blessed Gabriele Allegra produced the first complete translation of the Catholic
Catholic
Bible in Chinese in 1968 after a 40-year effort.[47] The Studium Biblicum Translation is often considered the Chinese Bible
Bible
among Catholics. The early efforts of another Franciscan, namely Giovanni di Monte Corvino who had attempted a first translation of the Bible
Bible
in Beijing in the 14th century, provided the initial spark for Gabriele Allegra's 40 year undertaking, when at the age of 21 he happened to attend the 6th centenary celebration for Monte Corvino. Notable members[edit]

Roger Bacon
Roger Bacon
(c. 1214–1294), statue (19th century) in the Oxford University Museum of Natural History

The Franciscan
Franciscan
order boasts a number of distinguished members. From its first century can be cited the three great scholastics Alexander of Hales, Bonaventure, and John Duns Scotus, the "Doctor of Wonders" Roger Bacon, and the well-known mystic authors and popular preachers David of Augsburg
Augsburg
and Berthold of Regensburg. During the Middle Ages noteworthy members included Nicholas of Lyra, Biblical commentator Bernardino of Siena, preachers John of Capistrano, Oliver Maillard, and Michel Menot, and historians Luke Wadding and Antoine Pagi. In the field of Christian art during the later Middle Ages, the Franciscan
Franciscan
movement exercised considerable influence, especially in Italy. The influence of Franciscan
Franciscan
ideals shows in several great painters of the 13th and 14th centuries, especially Cimabue
Cimabue
and Giotto, who, though they were not friars, were spiritual sons of Francis in the wider sense; it is also seen in the plastic masterpieces of the latter, as well as the architectural conceptions of both himself and his school. The Italian Gothic style, whose earliest important monument is the great convent church at Assisi (built 1228–53), was cultivated as a rule principally by members of the order or men under their influence.

Bernardino of Siena
Bernardino of Siena
(1380–1440), painted by Jacopo Bellini (c. 1400 – c. 1470)

The early spiritual poetry of Italy was partially inspired by Francis himself, who was followed by Thomas of Celano, Bonaventure, and Jacopone da Todi. Through a tradition which held him to have been a member of the Franciscan
Franciscan
Third Order, even Dante may be included within this artistic tradition (cf. especially Paradiso, xi. 50). Other famous members of the Franciscan
Franciscan
family include Anthony of Padua, William of Occam, François Rabelais, Alexander of Hales, Giovanni da Pian del Carpini, Pio of Pietrelcina, Maximilian Kolbe, Pasquale Sarullo, Mamerto Esquiú, Gabriele Allegra, Junipero Serra, Father Simpliciano of the Nativity, Mychal F. Judge, Fray Angelico Chavez, Anton Docher, Joseph of Cupertino, Benedict Groeschel
Benedict Groeschel
and Leonard of Port Maurice. During the "spiritual conquest" of New Spain, 1523–1572, the arrival of the first group of Franciscans, the Twelve Apostles
Apostles
of Mexico, included Fray Martín de Valencia, but more prominently for his corpus of writings on the earliest years was Fray Toribio de Benavente Motolinia. Other important Franciscans
Franciscans
are Fray Alonso de Molina, Fray Andres de Olmos, and Fray Bernardino de Sahagún, who all created texts in indigenous language of Nahuatl
Nahuatl
to aid friars in the evangelization of Mexico. Fray Geronimo de Mendieta, Fray Augustin de Vetancourt, and Fray Juan de Torquemada
Fray Juan de Torquemada
are important contributors to the history of the Franciscans
Franciscans
in central Mexico.[48] See also[edit]

List of Ministers General of the Order of Friars Minor Association of Franciscan
Franciscan
Colleges and Universities Maria Antonio of Vicenza

References[edit] Books[edit]

