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Saint Francis of Assisi
Assisi
(Italian: San Francesco d'Assisi), born Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone, informally named as Francesco (1181/1182 – 3 October 1226),[2] was an Italian Catholic friar, deacon and preacher. He founded the men's Order of Friars Minor, the women’s Order of Saint Clare, the Third Order of Saint Francis and the Custody of the Holy Land. Francis is one of the most venerated religious figures in history.[3] Pope Gregory IX
Pope Gregory IX
canonized Francis on 16 July 1228. Along with Saint Catherine of Siena, he was designated Patron saint
Patron saint
of Italy. He later became associated with patronage of animals and the natural environment, and it became customary for Catholic
Catholic
and Anglican churches to hold ceremonies blessing animals on his feast day of 4 October. He is often remembered as the patron saint of animals. In 1219, he went to Egypt in an attempt to convert the Sultan to put an end to the conflict of the Crusades.[6] By this point, the Franciscan Order had grown to such an extent that its primitive organizational structure was no longer sufficient. He returned to Italy
Italy
to organize the Order. Once his community was authorized by the Pope, he withdrew increasingly from external affairs. Francis is also known for his love of the Eucharist.[7] In 1223, Francis arranged for the first Christmas live nativity scene.[8][9][2] According to Christian tradition, in 1224 he received the stigmata during the apparition of Seraphic angels in a religious ecstasy [10] making him the first recorded person in Christian history to bear the wounds of Christ's Passion.[11] He died during the evening hours of 3 October 1226, while listening to a reading he had requested of Psalm 142
Psalm 142
(141).

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early life 1.2 Founding of the Franciscan
Franciscan
Orders

1.2.1 The Friars minor 1.2.2 The Poor Clares
Poor Clares
and the Third Order

1.3 Travels 1.4 Reorganization of the Franciscan Order
Franciscan Order
and death

2 Character and legacy

2.1 Nature and the environment 2.2 Feast day 2.3 Papal name 2.4 Patronage 2.5 Protestantism

3 Main writings 4 In art 5 Media

5.1 Films 5.2 Music 5.3 Books 5.4 Other

6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 Further reading 11 External links

Biography[edit] Early life[edit] Francis of Assisi
Assisi
was born in late 1181 or early 1182, one of several children of Pietro di Bernardone, a prosperous silk merchant, and his wife Pica de Bourlemont, about whom little is known except that she was a noblewoman originally from Provence.[12] Pietro was in France on business when Francis was born in Assisi, and Pica had him baptized as Giovanni.[13] Upon his return to Assisi, Pietro took to calling his son Francesco ("the Frenchman"), possibly in honor of his commercial success and enthusiasm for all things French.[14] Since the child was renamed in infancy, the change can hardly have had anything to do with his aptitude for learning French, as some have thought.[2]

The house where Francis of Assisi
Assisi
lived when young

Indulged by his parents, Francis lived the high-spirited life typical of a wealthy young man.[10] As a youth, Francesco became a devotee of troubadours and was fascinated with all things Transalpine.[14] He was handsome, witty, gallant, and delighted in fine clothes. He spent money lavishly.[2] Although many hagiographers remark about his bright clothing, rich friends, and love of pleasures,[12] his displays of disillusionment toward the world that surrounded him came fairly early in his life, as is shown in the "story of the beggar". In this account, he was selling cloth and velvet in the marketplace on behalf of his father when a beggar came to him and asked for alms. At the conclusion of his business deal, Francis abandoned his wares and ran after the beggar. When he found him, Francis gave the man everything he had in his pockets. His friends quickly chided and mocked him for his act of charity. When he got home, his father scolded him in rage.[15] Around 1202, he joined a military expedition against Perugia
Perugia
and was taken as a prisoner at Collestrada, spending a year as a captive.[16] An illness caused him to re-evaluate his life. It is possible that his spiritual conversion was a gradual process rooted in this experience. Upon his return to Assisi
Assisi
in 1203, Francis returned to his carefree life. In 1205, Francis left for Apulia
Apulia
to enlist in the army of Walter III, Count
Count
of Brienne. A strange vision made him return to Assisi, having lost his taste for the worldly life.[10] According to hagiographic accounts, thereafter he began to avoid the sports and the feasts of his former companions. In response, they asked him laughingly whether he was thinking of marrying, to which he answered, "Yes, a fairer bride than any of you have ever seen", meaning his "Lady Poverty".[2]

Saint Francis Abandons His Father. Francis of Assisi
Assisi
breaking off his relationship with his father and renouncing his patrimony, laying aside publicly even the garments he had received from him.

On a pilgrimage to Rome, he joined the poor in begging at St. Peter's Basilica.[10] He spent some time in lonely places, asking God for spiritual enlightenment. He said he had a mystical vision of Jesus Christ in the forsaken country chapel of San Damiano, just outside Assisi, in which the Icon of Christ Crucified said to him, "Francis, Francis, go and repair My house which, as you can see, is falling into ruins." He took this to mean the ruined church in which he was presently praying, and so he sold some cloth from his father's store to assist the priest there for this purpose.[17] When the priest refused to accept the ill-gotten gains, an indignant Francis threw the coins on the floor.[2] In order to avoid his father's wrath, Francis hid in a cave near San Damiano for about a month. When he returned to town, hungry and dirty, he was dragged home by his father, beaten, bound, and locked in a small storeroom. Freed by his mother during Bernardone's absence, Francis returned at once to San Damiano, where he found shelter with the officiating priest, but he was soon cited before the city consuls by his father. The latter, not content with having recovered the scattered gold from San Damiano, sought also to force his son to forego his inheritance by way of restitution. In the midst of legal proceedings before the Bishop of Assisi, Francis renounced his father and his patrimony.[2] For the next couple of months Francis wandered as a beggar in the hills behind Assisi. He spent some time at a neighbouring monastery working as a scullion. He then went to Gubbio, where a friend gave him, as an alms, the cloak, girdle, and staff of a pilgrim. Returning to Assisi, he traversed the city begging stones for the restoration of St. Damiano's. These he carried to the old chapel, set in place himself, and so at length rebuilt it. Over the course of two years, he embraced the life of a penitent, during which he restored several ruined chapels in the countryside around Assisi, among them St. Peter's, some distance from the city; and the Porziuncola, the little chapel of St. Mary of the Angels in the plain just below the town.[2] This later became his favorite abode.[17] By degrees he took to nursing lepers, in the lazar houses near Assisi. Founding of the Franciscan
Franciscan
Orders[edit] The Friars minor[edit] One morning in February 1208, Francis was hearing Mass in the chapel of St. Mary of the Angels, near which he had then built himself a hut. The Gospel
Gospel
of the day was the "Commissioning of the Twelve" from the Book
Book
of Matthew. The disciples are to go and proclaim that the Kingdom of God is at hand. Francis was inspired to devote himself to a life of poverty. Having obtained a coarse woolen tunic, the dress then worn by the poorest Umbrian peasants, he tied it around him with a knotted rope and went forth at once exhorting the people of the country-side to penance, brotherly love, and peace. Francis' preaching to ordinary people was unusual since he had no license to do so.[3] His example drew others to him. Within a year Francis had eleven followers. The brothers lived a simple life in the deserted lazar house of Rivo Torto near Assisi; but they spent much of their time wandering through the mountainous districts of Umbria, making a deep impression upon their hearers by their earnest exhortations.[2]

The Pope
Pope
approving the statutes of the Order of the Franciscans, by Giotto, 1295–1300