Aguiar de Castro, José Acácio (1997). O simbolismo da natureza em Santo António de Lisboa. Biblioteca humanística e teológica (in Portuguese). 11. Porto: Universidade Católica Portugesa, Fundação Eng António de Almeida. ISBN 9728386036. Retrieved 31 May 2016.  Arnald of Sarrant (2010). Chronicle of the Twenty-Four Generals of the Order of Friars Minor. Translated by Noel Muscat. Malta: TAU Franciscan
Franciscan
Communications. Retrieved 31 May 2016.  Burr, David (2010). Spiritual Franciscans: From Protest to Persecution in the Century After Saint Francis. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-04138-2. Retrieved 30 May 2016.  Camps, Arnulf; McCloskey, Patrick (1995). The Friars Minor in China (1294-1955): Especially the Years 1925-55, Based on the Research of Friars Bernward Willeke and Domenico Gandolfi, OFM. History series. 10. Franciscan
Franciscan
Institute Publications. ISBN 978-1-57659-002-7. Retrieved 30 May 2016.  Carmody, Maurice (1994). The Leonine Union of the Order of Friars Minor: 1897. History series. 8. Franciscan
Franciscan
Institute Publications. ISBN 978-1-57659-084-3. Retrieved 30 May 2016.  Carmody, Maurice (2008). The Franciscan
Franciscan
Story. Athena Press. ISBN 978-1-84748-141-2. Retrieved 30 May 2016.  Cotter, Francis J. (1994). Roberta A. McKelvie, ed. The Friars Minor in Ireland from their arrival to 1400. History series. 7. Franciscan Institute Publications. ISBN 978-1-57659-083-6. Retrieved 30 May 2016.  Couturier, David B. (2007). The Fraternal Economy: A Pastoral Psychology of Franciscan
Franciscan
Economics. Cloverdale Books. ISBN 978-1-929569-23-6. Retrieved 30 May 2016.  Daniel, E. Randolph (1992). The Franciscan
Franciscan
Concept of Mission in the High Middle Ages. Franciscan
Franciscan
Pathways Series. Franciscan
Franciscan
Institute Publications. ISBN 978-1-57659-065-2. Retrieved 30 May 2016.  Esser, Kajetan (1970). Origins of the Franciscan
Franciscan
Order. Franciscan Herald Press. ISBN 978-0-8199-0408-9. Retrieved 30 May 2016.  Flood, David; Matura, Thaddée (1975). The Birth of a Movement: A Study of the First Rule of St. Francis. Franciscan
Franciscan
Herald Press. ISBN 978-0-8199-0567-3. Retrieved 30 May 2016.  Francis of Assisi
Francis of Assisi
(1982). Francis and Clare: The Complete Works. Classics of Western spirituality. Translated by Regis J. Armstrong and Ignatius C. Brady. New York: Paulist Press. ISBN 0809124467. Retrieved 30 May 2016.  Francis of Assisi. Armstrong, Regis J.; Hellmann, J. A. Wayne; Short, William J., eds. Francis of Assisi: Early Documents. —4 volumes

The Saint. Francis of Assisi: Early Documents. 1 (2nd ed.). New City Press. 1999. ISBN 978-0-904287-62-2. Retrieved 30 May 2016.  The Founder. Francis of Assisi: Early Documents. 2 (Illustrated ed.). New City Press. 2000. ISBN 978-1-56548-113-8. Retrieved 30 May 2016.  The Prophet. Francis of Assisi: Early Documents. 3 (Annotated ed.). New City Press. 2001. ISBN 978-1-56548-114-5. Retrieved 30 May 2016.  Index. Francis of Assisi: Early Documents. 4 (Annotated ed.). New City Press. 2002. ISBN 978-1-56548-172-5. Retrieved 30 May 2016. 

Gilliat-Smith, Ernest (1914). Saint Clare of Assisi: her life and legislation. London: J.M. Dent & Sons, Ltd. ISBN 0665656319. Retrieved 31 May 2016.  Lawrence, C.H. (2015). Medieval Monasticism: Forms of Religious Life in Western Europe in the Middle Ages. Medieval World Series (4th ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-50467-2. Retrieved 30 May 2016.  Lynch, Cyprian J. (1988). A Poor Man's Legacy: An Anthology of Franciscan
Franciscan
Poverty. Franciscan
Franciscan
Pathways Series. Franciscan
Franciscan
Institute. ISBN 978-1-57659-069-0. Retrieved 30 May 2016.  MacVicar, Thaddeus (1963). The Franciscan
Franciscan
Spirituals and the Capuchin Reform. History series. 5. Franciscan
Franciscan
Institute Publications. ISBN 978-1-57659-086-7. Retrieved 30 May 2016.  Merlo, Grado Giovanni (2009). In the Name of St. Francis: A History of the Friars Minor and Franciscanism until the Early Sixteenth Century. Translated by Robert J. Karris and Raphael Bonanno. Franciscan Institute Publications. ISBN 978-1-57659-155-0.  Moorman, John Richard Humpidge (1983). Medieval Franciscan
Franciscan
houses. History series. 4. Franciscan
Franciscan
Institute Publications. ISBN 978-1-57659-079-9. Retrieved 30 May 2016.  Moorman, John Richard Humpidge (1988). A History of the Franciscan Order: From Its Origins to the Year 1517. Franciscan
Franciscan
Herald Press. ISBN 978-0-8199-0921-3. Retrieved 30 May 2016.  Osborne, Kenan B. (1994). The History of Franciscan
Franciscan
Theology. Franciscan
Franciscan
Institute Publications. ISBN 978-1-57659-032-4. Retrieved 30 May 2016.  Senocak, Neslihan (2012). The Poor and the Perfect: the rise of learning in the Franciscan
Franciscan
order, 1209-1310. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-6471-4. Retrieved 30 May 2016. —Shows how Franciscans
Franciscans
shifted away from an early emphasis on poverty and humility and instead emphasized educational roles Sharp, Dorothea Elizabeth (1966). Franciscan
Franciscan
Philosophy at Oxford
Oxford
in the Thirteenth Century. British Society of Franciscan
Franciscan
Studies. 16. Oxford
Oxford
University Press. ISBN 0-576-99216-X. Retrieved 30 May 2016.  Thomson, Williell R. (1975). Friars in the Cathedral: The First Franciscan
Franciscan
Bishops 1226-1261. Studies and texts. 33. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies. ISBN 9780888440334. ISSN 0082-5328. Retrieved 31 May 2016.  White, Joseph M. (2004). Peace and good in America: a history of Holy Name Province Order of Friars Minor, 1850's to the present (Illustrated ed.). Holy Name Province O.F.M. ISBN 978-1-57659-196-3. Retrieved 30 May 2016. 

Articles[edit]

Halevi, Masha (2012). "Between Faith and Science: Franciscan Archaeology in the Service of the Holy Places". Middle Eastern Studies. Routledge. 48 (2): 249–267. doi:10.1080/00263206.2012.653139. Retrieved 31 May 2016. (Registration required (help)).  Schmucki, Oktavian (2000). "Die Regel des Johannes von Matha und die Regel des Franziskus von Assisi. Ähnlichkeiten und Eigenheiten. Neue Beziehungen zum Islam". In Cipollone, Giulio. La Liberazione dei 'Captivi' tra Cristianità e Islam: Oltre la Crociata e il Gihad: Tolleranza e Servizio Umanitario. Collectanea Archivi Vaticani. 46. Vatican City: Archivio Segreto Vaticano. pp. 219–244. 