In 1209 he composed a simple rule for his followers ("friars"), the Regula primitiva or "Primitive Rule", which came from verses in the Bible. The rule was "To follow the teachings of our Lord Jesus
Jesus
Christ and to walk in his footsteps". He then led his first eleven followers to Rome to seek permission from Pope Innocent III
Pope Innocent III
to found a new religious Order.[18] Upon entry to Rome, the brothers encountered Bishop Guido of Assisi, who had in his company Giovanni di San Paolo, the Cardinal Bishop of Sabina. The Cardinal, who was the confessor of Pope
Pope
Innocent III, was immediately sympathetic to Francis and agreed to represent Francis to the pope. Reluctantly, Pope
Pope
Innocent agreed to meet with Francis and the brothers the next day. After several days, the pope agreed to admit the group informally, adding that when God increased the group in grace and number, they could return for an official admittance. The group was tonsured.[19] This was important in part because it recognized Church authority and prevented his following from possible accusations of heresy, as had happened to the Waldensians
Waldensians
decades earlier. Though a number of the Pope's counselors considered the mode of life proposed by Francis as unsafe and impractical, following a dream in which he saw Francis holding up the Basilica of St. John Lateran
Basilica of St. John Lateran
(the cathedral of Rome, thus the 'home church' of all Christendom), he decided to endorse Francis' Order. This occurred, according to tradition, on April 16, 1210, and constituted the official founding of the Franciscan Order.[3] The group, then the "Lesser Brothers" (Order of Friars Minor also known as the Franciscan Order
Franciscan Order
or the Seraphic Order), were centered in the Porziuncola
Porziuncola
and preached first in Umbria, before expanding throughout Italy.[3] Francis chose never to be ordained a priest, although he was later ordained a deacon.[2] The Poor Clares
Poor Clares
and the Third Order[edit]

St. Clare is received by St. Francis, Josep Benlliure

From then on, the new Order grew quickly with new vocations. Hearing Francis preaching in the church of San Rufino in Assisi
Assisi
in 1211, the young noblewoman Clare of Assisi
Assisi
became deeply touched by his message and realized her calling. Her cousin Rufino, the only male member of the family in their generation, was also attracted to the new Order, which he joined. On the night of Palm Sunday, March 28, 1212, Clare clandestinely left her family's palace. Francis received her at the Porziuncola
Porziuncola
and thereby established the Order of Poor Ladies.[20] This was an Order for women, and he gave Clare a religious habit, or garment, similar to his own, before lodging her in a nearby monastery of Benedictine
Benedictine
nuns until he could provide a suitable retreat for her, and for her younger sister, Caterina, and the other young women who had joined her. Later he transferred them to San Damiano,[3] to a few small huts or cells of wattle, straw, and mud, and enclosed by a hedge. This became the first monastery of the Second Franciscan
Franciscan
Order, now known as Poor Clares.[2] For those who could not leave their homes, he later formed the Third Order of Brothers and Sisters of Penance, a fraternity composed of either laity or clergy whose members neither withdrew from the world nor took religious vows. Instead, they observed the principles of Franciscan
Franciscan
life in their daily lives.[3] Before long, this Third Order grew beyond Italy. Travels[edit] Determined to bring the Gospel
Gospel
to all peoples of the World, Francis sought on several occasions to take his message out of Italy. In the late spring of 1212, he set out for Jerusalem, but was shipwrecked by a storm on the Dalmatian coast, forcing him to return to Italy. On May 8, 1213, he was given the use of the mountain of La Verna
La Verna
(Alverna) as a gift from Count
Count
Orlando di Chiusi, who described it as “eminently suitable for whoever wishes to do penance in a place remote from mankind”.[21]The mountain would become one of his favourite retreats for prayer.[22] In the same year, Francis sailed for Morocco, but this time an illness forced him to break off his journey in Spain. Back in Assisi, several noblemen (among them Tommaso da Celano, who would later write the biography of St. Francis), and some well-educated men joined his Order. In 1215, Francis may have gone to Rome for the Fourth Lateran Council, but that is not certain. During this time, he probably met a canon, Dominic de Guzman[4] (later to be Saint Dominic, the founder of the Friars Preachers, another Catholic
Catholic
religious order). In 1217, he offered to go to France. Cardinal Ugolino of Segni (the future Pope Gregory IX), an early and important supporter of Francis, advised him against this and said that he was still needed in Italy. In 1219, accompanied by another friar and hoping to convert the Sultan of Egypt or win martyrdom in the attempt, Francis went to Egypt during the Fifth Crusade
Fifth Crusade
where a Crusader army had been encamped for over a year besieging the walled city of Damietta
Damietta
two miles (3.2 kilometres) upstream from the mouth of one of the main channels of the Nile. The Sultan, al-Kamil, a nephew of Saladin, had succeeded his father as Sultan of Egypt in 1218 and was encamped upstream of Damietta, unable to relieve it. A bloody and futile attack on the city was launched by the Christians on August 29, 1219, following which both sides agreed to a ceasefire which lasted four weeks.[23] It was most probably during this interlude that Francis and his companion crossed the Muslims lines and were brought before the Sultan, remaining in his camp for a few days.[24] The visit is reported in contemporary Crusader sources and in the earliest biographies of Francis, but they give no information about what transpired during the encounter beyond noting that the Sultan received Francis graciously and that Francis preached to the Muslims without effect, returning unharmed to the Crusader camp.[25] No contemporary Arab source mentions the visit.[26] One detail, added by Bonaventure
Bonaventure
in the official life of Francis (written forty years after the event), has Francis offering to challenge the Sultan's "priests" to trial-by-fire in order to prove the veracity of the Christian Gospel. Such an incident is alluded to in a scene in the late 13th-century fresco cycle, attributed to Giotto, in the upper basilica at Assisi.[27] It has been suggested that the winged figures atop the columns piercing the roof of the building on the left of the scene are not idols (as Erwin Panofsky
Erwin Panofsky
had proposed) but are part of the secular iconography of the sultan, affirming his worldly power which, as the scene demonstrates, is limited even as regards his own "priests" who shun the challenge.[28][29] Although Bonaventure
Bonaventure
asserts that the sultan refused to permit the challenge, subsequent biographies went further, claiming that a fire was actually kindled which Francis unhesitatingly entered without suffering burns. The scene in the fresco adopts a position midway between the two extremes. Since the idea was put forward by the German art historian, Friedrich Rintelen in 1912,[30] many scholars have expressed doubt that Giotto
Giotto
was the author of the Upper Church frescoes. According to some late sources, the Sultan gave Francis permission to visit the sacred places in the Holy Land
Holy Land
and even to preach there. All that can safely be asserted is that Francis and his companion left the Crusader camp for Acre, from where they embarked for Italy
Italy
in the latter half of 1220. Drawing on a 1267 sermon by Bonaventure, later sources report that the Sultan secretly converted or accepted a death-bed baptism as a result of the encounter with Francis.[31] The Franciscan Order
Franciscan Order
has been present in the Holy Land
Holy Land
almost uninterruptedly since 1217 when Brother Elias arrived at Acre. It received concessions from the Mameluke
Mameluke
Sultan in 1333 with regard to certain Holy Places in Jerusalem and Bethlehem, and (so far as concerns the Catholic
Catholic
Church) jurisdictional privileges from Pope Clement VI in 1342.[32] Reorganization of the Franciscan Order
Franciscan Order
and death[edit] By this time, the growing Order of friars was divided into provinces and groups were sent to France, Germany, Hungary, and Spain and to the East. Upon receiving a report of the martyrdom of five brothers in Morocco, Francis returned to Italy
Italy
via Venice.[33] Cardinal Ugolino di Conti was then nominated by the Pope
Pope
as the protector of the Order. Another reason for Francis' return to Italy
Italy
was that the Franciscan Order had grown at an unprecedented rate compared to previous religious orders, but its organizational sophistication had not kept up with this growth and had little more to govern it than Francis' example and simple rule. To address this problem, Francis prepared a new and more detailed Rule, the "First Rule" or "Rule Without a Papal Bull" (Regula prima, Regula non bullata), which again asserted devotion to poverty and the apostolic life. However, it also introduced greater institutional structure, though this was never officially endorsed by the pope.[3] On September 29, 1220, Francis handed over the governance of the Order to Brother Peter Catani at the Porziuncola, but Brother Peter died only five months later, on March 10, 1221, and was buried there. When numerous miracles were attributed to the deceased brother, people started to flock to the Porziuncola, disturbing the daily life of the Franciscans. Francis then prayed, asking Peter to stop the miracles and to obey in death as he had obeyed during his life. The reports of miracles ceased. Brother Peter was succeeded by Brother Elias as Vicar of Francis. Two years later, Francis modified the "First Rule", creating the "Second Rule" or "Rule With a Bull", which was approved by Pope
Pope
Honorius III on November 29, 1223. As the official Rule of the Order, it called on the friars "to observe the Holy Gospel
Gospel
of our Lord Jesus
Jesus
Christ, living in obedience without anything of our own and in chastity". In addition, it set regulations for discipline, preaching, and entry into the Order. Once the Rule was endorsed by the Pope, Francis withdrew increasingly from external affairs.[3] During 1221 and 1222, Francis crossed Italy, first as far south as Catania
Catania
in Sicily and afterwards as far north as Bologna.