Notes[edit]

^ a b c "Do the Franciscans
Franciscans
have a coat or arms like many other religious orders?". Franciscan
Franciscan
Friars: Province of Santa Barbara. Archived from the original on 2014-02-22.  ^ "Seraphic Order", New Catholic
Catholic
Dictionary. 4 September 2006. Retrieved 25 November 2012. ^ "Franciscans, Religious Order". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 26 February 2013. Retrieved 7 January 2017.  ^ "Saint Francis of Assisi, Italian Saint". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 26 February 2013. Retrieved 7 January 2017.  ^  Bihl, Michael (1913). "Order of Friars Minor". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Schwaller, J. F. (2014). Francis of Assisi: The Life by Augustine Thompson, O.P. (review). The Americas 71(2), 379-380. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved November 2, 2017, from Project MUSE database. http://muse.jhu.edu.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/article/555981 ^ a b c d e f "The rule of the Franciscan
Franciscan
Order from the Medieval Sourcebook". Fordham.edu. 1999-09-22. Retrieved 2013-06-16.  ^  Paschal Robinson (1913). "Order of Friars Minor". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ a b c d  Paschal Robinson (1913). " Franciscan
Franciscan
Order". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ See Alberzoni, Maria Pia (2004). Clare of Assisi
Clare of Assisi
and the Poor Sisters in the Thirteenth Century. St. Bonaventure, NY: Franciscan Institute.  ^ Annuario Pontificio
Annuario Pontificio
2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 1422 ^  Paschal Robinson (1913). "St. Francis of Assisi". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Chesterton(1924), pp. 107–108 ^ Galli(2002), pp. 74–80 ^ Greyfriars in England Archived 2008-07-05 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Franciscan
Franciscan
Custody of the Holy Land". Christusrex.org. Retrieved 2013-06-16.  ^ Pope
Pope
Nicholas III. "English translation 2". Franciscan-archive.org. Retrieved 2013-06-16.  ^ English translation 1; cf. English translation 2 and another translation in Rosalind B. Brooke, The Image of St Francis (Cambridge University Press 2006 ISBN 978-0-521-78291-3), p. 98. ^ "Tierney, p. 70". Google.com. Retrieved 2013-06-16.  ^ a b "Klaus Schatz, ''Papal Primacy'' (Liturgical Press, Collegeville, Minnesota 1996 ISBN 978-0-8146-5522-1) pp. 117-118". Google.com. Retrieved 2013-06-16.  ^ a b c d e f "History of the Franciscan
Franciscan
Movement (3)". Christusrex.org. 2001-12-30. Retrieved 2013-06-16.  ^ Brooke, The Image of St Francis, p. 100 ^ English translation 1; English translation 2 ^ a b "Christopher Kleinhenz, ''Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia'' (Routledge 2003 ISBN 978-0-415-93930-0), vol. 1, p. 373". Google.com. Retrieved 2013-06-16.  ^ "John XXII, Quia nonnunquam". Archived from the original on 2014-06-06.  ^ Brooke, p. 100 ^ "John XXII, Ad conditorem canonum". Archived from the original on 2014-06-06.  ^ Brooke, pp. 100-101 ^ English translation 1; English translation 2 ^ "Tierney, p. 181". Google.com. Retrieved 2013-06-16.  ^ Brooke, p. 101 ^ English translation 1; English translation 2 ^ "John XXII, Quia vir reprobus". Archived from the original on 2013-06-03.  ^ http://press.catholica.va/news_services/bulletin/news/30743.php?index=30743&lang=en[permanent dead link] ^ "Poor Clare Sisters". Retrieved 9 December 2016.  ^ " Third Order
Third Order
Regular". Francescanitor.org. 2013-05-12. Retrieved 2013-06-16.  ^ Franciscan
Franciscan
Friars, TOR. "The Franciscan
Franciscan
Orders". Archived from the original on 2007-06-17. Retrieved 2007-07-10.  ^ http://www.francescanitor.org/storia-2/?lang=en ^ " Franciscans
Franciscans
International". Franciscans
Franciscans
International. 2013-04-10. Retrieved 2013-06-16.  ^ "The Little Sisters of St. Clare".  ^ For example, the OSFOC[permanent dead link]. ^ "Living Simply". Franciscans
Franciscans
in Action. Retrieved 21 January 2017. " Franciscan
Franciscan
Spirituality". Conventual Franciscans.  ^ "What is Franciscan
Franciscan
Spirituality?". Saint Joseph
Saint Joseph
Cupertino Fraternity, Secular Franciscan Order
Secular Franciscan Order
(OFS). Retrieved 29 January 2017.  ^ Britannica Online Encyclopedia, Padre Pio ^ "Bartleby.com: Great Books Online -- Quotes, Poems, Novels, Classics and hundreds more". Archived from the original on 2007-11-30.  ^ "Padre Pio: Biography and Much More from". Answers.com. Retrieved 2013-06-16.  ^ "Studium Biblicum OFM".  ^ Handbook of Middle American Indians, vol. 13, Guide to Ethnohistorical Sources, pt. 2. Howard F. Cline, volume editor. Austin: University of Texas Press 1973, pp. 142-43; pp. 186-239; pp. 256-275.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Franciscans.