Francis considered his stigmata part of the Imitation of Christ.[34][35] Cigoli, 1699

While he was praying on the mountain of Verna, during a forty-day fast in preparation for Michaelmas
Michaelmas
(September 29), Francis is said to have had a vision on or about September 14, 1224, the Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross, as a result of which he received the stigmata. Brother Leo, who had been with Francis at the time, left a clear and simple account of the event, the first definite account of the phenomenon of stigmata. "Suddenly he saw a vision of a seraph, a six-winged angel on a cross. This angel gave him the gift of the five wounds of Christ."[36] Suffering from these stigmata and from trachoma, Francis received care in several cities (Siena, Cortona, Nocera) to no avail. In the end, he was brought back to a hut next to the Porziuncola. Here, in the place where it all began, feeling the end approaching, he spent the last days of his life dictating his spiritual Testament. He died on the evening of Saturday, October 3, 1226, singing Psalm 142
Psalm 142
(141), "Voce mea ad Dominum". On July 16, 1228, he was pronounced a saint by Pope Gregory IX
Pope Gregory IX
(the former cardinal Ugolino di Conti, friend of Saint Francis and Cardinal Protector of the Order). The next day, the Pope
Pope
laid the foundation stone for the Basilica of Saint Francis in Assisi. Francis was buried on May 25, 1230, under the Lower Basilica, but his tomb was soon hidden on orders of Brother Elias to protect it from Saracen invaders. His exact burial place remained unknown until it was re-discovered in 1818. Pasquale Belli then constructed for the remains a crypt in neo-classical style in the Lower Basilica. It was refashioned between 1927 and 1930 into its present form by Ugo Tarchi, stripping the wall of its marble decorations. In 1978, the remains of Saint Francis were examined and confirmed by a commission of scholars appointed by Pope Paul VI, and put into a glass urn in the ancient stone tomb. Character and legacy[edit] It has been argued that no one else in history was as dedicated as Francis to imitate the life, and carry out the work of Christ, in Christ’s own way—Francis is sometimes even remembered as alter Christus, ("another Christ"). This is important in understanding Francis' character and his affinity for the Eucharist
Eucharist
and respect for the priests who carried out the sacrament.[3] He and his followers celebrated and even venerated poverty. Poverty was so central to his character that in his last written work, the Testament, he said that absolute personal and corporate poverty was the essential lifestyle for the members of his Order.[3] He believed that nature itself was the mirror of God. He called all creatures his “brothers” and “sisters”, and even preached to the birds[37][38] and supposedly persuaded a wolf to stop attacking some locals if they agreed to feed the wolf. In his Canticle of the Creatures (“Praises of Creatures” or “Canticle of the Sun”), he mentioned the “Brother Sun” and “Sister Moon”, the wind and water, and “Sister Death”. He referred to his chronic illnesses as his “sisters". His deep sense of brotherhood under God embraced others, and he declared that “he considered himself no friend of Christ if he did not cherish those for whom Christ died”.[3] Francis' visit to Egypt and attempted rapprochement with the Muslim world had far-reaching consequences, long past his own death, since after the fall of the Crusader Kingdom, it would be the Franciscans, of all Catholics, who would be allowed to stay on in the Holy Land
Holy Land
and be recognized as "Custodians of the Holy Land" on behalf of the Catholic
Catholic
Church. At Greccio near Assisi, around 1220, Francis celebrated Christmas
Christmas
by setting up the first known presepio or crèche (Nativity scene).[39] His nativity imagery reflected the scene in traditional paintings. He used real animals to create a living scene so that the worshipers could contemplate the birth of the child Jesus
Jesus
in a direct way, making use of the senses, especially sight.[39] Both Thomas of Celano
Thomas of Celano
and Saint Bonaventure, biographers of Saint Francis, tell how he used only a straw-filled manger (feeding trough) set between a real ox and donkey.[39] According to Thomas, it was beautiful in its simplicity, with the manger acting as the altar for the Christmas
Christmas
Mass. Nature and the environment[edit]

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Francis preached the Christian doctrine that the world was created good and beautiful by God but suffers a need for redemption because of human sin. He believed that all creatures should praise God (a common theme in the Psalms) and the people have a duty to protect and enjoy nature as both the stewards of God's creation and as creatures ourselves.[37] On November 29, 1979, Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
declared Saint Francis the Patron Saint
Patron Saint
of Ecology.[40] Many of the stories that surround the life of Saint Francis say that he had a great love for animals and the environment.[37]

A garden statue of Francis of Assisi
Assisi
with birds

Perhaps the most famous incident that illustrates the Saint's humility towards nature is recounted in the "Fioretti" ("Little Flowers"), a collection of legends and folklore that sprang up after the Saint's death. It is said that, one day, while Francis was travelling with some companions, they happened upon a place in the road where birds filled the trees on either side. Francis told his companions to "wait for me while I go to preach to my sisters the birds."[37] The birds surrounded him, intrigued by the power of his voice, and not one of them flew away. He is often portrayed with a bird, typically in his hand. Another legend from the Fioretti
Fioretti
tells that in the city of Gubbio, where Francis lived for some time, was a wolf "terrifying and ferocious, who devoured men as well as animals". Francis had compassion upon the townsfolk, and so he went up into the hills to find the wolf. Soon, fear of the animal had caused all his companions to flee, though the saint pressed on. When he found the wolf, he made the sign of the cross and commanded the wolf to come to him and hurt no one. Miraculously the wolf closed his jaws and lay down at Francis' feet. "Brother Wolf, you do much harm in these parts and you have done great evil", said Francis. "All these people accuse you and curse you ... But brother wolf, I would like to make peace between you and the people." Then Francis led the wolf into the town, and surrounded by startled citizens made a pact between them and the wolf. Because the wolf had “done evil out of hunger, the townsfolk were to feed the wolf regularly. In return, the wolf would no longer prey upon them or their flocks. In this manner Gubbio
Gubbio
was freed from the menace of the predator. Francis even made a pact on behalf of the town dogs, that they would not bother the wolf again. Finally, to show the townspeople that they would not be harmed, Francis blessed the wolf. Then during the World Environment Day 1982, John Paul II said that Saint Francis' love and care for creation was a challenge for contemporary Catholics and a reminder "not to behave like dissident predators where nature is concerned, but to assume responsibility for it, taking all care so that everything stays healthy and integrated, so as to offer a welcoming and friendly environment even to those who succeed us." The same Pope
Pope
wrote on the occasion of the World Day of Peace, January 1, 1990, the saint of Assisi
Assisi
"offers Christians an example of genuine and deep respect for the integrity of creation ..." He went on to make the point that: "As a friend of the poor who was loved by God's creatures, Saint Francis invited all of creation – animals, plants, natural forces, even Brother Sun and Sister Moon – to give honor and praise to the Lord. The poor man of Assisi
Assisi
gives us striking witness that when we are at peace with God we are better able to devote ourselves to building up that peace with all creation which is inseparable from peace among all peoples."[41] Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
concluded that section of the document with these words, "It is my hope that the inspiration of Saint Francis will help us to keep ever alive a sense of 'fraternity' with all those good and beautiful things which Almighty God has created." Feast day[edit]

Francis' last resting place at Assisi

A relic of Francis of Assisi

Saint Francis' feast day is observed on October 4. A secondary feast in honor of the stigmata received by Saint Francis, celebrated on September 17, was inserted in the General Roman Calendar
General Roman Calendar
in 1585 (later than the Tridentine Calendar) and suppressed in 1604, but was restored in 1615. In the New Roman Missal of 1969, it was removed again from the General Calendar, as something of a duplication of the main feast on October 4, and left to the calendars of certain localities and of the Franciscan
Franciscan
Order.[42] Wherever the traditional Roman Missal is used, however, the feast of the Stigmata
Stigmata
remains in the General Calendar. On June 18, 1939, Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII
named Francis a joint Patron Saint
Patron Saint
of Italy
Italy
along with Saint Catherine of Siena
Saint Catherine of Siena
with the apostolic letter "Licet Commissa".[43] Pope
Pope
Pius also mentioned the two saints in the laudative discourse he pronounced on May 5, 1949, in the Church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva. Saint Francis is honored in the Church of England, the Anglican Church of Canada, the Episcopal Church USA, the Old Catholic
Catholic
Churches, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, and other churches and religious communities on October 4. The Evangelical Church in Germany, however, commemorates Saint Francis' feast day on his death day, October 3.[citation needed] Papal name[edit] On 14 March 2013, upon his election as Pope, Archbishop
Archbishop
and Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio of Argentina
Argentina
chose Francis as his papal name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi, becoming Pope
Pope
Francis.[44] At his first audience on 16 March 2013, Pope Francis
Pope Francis
told journalists that he had chosen the name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi, and had done so because he was especially concerned for the well-being of the poor.[45][46][47] He explained that, as it was becoming clear during the conclave voting that he would be elected the new bishop of Rome, the Brazilian Cardinal Cláudio Hummes
Cláudio Hummes
had embraced him and whispered, "Don't forget the poor", which had made Bergoglio think of the saint.[48][49] Bergoglio had previously expressed his admiration for St. Francis, explaining that “He brought to Christianity an idea of poverty against the luxury, pride, vanity of the civil and ecclesiastical powers of the time. He changed history."[50] Bergoglio's selection of his papal name is the first time that a pope has been named Francis.[a]

Patronage[edit] St. Francis is the patron of Animals, Merchants & Ecology.[52] He is also considered the patron saint: against dying alone; patron saint against fire; patron saint of animal welfare societies; patron saint of animals; patron saint of Assisi, Italy; patron saint of birds; patron saint of Catholic
Catholic
Action; patron saint of Colorado; patron saint of Denver, Colorado, archdiocese of; patron saint of ecologists; patron saint of ecology; patron saint of environment; patron saint of environmentalism; patron saint of environmentalists; patron saint of families; patron saint of Franciscan
Franciscan
Order; patron saint of Freising, Germany; patron saint of Italy; patron saint of Kottapuram, India, diocese of; patron saint of lace makers; patron saint of lace workers; patron saint of Lancaster, England, diocese of; patron saint of Massa, Italy; patron saint of merchants; patron saint of Metuchen, New Jersey, diocese of; patron saint of Nambe Indian Pueblo; patron saint of needle workers; patron saint of peace; patron saint of Quibdo, Choco, Colombia; patron saint of Salina, Kansas, diocese of; patron saint of San Francisco, California, archdiocese of; patron saint of San Pawl il-Bahar, Malta; patron saint of Sante Fe, New Mexico; patron saint of Sante Fe, New Mexico, archdiocese of; patron saint of Sorbo, Italy ; patron saint of tapestry workers; patron saint of zoos.[53] Informally, Ordnance disposal
Ordnance disposal
also consider St. Francis a patron saint, since if the person is killed by an explosion, there is frequently little left of the body but strips of flesh that are later devoured by birds. Protestantism[edit] Main article: Franciscan
Franciscan
spirituality in Protestantism Even in Protestantism, the name and legacy of Saint Francis have endured. Main writings[edit]

Canticum Fratris Solis or Laudes Creaturarum; Canticle of the Sun. Prayer before the Crucifix, 1205 (extant in the original Umbrian dialect as well as in a contemporary Latin translation); Regula non bullata, the Earlier Rule, 1221; Regula bullata, the Later Rule, 1223; Testament, 1226; Admonitions.

For a complete list, see The Franciscan
Franciscan
Experience.[54] Saint Francis is considered the first Italian poet by literary critics.[55] He believed commoners should be able to pray to God in their own language, and he wrote often in the dialect of Umbria instead of Latin. His writings are considered to have great literary and religious value.[56] The anonymous 20th-century prayer "Make Me an Instrument of Your Peace" is widely but erroneously attributed to Saint Francis.[57][58]

In art[edit] The Franciscan Order
Franciscan Order
promoted devotion to the life of Saint Francis from his canonization onwards, and commissioned large numbers of works for Franciscan
Franciscan
churches, either showing Saint Francis with sacred figures, or episodes from his life. There are large early fresco cycles in the Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi, parts of which are shown above.

Francis of Assisi
Assisi
in art

St. Francis and scenes from his life, 13th century

Saint Francis of Assisi
Assisi
Receiving the Stigmata, Jan van Eyck, c. 1430–32. 29.3 cm × 33.4 cm (11.5 in × 13.1 in), Turin
Turin
version

The Stigmatization of St Francis by Domenico Veneziano, (1445)

Saint Francis in the Desert Giovanni Bellini, c. 1480, Frick Collection

Saint Francis with the Blood of Christ, Carlo Crivelli, c. 1500

El Greco
El Greco
- Saint Francis Receiving the Stigmata, 1585 until 1590

Francisco Ribalta, Francis of Assisi
Assisi
with angel music, c. 1620

Saint Francis in Meditation, oil painting by Francisco de Zurbarán (1639)

Saint Francis of Assisi
Assisi
in Ecstasy by Jusepe de Ribera, (1639)

Saint Francis of Assisi
Assisi
in Ecstasy, Caravaggio
Caravaggio
(c.1595)

Francis of Assisi
Assisi
visiting his convent while far away, in a chariot of fire by José Benlliure y Gil, (1855–1937)

The Ecstasy of St. Francis, Stefano di Giovanni
Stefano di Giovanni
(1392–1450) 1444

Media[edit]

Basilica of Saint Francis, Assisi

Statue of Saint Francis in front of the Catholic
Catholic
church of Chania.

Films[edit]

The Flowers of St. Francis, a 1950 film directed by Roberto Rossellini and co-written by Federico Fellini Francis of Assisi, a 1961 film directed by Michael Curtiz, based on the novel The Joyful Beggar by Louis de Wohl Francis of Assisi, a 1966 film directed by Liliana Cavani Uccellacci e uccellini (The Hawks and the Sparrows), a 1966 film directed by Pier Paolo Pasolini Brother Sun, Sister Moon, a 1972 film by Franco Zeffirelli Francesco, a 1989 film by Liliana Cavani, contemplatively paced, follows Francis of Assisi's evolution from rich man's son to religious humanitarian, and eventually to full-fledged self-tortured saint. Saint Francis is played by Mickey Rourke, and the woman who later became Saint Clare, is played by Helena Bonham Carter St. Francis, a 2002 film directed by Michele Soavi, starring Raoul Bova and Amélie Daure Clare and Francis, a 2007 film directed by Fabrizio Costa, starring Mary Petruolo and Ettore Bassi Pranchiyettan and the Saint, a 2010 satirical Indian Malayalam film Finding Saint Francis, a 2014 film directed by Paul Alexander L'ami - François d'Assise et ses frères, a 2016 film directed by Renaud Fely and Arnaud Louvet, starring Elio Germano The Sultan and the Saint, a 2016 film directed by Alexander Kronemer, starring Alexander McPherson

Music[edit] For musical settings of the prayer incorrectly attributed to Francis, see Prayer of Saint Francis
Prayer of Saint Francis
§ Musical settings.