First Order[edit]

Order of Friars Minor
Order of Friars Minor
(Official website) Order of Friars Minor Capuchin
Order of Friars Minor Capuchin
(Official website) Order of Friars Minor Conventual
Order of Friars Minor Conventual
(Official website)

Second Order[edit]

Order of Saint Clare
Order of Saint Clare
(Official website)

Third Order[edit]

Secular Franciscan Order
Secular Franciscan Order
(Official website) Third Order Regular of St. Francis of Penance (Official website)

Research resources[edit]

Online guide to the Academy of American Franciscan
Franciscan
History Microfilm Collection, 1526–1972, The Bancroft Library Franciscan
Franciscan
authors, 13th – 18th century Digital Franciscans
Franciscans
- Extensive list of Franciscan
Franciscan
internet resources Luke Wadding
Luke Wadding
Papers: correspondence relating to Fr Luke Wadding
Luke Wadding
OFM and the Irish Friars Minor at St. Isidore's College, Rome, on ecclesiastical and political matters; and concerning his interests as historian of the Franciscan
Franciscan
Order. A UCD Digital Library Collection.

v t e

Franciscans

General

Rule of St. Francis Rule of St. Clare Tau Cross Custodian of the Holy Land Minister Generals Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi Assisi Monte di Pietá Franciscan
Franciscan
missions to the Maya Studium Biblicum Franciscanum Franciscans
Franciscans
International Franciscan
Franciscan
orders in Protestantism

Orders and groups

Order of Friars Minor Order of Friars Minor
Order of Friars Minor
Conventual Order of Friars Minor
Order of Friars Minor
Capuchin Franciscan
Franciscan
Friars of the Immaculate Poor Clares Capuchin Poor Clares Colettine Poor Clares Conceptionists Secular Franciscan
Franciscan
Order Third Order
Third Order
of Saint Francis Order of Minims Militia Immaculatae

Popes

Nicholas IV Sixtus IV Sixtus V Clement XIV Pius X John XXIII

  Category Catholicism portal

v t e

Francis of Assisi

Organisations

Order of Friars Minor
Order of Friars Minor
(Custody of the Holy Land) Order of Saint Clare Secular Franciscan
Franciscan
Order

Literature

Little Flowers of St. Francis

Visual art

Nativity with St. Francis and St. Lawrence
Nativity with St. Francis and St. Lawrence
(Caravaggio) Saint Francis in Meditation (Caravaggio) Saint Francis in Prayer
Prayer
(Caravaggio) Saint Francis of Assisi
Francis of Assisi
in Ecstasy (Caravaggio) Saint Francis Receiving the Stigmata
Stigmata
(Giotto) Saint Francis Receiving the Stigmata
Stigmata
(van Eyck) St. Francis in Ecstasy
St. Francis in Ecstasy
(Bellini)

Music

"All Creatures of Our God and King" "Canticle of the Sun" "The Canticle of the Sun" (Sowerby) Le Laudi Légende No. 1 (Liszt)

Stage

Saint François d'Assise
Saint François d'Assise
(1983 Messiaen opera) Samstag aus Licht
Samstag aus Licht
(1983 Stockhausen opera) Nobilissima Visione
Nobilissima Visione
(ballet)

Films

The Flowers of St. Francis (1950) Francis of Assisi (1961) Brother Sun, Sister Moon (1972) Francesco (1989)

Related

Pranchiyettan & the Saint Madonna of Foligno Wolf of Gubbio Discalced Prayer
Prayer
of Saint Francis Pope
Pope
Francis

Catholicism portal

v t e

Catholic
Catholic
religious institutes

Including orders (monastic/cenobitic/enclosed/idiorrhythmic), Canons Regular, mendicants, second orders, Clerks Regular, and congregations of the Catholic
Catholic
Church

Male and female

Alexians Assumptionists (A.A.) Augustinian Recollects (O.A.R.) Basilian Alepians (B.A.) Basilian Chouerites (B.C.) Benedictines
Benedictines
(O.S.B.) Canossians (F.D.C.C.) Carmelites
Carmelites
(O. Carm.) Carthusians
Carthusians
(O. Cart.) Cistercians
Cistercians
(O. Cist.) Congregation of Our Lady of Sion (N.D.S.) Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary
Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary
(SS.CC.) Congregations of the Heart of Mary Discalced Carmelites
Carmelites
(O.C.D.) Dominicans (O.P.) Franciscans
Franciscans
(O.F.M.) Institute of the Incarnate Word (I.V.E.) Maryknoll
Maryknoll
(M.M.) Mercedarians (O. de M.) Miles Jesu Missionaries of Charity
Missionaries of Charity
(M.C.) Missionaries of St. Charles Borromeo
Missionaries of St. Charles Borromeo
(C.S.) Premonstratensians
Premonstratensians
(O.Praem.) Servants of Charity (S.C.) Servite Order
Servite Order
(O.S.M.) Society of the Atonement
Society of the Atonement
(S.A.) T.O.R. Franciscans Trappists
Trappists
(O.C.S.O.) Trinitarian Order
Trinitarian Order
(O.SS.T.)