Franz Liszt:

Cantico del sol di Francesco d'Assisi, S.4 (sacred choral work, 1862, 1880–81; versions of the Prelude for piano, S. 498c, 499, 499a; version of the Prelude for organ, S. 665, 760; version of the Hosannah for organ and bass trombone, S.677) St. François d'Assise: La Prédication aux oiseaux, No. 1 of Deux Légendes, S.175 (piano, 1862–63)

William Henry Draper: All Creatures of Our God and King
All Creatures of Our God and King
(hymn paraphrase of Canticle of the Sun, published 1919) Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco: Fioretti
Fioretti
(voice and orchestra, 1920) Gian Francesco Malipiero: San Francesco d' Assisi
Assisi
(soloists, chorus and orchestra, 1920–21) Amy Beach: Canticle of the Sun
Canticle of the Sun
(soloists, chorus and orchestra, 1928) Paul Hindemith: Nobilissima Visione
Nobilissima Visione
(ballet 1938) Leo Sowerby: Canticle of the Sun
Canticle of the Sun
(cantata for mixed voices with accompaniment for piano or orchestra, 1944) Francis Poulenc: Quatre petites prières de saint François d’Assise (men's chorus, 1948) Seth Bingham: The Canticle of the Sun
Canticle of the Sun
(cantata for chorus of mixed voices with soli ad lib. and accompaniment for organ or orchestra, 1949) William Walton: Cantico del sol (chorus, 1973–74) Olivier Messiaen: Saint François d'Assise
Saint François d'Assise
(opera, 1975–83) Juliusz Łuciuk (pl): Święty Franciszek z Asyżu (oratorio for soprano, tenor, baritone, mixed chorus and orchestra, 1976) Peter Janssens: Franz von Assisi, Musikspiel (Musical play, text: Wilhelm Wilms, 1978) Michele Paulicelli: Forza venite gente (it) (musical theater, 1981) Karlheinz Stockhausen: Luzifers Abschied (1982), scene 4 of the opera Samstag aus Licht Libby Larsen: I Will Sing and Raise a Psalm (SATB chorus and organ, 1995) Sofia Gubaidulina: Sonnengesang (solo cello, chamber choir and percussion, 1997) Juventude Franciscana (pt): Balada de Francisco (voices accompanied by guitar, 1999) Angelo Branduardi : L'infinitamente piccolo (album, 2000) Lewis Nielson: St. Francis Preaches to the Birds (chamber concerto for violin, 2005) Peter Reulein
Peter Reulein
(composer) / Helmut Schlegel
Helmut Schlegel
(libretto): Laudato si' (oratorio, 2016)

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Francis of Assisi, The Little Flowers (fioretti), London, 2012. limovia.net ISBN 978-1-78336-013-0 Saint Francis of Assisi, written and illustrated by Demi, Wisdom Tales, 2012, ISBN 978-1-937786-04-5 Francis of Assisi: A New Biography, by Augustine Thompson, O.P., Cornell University Press, 2012, ISBN 978-080145-070-9 Francis of Assisi
Assisi
in the Sources and Writings, by Robert Rusconi and translated by Nancy Celaschi, Franciscan
Franciscan
Institute Publications, 2008. ISBN 978-1-57659-152-9 The Stigmata
Stigmata
of Francis of Assisi, Franciscan
Franciscan
Institute Publications, 2006. ISBN 978-1-57659-140-6 Francis of Assisi
Assisi
– The Message in His Writings, by Thaddee Matura, Franciscan
Franciscan
Institute Publications, 1997. ISBN 978-1-57659-127-7 Saint Francis of Assisi, by John R. H. Moorman, Franciscan
Franciscan
Institute Publications, 1987. ISBN 978-0-8199-0904-6 First Encounter with Francis of Assisi, by Damien Vorreux and translated by Paul LaChance, Franciscan
Franciscan
Institute Publications, 1979. ISBN 978-0-8199-0698-4 St. Francis of Assisi, by Raoul Manselli, Franciscan
Franciscan
Institute Publications, 1985. ISBN 978-0-8199-0880-3 Saint Francis of Assisi, by Thomas of Celano
Thomas of Celano
and translated by Placid Hermann, Franciscan
Franciscan
Institute Publications, 1988. ISBN 978-0-8199-0554-3 Francis the Incomparable Saint, by Joseph Lortz, Franciscan
Franciscan
Institute Publications, 1986, ISBN 978-1-57659-067-6 Respectfully Yours: Signed and Sealed, Francis of Assisi, by Edith van den Goorbergh and Theodore Zweerman, Franciscan
Franciscan
Institute Publications, 2001. ISBN 978-1-57659-178-9 The Admonitions of St. Francis: Sources and Meanings, by Robert J. Karris, Franciscan
Franciscan
Institute Publications, 1999. ISBN 978-1-57659-166-6 We Saw Brother Francis, by Francis de Beer, Franciscan
Franciscan
Institute Publications, 1983. ISBN 978-0-8199-0803-2 Sant Francesc (Saint Francis, 1895), a book of forty-three Saint Francis poems by Catalan poet-priest Jacint Verdaguer, three of which are included in English translation in Selected Poems of Jacint Verdaguer: A Bilingual Edition, edited and translated by Ronald Puppo, with an introduction by Ramon Pinyol i Torrents (University of Chicago, 2007). The three poems are "The Turtledoves", "Preaching to Birds" and "The Pilgrim". Saint Francis of Assisi
Assisi
(1923), a book by G. K. Chesterton Blessed Are The Meek (1944). a book by Zofia Kossak Saint Francis of Assisi
Assisi
a Doubleday Image Book
Book
translated by T. O'Conor Sloane, Ph.D., LL.D. in 1955 from the Danish original researched and written by Johannes Jorgensen and published in 1912 by Longmans, Green and Company, Inc. Saint Francis of Assisi
Assisi
(God's Pauper) (1962), a novel by Nikos Kazantzakis Scripta Leonis, Rufini Et Angeli Sociorum S. Francisci: The Writings of Leo, Rufino and Angelo Companions of St. Francis (1970), edited by Rosalind B. Brooke, in Latin and English, containing testimony recorded by intimate, long-time companions of Saint Francis Saint Francis and His Four Ladies (1970), a book by Joan Mowat Erikson The Life and Words of St. Francis of Assisi
Assisi
(1973), by Ira Peck The Life of Saint Francis of Assisi
Assisi
(1996), a book by Patricia Stewart Reluctant Saint: The Life of Francis of Assisi
Assisi
(2002), a book by Donald Spoto Flowers for St. Francis (2005), a book by Raj Arumugam Chasing Francis, 2006, a book by Ian Cron John Tolan, St. Francis and the Sultan: The Curious History of a Christian-Muslim Encounter. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Vita di un uomo: Francesco d' Assisi
Assisi
(1995) a book by Chiara Frugoni, preface by Jacques Le Goff, Torino: Einaudi. Francis, Brother of the Universe (1982), a 48-page comic book by Marvel Comics
Marvel Comics
on the life of Saint Francis of Assisi
Assisi
written by Father Roy Gasnik O.F.M. and Mary Jo Duffy, artwork by John Buscema
John Buscema
and Marie Severin, lettering by Jim Novak and edited by Jim Shooter.

Other[edit]

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v t e

In Rubén Darío's poem Los Motivos Del Lobo (The Reasons Of The Wolf) St. Francis tames a terrible wolf only to discover that the human heart harbors darker desires than those of the beast. In Fyodor Dostoyevsky's The Brothers Karamazov, Ivan Karamazov invokes the name of 'Pater Seraphicus,' an epithet applied to St. Francis, to describe Alyosha's spiritual guide Zosima. The reference is found in Goethe's "Faust", Part 2, Act 5, lines 11918–25. [1] In Mont Saint Michel and Chartres, Henry Adams' chapter on the "Mystics" discusses Francis extensively. Rich Mullins co-wrote Canticle of the Plains, a musical, with Mitch McVicker. Released in 1997, it was based on the life of Saint Francis of Assisi, but told as a western story. Bernard Malamud's novel The Assistant (1957) features a protagonist, Frank Alpine, who exemplifies the life of Saint Francis in mid-20th-century Brooklyn, New York City.