Male

Adorno Fathers (C.R.M.) Albertine Brothers Augustinians
Augustinians
(O.S.A.) Barnabites
Barnabites
(B.) Basilians (C.S.B.) Brotherhood of Hope (B.H.) Brothers of Our Lady of Mercy (F.D.M.) Camillians (M.I.) Canons Regular
Canons Regular
of Saint John Cantius Capuchins (O.F.M. Cap.) Christian Brothers (Irish) (C.F.C.) Immaculate Heart of Mary (C.I.C.M.) Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament
Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament
(S.S.S.) Claretians
Claretians
(C.M.F.) Companions of the Cross (C.C.) Congregation of Saint Thérèse of Lisieux (C.S.T.) Conventual Franciscans
Conventual Franciscans
(O.F.M. Conv.) Crosiers (O.S.C.) De La Salle Brothers
De La Salle Brothers
(F.S.C.) Discalced Augustinians
Augustinians
(O.A.D.) Franciscan
Franciscan
Friars of the Renewal (C.F.R.) Franciscan
Franciscan
Missionaries of the Eternal Word (M.F.V.A.) Gabrielites Holy Cross (C.S.C.) Holy Ghost Fathers
Holy Ghost Fathers
(C.S.Sp) Institute of Christ the King Sovereign Priest (I.C.R.S.S.) Jesuits (S.J.) Josephite Fathers
Josephite Fathers
(S.S.J.) Legion of Christ
Legion of Christ
(L.C.) Little Brothers of Jesus Marians of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
(M.I.C.) Marianists (S.M.) Marist Brothers
Marist Brothers
(F.M.S.) Marists (S.M.) Mechitarists
Mechitarists
(C.A.M.) Missionaries of La Salette
Missionaries of La Salette
(M.S.) Missionaries of St. Francis de Sales (M.S.F.S) Missionaries of the Poor (M.O.P.) Missionaries of the Precious Blood
Missionaries of the Precious Blood
(C.PP.S.) Missionaries of the Sacred Heart
Missionaries of the Sacred Heart
(M.S.C.) Missionaries of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus
Jesus
and Mary Oblates of Mary Immaculate (O.M.I.) Missionary Society of Saint Paul of Nigeria (M.S.P.) Missionary Society of St. Columban Oblates of the Virgin Mary
Oblates of the Virgin Mary
(O.M.V.) Oblates of St. Francis de Sales (O.S.F.S.) Oratory of Saint Philip Neri
Oratory of Saint Philip Neri
(C.O.) Order of Friars Minor
Order of Friars Minor
(O.F.M.) Pallottines
Pallottines
(S.A.C.) Passionists
Passionists
(C.P.) Paulist Fathers
Paulist Fathers
(C.S.P.) Priestly Fraternity of St. Peter
Priestly Fraternity of St. Peter
(F.S.S.P.) Redemptorists (C.Ss.R.) Rogationists of the Heart of Jesus
Jesus
(R.C.J.) Sacred Heart Brothers Salesians (S.D.B.) Servants of Jesus and Mary (S.J.M.) Society of the Divine Word
Society of the Divine Word
(S.V.D.) Society of Saint Edmund (S.S.E.) Sons of the Most Holy Redeemer
Sons of the Most Holy Redeemer
(F.SS.R.) Vincentians (C.M.) White Fathers
White Fathers
(M. Afr.) Xaverian Brothers (C.F.X.) Sulpicians (P.S.S.)

Female

Adorers of the Blood of Christ (A.S.C.) Apostolic Carmel (A.C.) Basilian Alepian Sisters Basilian Chouerite Sisters Bridgettines Brigidines Congregation of the Franciscan
Franciscan
Hospitaller Sisters of the Immaculate Conception (CONFHIC) Daughters of Charity Daughters of Divine Love Daughters of Mary of the Immaculate Conception Faithful Companions of Jesus Felicians (C.S.S.F.) Filippini Sisters (M.P.F.) Handmaids of the Sacred Heart of Jesus Hijas de Jesús Holy Spirit Adoration Sisters Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary Institute of the Maids of the Poor Little Sisters of Jesus Little Sisters of the Poor Lovers of the Holy Cross Marianites of Holy Cross Missionary Sisters of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
of the Mother of God (S.M.I.C.) Missionary Sisters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (I.C.M.) Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart Oblate Sisters of Providence Oblates of Jesus
Jesus
the Priest Oblate Sisters of the Virgin Mary of Fatima (O.M.V.F.) Order of Our Lady of Charity
Order of Our Lady of Charity
(O.D.N.C.) Order of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary Poor Clares
Poor Clares
(O.S.C.) Religious of the Sacred Heart of Jesus
Jesus
(R.C.S.J.) Religious of the Virgin Mary
Religious of the Virgin Mary
(R.V.M.) Servants of St. Joseph
Servants of St. Joseph
(S.S.J.) Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament Sisters of Charity Sisters of Charity
Sisters of Charity
of Saints Bartolomea Capitanio and Vincenza Gerosa (SCCG) Sisters of the Christian Doctrine (Nancy) Sisters of the Cross and Passion Sisters of the Destitute Sisters of the Good Shepherd (R.G.S) Sisters of Holy Cross Sisters of the Holy Cross Sisters of the Holy Family-Louisiana Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus
Jesus
and Mary Sisters of the Immaculate Conception Sisters of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
of the Blessed Virgin Mary Sisters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary Sisters of Life Sisters of Mercy
Sisters of Mercy
(R.S.M.) Sisters of Providence of Saint Mary-of-the-Woods Sisters of Saint Francis (general) Sisters of Saint Francis (U.S.) Sisters of Saint Joseph The Sisters of St. Joseph
Sisters of St. Joseph
of Peace Sisters of Saint Joseph
Saint Joseph
of the Sacred Heart (R.S.J.) Society of the Helpers of the Holy Souls Ursulines
Ursulines
(O.S.U.) White Sisters