See also[edit]

Pardon of Assisi Fraticelli Society of Saint Francis Saint Juniper, one of Francis' original followers St. Benedict's Cave, which contains a portrait of Francis made during his lifetime Saint-François d'Assise, an opera by Olivier Messiaen Saint-François (other) (places named after Francis of Assisi in French-speaking countries) List of places named after Saint Francis Blessing of animals

Prayers

Canticle of the Sun, a prayer by Saint Francis Prayer of Saint Francis, a prayer not by Saint Francis

Notes[edit]

^ On the day of his election, the Vatican clarified that his official papal name was "Francis", not "Francis I". A Vatican spokesman said that the name would become Francis I if and when there is a Francis II.[46][51]

References[edit]

^ Brooke, Rosalind B. The Image of St Francis: Responses to Sainthood in the Thirteenth Century (Cambridge University Press, 2006), pp. 161–62. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "St. Francis of Assisi". Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Brady, Ignatius Charles. "Saint Francis of Assisi." Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. ^ a b Chesterton (1924), p.126 ^ House & Garden - Volume 158 - Page 86, 1986 ^ Tolan, John (2009). St. Francis and the Sultan: The Curious History of a Christian-Muslim Encounter. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199239726.  ^ "St. Francis of Assisi
Assisi
Franciscan
Franciscan
Friars of the Renewal". Franciscanfriars.com. Retrieved 24 October 2012.  ^ The Christmas
Christmas
scenes made by Saint Francis at the time were not inanimate objects, but live ones, later commercialised into inanimate representations of the Blessed Lord and His parents. ^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Christmas". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ a b c d Cross, F. L., ed. (2005). "Francis of Assisi". The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199566712.  ^ Cross, F. L., ed. (2005). "Stigmatization". The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199566712.  ^ a b Englebert, Omer (1951). The Lives of the Saints. New York: Barnes & Noble. p. 529. ISBN 978-1-56619-516-4.  ^ "Blessing All Creatures, Great and Small". Duke Magazine. November 2006. Retrieved 2007-07-30.  ^ a b Chesterton, Gilbert Keith (1924). "St. Francis of Assisi" (14 ed.). Garden City, New York: Image Books: 158.  ^ Chesterton (1924), pp. 40–41 ^ Bonaventure; Cardinal Manning (1867). The Life of St. Francis of Assisi
Assisi
(from the Legenda ancti Francisci) (1988 ed.). Rockford, Illinois: TAN Books & Publishers. p. 190. ISBN 978-0-89555-343-0.  ^ a b Chesterton (1924), pp. 54–56 ^ Chesterton (1924), pp. 107–108 ^ Galli(2002), pp. 74–80 ^ Chesterton (1924), pp. 110–111 ^ Fioretti
Fioretti
quoted in: St. Francis, The Little Flowers, Legends, and Lauds, trans. N. Wydenbruck, ed. Otto Karrer (London: Sheed and Ward, 1979) 244. ^ Chesterton (1924), p.130 ^ Runciman, Steven. History of the Crusades, vol. 3: The Kingdom of Acre and the Later Crusades, Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
(1951, paperback 1987), pp. 151–161. ^ Tolan, pp. 4f. ^ e.g., Jacques de Vitry, Letter 6 of February or March 1220 and Historia orientalis (c. 1223–1225) cap. XXII; Tommaso da Celano, Vita prima (1228), §57: the relevant passages are quoted in an English translation in Tolan, pp. 19f. and 54 respectively. ^ Tolan, p.5 ^ e.g., Chesterton, Saint Francis, Hodder & Stoughton (1924) chapter 8. Tolan (p.126) discusses the incident as recounted by Bonaventure, an incident which does not extend to a fire actually being lit. ^ Péter Bokody, "Idolatry or Power: St. Francis in Front of the Sultan", in: Promoting the Saints: Cults and Their Contexts from Late Antiquity until the Early Modern Period, ed. Ottó Gecser and others (Budapest: CEU Press, 2010), 69-81, esp. at pp. 74 and 76-78. The views of Panofsky (idols: see Renaissance and Renascences in Western Art, New York 1972, p.148, n.3) and Tolan (undecided: p.143) are cited at p.73. ^ Bonaventure, Legenda major (1260–1263), cap. IX §7–9, criticized by, e.g., Sabatier, La Vie de St. François d'Assise (1894), chapter 13, and Paul Moses, The Saint and the Sultan: The Crusades, Islam, and Francis of Assisi's Mission of Peace, Doubleday Religion (2009) excerpted in a restricted-view article in Commonwealth magazine, September 25, 2009 "Mission improbable: St. Francis & the Sultan", accessed 4 April 2015 ^ Friedrich Rintelen, Giotto
Giotto
und die Giotto-apokryphen, (1912) ^ For grants of various permissions and privileges to Francis as attributed by later sources, see, e.g., Tolan, pp. 258–263. The first mention of the Sultan's conversion occurs in a sermon delivered by Bonaventure
Bonaventure
on October 4, 1267. See Tolan, pp. 168 ^ Bulla Gratias agimus, commemorated by Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
in a Letter dated November 30, 1992. See also Tolan, p.258. On the Franciscan presence, including an historical overview, see, generally the official website at Custodia and Custodian of the Holy Land ^ Bonaventure
Bonaventure
(1867), p. 162 ^ Le Goff, Jacques. Saint Francis of Assisi, 2003 ISBN 0-415-28473-2 page 44 ^ Miles, Margaret Ruth. The Word made flesh: a history of Christian thought, 2004 ISBN 978-1-4051-0846-1 pages 160–161 ^ Chesterton (1924), p.131 ^ a b c d Bonaventure
Bonaventure
(1867), pp. 78–85 ^ Ugolino Brunforte (Brother Ugolino). The Little Flowers of St. Francis of Assisi. Calvin College: CCEL. ISBN 978-1-61025212-6. Quote.  ^ a b c Bonaventure
Bonaventure
(1867), p. 178 ^ Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(November 29, 1979). "Inter Sanctos (Apostolic Letter AAS 71)" (PDF). Retrieved August 7, 2014.  ^ Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(December 8, 1989). "World Day of Peace 1990". Retrieved October 24, 2012.  ^ Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana), p. 139 ^ Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII
(June 18, 1939). "Licet Commissa" (Apostolic Letter AAS 31, pp. 256–257) ^ Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(March 16, 2013). "Audience to Representatives of the Communications Media". Retrieved August 9, 2014.  ^ " Pope Francis
Pope Francis
explains decision to take St Francis of Assisi's name". London: The Guardian. 16 March 2013. Archived from the original on 16 March 2013.  ^ a b "New Pope
Pope
Fra[n]cis visits St. Mary Major, collects suitcases and pays bill at hotel". News.va. 14 March 2013. Archived from the original on 16 March 2013. Retrieved 4 January 2017.  ^ Michael Martinez, CNN
CNN
Vatican analyst: Pope
Pope
Francis' name choice 'precedent shattering', CNN
CNN
(13 March 2013). Retrieved 13 March 2013. ^ Laura Smith-Spark et al. : Pope Francis
Pope Francis
explains name, calls for church 'for the poor' CNN,16 March 2013 ^ " Pope Francis
Pope Francis
wants 'poor Church for the poor'". BBC News. BBC. 16 March 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013.  ^ Bethune, Brian, " Pope
Pope
Francis: How the first New World pontiff could save the church", macleans.ca, 26 March 2013, Retrieved 27 March 2013 ^ Alpert, Emily (13 March 2013). "Vatican: It's Pope
Pope
Francis, not Pope Francis I". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 16 March 2013. Retrieved 4 January 2017.  ^ "St. Francis of Assi." ^ St Francis Patron ^ "Writings of St. Francis - Part 2".  ^ Brand, Peter; Pertile, Lino, eds. (1999). "2 - Poetry. Francis of Assisi
Assisi
(pp. 5ff.)". The Cambridge History of Italian Literature. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-52166622-0. Retrieved 2015-12-31.  ^ Chesterton, G.K. (1987). St. Francis. Image. pp. 160 p. ISBN 0-385-02900-4. Archived from the original on 2013-08-12. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Renoux, Christian (2001). La prière pour la paix attribuée à saint François: une énigme à résoudre. Paris: Editions franciscaines. ISBN 2-85020-096-4.  ^ Renoux, Christian. "The Origin of the Peace Prayer of St. Francis". Retrieved August 9, 2014. 

Bibliography[edit]

Scripta Leonis, Rufini et Angeli Sociorum S. Francisci: The Writings of Leo, Rufino and Angelo Companions of St. Francis, original manuscript, 1246, compiled by Brother Leo and other companions (1970, 1990, reprinted with corrections), Oxford, Oxford University Press, edited by Rosalind B. Brooke, in Latin and English, ISBN 0-19-822214-9, containing testimony recorded by intimate, long-time companions of St. Francis Francis of Assisi, The Little Flowers (fioretti), London, 2012. limovia.net ISBN 978-1-78336-013-0 Bonaventure; Cardinal Manning (1867). The Life of St. Francis of Assisi
Assisi
(from the Legenda Sancti Francisci) (1988 ed.). Rockford, Illinois: TAN Books & Publishers. ISBN 978-0-89555-343-0 Chesterton, Gilbert Keith (1924). St. Francis of Assisi
Assisi
(14 ed.). Garden City, New York: Image Books. Englebert, Omer (1951). The Lives of the Saints. New York: Barnes & Noble. Karrer, Otto, ed., St. Francis, The Little Flowers, Legends, and Lauds, trans. N. Wydenbruck, (London: Sheed and Ward, 1979) Tolan, John (2009). Saint Francis and the Sultan. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Further reading[edit]

Acocella, Joan, "Rich Man, Poor Man: The Radical Visions of St. Francis", The Critics: Books, The New Yorker
The New Yorker
88, no. 43 (January 14, 2013): 72-77 (accessed January 23, 2015). Antony, Manjiyil. Assisiyile Francis. Alwaye, Santhome Creations, 2013. Fioretti
Fioretti
di San Francesco, the "Little Flowers of St. Francis", end of the 14th century: an anonymous Italian version of the Actus; the most popular of the sources, but very late and therefore not the best authority by any means. Friar
Friar
Julian of Speyer, Vita Sancti Francisci, 1232–1239. Friar
Friar
Tommaso da Celano: Vita Prima Sancti Francisci, 1228; Vita Secunda Sancti Francisci, 1246–1247; Tractatus de Miraculis Sancti Francisci, 1252–1253. Friar
Friar
Elias, Epistola Encyclica de Transitu Sancti Francisci, 1226. Pope
Pope
Gregory IX, Bulla "Mira circa nos" for the canonization of St. Francis, July 19, 1228. St. Bonaventure
Bonaventure
of Bagnoregio, Legenda Maior Sancti Francisci, 1260–1263. The Little Flowers of Saint Francis (Translated by Raphael Brown), Doubleday, 1998. ISBN 978-0-385-07544-2 Ugolino da Montegiorgio, Actus Beati Francisci et sociorum eius, 1327–1342.

External links[edit]

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denominations Second Great Awakening Restoration Movement Jehovah's Witnesses Mormonism Seventh-day Adventist Adventism Third Great Awakening Azusa Revival Fundamentalism Ecumenism Evangelicalism Jesus
Jesus
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Catholic
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Index Outline

History (Timeline)

Jesus Holy Family

Mary Joseph

Apostles Early Christianity History of the papacy Ecumenical councils Missions Great Schism of East Crusades Great Schism of West Age of Discovery Protestant Reformation Council of Trent Counter-Reformation Catholic
Catholic
Church by country Vatican City

index outline

Second Vatican Council

Hierarchy (Precedence)

Pope
Pope
(List)

Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013–present)

conclave inauguration theology canonizations visits

Pope
Pope
Emeritus Benedict XVI (2005–2013)

Roman Curia College of Cardinals

Cardinal List

Patriarchate Episcopal conference Patriarch Major archbishop Primate Metropolitan Archbishop Diocesan bishop Coadjutor bishop Auxiliary bishop Titular bishop Bishop emeritus Abbot Abbess Superior general Provincial superior Grand Master Prior
Prior
(-ess) Priest Brother

Friar

Sister Monk Nun Hermit Master of novices Novice Oblate Postulant Laity

Theology

Body and soul Bible Catechism Divine grace Dogma Ecclesiology

Four Marks of the Church

Original sin

List

Salvation Sermon on the Mount Ten Commandments Trinity Worship

Mariology

Assumption History Immaculate Conception Mariology of the popes Mariology of the saints Mother of God Perpetual virginity Veneration

Philosophy

Natural law Moral theology Personalism Social teaching Philosophers

Sacraments

Baptism Confirmation Eucharist Penance Anointing of the Sick

Last rites

Holy orders Matrimony

Saints

Mary Apostles Archangels Confessors Disciples Doctors of the Church Evangelists Church Fathers Martyrs Patriarchs Prophets Virgins

Doctors of the Church

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Institutes, orders, and societies

Assumptionists Annonciades Augustinians Basilians Benedictines Bethlehemites Blue nuns Camaldoleses Camillians Carmelites Carthusians Cistercians Clarisses Conceptionists Crosiers Dominicans Franciscans Good Shepherd Sisters Hieronymites Jesuits Mercedarians Minims Olivetans Oratorians Piarists Premonstratensians Redemptorists Servites Theatines Trappists Trinitarians Visitandines

Associations of the faithful

International Federation of Catholic
Catholic
Parochial Youth Movements International Federation of Catholic
Catholic
Universities International Kolping Society Schoenstatt Apostolic Movement International Union of Catholic
Catholic
Esperantists Community of Sant'Egidio

Charities

Aid to the Church in Need Caritas Internationalis Catholic
Catholic
Home Missions Catholic
Catholic
Relief Services CIDSE

Particular churches (By country)

Latin Church Eastern Catholic
Catholic
Churches: Albanian Armenian Belarusian Bulgarian Chaldean Coptic Croatian and Serbian Eritrean Ethiopian Georgian Greek Hungarian Italo-Albanian Macedonian Maronite Melkite Romanian Russian Ruthenian Slovak Syriac Syro-Malabar Syro-Malankara Ukrainian

Liturgical rites

Alexandrian Antiochian Armenian Byzantine East Syrian Latin

Anglican Use Ambrosian Mozarabic Roman

West Syrian

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Pope
portal Vatican City
Vatican City
portal

Book Name Media

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History of the Catholic
Catholic
Church

General

History of the Catholic
Catholic
Church

By country or region

History of the Papacy Timeline of the Catholic
Catholic
Church Catholic
Catholic
ecumenical councils History of the Roman Curia Catholic
Catholic
Church art Religious institutes Christian monasticism Papal States Role of Christianity in civilization

Church beginnings, Great Church

Jesus John the Baptist Apostles

Peter John Paul

Saint Stephen Great Commission Council of Jerusalem Apostolic Age Apostolic Fathers Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus Pope
Pope
Victor I Tertullian

Constantine to Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
and Christianity Arianism Archbasilica of St. John Lateran First Council of Nicaea Pope
Pope
Sylvester I First Council of Constantinople Biblical canon Jerome Vulgate Council of Ephesus Council of Chalcedon Benedict of Nursia Second Council of Constantinople Pope
Pope
Gregory I Gregorian chant

Early Middle Ages

Third Council of Constantinople Saint Boniface Byzantine Iconoclasm Second Council of Nicaea Charlemagne Pope
Pope
Leo III Fourth Council of Constantinople East–West Schism

High Middle Ages

Pope
Pope
Urban II Investiture Controversy Crusades First Council of the Lateran Second Council of the Lateran Third Council of the Lateran Pope
Pope
Innocent III Latin Empire Francis of Assisi Fourth Council of the Lateran Inquisition First Council of Lyon Second Council of Lyon Bernard of Clairvaux Thomas Aquinas

Late Middle Ages

Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII Avignon Papacy Pope
Pope
Clement V Council of Vienne Knights Templar Catherine of Siena Pope
Pope
Alexander VI

Reformation Counter-Reformation

Reformation Counter-Reformation Thomas More Pope
Pope
Leo X Society of Jesus Ignatius of Loyola Francis Xavier Dissolution of the Monasteries Council of Trent Pope
Pope
Pius V Tridentine Mass Teresa of Ávila John of the Cross Philip Neri Robert Bellarmine

Baroque
Baroque
Period to the French Revolution

Pope
Pope
Innocent XI Pope
Pope
Benedict XIV Suppression of the Society of Jesus Anti-clericalism Pope
Pope
Pius VI Shimabara Rebellion Edict of Nantes Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution

19th century

Pope
Pope
Pius VII Pope
Pope
Pius IX Dogma of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
of the Virgin Mary Our Lady of La Salette Our Lady of Lourdes First Vatican Council Papal infallibility Pope
Pope
Leo XIII Mary of the Divine Heart Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart Rerum novarum