See also: Third orders of Catholic
Catholic
laity Catholicism portal

v t e

Catholic
Catholic
Church

Index Outline

History (Timeline)

Jesus Holy Family

Mary Joseph

Apostles Early Christianity History of the papacy Ecumenical councils Missions Great Schism of East Crusades Great Schism of West Age of Discovery Protestant Reformation Council of Trent Counter-Reformation Catholic Church
Catholic Church
by country Vatican City

index outline

Second Vatican Council

Hierarchy (Precedence)

Pope
Pope
(List)

Pope
Pope
Francis (2013–present)

conclave inauguration theology canonizations visits

Pope
Pope
Emeritus Benedict XVI (2005–2013)

Roman Curia College of Cardinals

Cardinal List

Patriarchate Episcopal conference Patriarch Major archbishop Primate Metropolitan Archbishop Diocesan bishop Coadjutor bishop Auxiliary bishop Titular bishop Bishop emeritus Abbot Abbess Superior general Provincial superior Grand Master Prior
Prior
(-ess) Priest Brother

Friar

Sister Monk Nun Hermit Master of novices Novice Oblate Postulant Laity

Theology

Body and soul Bible Catechism Divine grace Dogma Ecclesiology

Four Marks of the Church

Original sin

List

Salvation Sermon on the Mount Ten Commandments Trinity Worship

Mariology

Assumption History Immaculate Conception Mariology of the popes Mariology of the saints Mother of God Perpetual virginity Veneration

Philosophy

Natural law Moral theology Personalism Social teaching Philosophers

Sacraments

Baptism Confirmation Eucharist Penance Anointing of the Sick

Last rites

Holy orders Matrimony

Saints

Mary Apostles Archangels Confessors Disciples Doctors of the Church Evangelists Church Fathers Martyrs Patriarchs Prophets Virgins

Doctors of the Church

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Institutes, orders, and societies

Assumptionists Annonciades Augustinians Basilians Benedictines Bethlehemites Blue nuns Camaldoleses Camillians Carmelites Carthusians Cistercians Clarisses Conceptionists Crosiers Dominicans Franciscans Good Shepherd Sisters Hieronymites Jesuits Mercedarians Minims Olivetans Oratorians Piarists Premonstratensians Redemptorists Servites Theatines Trappists Trinitarians Visitandines

Associations of the faithful

International Federation of Catholic
Catholic
Parochial Youth Movements International Federation of Catholic
Catholic
Universities International Kolping Society Schoenstatt Apostolic Movement International Union of Catholic
Catholic
Esperantists Community of Sant'Egidio

Charities

Aid to the Church in Need Caritas Internationalis Catholic
Catholic
Home Missions Catholic
Catholic
Relief Services CIDSE

Particular churches (By country)

Latin
Latin
Church Eastern Catholic
Catholic
Churches: Albanian Armenian Belarusian Bulgarian Chaldean Coptic Croatian and Serbian Eritrean Ethiopian Georgian Greek Hungarian Italo-Albanian Macedonian Maronite Melkite Romanian Russian Ruthenian Slovak Syriac Syro-Malabar Syro-Malankara Ukrainian

Liturgical rites

Alexandrian Antiochian Armenian Byzantine East Syrian Latin

Anglican Use Ambrosian Mozarabic Roman

West Syrian

Catholicism portal Pope
Pope
portal Vatican City
Vatican City
portal

Book Name Media

Category Temp

.