20th century

Pope
Pope
Pius X Our Lady of Fátima Persecutions of the Catholic
Catholic
Church and Pius XII Pope
Pope
Pius XII Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII
Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary Lateran Treaty Pope
Pope
John XXIII Second Vatican Council Pope
Pope
Paul VI Pope
Pope
John Paul I Pope
Pope
John Paul II World Youth Day

1995 2000

21st century

Catholic
Catholic
Church sexual abuse cases Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI World Youth Day

2002 2005 2008 2011 2013 2016

Pope
Pope
Francis

Pope
Pope
portal Vatican City
Vatican City
portal Catholicism portal

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History of Catholic
Catholic
theology

General history

History of the Catholic
Catholic
Church Early Christianity History of the papacy Ecumenical Councils Timeline of the Catholic
Catholic
Church History of Christianity History of Christian theology

Church beginnings

Paul Clement of Rome First Epistle of Clement Didache Ignatius of Antioch Polycarp Epistle of Barnabas The Shepherd of Hermas Aristides of Athens Justin Martyr Epistle to Diognetus Irenaeus Montanism Tertullian Origen Antipope Novatian Cyprian

Constantine to Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Eusebius Athanasius of Alexandria Arianism Pelagianism Nestorianism Monophysitism Ephrem the Syrian Hilary of Poitiers Cyril of Jerusalem Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa Ambrose John Chrysostom Jerome Augustine of Hippo John Cassian Orosius Cyril of Alexandria Peter Chrysologus Pope
Pope
Leo I Boethius Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Early Middle Ages

Isidore of Seville John Climacus Maximus the Confessor Monothelitism Ecthesis Bede John of Damascus Iconoclasm Transubstantiation
Transubstantiation
dispute Predestination
Predestination
disputes Paulinus II of Aquileia Alcuin Benedict of Aniane Rabanus Maurus Paschasius Radbertus John Scotus Eriugena

High Middle Ages

Roscellinus Gregory of Narek Berengar of Tours Peter Damian Anselm of Canterbury Joachim of Fiore Peter Abelard Decretum Gratiani Bernard of Clairvaux Peter Lombard Anselm of Laon Hildegard of Bingen Hugh of Saint Victor Dominic de Guzmán Robert Grosseteste Francis of Assisi Anthony of Padua Beatrice of Nazareth Bonaventure Albertus Magnus Boetius of Dacia Henry of Ghent Thomas Aquinas Siger of Brabant Thomism Roger Bacon

Mysticism
Mysticism
and reforms

Ramon Llull Duns Scotus Dante Alighieri William of Ockham Richard Rolle John of Ruusbroec Catherine of Siena Brigit of Sweden Meister Eckhart Johannes Tauler Walter Hilton The Cloud of Unknowing Heinrich Seuse Geert Groote Devotio Moderna Julian of Norwich Thomas à Kempis Nicholas of Cusa Marsilio Ficino Girolamo Savonarola Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

Reformation Counter-Reformation

Erasmus Thomas Cajetan Thomas More John Fisher Johann Eck Francisco de Vitoria Thomas of Villanova Ignatius of Loyola Francisco de Osuna John of Ávila Francis Xavier Teresa of Ávila Luis de León John of the Cross Peter Canisius Luis de Molina
Luis de Molina
(Molinism) Robert Bellarmine Francisco Suárez Lawrence of Brindisi Francis de Sales

Baroque
Baroque
period to French Revolution

Tommaso Campanella Pierre de Bérulle Pierre Gassendi René Descartes Mary of Jesus
Jesus
of Ágreda António Vieira Jean-Jacques Olier Louis Thomassin Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet François Fénelon Cornelius Jansen
Cornelius Jansen
(Jansenism) Blaise Pascal Nicolas Malebranche Giambattista Vico Alphonsus Liguori Louis de Montfort Maria Gaetana Agnesi Alfonso Muzzarelli Johann Michael Sailer Clement Mary Hofbauer Bruno Lanteri

19th century

Joseph Görres Felicité de Lamennais Luigi Taparelli Antonio Rosmini Ignaz von Döllinger John Henry Newman Henri Lacordaire Jaime Balmes Gaetano Sanseverino Giovanni Maria Cornoldi Wilhelm Emmanuel Freiherr von Ketteler Giuseppe Pecci Joseph Hergenröther Tommaso Maria Zigliara Matthias Joseph Scheeben Émile Boutroux Modernism Léon Bloy Désiré-Joseph Mercier Friedrich von Hügel Vladimir Solovyov Marie-Joseph Lagrange George Tyrrell Maurice Blondel Thérèse of Lisieux

20th century

G. K. Chesterton Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange Joseph Maréchal Pierre Teilhard de Chardin Jacques Maritain Étienne Gilson Ronald Knox Dietrich von Hildebrand Gabriel Marcel Marie-Dominique Chenu Romano Guardini Edith Stein Fulton Sheen Henri de Lubac Jean Guitton Josemaría Escrivá Adrienne von Speyr Karl Rahner Yves Congar Bernard Lonergan Emmanuel Mounier Jean Daniélou Hans Urs von Balthasar Alfred Delp Edward Schillebeeckx Thomas Merton René Girard Johann Baptist Metz Jean Vanier Henri Nouwen

21st century

Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI Walter Kasper Raniero Cantalamessa Michał Heller Peter Kreeft Jean-Luc Marion Tomáš Halík Scott Hahn Robert Barron

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Francis of Assisi

Organisations

Order of Friars Minor
Order of Friars Minor
(Custody of the Holy Land) Order of Saint Clare Secular Franciscan
Franciscan
Order

Literature

Little Flowers of St. Francis

Visual art

Nativity with St. Francis and St. Lawrence
Nativity with St. Francis and St. Lawrence
(Caravaggio) Saint Francis in Meditation (Caravaggio) Saint Francis in Prayer (Caravaggio) Saint Francis of Assisi
Assisi
in Ecstasy (Caravaggio) Saint Francis Receiving the Stigmata
Stigmata
(Giotto) Saint Francis Receiving the Stigmata
Stigmata
(van Eyck) St. Francis in Ecstasy
St. Francis in Ecstasy
(Bellini)

Music

"All Creatures of Our God and King" "Canticle of the Sun" "The Canticle of the Sun" (Sowerby) Le Laudi Légende No. 1 (Liszt)

Stage

Saint François d'Assise
Saint François d'Assise
(1983 Messiaen opera) Samstag aus Licht
Samstag aus Licht
(1983 Stockhausen opera) Nobilissima Visione
Nobilissima Visione
(ballet)

Films

The Flowers of St. Francis (1950) Francis of Assisi (1961) Brother Sun, Sister Moon (1972) Francesco (1989)

Related

Pranchiyettan & the Saint Madonna of Foligno Wolf of Gubbio Discalced Prayer of Saint Francis Pope
Pope
Francis

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Franciscans

General

Rule of St. Francis Rule of St. Clare Tau Cross Custodian of the Holy Land Minister Generals Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi Assisi Monte di Pietá Franciscan
Franciscan
missions to the Maya Studium Biblicum Franciscanum Franciscans
Franciscans
International Franciscan
Franciscan
orders in Protestantism

Orders and groups

Order of Friars Minor Order of Friars Minor
Order of Friars Minor
Conventual Order of Friars Minor
Order of Friars Minor
Capuchin Franciscan
Franciscan
Friars of the Immaculate Poor Clares Capuchin Poor Clares Colettine Poor Clares Conceptionists Secular Franciscan
Franciscan
Order Third Order of Saint Francis Order of Minims Militia Immaculatae

Popes

Nicholas IV Sixtus IV Sixtus V Clement XIV Pius X John XXIII

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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 87832561 LCCN: n78095603 ISNI: 0000 0001 2282 6901 GND: 118534963 SELIBR: 186539 SUDOC: 02687234X BNF: cb11903378b (data) ULAN: 500349636 MusicBrainz: 6f0b6645-8570-4090-b79d-876b851d2755 NLA: 35099018 NDL: 00521747 NKC: jn19990210221 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV04349 BNE: XX914

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